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1. A process for manufacturing nylon-66 yarn having a tenacity of at least 10 grams per denier comprising:
Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Although nylon-66 filaments today find uses in many end products because of their extraordinarily high tenacity, much research effort is devoted to improve the tensile strength of such filaments. For example, within the last decade the strength of nylon-66 filaments used to reinforce pneumatic tires has been increased from about 7 grams per denier to a present high of 9.5 grams per denier. A desideratum of long standing has been to produce nylon-66 filaments having at least 10 grams per denier by an economically feasible process. The present invention provides the art with such a process.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
Nylon-66 filaments are melt spun from a high molecular weight polymer indicated by a formic relative viscosity of at least 50. The spinning conditions are selected to induce the formation of a low crystalline order in the yarn as spun. Immediately or at the latest within four hours after spinning the yarn is molecularly drawn. During any appreciable interval between spinning and drawing the yarn must be stored in a low humidity environment. From the drawing step the yarn is packaged at inordinately high tensions of about 1.0-1.5 g/denier or higher. The packaged filaments are stored in a low humidity environment from 1 to 10 days during which time a slowly increasing, maximum tenacity of at least 10 grams per denier is attained. Thereafter the filaments may be repackaged under normal, lower tension of 0.12-1.0 grams per denier and employed in conventional procedures for making textile products where strength of the yarn is an important factor.
In accordance with the present invention nylon-66 yarn having a tenacity of at least 10 grams per denier is produced when yarn is melt spun to have a low crystalline order and is then processed under critical conditions of drawing and storage. Factors shown to be important in producing low crystalline order spun yarn are such things as employment of conditions that rapidly quench the molten polymer into filaments and maintaining a melt pool residence time of long duration. Other process conditions can also be varied to insure the presence of low crystallinity in the yarn. The yarn quench rate can be varied by know techniques including lowering the temperature of the quenching medium which usually is air, increasing the flow of the quenching medium across the filaments undergoing spinning, and producing filaments of lower individual denier. Nylon-66 usually undergoes rather rapid crystallization. The degree of crystallization of unoriented nylon-66 filaments as a factor ultimately influencing the maximum obtainable tenacity was not heretofore considered important.
It is difficult to determine the absolute crystallinity of unoriented nylon-66 filaments with good precision. The application of known x-ray diffraction techniques gives satisfactory values of relative crystallinity. In determining crystallinity the first step is to set up a relative crystallinity index as follows: reference samples of the least crystalline nylon-66 filament and the most crystalline filament obtainable are prepared and X-ray diffraction patterns of these samples are made. In applying the X-ray diffraction technique to the undrawn filaments herein, it was found that the crystalline order thereof was so poorly developed that no significant difference between the sample and the selected standard nylon-66 filament of low crystallinity was determinable. Therefore, for all practical purposes the crystallinity of the present filaments as spun have crystallinity index values that approach zero.
The polymer from which the filaments of the present invention are spun must have a high formic acid relative viscosity (R.V.) of 50 or more. Polymer of high viscosities of 50-80 are most preferred. Relative viscosity is the ratio of absolute viscosity at 25° C. (in centipoises) of the solution of nylon in 90 percent formic acid (10 percent water and 90 percent formic acid) to the absolute viscosity at 25° C. (in centipoises) of the 90 percent formic acid. An 8.4 percent (by weight) solution of the nylon is used in the determination.
