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THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GROUP COMPETITION STRATEGY APPLIED IN THREE-PHASE TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION AT SMPN 10 MALANG

THESIS

BY RINU PAMUNGKAS 106221402910

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG DECEMBER, 2009

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF GROUP COMPETITION STRATEGY APPLIED IN THREE-PHASE TECHNIQUE IN TEACHING READING COMPREHENSION AT SMPN 10 MALANG

THESIS Presented to State University of Malang in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana in English Language Education

By Rinu Pamungkas 106221402910

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG December, 2009

This is to certify that the Sarjanas thesis of RINU PAMUNGKAS has been approved by the thesis advisor for further approval by the Board of Examiners

Malang, December 21, 2009 Advisor

Dr. Arwijati Wahyudi, DipTESL, M.Pd. NIP 19501104 197603 2 001

This is to certify that the Sarjanas of thesis of RINU PAMUNGKAS has been approved by the board examiners as the requirement for the degree of Sarjana in English Language Education.

Drs. Murdibjono, M.A., Chair NIP 19500420 197603 1 002

Nur Hayati, M. Ed., Member NIP 19811123 200604 2 002

Dr. Arwijati Wahyudi, DipTESL, M.Pd, Member NIP 19501104 197603 2 001

Acknowledged by Head, English Department

Approved by Dean, Faculty of Letters

Dra. Hj. Utami Widiati, M.A., Ph.D NIP 19650813 199002 2 001

Prof. Dr. H. Dawud, M.Pd NIP 19590610 198503 1 005

ABSTRACT

Pamungkas, Rinu. 2009. The Implementation of Group Competition Strategy Applied in Three Phase Technique in Teaching Reading Comprehension at SMPN 10 Malang. Thesis, English Department, Faculty of Letters, State University of Malang. Advisor: Dr. Arwijati Wahyudi, DipTESL., M.Pd. Key words: group competition strategy, three phase technique, teaching reading. Group competition strategy applied in three phase technique is one of the techniques which can be applied in teaching reading. It is considered a good technique which can make students interact actively in the class activity, especially in reading lesson. Group competition strategy is a group discussion, activity, the purpose of
which is to explore the students understanding about a reading text, by constructing some questions. Then the questions are discussed in a kind of panel discussion in which a

member of a certain group asks a question to a member of another group. It is applied in three-phase technique because the activities in group competition strategy, prior discussion, small group discussion, and panel discussion, are like the activities in three-phase technique, pre-reading activity, whilst-reading activity, and post-reading activity. Group competition strategy is expected to contribute some advantages. First, students have chances to use the language actively, because each of them has to give question to their friends and answer the question from their friends. Second, an active and more alive class with highly motivated students may happen. This study was intended to describe the implementation of group competition strategy applied in three-phase technique in teaching reading comprehension at Junior High School (SMP) level. This study is a descriptive qualitative study. The subjects of this study were thirty-nine students of SMPN 10 Malang. The instruments used to collect the data were lesson plans, research journals, records of students participation, questionnaires, and teachers instructions. All the data gained from all the instruments were collected qualitatively. The researcher then analyzed the data qualitatively in descriptive explanation. The next step done by the researcher was describing the findings. The results of this study was concluded and presented in the form of a description The findings of this study were as follows: first, group competition strategy applied in three phase technique could be implemented well in reading class. Although it is still a new technique to be implemented in reading class, students could do all activities in group competition strategy well. Second, students could interact well during the implementation of group competition strategy, in the prior discussion, small group discussion, and panel discussion. Third, all students were actively involved in the implementation of group competition strategy. In every meeting, most students could answer correctly the constructed questions and got scores. Students tended to be active in the class because of the competition atmosphere. Each of them
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had the opportunity to be involved in that activity. Fourth, most students liked the implementation of group competition strategy. Students said that the process of constructing questions in the implementation of group competition strategy were neither easy nor difficult. The facilities which were provided by researcher were good. In addition, reading material given was neither easy nor difficult. Most of the students said that group competition strategy helped them to comprehend texts. Furthermore, most of them stated that group competition strategy helped them in learning reading and English. Finally, most of them said that it was really necessary to be continued in English class. Based on the result of this study, it is suggested that English teachers apply group competition strategy in reading class to encourage students to be active and more motivated in learning reading, to develop their critical thinking, and to interact well in their reading class. Furthermore, they should encourage students to speak up in English during the class. The schools are suggested to be ready with the facilities needed for group competition strategy. Finally, other researchers are suggested to use this research as a reference to do experimental research to know whether or not group competition can affect the reading ability of the students.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Alhamdulillahi Robbil Alamin, My highest gratitude is only to Allah SWT His endless blessing, love, and strength that enable me to complete my thesis. Firstly, I present my greatest gratitude to my advisor, Dr. Arwijati Wahyudi, DiplTESL., M.Pd. (Bu Arwi), for her great contributions, meaningful guidance, corrections, suggestions, encouragements and useful feedbacks that have inspired me over the completion of this thesis. Thank you so much maam, your smile encouraged me to finish it earlier. Thank you also for the informal guidance before I took this thesis this semester. My appreciation is extended to all students of 8A class at SMPN 10 Malang. Thank you for giving me a chance to teach you after you had middle test. Thank you for your cooperation, guys. Keep your fights!!! My enormous gratitude is extended to all lecturers of English department, State University of Malang, especially to: (1) Dra.Hj. Utami Widiati, M.A., Ph.D., the Head of the English Department, (2) Dr. H. Yazid Bashtomi, M.A.,the secretary of the English Department, (3) Drs. Murdibjono, M.A., the Chair of the Board Examiners, (4) Nur Hayati M. Ed, the second of examiner for my thesis and my academic advisor. To Pak Murdib, Bu
NurHay, and Bu Arwi thank you for your meaningful suggestions during my thesis examination.

To Pak Yazid thank you for letting me have Bu Arwi as my advisor. My special gratitude is for my Mom who always encourages me in my days. Mom, thank for your endless prayers and spirits every morning. You are the best. My deeply thanks is intended to my Dad who makes me want to be better. Dad, finally I got my undergraduate degree, and I am ready to take my masters degree as you promised. To my oldest sister and my brother in-law, Mbak Tyas and Mas Herman, thank you for your support. Finally, we graduated from the same department and the same universities. For my second sister and
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brother in law, Mbak Giyun and Mas Andik, thank you for your spirit. For my nephews and niece, Rafi, Krisna, and Rara try to reach your dreams. To all my family, thank you so much. Moreover, thousand thanks to Rida for reading and revising my thesis before I submitted it. Thank you for the joy and laugh. Thanks a lot to Desi and Dewi for the spirit, time and laugh. Finally, I did it. For Juwa and Yerita thank you for being my best friends in Malang, but I am sorry I have to leave our lovely department first..hehe. I am also thankful to all my friends in the English Department 2006 Finally I did it guys, sorry I am the first who left our lovely department. Thank you to Dini, Fika, and Udin for your support. Thank you also to my internship teaching friends, Nova and Laras for their cooperation. Finally, I want to say thanks to myself who always encourages me to finish it soon. Finally I can graduate earlier 3,5 years!!! Thats a nice number. For people who underestimated me and dont want to see my success, finally I can graduate earlier than you. At last, my best regards are also expressed to other people whose names I cannot mention all. Thank you for your kindness and helps.

The writer

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page i ABSTRACT.......................................................................................................................... iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................................ v TABLE OF CONTENTS..................................................................................................... vii LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................ viii LIST OF APPENDIXES...................................................................................................... CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Background of the Study....................................................................................... 8 1.2 Statements of Problems......................................................................................... 8 1.3 Purpose of the Study............................................................................................. 8 1.4 Significance of the Study...................................................................................... 9 1.5 Scope of the Study................................................................................................ 10 1.6 Definition of Key Terms....................................................................................... CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 Reading and Teaching of Reading Comprehension.............................................. 2.1.1 The Objectives of Reading Instruction........................................................ 2.1.2 The Principles of Teaching Reading............................................................ 2.1.3 Reading at Junior High School Level Based on Standard of Content 2006....................................................................... 2.1.4 Kinds of Texts for Junior High School Level.............................................. 2.2 Three Phase Technique in Reading Comprehension............................................ 2.3 Competition Strategy in Teaching Reading Comprehension................................ 2.3.1 The Procedure of Group Competition Strategy............................................ 2.3.2 Benefits of Group Competition Strategy..................................................... 2.4 Classroom Interaction........................................................................................... 2.5 Review of the Previous Study...............................................................................
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design....................................................................................................... 3.2 Setting and Subjects of the Study............................................................................. 3.3 Research Procedures................................................................................................ 3.3.1 Preparing Lesson Plans.................................................................................. 3.3.2 Research Instruments..................................................................................... 3.3.3 Data Collection.............................................................................................. 3.3.4 Data Analysis............................................................................................

11 14 15 16 21 23 25 26 28 29 32

36 38 38 39 41 43 44

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Group Competition Strategy conducted in Teaching Reading Comprehension.. 4.1.1 Findings...................................................................................................... 4.1.1.1 The First Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy... 4.1.1.2 The Second Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy........................................................................................
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45 46 46 48

4.1.1.3 The Third Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy.. 4.1.1.4 The Fourth Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy........................................................................................ 4.1.1.5 The Fifth Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy... 4.1.2 Discussion................................................................................................... 4.2 The Students Interaction during the Implementation of Group Competition Strategy.......................................................................... 4.2.1 Findings..................................................................................................... 4.2.2 Discussion................................................................................................. 4.3 Students Involvement in the Implementation of Group Competition Strategy............................................................................................................. 4.3.1 Findings..................................................................................................... 4.3.2 Discussion................................................................................................. 4.4. Students Opinion on Group Competition Strategy.......................................... 4.4.1 Findings..................................................................................................... 4.4.2 Discussion.........
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1 Conclusions.............................................................................................................. 5.2 Suggestions.............................................................................................................. REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... STATEMENT OF ORIGINALITY........................................................................................... APPENDICES............................................................................................................................. CURRICULUM VITAE ...........................................................................................................

50 52 53 55 57 57 60 61 61 62 63 64 67

69 71 72 74 75 130

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Reading Standard of Competences and Basic Competences in Junior High School.

Page 20

2.2 Text Types for Junior High School................................................................................. 23 3.1 The Activities in the Implementation of Group Competition Strategy........................... 41 3.2 The Instruments and the Data Obtained from those Instruments..................................... 43

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LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix Appendix 1a RPP 1........................................................................................................... Appendix 1b RPP 2........................................................................................................... Appendix 1c RPP 3........................................................................................................... Appendix 1d RPP 4........................................................................................................... Appendix 1e RPP 5........................................................................................................... Appendix 2 List of groups in the implementation of group competition strategy in reading class at SMPN 10 Malang............................................................ Appendix 3a Research Journal.......................................................................................... Appendix 3b Research Journal......................................................................................... Appendix 3c Research Journal.......................................................................................... Appendix 3d Research Journal......................................................................................... Appendix 3e Research Journal.......................................................................................... Appendix 4a Students Scoring on Their Friends Performance...................................... Appendix 4b Record of Students Participations.............................................................. Appendix 5a Questionnaire............................................................................................... Appendix 5b The Result of the Questionnaire.................................................................. Appendix 6 The Photographs of the Implementaion of Group Competition Strategy..... Page 75 81 86 91 96 101 102 105 107 109 111 113 122 123 125 127

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses the reasons to conduct the research. It covers background of the study, statements of the problems, purpose of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, and definition of key terms.

1.1 Background of the Study The English teaching at Junior High School level (SMP) covers all fourlanguage skills namely listening, speaking, reading and writing, and these four skills are taught in integration (Depdiknas, 2006). Based on the curriculum, these skills should be covered in language instruction with functional use for survival communication as its target. This curriculum emphasizes on the achievement of the predetermined competences. Competence, which is meant here as discourse competence, will be acquired only if the students have already supporting subcompetences such as linguistic competence, action competence, socio-cultural competence, and strategic competence. Discourse competence refers to the students performance to communicate both in oral or written forms dealing with a topic, in which interpersonal relationship occur in certain cultural context (Depdiknas, 2006). As previously mentioned, the English instruction includes some predetermined competences. The competences that should be achieved consist of Standar Kompetensi Lulusan (SKL), Standar Kompetensi (SK), and Kompetensi 1

Dasar (KD). SKL refers to competence that should be achieved after the students complete a three-year education at the junior high schools. SK is competence that should be achieved after the students complete a certain skill, while KD is competence that should be acquired after completing a certain period of time in the instructional process. In its implementation, the KD is measured by a set of indicators, which are formulated when the teachers formulate the instructional objectives (Depdiknas, 2006). Generally, among the four language skills mentioned above reading skill is an important skill to be acquired (Simanjuntak, 1988:22). Firstly, many students want to be able to read texts in English either for their careers, for study purpose or simply for pleasure. Secondly, reading is very useful for language acquisition. If reading text is interesting and engaging, acquisition is likely to be more successful. Finally, reading a text provides the opportunities to study language vocabulary, grammar, punctuation, and the way to construct sentences, paragraphs, and texts. The only possible way to obtain the condition above is by teaching them a number of specific skills to aid the students in comprehension. The teaching of reading at junior high school is integrated into all other language skills. In the curriculum, reading instruction at this level aims at equipping the students with the ability to identify ideas in a certain text which consists of (1) main idea, (2) factual information, (3) supporting information, (4) detail information, and (5) meaning of words, phrases, and sentences. Besides, the students should be able to identify rhetorical steps in descriptive, report, narrative, recount, and procedural texts (Depdiknas, 2006). Meanwhile, related to reading instruction based on the

Standard of Content 2006 (Standar Isi 2006), the Kompetensi Dasar (KD) states that the students are also expected to comprehend the meaning in simple short functional written text. Therefore, the reading lesson should be aimed to develop the students ability to extract the messages the text contained. In addition, the teaching of reading must be able to develop the readers attitudes, the abilities, and skills needed for obtaining information, fostering and reacting to ideas, developing knowledge, and finally, deriving pleasure by reading through understanding or comprehension (Badrawi, 1992 as quoted by Diah, 2001: 3). Due to this, comprehension is the main focus in the reading instructional. Nuttal (1982:125) states that:
Reading Comprehension lesson have traditionally centered on a passage of text followed by questions. However, the questions were usually designed to find out whether the student had understood rather than produce understanding. In other words, they were devices for testing rather than teaching.

Even though the teaching of reading gets much focus in the English instruction in Indonesian schools, the facts show that the junior high school students ability to comprehend a reading text is still insufficient (Hermansyah, 2008:5). In other words, the students comprehension on the given text is still poor. They still find many difficulties in answering questions based on the texts given. Moreover, students are often very passive in the reading class. They seem to have little interest and get bored in the reading class. In a real classroom, the teacher has to face the students with the different characteristics, abilities, learning background, skills, prospective, and knowledge of vocabularies (Diah, 2001: 5). It is impossible for the teacher to cope with each individuals need in the teaching and learning process. Therefore, the students cannot gain optimally in reading lesson.

In reading lesson, the students are always given questions to be answered. Teacher thinks that students can comprehend the text well. S/he considers that questions are tools to help the students in comprehending the text. However, the questions are often used to check or test the students comprehension of a written text. The teacher often ignores whether her/his students have comprehended the text or not. This is in line with what Nuttal (1982) says that as long as the students can answer well the question, the lesson can be continued to other areas. However, the teacher cannot be blamed for this condition since the students are also not used to performing or showing their understanding of a written text. Diah ( 2001:7) states that most Indonesian students hardly speak in the classroom. When they are given the chance to asking their teacher about the text, they just keep silent. Although they dont understand the text, they just keep silent. The only possible way taken by the teacher to break the silence and continue the lesson is by assigning them to do the exercises which are usually the questions from the text. Soon after the exercises are done and checked, the reading lesson is over. There is no effort, both from the teacher and students, to consider the comprehension of the text which is actually the main purpose of a reading lesson. If a reading lesson runs this way, it can be understood why students lack reading skills. In addition, Baradja (1990:21) states that the things that might cause the failure of the English teaching and learning process are; first, classroom interaction is dominated by the teacher. The teacher does not give ample opportunities to the students to express their ideas and feelings. Second, the teacher does not expose the students to real communication settings. Third,

students motivation is low. Fourth, the learning materials are irrelevant to students level. Based on the researchers observation and interview with the English teacher while conducting practice teaching in SMP 10 Malang, the students are still reluctant to be active in reading class. Students who were active in the class, they will be active in every meeting. However, students who were passive in the class, they tend to be passive in every meeting. In addition, based on the researchers interview with the students, most students are shy to interact actively in the classroom activities. Nevertheless, the students seemed bored to participate in
the teaching and learning activities in reading class since they just answered questions provided in the texts.