The effect of lag time between spinning of the filaments and drawing of the filaments is significant. The improved tenacities of 10 grams per denier and higher are not obtained when this lag time exceeds four hours. After four hours of storage the crystallinity of the filaments will have increased to an undesirably high level. In nylon filament production it is common practice to spin the filaments and without inducing much orientation therein to wind the filaments on a bobbin. The bobbin of undrawn filaments is stored for many hours under controlled temperature and humidity conditions, for example 75°-80° F. and 7075 percent relative humidity. Another common practice involves spinning nylon filaments and
immediately drawing them. In accordance with the present invention. Elongations and tenacities herein are determined by ASTM Test D1380-62T.5 x to 6. The temperature at which the drawn yarn is stored should be about 15°-40° C. As is well known the degree of orientation is a function of spinning speed.3 percent. Drawing the filaments involves increasing the length of the filaments and produces a more tenacious structure. Hence.040. snubbing produced by yarn guides. The actual stress cannot be measured directly after the yarn has been packaged. the finish is applied just before drawing is accomplished. the drawing is often termed cold-drawing. the filaments are subjected to a thermomechanical experience so as to produce a yarn having a uniformly high tenacity and low elongation. This is accomplished by controlling the humidity in the areas where these operations are carried out.00 to 0. Such orientation is kept to minimal value by proper control of these factors affecting the orientation during spinning to provide the source of substantially molecularly unoriented yarn herein. The procedure is known as spin-draw and can be conveniently modified to adapt the present concept. polymer viscosity. observing the less than normal lag time requirement does not present a large problem. The conditions are selected so that the drawn yarn has an elongation at break at about 11-20 percent and a tenacity of at least 8.1 .5 up to 9.5 grams per denier. drawing and yarn storage). Such orientation can be measured by determining the birefringence in filaments of the spun yarn in accordance with a well known testing technique. The birefringence of the undrawn source yarn of the present invention will normally be from 0. The relative humidity during storage should not exceed 40 percent but may be as low as 10 percent. During storage the moisture on the yarn should be about 1. the balloon tension as measured above the pigtail guide is taken. In spin-draw the drawing takes place within a second or so after spinning. etc. When the yarn is wound without twist.0-1.0 x at ambient temperature. To accomplish this drawing may be carried out in one or more stages with a total draw of about 4. Normally. quenching conditions. It is important to control the temperature and the humidity in all stages of the process (spinning. When carried out below the softening temperature of the filaments.8 grams per denier. the tension measurement is made at the accessible location nearest the package. One of the most important requirements for the high strength is that the drawn yarn be stored on a core under sufficient tensile stress of about 1. One should employ a finish having a low moisture content. . Some orientation of the polymer molecules occurs during the spinning process. Many drawing conditions and the thermal and mechanical treatments encountered during drawing will affect the tenacity and elongation of the draw filaments.2. When the yarn is drawn and packaged on a drawtwister.
The balloon tension on the yarn was 150 grams on the average. Within 1 hour the filaments were drawtwisted using a draw ratio of 5. clave was permitted to proceed until the polymer had a relative viscosity of 50. After 72 hours the filaments were drawn on a standard drawtwister at a ratio of 5. Measurements then were made daily. It was also observed that when the balloon tension was raised to 250 grams while using the high viscosity polymer. Maximum tenacity of 11. A finish emulsion composed of water and oil was applied to the filaments. Crystallinity studies showed that the level of crystallinity of the stored filaments increased significantly as compared to the crystallinity of the freshly-drawn product. The spinning. The balloon tension was measured to be 250 grams on the average.6 grams per denier. Nylon-66 was prepared in a conventional manner.0 grams per denier was obtained after 5 days of high tension storage.8 grams per denier.1 grams per denier. EXAMPLE II This example illustrates the importance of following the prescribed conditions of the present invention.EXAMPLE I This example illustrates the practice of the invention. The tenacity was again measured at the end of 24 hours and was found to have increased to 10.7. X-ray diffractometer scans were made in the freshly-spun yarn. The polymerization in an auto. drawing and storage the relative humidity was maintained at 35 percent.2. An extraordinarily heavy traveller was used during take up of the drawn filaments to insure that the filaments were packaged at high tensions. drawing and storage of the filaments was at 65 percent relative humidity. The flow across the filament was 150 cubic feet per minute. During spinning. was 100 cubic feet per minute. Other spinnings and drawings were conducted following this example but changing the relative viscosity to above 50 and some improvement in tenacity was noted. The crystalline order was so poorly developed that the crystallinity index was estimated to be 0. Chips were prepared from the polymer and melted using a standard grid-spinning apparatus. After 5 days the tenacity had remained the same with no increase being noted. The cross flow of the air at 25° C. The tenacity of the freshly drawn yarn was measured to be 9. 50 percent more than normally considered optimum for spinning of such filaments. The tenacity was determined immediately and found to be 9. the tenacity increased . The amount of application of the finish was restricted to a minimum required for drawing the filaments without intolerable amount of breaks and filament wraps. Thirty-five filaments having an ultimate drawn denier of 214 were extruded through a spinning chimney having a cross flow of air at 25° C. A finish composed of an emulsion of water and oil was applied to the filaments during spinning just prior to take up on a spin bobbin. Nylon-66 polymer of 46 relative viscosity was spun using a grid melter to produce 35 filaments having an ultimate total denier of 214.
2. This illustrates that the process conditions set forth herein as critical are additive and very important in attaining the yarn of high tenacity. one is able to produce nylon-66 yarn having extraordinarily high tenacity.co. yarns having tenacities in excess of 10 grams per denier were made. sumber dari http://www.pdf ETHOD OF MAKING IMPROVED NOSE CAPS FOR MISSILES AND ROCKETS .significantly after 5 days of being stored under such tension. Furthermore. There are numerous advantages associated with the present invention. Little modification of existing spinning and drawing equipment is required to practice the present process. Yarn of high tenacity can be effectively used in the construction of fabrics such as that used in building tires.uk/userdocs/plastics%20 Technical/Nylon%2006. as the lag time was reduced to four hours and the relative humidity of the ambient air to 35 percent while using the high viscosity polymer and high windup tension. First. Par-group.
uk Used Injection Machines Used injection molding machines JSW. www. Ads by Google Carbon Fiber Lines Harper offers complete carbon fiber lines to produce carbon fiber www.co. the most durable wrappers you can find. Nissei www. many finishes etc carbonfibretubes.com Carbon Fibre Tubes Ltd Suppliers of composite tubes. The panel which provides the proper orientation of the reinforcement fibers from a shingle angle to a perpendicular angle is shaped to a preform.April 1972 .co. Fanuc.United States Patent 3716610 Ads by Google Fiber Reinforcemt Open Mesh Laid Scrim Multi-Axial Warp Knitted Fabric www. Sumitomo.esta-tech.amohr.harperintl. the tip is molded integrally with the nose cap.com US Patent References: N/A Andersen et al. Toyo. If a rosette or rod tip is required.3655863 .jp/english/ A method of making missile nose caps for extremely high temperature perfonce is disclosed.kurabo. .com Nylon Wrapping Tapes Home of AMOTAPES(R). The method utilizes a typical material such as reinforcement fibers of silica or glass fiber tape inpregnated with a phenolic resin to form a panel. The preform is placed in a mold and molded to a final shape and dimension required for the nose cap. parallel/tapered.
3532784 Method of making hollow articles of helically wound fibrous tape impregnated with resin Trimble .METHOD FOR FABRICATION OF ABLATIVE COMPONENTS Vasterling .February 1968 .October 1970 .3328501 Application Number: 05/133921 Publication Date: 02/13/1973 Filing Date: 04/14/1971 Export Citation: Click for automatic bibliography generation Primary Class: 264/152 Other Classes: .September 1968 .June 1967 .3367817 Extrusion process for orienting fibers in molding material Barnett .3402085 Method and apparatus for forming a rocket nozzle structure Bluck .
B29C70/34. B32B1/10. functional.com Masking products Masking products: caps.156/195. from stock www.global-mask. F42B15/34. acceptance.seaoil. B29C69/00. Allen M. B64G1/58. polyester tapes and discs. 264/108. test mechanical. Claims: I claim . (IPC1-7): B29D3/02. start-up www. B64G1/22. www. B32B31/18 View Patent Images: Download PDF 3716610 PDF help Warnken US Patent References:3081705 Articles having laminated walls March 1963 Ads by Google GRP Profiles and Gratings THE alternative to Steel From producer. Robert F. F42B15/00. 264/294 International Classes: B29C69/00.com Commissioning Engineering Preservation.com.fibrolux. Assistant Examiner: Sokal. B29C70/04. B29C70/30.br Primary Examiner: White. plugs.