To overcome these, a certain teaching strategy is needed to motivate and encourage the students in taking reading class, and ultimately this strategy is expected to improve the students ability to comprehend reading texts. The teacher has to be able to determine which strategy or technique is appropriate in her/his classroom. This strategy should be able to motivate his/her students to interact more actively in the teaching and learning process. The problems of the students comprehension and lack of interest lead the writer to introduce a certain strategy in this research. The strategy is called Group Competition Strategy, and it is applied in the teaching reading using the ThreePhase Technique of teaching reading which is recommended in Indonesian schools. Three-Phase Techniques is considered as a good technique in teaching reading skill (Hermansyah, 2008:28). This technique has some advantages; firstly,

this technique starting with the first step that is pre-reading activity, the students are led to get into the text to be discussed and get familiar with the topic. Second, through whilst-reading activity, the students are given chances to get the general idea and some important details of the text through answering the question given. Third, in post-reading activity, they have the opportunities to interact with the text by giving comments on the text or summarizing what they have read. In ThreePhase techniques, teacher holds control her/his classroom and students. The group competition strategy is one of many strategies in the reading lesson. Basically, this strategy involves classroom discussion in which the students in small groups explore the reading materials given by constructing some questions. Then the questions are discussed in some kind of panel discussion in which a member of a certain group ask a question to a member of another group. This activity continues until all the groups get turns to ask and answer questions (Hermansyah, 2008: 32). By constructing questions and discussing problems which appear with their friends, students are expected to get more understanding in reading lesson. This strategy makes the students aware that they have to read the text carefully in reading lesson in order that they can construct difficult questions which the other groups cannot answer. It usually happens in the classroom activity when students are asked to construct the questions from the text. They usually construct difficult questions, so that their group can become the winner in this reading competition. Having reading competition in class makes the class more alive. The students are able to communicate with other students or the teacher. Therefore, the active class, which is expected by the teacher, may happen.

In the era of communicative language teaching, interaction is, in fact, the heart of communication; it is what communication is all about. In group competition strategy, students have to interact with the other students and the teachers. Reward and punishment principle may be administered in this strategy. The main purpose of giving reward and punishment is to motivate the students to study (Brown, 2001: 76). It is also intended to make the discussion run as lively as possible, and it also raises the sense of competing. Moreover, teacher is a facilitator who helps her/his students who find difficulties in discussion. The teacher also leads students to have a sportive spirit in group reading competition. Group competition strategy is expected to contribute some advantages. First, students may have high motivation to get more understanding about the text. Second, students can also improve their ability in speaking, because each of them has to give question to their friends and answer the question from their friends. They tend to speak actively in the classroom. This would overcome the problem raised that is Indonesian students are not used to speak in the classroom. Students will have a chance to use the language actively. Third, the active class with highly motivated students may happen and the class will be more alive. Students will encourage themselves to get the high score in group competition. Fourth, the group reading competition can train our students to work well in group because they have to cooperate with others. Thus, they can make a solid group.

1.2 Statements of the Problem Based on the reference from the background of this study, the researcher formulated the points which are observed in this study are as follows: 1. How is group competition strategy conducted in the teaching and learning process in reading class? 2. How is the students interaction during the implementation of group competition strategy? 3. How is students involvement in the implementation of group competition strategy? 4. What is the students opinion on group competition strategy?

1.3 Purpose of the Study This research is intended to describe: 1. how group competition strategy is conducted in the teaching and learning process in reading class. 2. the students interaction during the implementation of group competition strategy. 3. the students involvement in the implementation of group competition strategy. 4. the students opinion on group competition strategy.

1.4 Significance of the Study This research is expected to contribute significantly for teacher, schools, and also the next researchers. For the teacher, the finding of this study is expected to help them in find out whether group competition strategy can be applied in

three-phase technique as an alternative strategy in teaching reading comprehension. For the schools, it is expected that this strategy can also give a good contribution for the school in improving the teaching and learning process as well as in increasing the quality as a whole. It means that school can increase the number of students who pass the final exam, especially in English, as we know that according to SKL (Standar Kelulusan)/ Passing Competence, reading is the only skill which is tested in English final exam that this strategy will be able to build their self-confidence and creativity by constructing the questions based on the reading text. Finally, this study is also expected to be a reference for other researchers who wish to conduct similar research using other methods.

1.5 Scope of the Study The study focused on the implementation of group competition strategy applied in Three-Phase Technique in teaching reading comprehension. The study involved thirty-nine students (six boys and thirty-three girls) of VIII.A class of SMPN 10 Malang. It is the only Junior High School in East Java that implements Healthy School (Sekolah Model Sehat), so that the condition of the students health contributes positively to students learning motivation. In addition, the researcher considered that students in this school already have background in English. Moreover, this research used a favorite class, VIIIA class, with students who have high motivation to study English. It is aimed to make all students in this class can be involved in the class activity. Furthermore, the researcher used only descriptive and recount text because those texts are the required texts to be taught this semester; it is based on SKKD for Junior High School.

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1.6 Definition of Key Terms In order to avoid misinterpretation that might arise, the terms used in this study need to be defined. 1. Group Competition Strategy is a group discussion, activity, the purpose of which is to explore the students understanding about a reading text, by constructing some questions. 2. Reading Comprehension is an active process; it requires the learner to be active in his learning to read (Simanjuntak, 1988: 18). 3. Three-Phase Technique is a technique usually used in teaching reading comprehension, which consists of pre-reading activity, whilst-reading activity and post reading activity.

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CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter will discuss some items related to the implementation of group competition strategy applied in the three-phase technique in teaching reading comprehension in junior high school. It discusses reading and teaching of reading comprehension, three-phase technique in reading comprehension, group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension, classroom interaction, and presents a review of the previous study.

2.1 Reading and Teaching of Reading Comprehension There is no single definition of reading. People define reading based on their point of views. It means that reading is defined according to ones perception. For those who read something for pleasure, magazines, newspapers, tabloids, for instance, will define reading differently from those who read something for more information and knowledge. One is said to read when s/he interacts with the text. It means that reading occurs when there is an interaction between the reader and the text s/he is reading. Interaction takes place when readers use their cultural background knowledge so as to understand the text and obtain the meaning from the text. According to Braunger and Lewis (2001) in Hermansyah (2008:19) reading is a complex and purposeful socio-cultural, cognitive, and linguistic process in which readers simultaneously use their knowledge of spoken and written language, their 11

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knowledge of the topics of the text, and their knowledge of their culture to construct meaning with text. Moreover, Marksheffel (1966:12) defines that reading as a highly complex, purposeful, thinking process engaged in by the entire organism while acquiring knowledge, evolving new ideas, solving problems, or relaxing and recuperating through interpretation of printed symbols. In addition, according to Davies (1995:1), reading is private. It is a mental or cognitive process, which involves a reader in trying to follow and respond to a message of a writer who is distant in space and time. McNeil (1992:16) defines comprehension as making sense out of text. It also means that comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading and is necessary if one wishes to learn from textbooks and manuals, enjoy great literature, or simply follow directions in a cookbook. Comprehension includes the information in the text as well as changing the knowledge one used to understand the text in the first place. It refers to an activity of associating or connecting readers ideas and thoughts with what a writer states in the text. In other words, readers ideas and experiences are indeed crucial to relate what they read in the text. Reading comprehension is the understanding of the authors message of a text (Robinson, 1975:8). Furthermore, McNeil (1992:16) explains that reading comprehension is acquiring information from context and combining disparate elements into a new whole. It is the process of using ones existing knowledge to interpret what they read and must arrive at their own construction of what the text means. In addition to the previous statement, McNeil (1992:2) groups the definition or concepts of teaching of reading as follows: transmission, translation, interactive, transactional.

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In the transmission view of reading, the author is the source and focus of meaning. Accordingly, the task of reading comprehension went from memorization to include understanding or discovery of the authors intent. The purpose of teaching reading here are; improving the students vocal modulation, articulation, pronunciation, and emphasis/stress, helping students understand what they read, attending the authors phrases and figures of speech in an effort to promote emotional responses to literature and to capture the spirit and feelings of the author as again stated by McNeil (1992:2). In addition McNeil (1992:2) states that in translation view, the reader finds to translate the meanings implicit in text; the location of meaning shifted from author text. Accordingly, the teaching of reading comprehension focused on skills for translating text into meaning. The tasks of reading include both word recognition skills and comprehension skills (e.g., selecting the main idea in a passage, paraphrasing the text, and recognize literary (device)). In the last concept of teaching reading as stated by McNeil (1992:3) is the interactive view. The interactive view of reading regards meaning as a product of information encoded in text and the knowledge and experience of the reader. It was acknowledged that the readers background influenced the perception of the text and the meanings generated. The closer match between what the leaner already knew and the content and structure of the text, the greater the comprehension. Teaching reading comprehension from the interactive perspective consists of developing learning strategies for relating previously acquired knowledge to words and concepts of a text, monitoring ones comprehension of

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text, and learning how to reorganize old knowledge with the new knowledge in the text. Comprehending is learning. The transaction conception of reading comprehension is giving the reader major responsibility for creating meaning in response to text. Readers are encouraged to recreate the texts for their own purposes.

2.1.1 The Objectives of Reading Instruction Any instruction has its own objectives to achieve. When a teacher plans to teach, s/he also sets up some objectives to achieve at the end of his teaching. The objectives formulated to achieve in a language classroom certainly go with the type of language skill or components presented in the instruction. In relation to the reading instruction program, Nuttal (1982:21) claims that in general, any language program will cover the following objective for reading program. Based on Nuttal (1982:21), the general objective of teaching reading is: to enable students to read without help unfamiliar authentic text, at appropriate speed, silently, and with adequate understanding. This objective is further elaborated in the following main points which can be summarized as follows: (a) To enable students. This phrase implied that teacher can only promote ability in the student. (b) To read without help. This statement means that in real life we encounter reading task outside the classroom without teacher at outside. Therefore, the students have to develop the ability to read on their own. (c)Unfamiliar text. The students should be able to tackle a text that they have never seen before, so that they should be prepared in order to be able to do so. (d) Authentic text. The reading skill is of no use unless it enables

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students to read text they actually require for some authentic purpose. (e) Appropriate speed. A competent reader should have a flexible speed or reading. (f) Silently. Reading aloud is only useful at the early stages of foreign language classes. (g) With adequate understanding. In the real reading, a reader has specific and different purposes for different reading material. Therefore, the reader just needs to understand enough of the text to his purposes of reading.

2.1.2 The Principles of Teaching Reading Like teaching other language skills, there are some principles behind the teaching of reading. A teacher needs to know these principles in order to be able to manage his classroom as effectively as possible. These principles guide the teacher to make decisions in his class concerning the students task, the activities, teaching method and technique etc to achieve his predetermined objectives. Harmer (1998) as stated by Hermansyah (2008:15) proposes six principles of teaching reading, which can be described briefly as follows: 1. Reading is not a passive skill. Reading is an active process of thinking. To do so successfully, we have to understand what the words mean, see the pictures, understand the arguments. 2. Students need to be engaged with what they are reading. This implies that the students who are not engaged with the reading text-not actively interested in what they are doing- are less likely to benefit from it. 3. Students should be encouraged to respond to the content of a reading text, not just the language. It is important to study reading text for learning language.

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However, both the meaning and the message of the text are just as important so that the students should be given the opportunity to respond to it. 4. Prediction is a major factor in reading. When we read, we frequently have good idea of the content before we actually read. In teaching, a teacher should give hints so that the students can predict what is going to read. 5. Match the task to the topic. After selecting a reading material to read, a teacher needs to choose good reading task to accompany the text. 6. Good teachers exploit reading text to the full. Any reading text is full of sentences, words, ideas, descriptions, etc. It does not make sense just to get the students read it and then drop it to move to something else. Good teachers integrate the reading text into interesting class sequences, using the topic for discussion and further task.

2.1.3 Reading at Junior High School Level Based on Standard of Content 2006 According to the Standard of Content 2006, students are expected to be able to communicate using the target language in the literary form. It includes performative, functional, informational and epistemic. In the per formative level, the students should be able to read, write, listen and speak using the language expressions and symbols that have been learned; in the functional level, the students should be able to apply their communicative competence in real everyday life such as reading newspapers, manuals, procedures, etc,; in the informational level, the students should be able to access other language by using the target language; and in epistemic level, the students should be able to express their

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thoughts and ideas of other knowledge by using the target language. As stated in the Standard of Content 2006, junior high school students are expected only to master the literary functional level in which they are expected to be able to communicate in both oral and written forms in solving their everyday matters using the target language. Related to reading, the Passing Competence (SKL) that should be achieved by the students is to comprehend the meaning in simple interpersonal and transactional written texts formally or informally in the forms of recount, narrative, procedure, descriptive, and report in everyday context. The Passing Competence (SKL) previously mentioned is elaborated into Standard of Competence and Basic Competence. Depdiknas (2006) has formulated the Standard of Competences and the Basic Competences that the students must master after a three-year in reading instruction. In the first year of the first semester in junior high school level, students are expected to comprehend the meaning embedded in simple short functional written texts as their standard competence. Furthermore, that competence can be seen from the students ability in reading aloud words, phrases, and sentences with acceptable pronunciation, stress, and intonation, responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably. In the second semester, students are expected to comprehend the meaning embedded in simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of descriptive and procedural texts. Then, that competence can be seen from the KD (Kompetensi Dasar) in which students have ability in responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short functional written texts accurately,

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fluently and acceptably, responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in very simple descriptive and procedural essays, and reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of descriptive and procedural texts. In the second year of the first semester in junior high school level, students are expected to be able to comprehend the meaning embedded in simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of descriptive and recount texts. This competence also can be seen from students ability as stated in the KD (Kompetensi Dasar) in which they are supposed to have ability in reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of descriptive and recount texts using acceptable pronunciation, stress, and intonation, responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably, responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in simple descriptive and recount essays. In the second semester, according to SK (Standar Kompetensi), students are expected to be able to comprehend the meaning embedded in simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of procedural and report texts. That competence is shown by students ability in reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of recount and narrative texts using acceptable pronunciation, stress, and intonation, responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably, responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in simple recount and narrative essays.