said method comprising the steps of: 2. a rosette or rod tip is properly positioned and molded integrally with the nose cap. Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Ablative heat shielding is one of the most effective means for providing thermal protection to bodies exposed to extremely high temperatures and high heat fluxes such as are encountered in atmospheric re-entry of ballistic missile nose cones and space vehicles. Method of claim 2 wherein prior to said step of placing preform in said suitable mold.1. have been used for ablative cooling. Various types of materials. Method of claim 1 wherein said step of forming a panel is accomplished by wrapping said tape edgewise at a conical angle to centerline of said first mandrel. and normally more than one of these types have been employed in combination with one another as a composite ablator. subliming or intumescent. which may be classified as glassy. A method of making a nose cap for a missile or a rocket to achieve controlled orientation of reinforcement fibers of the impregnated tape used to construct said nose cap. Method of claim 1 wherein said step of forming a panel is accomplished by wrapping said tape edgewise at a perpendicular angle to centerline of said first mandrel. Method of claim 4 wherein prior to step of placing preform in said suitable mold. said first mandrel being cylindrically shaped. 5. 3. said first mandrel being cylindrically shaped. . 4. a rosette or rod tip is properly positioned and molded integrally with the nose cap. The most widely used composite has been comprised of silica fiber or glass fiber tape impregnated with phenolic resin.
Stacking circular discs of resin-impregnated cloth (comprised of silica or glass fibers) and molding into a cylindrical billet which is subsequently cured and then. Tape wrapping an impregnated tape onto a conical mandrel and molding to shape. Present methods of achieving proper orientation of the reinforcement fiber involve: A. This procedure provides perpendicular orientation of the reinforcement fibers.A major problem has been related to flowoff. machined to shape. When the ablative material melts a glassy layer is formed which flows under the action of aerodynamic shear. Stacking cone shaped discs of resin-impregnated cloth into a billet and molding. The rod can be wrapped from cloth. it has been shown that the reinforcement fibers should be oriented at an angle from a shingle angle to a perpendicular angle to the surface of the nose cap or missile structure. This procedure gives shingled orientation. or can be formed of parallel filaments. or a shingle angle orientation. which term is applied to the loss of liquid mass. it has been necessary to provide reinforcement fibers to anchor the molten glassy layer and char surface to the underlying unaffected material. a liquid glass flows into the hole and smooths the surface again. an object of this invention is to provide a method for forming a nose cap for a missile or rocket to obtain proper orientation of the reinforcement fibers without the need for stacking of fiber discs to form a cylindrical billet. followed by machining to shape. Therefore. . or B. To accomplish the anchoring effect for the highest degree of efficiency. Therefore. Desirable would be a method for forming a nose cap for a missile or rocket which method does not involve using a series of fiber discs to form a cylindrical billet which requires time consuming machining to shape. or C. The tip of the nose cap can be formed by rosetting or by a rod molded or bonded in place in the center of the nose cap. When a surface indentation occurs by spalling of the char surface. The tape can be wrapped on end to give a perpendicular orientation.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The method of this invention comprises the formation of a panel by wrapping tape on a cylindrical mandrel. 1 shows the formation of a panel on a mandrel. silica or glass fibers. or the like). curing temperatures and catalysts to promote curing are well established in the art) coupled with pressure to also densify if necessary. The preform may be machined or cut to adjust the weight and dimension for proper molding. Still. The preform is then placed in a mold (along with a rosette or rod tip if required) and molded to the final shape and dimensions required for the outside contour of the nose cap.Another object of this invention is to provide a method for making a nose cap for a missile or rocket to enable substantially all machining to be accomplished prior to final molding of the nose cap (with or without a rosette or a rod tip) to its required geometrical shape. The panel may be shaped to a predetermined geometrical contour by the described procedure to follow. A further object of this invention is to provide a method for making a nose cap for a missile or a rocket having increased strength due to helical formation of tape. phenolic resin.g. and removing the panel from the mandrel. slitting. The panel is uncured at this stage which permits the reshaping of the panel by heating below its cure temperature (e.g. The panel is constituted of a tape that is impregnated with a material selected from organic resins and ceramics or combinations thereof (e. At this stage of processing the material is known as a preform. . The panel is wrapped spirally around a suitable mandrel which defines the inside contour of the nose cap. a further object of this invention is to provide a method for making a nose cap for a missile or rocket which method results in a considerable savings in material and labor utilized. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Selected stages of the method of this invention are illustrated in the drawings as follows wherein: FIG.
and FIG. FIG. The cap may be fabricated with or without a rosette or rod tip which makes up the outermost tip of the cap. 2 shows a panel being removed after slitting. begins by the selecting of a suitable mandrel 12 followed by the wrapping of silica fiber or glass fiber woven tape impregnated with a ceramic or an organic resin 13 to form a panel 14 on the mandrel. A rod tip may be made of a rod shaped member formed from wrapped impregnated tape or parallel filaments arranged in a rod shape. FIG. The rod tip is used in a similar fashion to the rosette tip to fill out the outermost portion of the nose cap. FIG. The convolute wrap is generally distorted into a conical shape for filling out the outermost tip of a missile or rocket nose cap. 8 shows a completed nose cap with a rod tip molded in place (prior to trimming the excess length of the rod). DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The missile or rocket nose cap of this invention provides the most pointed section of the missile or rocket which is subjected to the most extreme heat as the missile or rocket re-enters the atmosphere. 1. 3 shows a panel removed and in a flexible bag. The number 15 of FIGS. FIG. FIGS. B. 7 A. and C show a rosette tip in various stages of formation along with a cross section of a nose cap with a rosette tip moulded in place. 2B. of a panel on a mandrel. 10 of FIG. 9 shows a completed nose cap with a portion cut away to show perpendicular orientation of reinforcement fibers. and C show rod tip types along with a cross section of a nose cap with a rod tip molded in place. FIG. B. 6 A. 4 shows a panel being wrapped spirally around a mandrel. References to the accompanying drawings are made wherein the first stage formation. 5 shows a panel which is termed a "preform" for molding.FIG. 2A. and 3 designates a typical tape weave of fibers which . The excess of rosette tip or rod tip may be trimmed to the desired finish and contour. 10 shows a completed nose cap with a portion cut away to show shingle angle orientation of reinforcement fibers. 1. FIGS. A rosette is formed from a convolute wrap of layers of silica or glass fiber tape which is impregnated with phenolic resin. 1A.
4. FIG. ceramic or resin) in FIG. 4 shows an uncured panel 14 being wrapped spirally around a mandrel 18 which defines the inside contour of the nose cap. . 2 A. The uncured panel may be cut to the required geometrical shape. and 8 depicts typical reinforcement fiber ends. the tape. The panel is uncured at this stage of method. the tip can be molded integrally with the nose cap during the molding to final shape and dimensions. One means for applying pressure is by enclosing the panel in a sealed flexible bag (shown as 16 in FIG. 2B. 1. wrapped edgewise at a perpendicular angle to the mandrel. depending on whether the nose cap is to have perpendicular or shingle angle orientation of the reinforcement. The panel will have perpendicular angle oriented reinforcement fibers or shingle angle oriented reinforcement fibers depending upon whether the plane of the tape was perpendicular to (edgewise) or at a conical angle to the mandrel centerline respectively. 6A. the substantially horizontally arranged fibers of the panel will have circumferential orientation when further processed as described. The preform is then placed in a suitable mold (not shown) and molded to final shape and dimensions required for the outside contour of the nose cap. 2A. Also. to adjust its weight and dimensions for proper molding. If a rosette or rod tip is required.is shown as 15 (exclusive of the impregnation material. FIG. The number 17 of FIGS. it follows that slitting a woven tape which has been wrapped as noted will cause the fibers to be oriented in both a substantially vertical and horizontal arrangement in the panel 14. 7A. Further. After the required length of winding (L) is attained (determined by the cone angle and desired helical wrapping angle required for a particular nose cap). 5. 6 B shows a rosette tip 19 in a convolute wrap distorted into a conical shape. After the wrapping operation is performed the nose cap at this stage is termed a preform as illustrated by 22 of FIG. 3. The tape is oriented with its width either perpendicular to (edgewise) or at a conical angle to the mandrel centerline. 2 B shows the tape. FIG. after being wrapped edgewise at a conical angle to the mandrel 12 and after being slit in a lengthwise direction of the mandrel to remove the panel 14. with winding length (L). 6 A shows a rosette tip 19 in a convolute wrap. 5. 1A. A rod tip 20 is shown fitted to the mandrel. 1A which is an enlarged view for clarity. is slit in a length-wise direction of the mandrel and the panel 14 is removed as shown in FIG. FIG. The preceding statement describes the results achieved from slitting a woven tape which has been wrapped as described. 3) and exhausting the air from the bag. during the previous wrapping operation. and the panel may be densified by subjecting it to heat below the cure temperature coupled with pressure. The substantially vertically arranged fibers of the panel will be either perpendicular or shingle angle oriented when further processed as described. thus applying approximately 15 psi pressure to the panel 14. FIG. 6 C shows a cross sectional view of a nose cap 24 with shingle angle orientation of the reinforcement fibers 28 and with a rosette 19 molded in place. The uncured preform may be easily machined at this stage.