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In the last year or in the third grade level of junior high school level of the first semester, SK (Standar Kompetensi) states that students are enable to comprehend the meaning embedded in simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of procedural and report texts. Furthermore, students competence as stated in the SK can be seen by their ability in reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of procedural and report texts using acceptable pronunciation, stress, and intonation, responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably, and responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in simple procedural and report essays. In the second semester of the third grade level of junior high school, students are expected to comprehend the meaning embedded in simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of narrative and report texts. Then, students competence can be seen from their ability in reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of narrative and report texts using acceptable pronunciation, stress, and intonation, responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably, responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in simple narrative and report essays. In order to make the explanation about the reading standard of competences and basic competences in junior high school more clearly, it is summarized in the Table 2.1

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Table 2.1 Reading Standard of Competences and Basic Competences in Junior High School STANDARD OF COMPETENCE The first year (Semester 1) To comprehend the meaning embedded in simple short functional written texts The first year (Semester 2) To comprehend the meaning embedded in simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of descriptive and procedural texts

BASIC COMPETENCE

- Reading aloud words, phrases, and sentences with acceptable pronunciation, stress, and intonation - Responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably. - Responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably. - Responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in very simple descriptive and procedural essays. - Reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written texts and simple short essays in the forms of descriptive and procedural texts

The second year (Semester 1) To comprehend the meaning - Reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written texts embedded in simple and simple short essays in the forms of descriptive and recount functional written texts and texts using acceptable pronunciation, stress, and intonation simple short essays in the - Responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short forms of descriptive and functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably. recount texts - Responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in simple descriptive and recount essays. The second year (Semester 2) To comprehend the meaning - Reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written texts embedded in simple and simple short essays in the forms of recount and narrative functional written texts and texts using acceptable pronunciation, stress, and intonation simple short essays in the - Responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short forms of recount and functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably. narrative texts - Responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in simple recount and narrative essays The third year (Semester 1) To comprehend the meaning - Reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written embedded in simple texts and simple short essays in the forms of procedural and functional written texts and report texts using acceptable pronunciation, stress, and simple short essays in the intonation forms of procedural and - Responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short report texts functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably. - Responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in simple procedural and report essays The third year (Semester 2) To comprehend the meaning - Reading aloud meaningfully the simple functional written embedded in simple texts and simple short essays in the forms of narrative and functional written texts and report texts using acceptable pronunciation, stress, and simple short essays in the intonation forms of narrative and - Responding to the meaning embedded in the simple, short report texts functional written texts accurately, fluently and acceptably. - Responding to the meaning and rhetorical steps accurately, fluently and acceptably embedded in simple narrative and report essays

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2.1.4 Kinds of Texts for Junior High School Level In the curriculum Standard of Content (Depdiknas: 2006), texts and text types are key terms replacing themes, which were the key concept for the previous curriculum. While themes, such as, Family and School Life, are still important, the focus is now on the text types. A text type is usually identified by its social function, generic structure, and language features. There are some kinds of texts devoted for junior high school level according to SKKD formulated by Depdiknas (2006). They are descriptive, procedure, report, recount, and narrative. Depdiknas (2006) explains each text type as follows: first, descriptive text is purposed to describe a particular person, place or thing. The generic structures of descriptive are identification and description. Identification is purposed to identify the phenomenon to be described. On the other hand, description is purposed to describe parts, qualities, and characteristics. The language features of descriptive text is focus on specific participants, use of attributive and identifying process, frequents use of epithets and quantifiers, and use of simple present tense. The second text type explained is procedure text. Procedure text is purposed to describe how something is accomplished through a series of steps. The generic structures of procedure are goal, materials, and steps. The language features of procedure are focus on generalized human agents, use of simple present/imperative, use mainly of material processes, and use sequences. Third, report text is purposed to describe the way things are, with reference to natural, man-made and social phenomenon in our environment. The generic structures of report are general classification and description. The

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language features of report are focus on generic participants, use of relational process, use of simple present tense, and no temporal sequence. The fourth text type explained is recount text. Recount text is purposed to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining. The generic structures of recount are orientation, events, and re-orientation. The language features of recount are focus on specific participants, use of material processes, circumstances of time and place, use of past tense, and focus on temporal sequences. The last text type is narrative text. Narrative text is purposed to amuse, entertain and deal with actual and vicarious experience in different way. A narrative text deals with problematic events, which lead to crisis that in turn finds a resolution. The generic structures of narrative are orientation, evaluation, complication, resolution, and re-orientation. The language features of narrative are focus on specific usually in individualized participants, use material processes, use of relational processes and mental processes, use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances, and use of simple past tense. In order to make the explanation about text types for junior high school more clearly, it is summarized in Table 2.2

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Table 2.2 Text Types for Junior High School Social Function Descriptive To describe a particular person, place or thing Generic Structure Language Features

Identification : to identify the Focus on specific participants phenomenon to be described Use of attributive and identifying Description : describe parts, process qualities, characteristics Frequents use of epithets and quantifiers Use of simple present tense Goal Materials (not all procedural texts require material) Steps (a sequence of steps to achieve the goal) General classification : tell what the phenomenon is Description : tell what the phenomenon is like in terms of parts, qualities, habits, behavior and uses Orientation : provides the settings and introduces the participants Events : tell what happened and in what sequence Re-orientation: optional closure of the events Orientation : introduces the scene and participants Evaluation Complication : provides the problem or crisis Resolution : the problem is resolved, for better or worse Re-orientation: optional, and sometimes present morale value Focus on generalized human agents Use of simple present/imperative Use mainly of material processes Use sequences Focus on generic participants Use of relational process Use of simple present tense No temporal sequence

Procedure To describe how something is accomplished through a series of steps Report To describe the way things are, with reference to natural, man-made and social phenomenon in our environment Recount To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining

Focus on specific participants Use of material processes Circumstances of time and place Use of past tense Focus on temporal sequences

Narrative To amuse, entertain and deal with actual and vicarious experience in different way. A narrative text deals with problematic events which lead to crisis which in turn finds a resolution

Focus on specific usually in individualized participants Use material processes Use of relational processes and mental processes Use of temporal conjunctions and temporal circumstances Use of simple past tense

2.2 Three Phase Technique in Reading Comprehension The secondary schools in Indonesia adopt a special procedure of teaching reading, which is called PKG procedure. This procedure usually goes through three phases, namely Pre-reading, whilst reading, and Post reading activities (Depdiknas, 2006) which explain as follow:

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First, pre-reading phase is instructional activity carried out before students read (Arywardany, 2009:14). The activity is intended to activate students problem solving behavior and their motivation to examine a text. Harris and Smith (1986:227) state that to understand a text, someone must have experiences in her/his background that enables her/him to bring personal meaning to events and feeling of the story. In the pre-reading phase, the teacher activates the students prior knowledge by conducting such following activities: showing pictures or other appropriate media and asking questions related to the topic, introducing and discussing new vocabulary, addressing lack information or misconception. In addition, reading aloud by students or teacher as model can be conducted in this phase. Other activity in pre-reading phase explained by Brown that in pre-reading stage, a teacher should spend more time introducing a topic, encouraging skimming, scanning, predicting, and activating schemata. Second, whilst-reading phase is instructional activity that the students do while reading is taking places (Arywadany, 2009:15). In whilst reading phase, students are guided to do silent reading activity. The students read silently to find information. During the reading, the students are to make note on the information, and they may discuss it with their sit-mates for confirmation. The teacher should be ready to offer help. In addition, Cahyono (1992:73) states that in whilst-reading activity the emphasis is to guide students in an interaction with the text which leads to facilitation of comprehension. Therefore, question that is asked at this stage should gear students to comprehension of the main ideas, supporting details and relevant information in a reading text.

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The last phase in three-phase techniques is post-reading phase. Post reading phase the reading instruction in which the students use the information they obtain from reading the text to answer some problems or questions. This activity is aimed at providing review and feedback after reading (Cahyono, 1997:31). Some activities that can be done in the post-reading phase are post question, feedback, and group and whole class discussion (Turney Cunninghan as stated in Arywardany, 2009:16). These activities function to recheck the students understanding about the text that has been read. Moreover, teachers should provide students with opportunities to synthesize essential information from the text in order to gain an overall understanding of what they have read (Cahyono & Widiati, 2006:46).

2.3 Group Competition Strategy in Teaching Reading Comprehension In reading instruction conducted using this three-phase technique, group competition strategy is applied in the first, second, and third phase. The group competition strategy is a strategy of teaching reading in which the students in small groups explore a reading material given. It is explored by constructing some questions. Later on, these questions are discussed among the groups in a classroom panel discussion in which a member of a certain group ask a question to a member of another group. This activity continues until all the groups get turns to ask and answer questions. By constructing the question and discussing the problems which appear with their friends, teacher expects that students can get more understanding in reading lesson. The reward and punishment principle is also applied in this strategy. The main purpose of giving reward and punishment

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is to motivate the students to study. It is also intended to make the discussion run as lively as possible, and it also raises the sense of competing. Moreover, teacher is a facilitator who helps her/his students who find difficulties in discussion.

2.3.1 The Procedure of Group Competition Strategy Hermansyah (2008: 30) divides Group Competition strategy to three main activities, namely prior discussion, small group discussion, panel discussion. They are explained as follow: a. Prior discussion Teacher divides the class in several small groups consisting of 4 5 students. Each group has to appoint one student as a leader and one student as a secretary. The leader has to lead the discussion in this group during this activity. Meanwhile, the secretary task is write everything related to the discussion of this group. Besides, in this step, the teacher also determines the turn that will get the first turn to do group competition strategy. Prior discussion in group competition strategy is like the pre-reading activity in three-phase technique. During this step, the students facilitated by the teacher discuss and analyze the content of the reading material. The discussion may involve the meaning of difficult word, phrase, sentences, main ideas, rhetorical and generic structure etc.

b. Small group discussion When the first step is completed, each group is assigned to write some questions based on the reading material they have already discussed. This step requires the students interact positively among the groups to write some difficult

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questions. Each member in a group has to construct a question. This discussion is like the whilst-reading activity in three-phase technique. Students discussed texts given by the researcher with their own groups. They also try to find difficult vocabularies from dictionaries.

c. Panel discussion The final step in this strategy is classroom panel discussion. This step is conducted when all the small groups have completed their assignments to formulate some questions. It is like the post-reading activity in three-phase technique. Some activities that can be done in the panel discussion are post question, feedback, and group and whole class discussion. The panel discussion begins with the group which gets the first turn to play. Then leader gets the first chance in asking a question to the other groups. Each member of this group has to ask her/his own question to the other groups. The leader of the group has to appoint a member of another group to answer her/his groups questions. A member of another group who can answer those questions, s/he has to raise her/his hand. In answering the question, the appointed student may ask some help from other members of his group, but the responsibility of present the answer the question orally is still her/his. When the answer is correct, then the whole class will give applause to this group as a reward. This group will get 1 point. If the answer is wrong, this group will not get point. However, if no one can answer a question from this group, 1 point will belong to this group. The next step is the turn for the student who has been appointed to answer the question to read a question from her/his group. Again, s/he selects a member of another group to

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answer her/his question. This activity of asking and answering questions is conducted repeatedly until all small groups get turns to ask and answer questions. This activity requires students in each group to be engaged in positive interdependence, individual and group accountability. During the panel discussion, the teacher observes and makes some notes. Sometimes, he can conduct some assessment on the students. At the end of this activity, all score will be accumulated to determine the winner of this activity. The group, which gets the highest score, will get a prize as a reward. The prize may be varied depending on the agreement of the class, for example, books, chocolate, etc. However, the group, which gets the lowest score, will get a punishment. The punishment may be varied depending on the agreement of the class, for example: singing, reading a poem, dancing etc.

2.3.2 Benefits of Group Competition Strategy Hermansyah (2008:34) states that there are some advantages of group competition strategy. Firstly, it can enhance the students engagement. During the discussion, both are small group or panel discussion, all the students are required to engage actively. Each student is expected to have individual accountability for his group. Secondly, this strategy fosters equal participation. In the traditional instruction, only few students, mostly the superior students, have more opportunities to participate in the class, while the weak or shy ones prefer being silent. In this strategy, all students including the reluctant or weak ones should

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participate in asking and answering questions since they do not know who will be called upon during the panel discussion Hermansyah (2008:34) The third advantage is that it encourages peer tutoring from smart students who know the answers to other group members who do not know. By peer tutoring, the exchange of information is much more dynamic than rote memorization and individual task. The fourth advantage is that the active class which teacher expected maybe happens. It happens because all of students are involved in this activity, they interact with their classmates by asking and answering questions. In addition, all of them raise their hands to be appointed to answer questions in order to be a winner group in this activity. Furthermore, this strategy can be used to increase the students motivation to learn (Hermansyah, 2008: 34). Students learning motivation plays a prominent role in the instruction because motivation toward a subject matter will guide their learning attitudes and behaviors that would determine the success of their academic performances. The group competition strategy can enhance motivation since it provides the sense of competition and at the same time fun. Besides, students will be more motivated because they are helped by their group-mates. Finally, this strategy provides the teacher with less work. The teacher is just responsible for monitoring and providing help if it is necessary.

2.4 Classroom Interaction Gaies (1980, cited in Allwright and Balley, 1991: 18) has noted that the classroom is crucible-the place where teachers and learners come together and

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language learning happens. On the other hand, Widyaningsih (2009:10) states that interaction is a significant aspect in the teaching and learning process, especially language learning. Besides, Brown (2001; 165) states, interaction is a collaborative exchange of thoughts, feeling, or ideas between two or more people, usually in a reciprocal effort on each other. Moreover, according to Robinson (1994:7), interaction is the process of referring to face-to-face action. In addition, Rivers (1987:4) states:
Through interaction, students can increase their language store as they listen to read authentic linguistic material or even the outputs of their fellow students in discussions, skits, join problem-solving tasks, or dialogue journals. In interaction, students can use all they possess of the language-all they have learned or casually absorbed-in real life exchanges where expressing their real meaning is important to them.

From those definitions, classroom interaction can be defined as a collaborative activity between teacher and student using both verbal and nonverbal way in the teaching and learning process in a classroom. In the classroom, interaction is also important. However, in this setting information sharing between teacher and students is the primary goal. Barker (1982:2) states that intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and cultural communication provide vehicle for the transmission of information in the classroom. However, the most important thing is the active participation among the parties involved the interaction. Moreover, the participants in the interaction should have high motivation to interact with others, use communication strategies required for an interaction. Classroom interaction is the heart of communication (Widyaningsih, 2009:11). It is the medium of the teacher and students to exchange thoughts or ideas. If there is no interaction, there cannot be communication. Furthermore, she

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states that interaction should occur between the teacher and the students in the classroom (Widyaningsih, 2009:2). The teacher should give stimuli and the students respond to it. This activity will create a good classroom interaction, in which there is no dominance of the teacher. A good classroom interaction leads to the process of communication, which is the goal of foreign language learning. However, group interaction is more frequently used in the classroom than any other single level of interaction (Widyaningsih, 2009:18). Group interaction involves the interaction between the teacher and several students, between several students to the teacher, and between a single student to several students. Unlike the other types of interaction, in group interaction, the flow of message may be very irregular and have no definite pattern. Spontaneity is the key to success of group interaction; however, it makes it difficult for the speaker to organize the message and for the listener to understand the message. Class discussions and group projects are the example of group interaction in the classroom. Group competition strategy is one of ways to do group communication in the classroom. Smith (1994) in Diah (2001:21) sets up the characteristics of an effective classroom. He mentions that in an effective classroom are: First, the teachers role is as a facilitator so that the child does not rely on the adults supervision all the time. Second, the students should be involved in the work they are doing and own part of it because they have helped to plan it. Third, what the students bring to the task has been noted and taken into account thus helping to match the task to that child. Fourth, each student is helped to make sense of the world they live in. Fifth, there is a lot of working cooperatively in groups, organized to take into account

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opportunities continuity and progression. Finally, concrete experiences are used as starting points.

2.6 Review of the Previous Study Group Competition strategy is still a new technique in reading comprehension. A previous study about group competition strategy has been conducted by Hermansyah (2008) entitled The Implementation of Group Competition Strategy in the Reading Instruction at Junior High School Level. In the introduction, he tells that Group Competition Strategy is one of strategies which can be applied in reading instruction. It can be applied to make the students more active in the class. He assumes that the traditional reading strategy, which usually teachers ask students some questions, is not an effective strategy to make students active and responsive in a reading class. In the traditional strategy, not all of students have a chance to answer the question from their teachers. They usually tend to be passive in reading class. In addition, the active students may be more active and the passive student may be more passive. It makes a gap between a passive student and an active one. This will be bigger and bigger. Hermansyah (2008) explains that group competition strategy is introduced to minimize the gap between a passive and an active student. The group competition strategy done by Hermansyah (2008) was applied in three-phase technique. The technique covered three steps; those are prior discussion, group discussion, and panel discussion. In this strategy, student is asked to construct a question based on the texts given. Students are also asked to speak up to give their

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questions to their friends. This activity also develops students in speaking because they have to ask and answer the questions orally. In his thesis, Hermansyah (2008) chose Classroom Action Research (CAR) as a research design of his research. He used forty-five students of ninth grade level of Junior High School as his subject. The class was a regular class, which he taught. His research was purposed to motivate students to learn reading instruction. In his research, he just used group competition strategy to solve the problems of inactive students in reading class. Hermansyah (2008) conducted a preliminary study as a base to define the problems happening in class. Then, he acted as the teacher while conducting the research. In the first cycle, the researcher asked students to do group competition strategy. However, not all of them were active in that activity. Then, in second cycle, all students could involve in group competition strategy. Like the previous explanation, he implemented this strategy into three steps; prior discussion, group discussion, and panel discussion. In prior discussion, the students discussed and analyzed the content of the reading texts with the teacher. On the other hand, in the small group discussion, the students interacted positively among the groups to write some difficult questions. At last, in panel discussion, the students ask questions to their friends and answer questions from their friends. However, Hermansyahs research has some differences with this research. Unlike Hermansyahs research, this research was aimed to describe the implementation of group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension. On the other hand, Hermansyah used group competition strategy as the answer for the problems which are raised in the reading class using traditional technique;

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however, this thesis described how group competition strategy was implemented in helping students learning reading. Broader than Hermansyahs study, this research also examined the students interaction during the implementation of group competition strategy. It is purposed to know how the students interacted during the implementation of group competition strategy. Moreover, this research also described the students involvement during the implementation of group competition strategy. The differences with Hermansyahs research are the subject of the research and the material used in the research. Hermansyah used a regular class with heterogeneous samples in which there are both, low and high-motivated students to study English. He used ninth graders of junior high school. However, this research used a favorite class with students who have high motivation to study English. The subject of this research is students of eight grade level of junior high school. Furthermore, this research used descriptive and recount text because those texts are the required texts to be taught this semester; it is based on SKKD for Junior High School. It is different with Hermansyahs research which used report text as a material to be taught during his research. In addition, this research also used questionnaires to know students opinion on group competition strategy. Therefore, the result of this study not only depended on the researchers opinions toward the implementation strategy, but also the students opinions on this strategy. It is different with Hermansyahs research which only examined whether group competition strategy could be implemented in reading instruction.