as well as ceramic compositions used to impregnate tape. FIG. all variations in organic resins. when material is easily machined. Greatly increased strength due to helical formation of tape. Karakteristik utama dari Nylon 66 adalah: Ia memiliki sifat baik geser . 7 A shows the type of rod tip generally referred to as cloth wrapped rod 21. FIG. and for all variations in nose cap geometry. Any necessary machining is done prior to final molding. FIG. The advantages of the method of this invention over the prior art method for making nose caps are: 1. 9 shows a completed nose cap 24 having a portion cutaway and enlarged to show reinforcement fibers 26 which are oriented at a perpendicular angle. 7 C shows a cross sectional view of a nose cap 25 with perpendicular orientation of the reinforcement fibers 26 and with a rod tip 23 molded in place. Helical formation of tape eliminates weak resin planes perpendicular to the axis of the nose cap. Reduced cost due to speedy tape wrap as compared to stacking discs. The method of this invention is suitable for all variations in tape weave and tape material. Nylon 66 Nylon 66 adalah rekayasa semi-kristal termoplastik dengan aplikasi universal. FIG. helix angle of wrap. 10 shows a completed nose cap 24 having a portion cutaway and enlarged to show reinforcement fibers 28 which are oriented at a shingle angle. etc. 2. 3. 7 B shows the type of rod tip generally referred to as a parallel filiament rod 23. FIG. 8 shows a substantially completed nose cap 25 with a rod tip 20 molded in place (prior to trimming the excess length of the rod).FIG.
mesin bangunan. diesel. listrik teknik. tekstil. pencetakan dan minuman mengeluarkan mesin. mekanik otomotif rekayasa. . transportasi dan teknologi konveyor. spindle kacang Piston panduan Kastor Dampak piring Gesekan bantalan Conveyor sekrup Cam disk Rope pulley Plug bagian Redaman piring Nylon 66 is a Semi-crystalline engineering thermoplastic with universal applications. gemuk. cairan pembersih Kuat dan tangguh Kaku Isolasi elektrik Mudah machined Mudah dilas dan berikat Bidang disukai untuk penggunaan Nylon 66 adalah:. peralatan rumah tangga.Sangat abrasi tahan Tahan terhadap minyak banyak. kemasan dan pengolahan kertas mesin. bensin. dan mesin pertanian aplikasi Populer untuk penggunaan Nylon 66 adalah: Gear roda Gesekan strip Semak-semak.
Strong and tough .Resistant to many oils.Rigid . machinery. packing and paper processing. building machinery. household articles.Electrically insulating . . textile. and agricultural machinery.Is very abrasion resistant.The main characteristics of Nylon 66 are : . diesel. automotive engeenering.It has good sliding properties . petrol. cleaning fluids . Popular applications for the use of nylon 66 are : Gear wheels Friction strips Bushes.Easily welded and bonded The preferred fields for the use of Nylon 66 are : mechanical engeenering. transport and conveyor technology.Easily machined . spindle nuts Piston guides Castotrs Impact plates Friction bearings Conveyor screws Cam discs Rone pulley Plug parts Damping plates . printing and drinks dispensing machinery. greases. electrical engeenering.