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In short, this research enriched the previous research. The result of the previous research has already shown that group competition strategy can be applied in teaching reading instruction. The others result of the previous research: first, it can enhance the students engagement. Second, this strategy fosters equal participation. Third, it encourages peer tutoring from smart students who know the answers to other group members who do not know. At last, this strategy can be used to increase the students motivation to learn (Hermansyah, 2008: 34). In the next chapter, the methodological aspect of this study is elaborated in order to answer the statements of the problem of this research.

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter covers the description of the research methodology. It presents the research design, setting and subjects of the study, research procedures, and data analysis.

3.1 Research Design This study was designed to describe the implementation of group competition strategy in teaching reading for students of Junior High School. It meant that this study was categorized as a descriptive qualitative study. According to Best (1981:25) in Amaliyah (2009: 27),Descriptive research describes what it is. It involves the description, recording, analysis, and interpretation of condition that exist. In involves some type of comparison or contrast and attempts of discover relationship between existing non-manipulated variables. This study is qualitative design because according to Bogdan and Biklen (1992:29) qualitative research has the following five features: (1) the natural setting is the data source and the researcher is the key data- collection instrument; (2) it attempts to describe; (3) the concern is what process, that is, with what has transpired, as much as with product or outcome; (4) its data are analyzed inductively, as in putting together the parts of a puzzle; and (5) it is essentially concerned with what things mean, that is, the why as well as the what.

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Descriptive qualitative research design was chosen to conduct this study because group competition strategy is one of the new strategies to be applied in teaching reading comprehension. This research was aimed to examine whether or not group competition strategy can be implemented in teaching reading comprehension, especially for eight graders of junior high school who have high motivation in learning English. Besides, this research was aimed to describe the implementation of group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension. In this study, the researcher acted as a complete participant who was totally involved in the teaching and learning process. Besides observing the process of the implementation group competition strategy, the researcher also facilitated students who found difficulties in running this strategy. He was helped by an assistant whose duty is to take some photographs in the implementation of group competition strategy.
Although in this study the researcher became a complete participant by implementing a new technique, the research design used was not a classroom action research (CAR) or quasi-experimental research design. A classroom action research design was not used as the research method for this study because this study did not improve the lack of students reading ability as the objectives in a classroom action research. A quasi-experimental research design was not used as the research method for this study because this study was aimed to know the implementation of group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension, not to compare a new technique to another teaching reading technique. Moreover, this research was not aimed to know the effect of using group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension. The target of this study was to describe the implementation of group competition strategy in reading class. In addition, it also to examine whether or nor

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group competition strategy could be implemented in the lower graders than third graders, the subject of the previous research, of junior high school.

3.2 Setting and Subjects of the Study The setting of this study was SMPN 10 Malang. It is located in Jl. Mayjen Sungkono 57 Malang. It is one of the schools in Malang which has achieved National Standardized School (Sekolah Standar Nasional/SNN). It implements contextual teaching and learning process; therefore, the teaching and learning process here are related to students previous knowledge and their surroundings. The subjects of the study were the second year students, VIII.A class, of 2009/2010 academic year of SMPN 10 Malang which consisted of thirty-nine students (six boys and thirty-three girls). This class is the most favorite class in SMPN 10 Malang and its students have much interest and high motivation in English. This was the first time group competition strategy conducted in the lower grade of junior high school students, so that was why the researcher wanted to conducted it in the students who have high motivation in learning English before it will be conducted to regular class later on.

3.3 Research Procedures This section explained the system how group competition strategy worked in the teaching reading process. It explained the implementation process since the beginning from the process of preparing lesson plans until collecting the data.

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3.3.1 Preparing Lesson Plans Since the researcher had a role as a teacher (facilitator) in this research, the lesson plan was made based on students needs. Besides, the researcher also considered the steps to implement group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension. Five meetings were considered as the appropriate frequency to implement this strategy in this research. Lesson plans were used to manage the process of teaching and learning use this strategy run well (see Appendix 1a-e). After making the lesson plans and preparing the materials and media, the researcher conducted reading class using group competition strategy. In the first meeting, the researcher gave a general explanation about group competition strategy. Students were introduced to group competition strategy. Besides, they were also introduced to Wh- questions and asked to practice to construct questions. The researcher also gave the students examples to construct questions. Moreover, he also introduced descriptive and recount text to students. Finally, students were asked to make groups consisting of 4 or 5 students in each group (see Appendix 2). Subsequently, the researcher assigned students to do group competition strategy in reading class. This activity was held for four meetings. In the second meeting, students were asked to do group competition strategy with descriptive texts. The first four groups (A/B/C/D) constructed questions based on the descriptive texts given. After that, all students in that class did group competition strategy by asking and answering questions from group A/B/C/D. Like the second meeting, in the third meeting, students were asked to do group competition

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strategy with descriptive texts. However, these meetings were the tasks for the last four groups (E/F/G/H) to construct questions based on the text given. Like the second and third meetings, in the fourth and fifth meeting, students were asked to do group competition strategy. The fourth meeting was the first four groups performance and the fifth meeting was the last four groups performance. The difference was that in the last two meetings, students were asked to construct questions based on recount texts given. In the last meeting after the class, the researcher distributed questionnaires to the students asking about activities held and their improvement in reading skills. In order to make the explanation about the activities more clearly, a table of the researcher and students activities in the implementation of group competition strategy is presented in Table 3.1.

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Table 3.1 The Activities in the Implementation of Group Competition Strategy Meeting Activities Students Activities 1st meeting Introduce group competition Listen and pay attention to teacher strategy explanation Introduce Wh- question Learn how to construct question based on the texts Learn how to construct question based on the text. Make a group consisted 4-5 students Introduce descriptive and recount text 2nd meeting Do group competition strategy Read and comprehend the descriptive (group A, B ,C ,and D)with texts descriptive text Construct questions based on the descriptive texts Do group competition strategy with their group 3rd meeting Do group competition strategy Read and comprehend the descriptive (group E, F ,G ,and H)with texts descriptive text Construct questions based on the descriptive texts Do group competition strategy with their group Do group competition strategy Read and comprehend the recount 4th meeting (group A, B ,C ,and D)with texts recount text Construct questions based on the recount texts Do group competition strategy with their group 5th meeting Do group competition strategy Read and comprehend the recount (group E, F ,G ,and H)with texts recount text Construct questions based on the recount texts Do group competition strategy with their group Fulfill questionnaires given by researcher

3.3.2 Research Instruments In descriptive qualitative design, human instrument is the main instrument; therefore, it means that the instrument is the researchers himself who collected the data, interpreted the data, reduced the data, organized the data, analyzed the data, and drew conclusion or a result of the research. However, in this study, the researcher used some others instruments that helped him to collect the data from the field. The other instruments, which were used in this study, were research journals, record of students participation, teachers instructions, and

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questionnaires. Research journal was used to note all activities that happened in the process implementing group competition strategy (see Appendix 3a-e). Besides, the researcher journal later on was combined to other data from other instruments. In addition, the researcher collected the record of students participation and presentation from secretary of each group (see Appendix 4a). Moreover, researcher also recorded all of students participation and presentation while teaching and learning process occur in record of students participation (see
Appendix 4b). Teachers instructions were used to instruct the students in the process of teaching reading using group competition strategy. In order to enrich the data, researcher passed questionnaires to the thirty-nine students who became the subject of this research. The questionnaire was used to

obtain the students opinion toward this strategy (see Appendix 5a). The first up to the sixth question related to the students opinion on group competition strategy implementation, the process of constructing questions, the facilities that are needed
and the reading material that are used in the implementation of group competition strategy. The last four questions were about the students opinion on group

competition strategy in helping students to comprehend the reading texts, learn reading, and learn English, and the continuity of group competition strategy (see Appendix 5a). Therefore, the result of this study depended on not only the researchers opinions on the implementation strategy, but also the students opinion on this strategy (see Appendix 5b). At last, the researcher made a kind of
visual note, photographs that reflected the research journal and the teaching and learning process based on the lesson plan made (see Appendix 6).

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In order to make the explanation about the instruments and the data obtained by those instruments more clearly, it is summarized in Table 3.2

Table 3.2 The Instruments and the Data Obtained from those Instruments Instruments Data Research journal Students and teacher activities and interaction during the implementation of group competition strategy Record of students participation Students involvement in the implementation of group competition strategy Questionnaires Students opinion on group competition strategy Teacher instruction Instruction in the process of the implementation of group competition strategy

3. 3.3 Data Collection


The data of this study were the data from the very beginning of the study until this study was finished. In the process of data collection, the researcher collected all the data obtained using the all instruments explained before, that are, research

journal, record of students participation, and questionnaires. Following, Bogdan and Biklen (1992:30), the data in this qualitative research were in the form of words or pictures rather than numbers. The researcher noted down all the processes on the research journal. Besides, researcher noted downs the students participation on the record of
students participation. After the process of the implementation, the researcher

distributed questionnaires to the subjects of the study. All data were gathered and analyzed qualitatively in which the researcher explained the data in details in descriptive explanation. Then, researcher told everything related to the process because Bogdan and Biklen (1992:31) states that qualitative researchers are concerned with process rather than simply with outcomes or products. Finally, the researcher drew the findings and the final conclusion.

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3.4 Data Analysis After collecting the data, the data were classified based on the classification explained in Table 3.2. The data sources: research journals, record of students participation, and questionnaires were analyzed. This step can be done by identifying, classifying, arranging, and explaining completely, systematically, and objectively. The data obtained were classified to answers to the research problem. It is about implementation of group competition strategy applied in three-phase technique in teaching reading comprehension. Finally, the results of this study was concluded and presented in the form of a description.

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CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter is aimed to present the findings and the discussion of the findings. It explores the research findings dealing with the implementation of group competition strategy applied in three-phase technique in teaching reading comprehension. The data are recorded and classified in the findings section. Then the data are discussed in the discussion section using the researchers interpretation derived from the data analysis and related to the theoretical reviews. They cover group competition strategy was conducted in teaching reading comprehension, the students interaction during the implementation of group competition strategy, the

students involvement in the implementation of group competition strategy, and


the students opinion on group competition strategy.

4.1. Group Competition Strategy Conducted in the Teaching and Learning Process in Reading Class The data about group competition strategy conducted in teaching reading
comprehension is obtained from the research journal which the researcher made

during the implementation of group competition strategy (see Appendix 3a-e). From those data, findings and the discussion of the findings could be explained as follows:

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4.1.1 Findings The researcher has conducted group competition strategy in five meetings, on October 26, 27, 28, 29 and November 3, 2009. From those five meetings, researcher wrote everything what happened in the implementation of group competition strategy.

4.1.1.1 The First Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy At the first meeting, October 26, 2009, group competition strategy was introduced to students of VIIIA class of SMPN 10 Malang. They were introduced what group competition strategy is and how to play it. They were introduced to the rules in doing group competition strategy. The rules were as follows: a. Make a group of 4 or 5 b. Each student has to read the text carefully. c. After reading a text, each student has to construct a question based on the text given. Each of the members of the group has to make a different question. d. All groups have to choose one student as a leader and one student as a secretary. e. The leader has to choose which one of the students to answer the question which is asked by a mother group. f. The secretary has to write down the activities and the question from all members of her/his group. Besides, s/he has to write down the score from the students who can answer the question from this group. g. After all the groups have finished their tasks, group competition will be started. h. The game will be started by group A asking questions

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i. The leader of group A has to come in front of the class to appoint the students who will answer questions from group A. j. Group B, C, D, E, F, G, and H have to be ready to answer the questions from group A. k. Each of the members has to ask her/his question to other groups. l. A group which can answer the questions correctly from group A will get 1 point m. A group which can answer the questions incorrectly from group A will not get point or zero (0). If all groups cannot answer a question from group A, group A will get 1 point. n. The group which gets the highest score becomes the winner and gets rewards. Then, the group which has the lowest score will get punishment. The punishment will be determined later on. In the first meeting at the first round, students were asked to make a group of four or five students. This group would be a permanent group up to the fifth meeting. After they were asked to make a group, they had to sit around with the members of the group (see Appendix 3a). At the second round, students were introduced to some Wh- question words which were needed to construct questions. They were What, Who, When, Where, Why, How, Which, Whose, With Whom, For whom, At what time, How many, How long, and How far. Some students were confused with some of them, so that the researcher had to explain them in Indonesian. At the third round, students were given, descriptive texts entitled Tanjung Puting national Park, Grand Omega Hotel, and Singapore, and recount texts

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entitled Please Send Me a Card, Going to The Beach, and A Wet Night. They were asked to practice constructing questions based on those texts (see Appendix 6). After a question has been constructed by each of them, they practiced asking their questions to their friends in that class. In the third round, each leader also practiced how to lead the discussion in her/his group. S/he also practiced controlling the class when s/he had to stand up in front of the class to appoint one of her/his classmates to answer questions from her/his group. Meanwhile, the secretary from each group was given a task to write down all activities which happen during the implementation of group competition strategy. Because group competition strategy was still a new technique for the students at first, they were so confused in conducting group competition strategy in their class. However, after they were guided by researcher, they could do it well. In the end of the first meeting, students were asked about the difficulties in doing group competition strategy. Most of them were not confused anymore. Some students, who were still confused about doing group competition, were given more explanation. After all of them were ready to do group competition, researcher was also ready to conduct group competition strategy in the next meeting (see Appendix 3a).

4.1.1.2 The Second Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy In the second meeting, students were ready to do group competition strategy. After greeting the students and doing some brainstorming about

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descriptive texts, researcher asked students to sit with their groups. There were eight groups in that class which were ready to do group competition strategy. In that meeting, it was the tasks for group A, B, C, and D to construct and ask questions to their classmates (see Appendix 3b). Students were given four descriptive texts entitled My Hotel, Kangaroo, Nusa Tenggara, and Wayang. Before doing group competition, students were asked to read those texts carefully. Then, students were guided to discuss the texts and the difficult vocabularies which were in the texts. After all of the texts had been finished to be read and discussed, group A was asked to construct questions from My Hotel text, group B was asked to construct questions from Kangaroo text, group C was asked to construct questions from Nusa Tenggara text, and group D was asked to construct questions from Wayang text. Therefore, there were nineteen questions constructed by group A, B, C, and D in the second meeting (see Appendix 4b). Meanwhile, group E, F, G, and H were asked to comprehend texts carefully in order to answer the questions from group A, B, C, and D. After ten minutes conducting group competition strategy, group A had the first turn to do this activity. The leader of group A, R. Shanti, came in front of the class and was ready to ask her question and appoint her classmates to answer questions from her group. After she asked her questions to her classmates, she gave chances to her members in group A to ask their question to their classmates. However, she was still in front of the class to appoint her classmates who could answer questions from her group. When group A asked questions to its classmates, there were many students raised their hands to answer questions from

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group A. The class was so noisy at that time. Most of them said akuakuaku in order that the leader of group A appointed them to answer the questions. The class was so active at that time. This activity of asking and answering questions was conducted repeatedly until group D got turn to ask and answer questions. Moreover, the active class in which most students raised their hands happened up to group D performance. They were so enthusiastic to answer questions (see Appendix 3b).