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) The amide unit (found in polyamides) shown in Figure 2 is the same connective grouping that is found in proteins.Figure 2. the strengths of natural fibers. The researchers found that fibers could also be formed from the polyamides. in an exhibit that announced the synthesis of a wonder fiber from "coal. and rubber. Nylons made from diamines and dicarboxylic acids are designated by two numbers. When the nylon stockings were first offered for sale in New York City. then similar reactions that employed a comparable reactant. they initially emphasized their work on the polyesters. Julian Hill. would form polymers. This new miracle fiber (nylon) was introduced at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Nylon stocking sales took a large drop during World War II when it became publicized that nylon was needed to make parachutes. but with two reactive groups. An amide unit. (See Figure 1. The program he supervised was designed to investigate the composition of natural polymers such as silk. Many of Carothers's efforts related to condensation polymers were based on his deduction that if a monofunctional reactant reacted in a certain manner in forming a small molecule.) . a member of the Carothers team. air. and in some cases surpassed. as polyesters were more soluble and easier to work with. similar to those formed from the polyesters. The polyamides (nylons) were given a special naming system. on May 15. synthetic chemist they knew. Although the Carothers group had worked with both polyesters and polyamides. noticed that he could form fibers if he separated a portion of a soft polyester material using a glass stirring rod and pulled it away from the clump. and water" an exaggeration but nevertheless eye-catching. the group returned to its work with the polyamides. The strength of these fibers approached. the first representing the number of carbons in the diamine chain (a) and the second the number of carbons in the di carboxylic acid (b). 1940. But because the polyesters had softening points that were too low for their use as textiles. over four million pairs were sold in the first few hours. cellulose. (See Figure 3.
Material for fibers of Kevlar was cloudy white instead of molasses brown. and plastic.500 million pounds) of nylons were produced in the United States in 2000 for thermoplastic use. the first of which is for Kevlar. Because of the presence of polar units in nylons. About 1. Valerie Borek Nylon 6.6 (or simply nylon 66) is the largest volume nylon used as fiber. film. Figure 3. The term "thermoplastic" denotes a material that can be melted through heating. (See Figure 4. and is used in the manufacture of products ranging from automotive gears to . rope. About 680.6.) STEPHANIE KWOLEK (1923 ) Stephanie Kwolek has seventeen patents. rug filament. similar to the presence of polar units in proteins. Nylon materials also attract odors (many everyday odors are polar in nature) and are easily stained. It has a relatively high use temperature (to about 270°C or 518°F).The nylon developed by Carothers at Du Pont was nylon 6. Nylon 66 was the first engineering thermoplastic. salts of the diamine and of the diacid are made and then used in the commercial synthesis of nylon 6. she would spin them into fibers for strength and flexibility testing. the first indication that she had uncovered an exceptional polymer. and more. Nylon 66 is used to make tire cord. Because of the importance of starting out with equal amounts of the two reactants. After creating a new polymer. undergarments.500 million pounds) of nylon 66 were produced for fiber applications in 2000.6. materials made from nylon have a nice "feel" to them. The term "engineering thermoplastics" describes a plastic material that can be cut. Most textile and fabric products are treated to repel unwanted odors and stainmaking materials. drilled. clothing. Nylon 66 plastic is tough and rigid.134 million kilograms (2. thread. or machined. hose. and up until 1953 represented all of engineering thermoplastic sales.4 million kilograms (1. dresses. socks.
Most polymers. Figure 5. Because they have these polar groups that also allow for hydrogen bonding . Velcro. nylons. .hairbrush handles. the point at which segmental mobility begins) and high melting point (the point at which entire polymer chain mobility begins). motorcycle crank cases. noticed that he had cockleburs caught in his jacket. the name given to the nylon-based hook-and-eye combination. uses nylon as both the hook material and the eye material. He examined the cockleburs and noticed that they had tiny "hooks. and tougher in comparison to most vinyl polymers. skis for snowmobiles. so that. tractor hood extensions. In the case of nylon 66." His cotton jacket had loops that "held" the cockleburs. Today. He began playing with his observations and making combinations of materials one having rigid hooks and the other having flexible loops or eyes. nylons and most condensation polymers are also stronger. bicycle wheels. and then to a viscous "taffylike" material that is most amenable to heat-associated fabrication. more rigid and brittle. the transition from the solid to the soft stage is abrupt. after walking in the Swiss countryside. and so on. Figure 4. is the desired attribute." meaning they do not need lubricant for easy mobility. and not flexibility. During the early 1950s George deMestral. unlike many vinyl polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene (which must be at temperatures above their glass transition temperatures to possess needed flexibility). lawnmower blades. Molded nylon 66 is used to make skate wheels. bearings. when heated. thus they can be used to make mechanical bearings and gears that do not need periodic lubrication. Polyester is sometimes blended with the nylon to make it stronger. requiring that fabrication be closely watched. Nylons are also "lubrication-free. function best in contexts in which strength. progress from a glasslike solid to a softer solid. and many other condensation polymers. The presence in nylons of polar groups results in materials that have a relatively high glass transition temperature (T g .