4.1.1.3 The Third Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy In the third meeting, students were still asked to do group competition strategy using descriptive texts. After the researcher greeted the students, without any instructions from him, students had sat with their own group. The eight groups in that class were ready to do group competition strategy. However, in that meeting, it was the tasks for group E, F, G, and H to construct and ask questions to their classmates. Students were given four descriptive texts entitled; Earthquake, Rope, Grand Bali Beach Hotel, and Ondel-Ondel. Before doing group competition, students were asked to read those texts carefully. Then, students were guided to discuss the texts and the difficult vocabularies which were in the texts. There were some difficult vocabularies which appeared in the texts given in the third meeting, for instance, strain, mast, shawl, circumcision, hemp, and crust. After all of texts had been finished to be read and discussed, group E was asked to construct questions from Earthquake text, group F was asked to construct questions from Rope text, group G was asked to construct questions from Grand Bali Beach

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Hotel text, and group H was asked to construct questions from Ondel-Ondel text. In this meeting, it was the task for group A, B, C, and D to read and comprehend those texts carefully in order to answer twenty questions constructed by group E, F, G, and H. There were twenty questions constructed by group E, F, G, and H in the third meeting (see Appendix 4b) After ten minutes, group E had the first turn to do this activity. The leader of group E, Devinta, came in front of the class and was ready to ask her question and appoint her classmates to answer questions from her group. After she asked her questions to her classmates, she gave chances to her members of group E to ask their question to their classmates. Then her next task was to appoint her classmates who could answer questions from her group. The problem raised in that meeting was when the leader of group F, Nadya, had to appoint her classmates to answer questions from her group. She was confused which one of them should be appointed. It happened because most of her classmates competed to answer. However, when she appointed Ahmad Effendi to answer her question, she was complained by her classmates (see Appendix 6). Her classmates said that Aulia had raised her hand earlier than Ahmad Effendi. Finally, the class was so noisy at that time. After having a discussion, it was better for her to repeat her question again. In that repetition, Hida succeeded to answer that question. In that meeting, Hida scored 2 points from group F because she could answer the first and second questions from group F. Finally, they could continue this activity well. This activity of asking and answering questions was conducted repeatedly until group H got the turn to ask questions.

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After all the groups had finished doing group competition strategy about descriptive text, they were asked to count all of the scores from the second and third meetings. The secretary had to write down the questions and the answers which her/his group had been constructed (see Appendix 3c).

4.1.1.4 The Fourth Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy In the fourth meeting, students were already experienced in doing group competition strategy, so that they did not need more explanation about it. After the researcher greeted the students and doing some brainstorming about recount texts, students sat with their groups spontaneously. In that meeting, it was the tasks for group A, B, C, and D to construct and ask questions about the recount texts to their classmates. Like in the previous meetings, the groups who did not get the turn to construct questions (E, F, G, and H) read and comprehend the texts well in order that they could answer questions from group A, B, C, and D correctly. Students were given four texts entitled Shark in Rowing Competition, My Horrible Holiday, A Frightening Night, and Going Camping. Like the previous meetings, before doing group competition, students were asked to read those texts carefully. Then, students were guided to discuss the texts and the difficult vocabularies which were in the texts. They found some difficult words, for instance, pound, drift, silvery, and bony. After all of the texts had been finished to be read an discussed, group A was asked to construct questions from Shark in Rowing Competition text, group B was asked to construct questions from My Horrible Holiday text, group C was asked to construct questions from A

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Frightening Night text, and group D was asked to constructs question from Going Camping text (see Appendix 3d). Therefore, there were nineteen questions constructed by group A, B, C, and D in the fourth meeting (see Appendix 4b). Like the second meeting, ten minutes later, R. Shanti, the leader of group A was ready to ask her question and appoint her classmates to answer questions from her group. The interesting performance was performed by group D. No group could answer two questions from group D. The first question constructed by Aulia, the leader of group D was, What did they do in the evening?, could not be answered by everyone outside group D. Moreover, the question from Tieneke was, How long was the trip from the writers place to the camping ground?, could not be answered by everyone outside her own group (see appendix 4a). After group D had asked its questions, the fourth meeting ended.

4.1.1.5 The Fifth Meeting in Conducting Group Competition Strategy In the last meeting of conducting group competition strategy, students were more interested in doing group competition strategy. It happened because in the fifth meeting they had to work hard to compete with the others group. The fifth meeting was the meeting in which class would determine which group would get the highest and lowest score. All of the groups wanted to be the winner in that competition. When the teacher entered the class, students had already sat with their groups. After greeting the students, students were asked to do group competition strategy. In that meeting, it was the tasks of group E, F, G, and H to construct and ask questions to their classmates.

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Students were given four recount texts entitled Tour to Europe, A Tour to The Botanical Garden, Playing Hide and Seek, and A Trip to Bromo. The students were so experienced in doing group competition strategy. That was why without any instructions to read those texts carefully before doing group competition they had done it. Then, students were guided to discuss about the text and the difficult vocabularies which were in the texts. After all of the texts had been finished to be read and discussed, group E was asked to construct question from Tour to Europe text, group F was asked to construct question from A Tour to The Botanical Garden text, group G was asked to construct question from Playing Hide and Seek text, and group H was asked to construct question from A Trip to Bromo text. Therefore, there were twenty questions constructed by group E, F, G, and H in the fifth meeting (see Appendix 4b) Group E had the first turn to do this activity .The leader of group E, Devinta came in front of the class. Like the previous meeting, group G could construct a question which the other groups could not answer. The question was How they felt in that afternoon?, constructed by Vivi, the leader of group G. Therefore, group G got 1 point from Vivis question. The activity of asking and answering questions was conducted repeatedly until group H got the turn to ask and answer questions. After all of the groups had finished doing group competition strategy about recount text, they were asked to accumulate/total all the scores from the second up to the fifth meeting. Moreover, the secretary had to write down the questions constructed by her/his group. In the last meeting, the secretary from each group was asked to accumulate/total all of the scores her/his group listed

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from the second meeting up to the fifth meeting. Researcher and students determined which group got the highest score and which group got the lowest score. Finally, the highest score was obtained by group C which was 14 points and the lowest score was obtained by group H which was 7 points only. In the last meeting after the class, the group with the lowest score had to sing songs and dance together in front of the class. Group H which consisted of boys sang two songs determined by the class. They also danced in front of the class. The class was noisy at that time. Most of the students laughed at those boys performance. Meanwhile, the highest score got the prize, four bars of chocolate, based on the decision before. After that, students were guided to fill the questionnaires given. The questionnaires were about the implementation of group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension. After they had completed the questionnaires, the class ended.

4.1.2 Discussions Based on the findings about how group competition strategy is conducted, it can be inferred that group competition strategy can be implemented in teaching reading class. The researcher had done three steps in doing group competition strategy; prior discussion, small group discussion, and panel discussion like group competition strategy explained by Hermansyah (2008:34). It meant that students had already done group competition applied in three-phase technique because the activities in group competition strategy, prior discussion, small group discussion, and panel discussion, are like the activities in three-phase technique, pre reading activity, whilst-reading activity, and post reading activity. During the prior

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discussion, the students facilitated by the teacher discuss and analyze the content of the reading material. The discussion involved the meaning of difficult word, phrase, sentences, main ideas, rhetorical and generic structure etc. Meanwhile in small group discussion, the students discussed texts given by the researcher with their own groups. Then, in the panel discussion, students did some activities, such as, post question, feedback, and group and whole class discussion. The activities in group competition strategy are in accordance with Hermansyahs (2008:30). The students were so active in that activity. They were so enthusiastic in asking and answering questions in reading class during the panel discussion. All of them had chances to be active in asking and answering the questions. It is also in accordance with the principle of teaching reading stated by Harmer (1998) that reading is an active process of thinking. It happened because students were demanded to ask their own constructed questions and answer the other groups questions. The implementation process of teaching reading using group competition strategy conducted is in accordance with Hermansyahs (2008:30) statement that all students should participate in asking and answering questions since they do not know who will be called upon during the panel discussion. All activities in group competition strategy can be conducted well. In conducting group competition strategy, the researcher used only descriptive and recount texts because those texts are the required texts to be taught this semester; based on the SKKD for Junior High School (Depdiknas: 2006) From that discussion above, the researcher could conclude that the implementation of group competition strategy can be implemented in teaching reading comprehension.

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4.2 The Students Interaction during the Implementation of Group Competition Strategy Students interaction here refers the interaction during the implementation of group competition. The data was obtained from the research journal which the researcher made during the implementation of group competition strategy (see Appendix 3a-e). They were also gained from the photographs (see Appendix 6) taken during the process of the implementation. From those data, findings and the discussion of the findings could be described as follows:

4.2.1 Findings The data in the research journal which had been collected from the first meeting up to the fifth meeting showed that students interaction was good. They could interact well during the implementation of group competition strategy. Students were so enthusiastic in doing group competition strategy. They interacted well in every parts of group competition strategy. In the prior discussion, students had to interact with researcher and the other students. They were asked to discuss about the messages which every texts have. The students were guided to comprehend descriptive and recount texts well. It was aimed to help students to interpret texts correctly. The discussion involved the meaning of difficult words, phrases, sentences and the rhetorical and generic structure of the texts. Students were not reluctant to ask about the difficult vocabularies in the texts. They also asked some sentences related to the texts. Moreover, they could catch the researchers instruction well. They did what the researcher asked to do. The researcher and the students could interact well with

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each other. The researcher guided them to comprehend the texts better. He also could answer students questions related to the texts. The questions were about the content of the texts and some difficult vocabularies. Moreover, to make students more active in the class, questions from students were not answered directly. For instance, when students asked about some difficult vocabularies, the researcher guided them to find the meaning of the difficult vocabularies in dictionary. Students were guided to find their answers independently because it would develop their critical thinking through the texts given. In small group discussion, students could discuss the problems which came up during the implementation of group competition strategy well. They could interact and cooperate well with their group mates. They discussed everything related to the texts given. When they were asked to construct questions, they discussed what questions which would be constructed in order that they did not construct the same questions. Moreover, they also solved the problems arise during the activity. Besides, they tried to solve their problems by themselves by having their own discussion led by their leader. Finally, the independent group which the researcher expected happened at that time. Therefore, they were so noisy during that activity. However, their noisiness was related to the topic of the discussion. They also cooperated in trying to construct the difficult questions in order that their friend could not answer their questions, so that the scores would belong to their group. In the panel discussion, students were more enthusiastic in the implementation of group competition strategy. They were so interested in asking and answering questions. During the discussion, they had to interact with their

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classmates to compete in answering question from a performed group. When a leader of a group had to come in front of class, they had to represent her/his group to appoint students who would answer questions from her/his group. When s/he had to appoint one of her/his friend from other groups, the class was so noisy. Most of them said, akuaku means me...me. It indicates that most students wanted to be the first to be appointed in answering the questions. They were so enthusiastic in answering questions in order to get scores from the group whose leader performed in front of the class. Moreover, some of them stood up to emphasize that they would be chosen by a leader of that group (see Appendix 6). It was interesting because the class was active and more alive. By giving them score, it would motivate them in answering the questions. If one student could not answer a question from a certain group, the other students from the other groups would raise their hands again to have a chance to answer the question. Besides, by having the competition, each of the students had the same chance to be active in the class. All leaders from each group could interact well with the class during that discussion. Although some of them got problems during that activity, they could solve their problems by themselves. They were so active to lead the discussion. Not only class interaction, but also student interaction in her/his own group happened in that activity. They helped each other in answering the questions from a certain group in order that their group could answer correctly. They exchanged information from the texts given. They built a solid group which could cooperate well in doing group competition strategy.

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4.2.2 Discussion From those findings above, the researcher drawn the discussion as follows; students could interact well during the implementation of group competition strategy. In the prior discussion, researcher could guide students well in discussing the texts. It was like the implementation of group competition strategy conducted by Hermansyah (2008:35). Students were guided to have discussion concerning the meaning of difficult words, phrases, and sentences, and the rhetorical and generic structure. Moreover, in small group discussion, students could interact and cooperate well with the other members of their group. In addition, in panel discussion, they could cooperate with their friend in their group to answer questions. They also interacted with the leader of certain group who performed in front of the class. This interaction is in line with what Brown (2001; 165) states that interaction is a collaborative exchange of thoughts, feeling, or ideas between two or more people, usually in a reciprocal effort on each other. Smith (1994) in Diah (2001:21) adds that there is a lot of working cooperatively in groups, organized to take into account opportunities continuity and progression. It meant that group competition strategy successfully implemented in that class. Each student had a chance to construct and ask questions to the other groups. Moreover, the class was more alive because students were so active in asking and answering questions. It was like the implementation of group competition strategy explained by Hermansyah (2008:35) that class is more alive by conducting group competition strategy. In addition, the process of asking and answering questions was a kind of exchange information which they had known from the specific texts.

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4.3 Students Involvement in the Implementation of Group Competition Strategy Students involvement in the implementation of group competition strategy was indicated by the points students scored during that activity. The points came from the correct answers which the students answered. If a student succeeded to answer a question correctly, s/he would get score 1. The data of the students scores were obtained from students scoring on their friends performance from each group (see Appendix 4a) and researcher written record of students participation (see Appendix 4b) from the second meeting up to the fifth meeting. From those data, the researcher could explain findings and the discussion of the findings as follows:

4.3.1 Findings The scores were taken from the second up to the fifth meeting. The second and the third meeting were the scores which the students got in comprehending descriptive texts. In the second meeting, nineteen questions could be answered correctly by fifteen students. Aulia, Berliana, Ines, and R. Shanti got the individual highest score at that meeting. Each of them got 2 points. The winner group in the second meeting was group C, which got 5 points. In the third meeting, twenty questions could be answered correctly by nineteen students. It meant that in the third meeting, more students could answer correctly. However, only Hida from group B got the individual highest score, 2 points. In that meeting, group A succeeded to be the winner by having scored 4 points.

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The scores from recount texts were obtained in the fourth and fifth meeting. In the fourth meeting, the nineteen questions constructed by group A, B, C, and D could be answered correctly by sixteen students. Students who got the highest individual score were Ahmad, Hida, and Nadya. Each of them succeeded to score 2 points in that meeting. Group B, F, and H succeeded to be the winner in the fourth meeting by having scored 2 points. In the last meeting, twenty questions constructed by group E, F, G, and H could be answered correctly by fourteen students. Vivi, the leader of group G, succeeded to get the highest individual score at that time by having scored 4 points. Therefore, group G also succeeded to be the winner in that meeting by having scored 5 points. After all the scores had been written down, the researcher and students determined which group would be the winner in that competition. Finally, group C succeeded to be the winner in that competition by collecting 14 points. However, group H was able to collect 7 points in that competition. It meant that group H got the lowest score from that competition (see Appendix 4a). From that activity, the researcher found that all students in that class participated in group competition strategy. It can be seen that all of them got scores in that competition. It meant that group competition strategy made all students active in class (see Appendix 4b).

4.3.2 Discussions From the findings, the researcher found that most students were active in the group competition strategy. It can be seen in every meeting that most of the students could answer correctly the questions given. All students were involved in

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that activity. When all scores from the second up to fifth meeting had been accumulated in the last meeting, the researcher found that all of the students had score in the implementation of group competition strategy. It was like group competition strategy done by Hermansyah (2008:37). Students tended to be active in the class because of the competition atmosphere. From the students achievement, the researcher concluded that group competition strategy makes all
students have chances to express their idea through the texts given and it makes them active in the class.

4.4 Students Opinion on Group Competition Strategy In this research, researcher collected data not only from the observation, but also from the questionnaires distributed to the students regarding their opinion on group competition strategy. The questionnaires were given in the last day of the implementation of group competition strategy, November 3rd 2009. They were asked to fill the questionnaires after the class ended. The first up to the sixth question related to the students opinion on group competition strategy implementation, the process of constructing questions, the facilities that are needed
and the reading material that are used in the implementation of group competition strategy. The last four questions were about the students opinion on group

competition strategy in helping students to comprehend the reading texts, learn reading, and learn English, and the continuity of group competition strategy (see Appendix 5a). Moreover, researcher also took data from research journals to know students opinion on group competition strategy. The data from the

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questionnaires and the research journal could be explained in findings and discussion of the findings below.

4.4.1 Findings The data from questionnaires and research journal were collected and analyzed to explain the findings. The first up to the fourth question related to the students opinion on group competition strategy implementation and the process of constructing questions. 30, 8% of students liked the implementation of group competition very much, 51, 2% of them liked it, and the last 18% of students said that they neither liked nor disliked the strategy. From the research journal, it can be found that although group competition strategy is still a new technique for them, they were so enthusiastic to do it. It made them active in class activities. The second question was about constructing questions in group competition strategy. 30, 8% of the students said constructing questions in group competition strategy was easy; 46, 2% of the students said it was neither easy nor not easy, and 23% of them said it was difficult. In the third question, researcher asked about learning how to construct question in group competition strategy; 30, 8% of the students said they could learn how to construct question quickly, 59% of students said that they could learn to construct it neither fast nor not fast and 10, 2% students said that they could not learn how to construct questions quickly. From the research journal, the researcher found that group competition strategy is still a new technique, so that is why some of them could not construct the question quickly.

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The fourth question in questionnaire related to the preparation of constructing questions in the implementation of group competition strategy; 20, 5% of students could prepare questions quickly, but 61, 5% of students it was neither fast nor not fast in preparing questions. On the other hand, 18% of students could not prepare questions quickly.
The fifth question related to the facilities that are needed in the implementation of group competition strategy. 46, 2% of students said that the facilities like the note books, the materials, and also some dictionaries provided were very good, 43, 6% of students said that the facilities were good, and 10, 2% of them said that the facilities were neither good nor bad. Then, the sixth question was about the reading materials used in the implementation of group competition strategy. From this question, the researcher found that 33, 3% of students said that the texts were easy, 56, 5% of students said that the texts were neither difficult nor easy, and 10, 2% of students said that the texts were difficult. Most of them said that because some vocabularies had to be found

by them in a dictionary. They found some difficult vocabularies in the reading texts given. Sometimes, some of those vocabularies were asked to the researcher. The seventh up to the ninth question related to the students opinion on whether or not group competition strategy helped them in the process of learning reading and English. The seventh question related whether group competition strategy helped students to comprehend the reading texts. Researcher found that group competition strategy was really helpful for 28, 2% of students to comprehend the texts. It happened because they had to read texts carefully in order that they could construct difficult questions. However, 53, 8% of students said that group competition strategy was helpful to comprehend the texts and 18%

66

of students thought that group competition strategy was neither helpful nor unhelpful to comprehend the texts. In the eighth question related to the students opinion whether group competition strategy helped students in learning reading, researcher found that 36% of students thought it was really helpful, 53, 8% of them thought it was helpful, and only 10, 2% of students thought it was neither helpful nor unhelpful. The ninth question related to the students opinion whether group competition strategy helped students in learning English; 30, 8% of students said that it was really helpful and 56, 4% of them said that it was helpful. They thought that it could motivate them to study English, so that they became active in class. Only 12, 8% of students thought that it did not have any effect in helping them to learn English. The tenth question related to the continuity of group competition strategy; 53, 8% students said that it was really necessary to be implemented in English class and 38, 5% of them said that it was necessary to be implemented in English class. From research journal, researcher found that students thought that they would be so enthusiastic attend English class if their teacher would implement it. They felt bored with the book oriented lesson used by their teacher. Usually not all of them got chances to be active in class. Therefore, they thought that it should be implemented in English class. Besides they could cooperate with other members in their group, it would develop their creativity, especially in constructing questions. It was more interesting when they were promised reward and punishment. However, 7, 7% of students said that group competition strategy was neither necessary nor unnecessary to be implemented in English class. They

67

thought that it was an ordinary method in English class. The result of the
questionnaire about students opinion on the implementation of group competition strategy can be seen in Appendix 5B.

4.4.2 Discussion From the findings, it can be concluded that most the students liked the implementation of group competition strategy. They said that it was one of the various reading techniques that could be used in their class. It was in agreement with Hermansyahs explanation (2008:36) about the implementation of group competition strategy. It would make students have various activities in English class. Related to the process of constructing questions in the implementation of group competition strategy, researcher found that most of students thought that the process of constructing questions was neither easy nor not easy because it was still a new technique. Most students thought group competition strategy helped them to comprehend texts. Students tried to read and comprehend the texts well in order that they could construct difficult questions which no one could answer. By having group competition strategy, they were motivated in looking for the difficult vocabularies in the texts. It was like the implementation of group competition strategy done by Hermansyah (2008: 36). Moreover, they said that it helped them in learning reading. They were more motivated in learning reading. They were not reluctant to express their ideas in class. Besides, they felt free to express their idea in the class activity. It meant that researcher succeeded in the implementation of group competition strategy.

68

Group competition strategy would help students in learning English. It was stated by most of students of 8A class. Besides comprehending texts, they had to find difficult vocabularies in the reading texts. Therefore, they said that they were helped in learning English by it. It was like the previous study done by Hermansyah (2008:37) that implementing group competition strategy helped students in learning English. Finally, most of students said that it was really necessary to be continued in English class. It thought that it would make them have some various activities in the class, so they would not be bored in English class.
In summary, from all the findings discussed in relation to the theories, the group competition strategy can be applied in reading class. Furthermore, group

competition strategy was also found to give good influences to students reading
skill.

69

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

This chapter is aimed to present the conclusions obtained from the results of the research and to provide some suggestions for teachers, schools, and other researchers who intend to conduct further and better research on this issue.

5.1 Conclusion After conducting the analysis, the researcher is able to answer the statements of the problem related to the implementation of group competition strategy applied in three phase technique in teaching reading comprehension. From the results of the data analysis, it is concluded that group competition strategy can be implemented as a technique in teaching reading. The success of the implementation can be seen from the explanations. First, although group competition strategy applied in three phase technique is still a new technique, it could be implemented well in reading class. By introducing it in the first meeting, students could conduct group competition strategy in reading class well. In the last meeting, it was found that all students were involved in this activity. They were guided to be independent students who could solve problems raised by them. All activities in group competition strategy applied in three-phase technique could be conducted well. Second, students could interact well during the implementation of group competition strategy; they could interact well with researcher in the prior

69

70

discussion by discussing about the messages which every text have with the researcher. Students could interact well with their groups in the small group discussion by having discussion with their group mates. Besides, they could interact well with the whole class in the panel discussion by asking her/his questions and answering her/his friends questions. Therefore, the class was more alive because students were so active in asking and answering questions. Third, all students were involved in the implementation of group competition strategy. In every meeting, most students could answer correctly the constructed questions. Students tended to be active in the class because of the competition atmosphere. Each of them had opportunity to be involved in that activity. Fourth, most students liked the implementation of group competition strategy. Moreover, students said that the process of constructing questions in the implementation of group competition strategy was neither easy nor difficult. They thought that they needed more time to construct the questions. In addition, the facilities which were given by researcher were good and the reading materials given were neither easy nor difficult. Furthermore, most students stated that group competition strategy helped them in learning reading and English. Finally, most of them said that it was really necessary to continue implementing group competition strategy in English class. They thought that it would make them have some various activities in the class, so they would not be bored in English class. In conclusion, it can be generally stated that the activities involved in the implementation of group competition strategy encouraged students to be active, more motivated in learning reading, develop their critical thinking, and interact

71

well in their reading class. The strategy helped students to comprehend text, learn reading, and learn English in general.

5.2 SUGGESTIONS Regarding the implementation of group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension, the researcher provides some suggestions for the teachers, schools and the next researchers. In the implementation of group competition strategy as a technique of their teaching of reading, teachers are suggested to manage the time well. Besides, they should encourage students to speak in English during the class. The schools are suggested to be ready with the facilities needed for group competition strategy. At last, other researchers are suggested to use this research as a reference to do experimental research to know whether or not group competition can affect the reading ability of the students

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REFERENCES Allwright, D., & Barley, K.M. 1991. Focus on The Language Classroom: An Introduction to Classroom Research for Language Teacher. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Amaliyah, E. 2009. Grammatical Errors in Writing Composition Made by Seven and Eight Graders of SMPN 13 Malang. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang. Arywardany, N. 2008. The Teaching of Reading Comprehension Strategies to Students of Grade VIII at Sekolah Alam MTs Surya Buana Malang. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang. Baradja, M.F. 1990. Kapita Selekta Pengajaran Bahasa. Malang: IKIP Malang. Barker, L. 1982. Communication in the Classroom. New Jersey: Prentice Hal, Inc. Blair L. S.M., & Williams, K.A. 1999. The Balanced Reading Program. Helping All Students Achieve Success. Delaware : International Reading Association, Inc. Bogdan, R. C.& Biklen, S. K. 1992. Qualitative Research for Education. United States: Allyn and Bacon. Brown, H. D. 2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (2nd edition). New York: Addison Wesley Longman Inc. Cahyono, B.Y. 1992. The Questioning Skills of Reading Teachers. TEFLIN Journal, 5(1): 69-83. Cahyono, B.Y. 1997. Pangajaran Bahasa Inggris: Teknik, Strategi, dan Hasil Penelitian. Malang. Penerbit IKIP Malang. Cahyono, B.Y., & Widiati, U. 2006. The Teaching EFL Reading in Indonesia Context: The State of Art TEFLIN Journal, 17 (1): 37-60. Dallen, D. B. V. 1979. Understanding Educational Research. New York: Mc Graw-Hill Book Company. Davies, F. 1995. Introducing Reading. London: Penguin. Depdiknas. 2006. Panduan Pengembangan Silabus Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Sekolah Menengah Pertama. Jakarta : Direktorat Pembinaan Sekolah Menengah Pertama.

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Diah, O. D. 2001. Group Work Interaction in Reading Lesson at A Senior High School. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang. Harmer, J. 1998. How to Teach English. Edinburgh Gate, Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Harris, L.A., & Smith, C.B. 1986. Reading Instruction: Diagnostic Teaching in the Classroom. New York: McMillan. Heaton, J.B. 1989. Writing English Language Test: New York: Longman Inc. Hermansyah.2008. The Implementation of Group Competition Strategy in the Reading Instruction at Junior High School Level. Unpublished PTK. Trenggalek: Diknas Trenggalek. Marksheffel, N.1966. Better Reading in the Secondary School. New York: The Ronald Press Company. McNeil. J. 1992. Reading Comprehension: New Directions for Classroom Practice (3rd edition). New York: Harper Collins. Nuttal, C. 1982. Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language: Pratical Language Teaching. Oxford: Heinemann International. Rivers, W.M. 1987. Interactive Language Teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press. Robinson, A. 1975. Teaching Reading and Study Strategies: The Content Areas. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Robinson, H.A. 1994. The Ethnography of Empowerment. The Transformative Power of Classroom Interaction. London: The Falmer. Simanjuntak, E.G. 1988. Developing Reading Skill for EFL Students. Jakarta: Depdiknas. Universitas Negeri Malang. 2000. Pedoman Penulisan Karya Ilmiah. Malang: Penerbit Universitas Pendidikan Malang. Widyaningsih, T. 2009. Classroon Interaction in the Teaching and Learning of English at the Twelvth Grade of MAN 3 Malang. Unpublished Thesis. Malang: State University of Malang.

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STATEMENT OF THE ORIGINALITY OF SARJANA THESIS

The undersigned, Name Reg. Number Study Program Faculty : Rinu Pamungkas : 106221402910 : English Language Education : Letters

Declares that the present sarjanas thesis is an original research undertaken by the researcher mentioned above for the Department of English Literature, Faculty of Letter, State University of Malang. Any theories, findings, and research techniques not my own my original work have been acknowledged in the text. Theoretical contribution and findings in this study are my own original work and have not been submitted for any degree in this or any other universities. If later it can be revealed that this sarjanas thesis contains partly or wholly plagiarized others intellectual work of any kind, I will readily accept the sanction established by the university in this matter.

Malang, December, 21, 2009

RINU PAMUNGKAS

75 Appendix 1a RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN KD 5.3

Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas / Semester Standar Kompetensi

: SMP Negeri 10 Malang : Bahasa Inggris : VIII / Satu : 5. Memahami makna teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk descriptive and recount yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar

Kompetensi Dasar

5.3 Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam teks berbentuk descriptive and recount.

Indikator

Siswa dapat memahami makna yang terkandung dalam teks berbentuk descriptive and recount.

Jenis teks Aspek / skill Alokasi Waktu

: Descriptive and Recount teks : Reading : 2X 40 menit

A. Tujuan Pembelajaran Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa diharapkan dapat: 1. Mendefinisikan teks descriptive dan recount dengan tepat. 2. Mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri kebahasaan teks descriptive dan recount dengan tepat. 3. Menentukan generic structure dari teks descriptive dan recount. 4. Mendefinisikan Wh-question dengan tepat.

76 B. Materi Pembelajaran 1. Text Descriptive Tanjung Puting National Park Tanjung Puting National Park is located along the South Western Coastline of Indonesian Borneo. The heavy humidity of the forest hums with the sound of thousands of singing insects. Splashed with vibrant coloured butterflies, moths and birds, Tanjung Putting National Park is a heady tropical Eden bursting with natural abundance. (Adapted from Garuda Inflight Magazine, September 2002).

2.

Text Recount Please Send Me a Card Postcards always spoil my holidays. Last summer, I went to Italy. I visited

museums and sat in public gardens. A friendly waiter taught me a few words of Italian. Then he lent me a book. I read a few lines, but I did not understand a word. Every day I thought about postcards. My holidays passed quickly, but I did not send any cards to my friends. On the last day I made a big decision. I got up early and bought thirty seven cards. I spent the whole day in my room, but I did not write a single card! Language Focus The students can differentiate which one descriptive and recount. Vocabulary: Wh- question: - What - Who - Where - Why - Which - Whose - For whom - At what time Text Types for Junior High School
Social Function Descriptive To describe a particular person, place or thing Generic Structure Identification : to identify the phenomenon to be described Description : describe parts, qualities, characteristics

- When - How - With Whom

Language Features Focus on specific participants Use of attributive and identifying process Frequents use of epithets and quantifiers Use of simple present tense Focus on specific participants Use of material processes Circumstances of time and place Use of past tense Focus on temporal sequences

Recount To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining

Orientation : provides the settings and introduces the participants Events : tell what happened and in what sequence Re-orientation: optional closure of the events

77 C. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan Pembelajaran No 1. Kegiatan Awal Greeting Brainstroming 2. Kegiatan Inti Siswa diminta membaca 2 teks (descriptive dan recount) 10 menit secara utuh. Siswa menyimak review penjelasan guru tentang generic 5 menit structure dari teks descriptive dan recount. Siswa mempelajari berbagai macam Wh-question. 10 menit 5 menit Kegiatan Waktu

Siswa diberi contoh bagaimana cara membuat pertanyaan 10 menit berdasarkan teks yang ada. Siswa diberi penjelasan tentang prosedur Group 10 menit

Competition Strategy oleh guru. Siswa membentuk group terdiri dari 4-5 orang dan 5 menit menentukan ketua dan sekretaris dari setiap group. Siswa berlatih membuat pertanyaan berdasarkan teks 10 menit yang disediakan Siswa berlatih melakukan Group Competition Strategy 3. Kegiatan Akhir Siswa menyimpulkan materi yang diajarkan. 5 menit 10 menit

D. Sumber Belajar Script monolog berbentuk descriptive dan recount. E. Penilaian 1. Teknik : Tes lisan

2. Bentuk instrumen : ongoing assessment 3. Instrumen : Teachers instruction

78 Malang, 26 Oktober 2009

Mengetahui, Kepala SMPN 10 Malang Guru

Supandi, S.Pd NIP. 195908241986031015

Rinu Pamungkas NIM. 106221402910

79 Lampiran: 1. Descriptive text

SINGAPORE
Singapore is an island city of about 4 million people. Its a beautiful city with lots of parks and open spaces. Its also a clean city. Most of the people live in high-rise flats in different parts of the island. The business district is very modern, with lots of tall new office buildings. Singapore also has some nice older sections. In Chinatown there are rows of old shop houses. The government buildings in Singapore are very beautiful and date from the colonial days. Singapore is famous for its shops and restaurants. There are many good shopping centres. Most of the goods are duty free. Singapores restaurants sell Chinese, Indian, Malay and European food, and the prices are quite reasonable.

GRAND OMEGA HOTEL

There is a new hotel in my city. It is a four star hotel. It is located downtown. The hotel is not very big but the architecture is very beautiful. It looks like a classic castle in Europe. According to the brochure, it has 100 rooms, a fancy restaurant, complete sports facilities including a swimming pool, tennis court, gym and sauna, there are also a coffee shop and a karaoke room. The pictures of the rooms in the brochure are very nice. The rooms look very comfortable. It they contain a big spring bed with big pillows, a nice sofa, a wardrobe and a television system with programmers from all over the world. The bathroom is very beautiful although it is not very big. It has a bath-tub with hot and cold water so guests can bath in it comfortably. The brochure says "Hospitality is our trademark." The staffs of that hotel, from the receptionists, housekeepers, and bellboys are trained to be polite and to help guests in any way they can.