4-butanediamine. The compound 1.6 (Stanyl) in 1990. produced from renewable resources. but not in the United States. Because of the presence of the additional methylene ( CH 2 ) groups that are hydrophobic (water-hating). used to produce nylon 4. Figure 7. is such a green product. produced via the ring-opening reaction of the compound caprolactam is structurally similar to nylon 66 and has similar properties and uses. In general.4-diaminobutane.) Figure 6. Nylon 6. DSM (once called Dutch State Mines) introduced nylon 4. renewable starting materials (instead of petrochemicals). (See Figure 5. close space suits. Several new commercial ventures are based on using natural.10 and nylon 6. (See Figure 6.12 are also commercially available.) Velcro is used to fasten shoes. and it has many other applications. allowing it to occupy a niche position between conventional nylons and high-performance materials. . Stanyl can withstand temperatures up to about 300°C (570°F). It is widely used in Europe in place of nylon 66.(Polyesters have also been used to make hook-andeye material.) Nylon 6. these nylons are more resistant to moisture and more ductile than nylon 66. These products are known as "green" products because they are made from renewable resources and can be composted. It is produced via the condensation reaction between adipic acid and 1.6 from natural material. more crystalline nylons are fibrous whereas less crystalline nylon materials are more plastic in behavior.
(See Figure 7.Several aromatic polyamides. (2000). Bibliography Allcock.. These materials are strong. New York: Basic Books. (2003). It is used in the manufacture of so-called bullet-resistant clothing. S YNTHETIC . Charles E. Carraher.. 6th edition. Because of its outstanding strength to weight ratio.) SEE ALSO C AROTHERS . Campbell. NJ: Wiley. Ivan (1997). flown over the English Channel. Lampe. M ATERIALS S CIENCE . Hoboken. P OLYMERS . Polymer Chemistry.. Giant Molecules: Essential Materials for Everyday Living and Problem Solving. Carraher. (2003). and Mark. and have good flame-resistance properties.. 2nd edition. New York: Marcel Dekker. Ian M. Jr. Jr. are stable at high temperatures. . Upper Saddle River. (2003). have been produced. called aramids. Aramids are also widely used as the fibers that are part of space-age composites and in the manufacture of tire cord and tread. W ALLACE . Stuff: The Materials the World Is Made Of. Frederick W. NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Carraher Jr. Charles E. Charles E. 3rd edition. it was used as the skin covering of the human-powered Gossamer Albatross. Harry R. Introduction to Synthetic Polymers. Nomex (made from m diaminobenzene and isophthalic acid) is used to make flame-resistant clothing and the thin pads used in space shuttles to protect sintered silica-fiber mats from stress and vibration during flight. Kevlar (made from p -diaminobenzene and terephthalic acid) is structurally similar to Nomex and by weight is stronger than steel. Amato. 2nd edition. Contemporary Polymer Chemistry. James E. New York: Oxford University Press.
(1990). New York: McGraw-Hill. Materials in Today's World. and Tortora. Morawetz. Applied Polymer Science: 21st Century. Stevens. Polymers: The Origins and Growth of a Science. and Carraher. Hans-Georg (1997). Washington. Ferdinand (1996). An Introduction to Polymer Science. 4th edition.. Jr. Boca Raton. NJ: Prentice Hall. (1996). Phyllis G. (1959). Tonelli. Thrower. Polymers from the Inside Out: An Introduction to Macromolecules. ed. New York: Wiley. Paul W. and Kwolek. Stephanie L. 2nd edition. New York: Wiley-Interscience. Elias. 2nd edition. (2000). Principles of Polymer Systems. Ads by Google ." Journal of Chemical Education 36:182 184. "The Nylon Rope Trick.Collier. Polymeric Materials Encyclopedia. Charles E. Herbert (1985). New York: Oxford University Press. FL: CRC Press. Clara E. Polymer Chemistry: An Introduction. New York: Wiley. Billie J. (2000). Upper Saddle River. Joseph C.. Malcolm P. Rodriguez. Alan E. New York: Elsevier. Craver.. Peter (1996). DC: Taylor & Francis. Salamone. Understanding Textiles.. Morgan. (2001)..
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