80 2. Recount Text GOING TO THE BEACH Last month, my family and I went to the beach. We wanted to refresh our mind and enjoy the fresh air. We went there early in the morning by car. After parking our car, we walked along the beach barefooted. We could feel the smoothness of the sand. The cold sea water touched our feet. Then we looked for a place to take a rest. We rolled out the mat on the ground and had meals together. While eating, we saw many things. Many children built sand castles. Some of them played with their balls. We also saw some people sunbathe. After having meals, I was interested in doing the same thing. I made sand castles with my sister. Meanwhile, my brother collected some sea shells. A Wet Night Late in the afternoon, the boys put up their tent in the middle of a field. As soon as this was done, they cooked a meal over an open fire. They were all hungry and the food smelt good. After a wonderful meal, they told stories and sang songs by the camp fire. But some time later it began to rain. The boys felt tired so they put out the fire and crept into their tent. Their sleeping-bags were warm and comfortable, so they all slept soundly. In the middle of the night, tow boys woke up and began shouting. The tent was full of water! They all leapt out of their sleeping-bags and hurried outside. It was raining heavily and they found that a stream had formed in the field. The stream wound its way across the field and then flowed right under their tent.

81 Appendix 1b RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN KD 5.3

Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas / Semester Standar Kompetensi

: SMP Negeri 10 Malang : Bahasa Inggris : VIII / Satu : 5. Memahami makna teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk descriptive dan recount yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar

Kompetensi Dasar

5.3 Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam teks berbentuk descriptive.

Indikator

Siswa dapat memahami makna yang terkandung dalam teks berbentuk descriptive.

Jenis teks Tema Aspek / skill Alokasi Waktu

: Descriptive text : Animals, Places, Culture : Reading : 2X 40 menit

A. Tujuan Pembelajaran Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa diharapkan dapat: 1. Mendefinisikan descriptive text dengan tepat. 2. Menemukan generic structure dari teks descriptive. 3. Membuat pertanyaan dari teks descriptive. 4. Menjawab pertanyaan yang berhubungan dengan descriptive text.

82 B. Materi Pembelajaran Text 1 My Hotel My hotel is located in the Putri Hill area. There are other hotels in the area which are all beautiful. My hotel has fifty rooms. Ten rooms are luxurious. The rooms are air conditioned and there is a colour TV in each room. The other forty are business rooms. It means the rooms are simple, with fans and black-and-white TVs. In the luxurious rooms there are always double beds -but in the simple rooms only some have double beds. Our guests come and check in or check put at the receptionist's desk. These people also help the guests with their needs. They can order food and the receptionists ask our restaurant to serve them. Guests can have breakfast, lunch of dinner in the room or in the restaurant. Room service is ready with orders. The receptionist can also help guests with their laundry. The laundry woman will wash and iron the clothes. The room-keepers clean all the rooms every day, Look! Some guests are coming. The bellboys help guests with their bags. They will have a seminar tomorrow. It is in the convention hall. Ill ask them to sit at the lounge

Text 2 KANGAROO A kangaroo is an animal found is Australia, although it has smaller relative, called wallaby, which lives on the Australian island of Tasmania and also in New Guinea Kangaroos eat grass and plants. They have short front legs, but very long and very strong back legs and a tail. These they use for sitting up on trees or jumping. Kangaroos have been known to forward jumps of over eight meters, and leap across fences more than three meters high. They can also run at speed of over 45 kilometres per hour. Kangaroos are marsupials. This means that the female kangaroo has an external pouch on the front of her body. A baby kangaroo is very tiny when it is born, and it claws at once into this pouch where it spends its first five months of life.

83 Text 3 Nusa Tenggara Nusa Tenggara is the name for the chain of islands which lies to the east of Bali. Including the islands of Komodo, Lombok, Flores and Timor, Nusa Tenggara spans a variety of landscapes, from tropical forests, high volcanic lakes and dry savannahs. The largest islands are Lombok and Sumbawa, with hundreds of smaller islands between. East Nusa Tenggara has 566 islands. The long northern arch of the island chain is the result of volcanic activity, whilst the southern islands are formed from coral deposits. Most of the eastern islands are arid, due to hot winds blowing from the continent of Australia and sparsely vegetated. The Western half of Nusa Tenggara is moister and has denser vegetation. The Northern part of the chain is known for deep lakes contained in the craters of extinct volcanoes, the most famous of which are the coloured mineral lakes on Gunung Keli Mutu in Flores.

Text 4

WAYANG What we call wayang is a puppet made of leather or wood, representing a character in the Mahabarata or Ramayana stories. However, the word can also mean the play itself. Plays using flat leather, puppets called wayang kulit are popular only in Central Java and East Java. Meanwhile, the plays using three dimensional wooden puppets or wayang golek are the characteristic of West Java. The leather puppets are made to perform against a screen, this white cloth serves as the shadow screen. The on-lookers who watch the performance from the other side of the cloth can see only the shadows or silhouttes of the figures. In fact, the term wayang literally means shadow. Traditionally and even nowadays, wayang performance happens the whole night, from about nine in the evening until dawn. It is performed by a single puppeteer called the dalang who serves as the operator, narrator, and performer altogether. Literally, dalang means mastermind, that is one of who arranges and directs an operation from behind the screen.

84 Descriptive Social Function To describe a particular person, place or thing Generic Structure - Identification : to identify the phenomenon to be described - Description : describe parts, qualities, characteristics Language Features - Focus on specific participants - Use of attributive and identifying process - Frequents use of epithets and quantifiers - Use of simple present tense C. KEGIATAN PEMBELAJARAN No 1. Kegiatan Awal 2. Greeting Brainstroming tentang teks descriptive 5 menit Kegiatan Waktu

Kegiatan Inti Siswa yang telah duduk di kelompoknya diberi teks oleh 5 menit guru dan membaca teks yang diberikan oleh guru dengan seksama Siswa menemukan kata-kata sulit dalam teks dari kamus 5 menit Siswa diajak guru membahas teks 1, 2, 3 dan 4 dengan 15 menit seksama. Kelompok A mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok B mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok C mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok D mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota

85 3. Kegiatan Akhir Siswa menghitung skor dari group competition strategy Siswa menyimpulkan materi yang diajarkan. 5 menit 5 menit

D. SUMBER BELAJAR a. Script monolog berbentuk descriptive. E. PENILAIAN a. Teknik : Merespon pertanyaan secara lisan b. Bentuk : Pertanyaan Lisan c. Instrumen : The questions which are constructed by students based on these texts F. PEDOMAN PENILAIAN 1. Untuk jawaban benar mendapat skor +1 2. Untuk jawaban salah tidak mendapat skor (0) 3. Rubrik Penilaian No 1 A: B: C: D: E: F: G: H: Nama Group Skor

Malang, 27 Oktober 2009 Mengetahui, Kepala SMPN 10 Malang Guru

Supandi, S.Pd NIP. 195908241986031015

Rinu Pamungkas NIM. 106221402910

86 Appendix 1c RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN KD 5.3

Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas / Semester Standar Kompetensi

: SMP Negeri 10 Malang : Bahasa Inggris : VIII / Satu : 5. Memahami makna teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk descriptive dan recount yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar

Kompetensi Dasar

5.3 Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam teks berbentuk descriptive.

Indikator

Siswa dapat memahami makna yang terkandung dalam teks berbentuk descriptive.

Jenis teks Tema Aspek / skill Alokasi Waktu

: Descriptive text : Science, Geography, Places and Culture : Reading : 2X 40 menit

A. Tujuan Pembelajaran Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa diharapkan dapat: 1. Mendefinisikan descriptive text dengan tepat. 2. Menemukan generic structure dari teks descriptive. 3. Membuat pertanyaan dari teks descriptive. 4. Menjawab pertanyaan yang berhubungan dengan descriptive text.

87 B. Materi Pembelajaran Text 1

Earthquake
Earthquake is a sudden shaking of the earth's surface that often causes a lot of damage. It is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes may happen naturally or as a result of human activities. Smaller earthquakes can also be caused by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes can be seen from the shaking or displacement of the ground. Sometimes, they cause tsunamis, which may lead to loss of life and damage of property. There are two types of earthquake that occurs naturally, they are tectonic and volcanic earthquakes. Tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes that are caused by tectonic plates getting stuck and putting a strain on the ground. The strain becomes so great that rocks give way by breaking and sliding along fault planes. Volcanic earthquakes are earthquakes which are caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes. In volcanic regions earthquakes may be caused both by tectonic faults and by the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions The size of an earthquake is usually reported using the Richter scale or a related Moment scale. Earthquakes which are 3 on the Richter scale or lower are hard to notice. Whereas, those which are 7 on the Richter scale, causes serious damage over large areas. Text 2 ROPE Ropes are very useful. Men use then to support ships mast and sails, for pulling thing and for tying bundles. In the past, people used to knot together pieces of bark or leather thongs or even roots to make ropes. People in ancient Egypt made ropes from vegetables fibres. The ropes they made were like those made today. The fibre for making ropes comes from different plants. We call these plants hemp in general. The best type of rope is made from the fibre of a plant called the abaca. Abaca grows in the Philippines, where it is called Manila hemps. Manila hemps is easier to work with and stronger than other forms of hemp.

88 Text 3 The Grand Bali Beach Hotel Bali Beach Hotel was only a remembrance. It was burnt and only one room left. The room number was 327. Today this room is considered a holy place (they put a sesaji in that room three times a day and this room is not for sale). They only needed seven months to rebuild the hotel. Nowadays, it is really wonderful hotel. They named the hotel Grand Bali Beach Hotel. This hotel consists of three buildings. The first building has ten floors, the second building has two floors and the last one is a cottage. In the cottage we can find room 2041 which is not for a sale. Someone who has a supernatural power says that he hears strange voice from Kanjeng Ratu Kidul. She said she wants the room for herself. Thats why this room is completed with the furniture and most of them are green. They think this room is a holy one, so a girl who gets her period is not allowed to enter this room. An interesting thing in this hotel is that we can get to the sea in around 10 minutes and in the morning we can see the sunrise clearly. We would feel that we have seen the best sense of art if we stay in this hotel.

Text 4 Ondel-Ondel Ondel-ondel is very popular in Jakarta. It is a giant doll with a horrible face. The male ondel-ondel is dressed like a man. He has a sword at his hip and shawl over his shoulder. Its head decorated with colourful paper strings. Ondel-ondel is made of bamboo structure. Its face is made of wood mask. Its hair is made of plam fibre. A man inside the structure moves it. Its arms are dropping. A pair of ondel-ondel is usually performed to celebrate a child circumcision. Traditional music, for example, gambang kromong, qasidah, tajidor or gendang pencak, accompanies the procession. Of course children are interested in following it. In the old days people believed that in couple of ondel-ondel were the manifestation of a God and Goddess who would protect the circumcised boy from danger or evil. Now ondel-ondel is performed to welcome gusts in opening ceremonies held in Jakarta and places nearby.

89 Descriptive Social Function To describe a particular person, place or thing Generic Structure - Identification : to identify the phenomenon to be described - Description : describe parts, qualities, characteristics Language Features - Focus on specific participants - Use of attributive and identifying process - Frequents use of epithets and quantifiers - Use of simple present tense

C. KEGIATAN PEMBELAJARAN No 1. Kegiatan Awal 2. Greeting Brainstroming tentang teks descriptive 5 menit Kegiatan Waktu

Kegiatan Inti Siswa yang telah duduk di kelompoknya diberi teks oleh 5 menit guru dan membaca teks yang diberikan oleh guru dengan seksama Siswa menemukan kata-kata sulit dalam teks dari kamus 5 menit Siswa diajak guru membahas teks 1, 2, 3 dan 4 dengan 15 menit seksama. Kelompok E mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok F mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok G mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok H mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota

90 3. Kegiatan Akhir Siswa menghitung skor dari group competition strategy Siswa menyimpulkan materi yang diajarkan. 5 menit 5 menit

D. SUMBER BELAJAR a. Script monolog berbentuk descriptive. E. PENILAIAN a. Teknik : Merespon pertanyaan secara lisan b. Bentuk : Pertanyaan Lisan c. Instrumen : The questions which are constructed by students based on these texts F. PEDOMAN PENILAIAN 1. Untuk jawaban benar mendapat skor +1 2. Untuk jawaban salah tidak mendapat skor (0) 3. Rubrik Penilaian No 1 A: B: C: D: E: F: G: H: Nama Group Skor

Malang, 28 Oktober 2009 Mengetahui, Kepala SMPN 10 Malang Guru

Supandi, S.Pd NIP. 195908241986031015

Rinu Pamungkas NIM. 106221402910

91 Appendix 1d RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN KD 5.3

Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas / Semester Standar Kompetensi

: SMP Negeri 10 Malang : Bahasa Inggris : VIII / Satu : 5. Memahami makna teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk descriptive dan recount yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar

Kompetensi Dasar

5.3 Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam teks berbentuk recount.

Indikator

Siswa dapat mengedintifikasi makna yang terkandung dalam teks berbentuk recount.

Jenis teks Tema Aspek / skill Alokasi Waktu

: Recount text : Experience and Holiday : Reading : 2X 40 menit

A.

Tujuan Pembelajaran Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa diharapkan dapat: 1. Mendefinisikan recount text dengan tepat. 2. Menemukan generic structure dari teks recount. 3. Membuat pertanyaan dari teks recount. 4. Menjawab pertanyaan yang berhubungan dengan recount text.

92 B. Materi Pembelajaran Text 1 Shark in Rowing Competition It was a warm day in March. I was very excited. The day had finally come. I was in the rowing team for the Olympics. I got up very early and exercised as always. Then after breakfast I drove to Drummoyne. My team arrived and at last it was time to start. Ready, set and the starting gun went off. We began in the third position and were slowly moving closer. There they were. We could see the second boat and then we did it. We moved past. My arms were aching. My whole body was sore but we all rowed harder. The first boat was just in front I saw a dark shadow near the boat. I looked again. What was it? I was sure it was the shape of a cigar. Oh my God, I thought, I must be seeing things. A shark in Parramata River? Impossible! Just then I pulled my oar out of the water. Oh no, why only half? I thought. Then I knew. I shouted to my team, Shark! Shark! and suddenly we forgot the race. We rowed faster than ever back to shore. We made it. Phew, we were safe!

Text 2 Dear Vino, Were spending a week at a resort on the coast. There are lots of plastic donkeys and silly hats in the shops. Its really a touristy place. I think its a horrible place. I rode a bike on Monday, but I fell off and hurt my leg. I wanted to try waterskiing or windsurfing, but I couldnt. Yesterday, Mum and Dad just laid on the beach sunbathing all morning. Then we had a picnic, but it was too hot and there were lots of flies. I wanted to go on a boat trip in the afternoon, but we went sight seeing instead. They took a lot of photos, but I thought it was really boring. Even the weathers boring. Its just sunny the whole day. I cant wait to pack my bag and go home.

MARIO

93 Text 3 A Frightening Night It was a cold winters night when I went to Tumble Wood. The full moon drifted in and out of the clouds, casting silvery light on the branches. My heart pounded like a drum and my knee shook like jelly, but I couldnt turn back. I had to find the gold ring I lost the picnic, the ring my grandma gave me before she died. All around me the trees towered like giants. The branches waved the wind like bony fingers. Snapping branches sounded like a thousand gunshots. I ran as fast as cheetah until I came to the clearing. I got down on my hands and knees and began to search for the ring. Then the full moon disappeared behind the trees. The night was dark, as dark as the deepest well. I dug deeper into the frosty earth with my bare hands. Suddenly I felt something but cold. I shone my torch at the muddy earth. Then I screamed and jumped up, my face as white as a ghost. I looked down at the gruesome sight; It was a handa human hand.

Text 4 Dear Alvin, Last week our school went camping to a mountain. Its about 13 km from my place. We left the school at about six oclock in the morning by bus. Then we arrived at a village at seven oclock. From here, we must go hiking. An hour later we came to the camping ground. The weather was very cold and foggy. The scenery was very beautiful. Some of the boys set up tents and some of the girls were responsible for the food. While the others prepared the evening programs, our friends would perform a drama. Some teachers helped us. The others were having discussion. At night we had the evening program. We sat around a campfire and sang some popular or even folks songs together. Then we enjoyed a drama. We were very happy at the time. DEVAN

94 Recount Social Function To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining Generic Structure - Orientation : provides the settings and introduces the participants - Events : tell what happened and in what sequence Language Features - Focus on specific participants - Use of material processes - Circumstances of time and place - Use of past tense - Focus on temporal sequences

C. KEGIATAN PEMBELAJARAN No 1. Kegiatan Awal 2. Greeting Brainstroming tentang teks recount 5 menit Kegiatan Waktu

Kegiatan Inti Siswa yang telah duduk di kelompoknya diberi teks oleh 5 menit guru dan membaca teks yang diberikan oleh guru dengan seksama Siswa menemukan kata-kata sulit dalam teks dari kamus 5 menit Siswa diajak guru membahas teks 1, 2, 3 dan 4 dengan 15 menit seksama. Kelompok A mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok B mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok C mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok D mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota

95 3. Kegiatan Akhir Siswa menghitung skor dari group competition strategy Siswa menyimpulkan materi yang diajarkan. 5 menit 5 menit

D. SUMBER BELAJAR a. Script monolog berbentuk recount. E. PENILAIAN a. Teknik : Merespon pertanyaan secara lisan b. Bentuk : Pertanyaan Lisan c. Instrumen : The questions which are constructed by students based on these texts F. PEDOMAN PENILAIAN 1. Untuk jawaban benar mendapat skor +1 2. Untuk jawaban salah tidak mendapat skor (0) 3. Rubrik Penilaian No 1 A: B: C: D: E: F: G: H: Nama Group Skor

Malang, 29 Oktober 2009 Mengetahui, Kepala SMPN 10 Malang Guru

Supandi, S.Pd NIP. 195908241986031015

Rinu Pamungkas NIM. 106221402910

96 Appendix 1e RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN KD 5.3

Satuan Pendidikan Mata Pelajaran Kelas / Semester Standar Kompetensi

: SMP Negeri 10 Malang : Bahasa Inggris : VIII / Satu : 5. Memahami makna teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk descriptive dan recount yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar

Kompetensi Dasar

5.3 Merespon makna dan langkah retorika dalam esei pendek sederhana secara akurat, lancar dan berterima yang berkaitan dengan lingkungan sekitar dalam teks berbentuk recount.

Indikator

Siswa dapat mengedintifikasi makna yang terkandung dalam teks berbentuk recount.

Jenis teks Tema Aspek / skill Alokasi Waktu

: Recount text : Holiday : Reading : 2X 40 menit

A.

Tujuan Pembelajaran Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa diharapkan dapat:

1. Mendefinisikan recount text dengan tepat. 2. Menemukan generic structure dari teks recount. 3. Membuat pertanyaan dari teks recount. 4. Menjawab pertanyaan yang berhubungan dengan recount text.

97 B. Materi Pembelajaran Text 1 TOUR TO EROPE Mr. And Mrs. Gunawan were on a tour of Europe. They were travelling on a guided tour of five countries. They were going to travel through Holland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland and France for two weeks. The guide for the tour was a Swiss. On the day of the travel, the guide told them to check their passport, their travellers checks and their foreign cash. He told them to keep them safely. They travelled in a comfortable coach with a toilet, music, and video. The guide stopped the coach at many famous places. He explained the cultural importance of the places. They stayed in big hotels for the night and ate in the restaurants. In bog towns, they went shopping. They bought many souvenirs for their family and friends. They were happy and enjoyed the two week tour.

Text 2 A Tour to the Botanic Gardens On Thursday 24 April, 2008, my friend and I went to the Botanic Gardens. We walked down and got into the bus. After we arrived at the gardens, we walked down to the Education Centre. We went to have a look around. First we went to the Orchid Farm and Mrs. Rita read us some of the information. Then we looked at all the lovely plants. After that we went down to a little spot in the Botanic Gardens and had morning tea. Next we took some pictures and then we went back to the Education Centre to have lunch. After that we went for a walk. A lady took us around and introduced herself, and then she explained what we were going to do. Next she took us in to the green house. It was most interesting. Soon after we had finished, we went back outside. Finally, we got into the bus and returned to school. We were tired but happy.

98 Text 3 Playing Hide and Seek It was Saturday afternoon, Syamsu, Umar, Amin, and some children were in Mr. Ahmads yard. They looked very glad and enjoyed their time because they didnt have to study in the evening. The children played a game. It was hide and seek. Syamsu was ready to throw a ball. Umar was ready to hit the ball and Amir was ready to catch the ball. After Umar hit the ball, Syamsu and his friends had to hide. Amir had to take a ball and put it in the place they decided. Then, he had to seek his friends who hid. The children were very busy. They played the game gladly and some of them only watched the game. They were happy in playing hide and seek. After the game ended, they left Mr. Ahmads yard then they went home.

Text 4 A Trip to Bromo Last holiday my friends and I decided to go to Bromo. On May 10th, 2009 in the afternoon, we left Semarang. After long and tiring trip we finally arrived in Probolinggo. We arrived at the hotel 2.00 p.m and immediately were ready for our trip to the mountain. Bromo actually belongs to the Tengger group. This group consists of four mountains, namely Bromo, Penanjakan, Batok and Widodaren. Driving on our 2005 Land Cruiser, we climbed Penanjakan to enjoy the sunrise. It was amazing. From Penanjakan, we left to Bromo. During our trip, a horrible thing happened. Although Bromo is lower than Penanjakan, our trip proved to be difficult. It slowly moved backward. The driver asked us to push the car. We pushed and pushed the car but the engine refused to start. When we were tired to push, we stop and leaned our backs to the car to stop it sliding backward. All of us were desperate. After thirty minutes the engine worked again. We cried in happiness. Then we continued our journey. We spent an hour in Bromo. I climbed the mountain on horseback and enjoyed the beauty of smoky crater. However, most of my friends refused to climb the mountain. They were too tired to do so. Pushing the car made them exhausted.

99 Recount Social Function To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining Generic Structure - Orientation : provides the settings and introduces the participants - Events : tell what happened and in what sequence Language Features - Focus on specific participants - Use of material processes - Circumstances of time and place - Use of past tense - Focus on temporal sequences

C. KEGIATAN PEMBELAJARAN No 1. Kegiatan Awal 2. Greeting Brainstroming 5 menit Kegiatan Waktu

Kegiatan Inti Siswa yang telah duduk di kelompoknya diberi teks oleh 5 menit guru dan membaca teks yang diberikan oleh guru dengan seksama Siswa menemukan kata-kata sulit dalam teks dari kamus 5 menit Siswa diajak guru membahas teks 1, 2, 3 dan 4 dengan 15 menit seksama. Kelompok E mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok F mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok G mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota Kelompok H mengajukan pertanyaan yang telah dibuat 10 menit oleh anggota

100 3. Kegiatan Akhir Siswa menghitung skor dari group competition strategy 5 menit dan menentukan grup mana yang menjadi pemenangnya Siswa menyimpulkan materi yang diajarkan. 5 menit

D. SUMBER BELAJAR a. Script monolog berbentuk recount. E. PENILAIAN a. Teknik : Merespon pertanyaan secara lisan b. Bentuk : Pertanyaan Lisan c. Instrumen : The questions which are constructed by students based on these texts F. PEDOMAN PENILAIAN 1. Untuk jawaban benar mendapat skor +1 2. Untuk jawaban salah tidak mendapat skor (0) 3. Rubrik Penilaian No 1 A: B: C: D: E: F: G: H: Nama Group Skor

Malang, 3 November 2009 Mengetahui, Kepala SMPN 10 Malang Guru

Supandi, S.Pd NIP. 195908241986031015

Rinu Pamungkas NIM. 106221402910

101

Appendix 2
List of groups in the implementation of group competition strategy in reading class at SMPN 10 Malang

Leader Secretary Members

Group A : R. Shanti : Novita : - Yeni - Nining - Rini Group C : Setyowati : Ines Amalia : - Lilik - Nur Azizah Group E : Devinta : Aan : - Berliana, - Kartika - Kurniarun

Leader Secretary Members

Group B : Hidayatus : Atik Nayli : - Andy Rahman - Fatimah - Mahrulina

Leader Secretary Members

- Leader - Secretary - Members

Group D : Aulia : Nadiah : - Bella - Liria Rosa - Tieneke Group F - Leader : Nadya M. - Secretary : Nadiya Elsa - Members : - Eva - Faizatur - Siti Leader Secretary Members - Leader - Secreatry - Members Group H : Ahmad Effendi : Febri : - Firlyano - Hanif - Wahyu

Group G - Leader : Vivi - Secreatary : Delvira - Members : - Anggita - Asvrilla - Defy

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Appendix 3a RESEARCH JOURNAL

Meeting 1

: Introducing group competition strategy, learn how to construct question

Date

: Monday, October 26, 2009

The teacher came into the class, greeted the students and asked the captain of the class to lead the prayer. Teacher introduced group competition strategy to students of VIIIA class of SMPN 10 Malang. They were introduced to group competition strategy is and how to play it. Teacher also introduced the rules/regulations in doing group competition strategy. The rules were as follows: Make a group of 4 or 5 a. Each student has to read the text carefully. b. After reading a text, each student has to construct a question based on the text given. Each of the members of the group has to make a different question. c. All groups have to choose one student as a leader and one student as a secretary. d. The leader has to choose which one of the students to answer the question which is asked by a mother group. e. The secretary has to write down the activities and the question from all members of her/his group. Besides, s/he has to write down the score from the students who can answer the question from this group. f. After all the groups have finished their tasks, group competition will be started. g. The game will be started by group A asking questions h. The leader of group A has to come in front of the class to appoint the students who will answer questions from group A. i. Group B, C, D, E, F, G, and H have to be ready to answer the questions from group A. j. Each of the members has to ask her/his question to other groups. k. A group which can answer the questions correctly from group A will get score

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l. A group which can answer the questions incorrectly from group A will not get point or zero (0). If all groups cannot answer a question from group A, group A will get point 1. m. The group which gets the highest score becomes the winner and gets rewards. Then, the group which has the lowest score will get punishment. The punishment will be determined later on. In the first meeting at the first round, students were asked to make a group of four or five students. This group would be a permanent group up to the fifth meeting. After they were asked to make a group, they had to sit around with the members of the group (see Appendix 3a). At the second round, students were introduced to some Wh- question words which were needed to construct questions. They were What, Who, When, Where, Why, How, Which, Whose, With Whom, For whom, At what time, How many, How long, and How far. Some students were confused with some of them, so that the researcher had to explain them in Indonesian. At the third round, students were given, descriptive texts entitled Tanjung Puting National Park, Grand Omega Hotel, and Singapore, and recount texts entitled Please Send Me a Card, Going to The Beach, and A Wet Night. They were asked to practice constructing questions based on those texts (see Appendix 6). After a question has been constructed by each of them, they practiced asking their questions to their friends in that class. In the third round, each leader also practiced how to lead the discussion in her/his group. S/he also practiced controlling the class when s/he had to stand up in front of the class to appoint one of her/his classmates to answer questions from her/his group. Meanwhile, the secretary from each group was given a task to write down all activities which happen during the implementation of group competition strategy. Because group competition strategy was still a new technique for the students at first, they were so confused in conducting group competition strategy in their class. However, after they were guided by researcher, they could do it well.

104

In the end of the first meeting, students were asked about the difficulties in doing group competition strategy. Most of them were not confused anymore. Some students, who were still confused about doing group competition, were given more explanation. After all of them were ready to do group competition, researcher was also ready to conduct group competition strategy in the next meeting

105

Appendix 3b RESEARCH JOURNAL

Meeting 2 Date

: Doing group competition strategy about descriptive texts : Tuesday, October 27, 2009

The teacher came into the class, greeted the students and asked the captain of the class to lead the prayer. Students were ready to do group competition strategy. After giving some brainstorming about descriptive texts, students were asked to sit with their groups. There were eight groups in that class which were ready to do group competition strategy. In that meeting, it was the tasks for group A, B, C, and D to construct and ask questions to their classmates. Teacher gave four descriptive texts entitled My Hotel, Kangaroo, Nusa Tenggara, and Wayang. Before doing group competition, students were asked to read those texts carefully. Then, students were guided to discuss the texts and the difficult vocabularies which were in the texts. After all of the texts had been finished to be read and discussed, group A was asked to construct questions from My Hotel text, group B was asked to construct questions from Kangaroo text, group C was asked to construct questions from Nusa Tenggara text, and group D was asked to construct questions from Wayang text. Meanwhile, group E, F, G, and H were asked to comprehend text carefully in order to answer the questions from group A, B, C, and D. After ten minutes conducting group competition strategy, group A had the first turn to do this activity. The leader of group A, R. Shanti, came in front of the class and was ready to ask her question and appoint her classmates to answer questions from her group. After she asked her questions to her classmates, she gave chances to her members in group A to ask their question to their classmates. However, she was still in the front of class to appoint her classmates who could answer questions from her group. When group A asked questions to class discussion, there were many students raised their hands to answer questions from group A. The class was so noisy at that time. Most of them said akuakuaku in order that the leader of Group A appointed them to answer the questions. The class was so active at that time. This activity of asking and answering questions

106

was conducted repeatedly until D groups got turn to ask and answer questions. Moreover, the active class in which most students raised their hands happened up to group D performance. They were so enthusiastic to answer questions.

107

Appendix 3c RESEARCH JOURNAL

Meeting 3 Date

: Doing group competition strategy about descriptive texts : Wednesday, October 28, 2009

In the third meeting, students were still asked to do group competition strategy using descriptive texts. After greeted students, without any instructions from the researcher, they had sat with their own group. The eight groups in that class were ready to do group competition strategy. However, in that meeting, it was the tasks for group E, F, G, and H to construct and ask questions to their classmates. Students were given four descriptive texts entitled Earthquake, Rope, Grand Bali Beach Hotel, and Ondel-Ondel. Before doing group competition, students were asked to read those texts carefully. Then, students were guided to discuss the texts and the difficult vocabularies which were in the texts. There were some difficult vocabularies which appeared in the texts given in the third meeting, for instance, strain, mast, shawl, circumcision, hemp, and crust. After all of texts had been finished to be read and discussed, group E was asked to construct questions from Earthquake text, group F was asked to construct questions from Rope text, group G was asked to construct questions from Grand Bali Beach Hotel text, and group H was asked to construct questions from Ondel-Ondel text. In this meeting, it was the task for group A, B, C, and D to read and comprehend those texts carefully in order that they can answer questions which were constructed by group E, F, G, and H. After ten minutes, group E had the first turn to do this activity. The leader of group E, Devinta, came in front of the class and was ready to ask her question and appoint her classmates to answer questions from her group. After she asked her questions to her classmates, she gave chances to her members of group E to ask their question to their classmates. Then her next task was to appoint her classmates who could answer questions from her group. The problem raised in that meeting was when the leader of group F, Nadya, had to appoint her

108

classmates to answer questions from her group. She was confused which one of them should be appointed. It happened because most of her classmates competed to answer I guess. However, when she appointed Ahmad Effendi to answer her question, she was complained by her classmates. Her classmates said that Aulia had raised her hand earlier than Ahmad Effendi. Finally, the class was so noisy at that time. After having a discussion, it was better for her to repeat her question again. In that repetition, Hida succeeded to answer that question. In that meeting, Hida scored 2 points from group F because she could answer the first and second questions from group F. Finally, they could continue this activity well. This activity of asking and answering questions was conducted repeatedly until H groups got the turn to ask and answer questions. After all the groups had finished doing group competition strategy about descriptive text, they were asked to count all of the scores from the second and third meetings. The secretary had to write down the questions and the answers which her/his group had been constructed.

109

Appendix 3d RESEARCH JOURNAL

Meeting 4 Date

: Doing group competition strategy about recount texts : Thursday, October 27, 2009

In the fourth meeting, students were already experienced in doing group competition strategy, so that they did not need more explanation about it. After greeting the students and doing some brainstorming about recount texts, students sat with their groups spontaneously. In that meeting, it was the tasks of group A, B, C, and D to construct and ask questions about the recount texts to their classmates. Like in the previous meetings, the groups who did not get the turn to construct questions (E, F, G, and H) read and comprehend the text well in order that they could answer questions from group A, B, C, and E correctly. Students were given four texts entitled Shark in Rowing Competition, My Horrible Holiday, A Frightening Night, and Going Camping. Like the previous meetings, before doing group competition, students were asked to read those texts carefully. Then, students were guided to discuss the texts and the difficult vocabularies which were in the texts. They found some difficult words, for instance, pound, drift, silvery, and bony. After all of the texts had been finished to be read an discussed, group A was asked to construct questions from Shark in Rowing Competition text, group B was asked to construct questions from My Horrible Holiday text, group C was asked to construct questions from A Frightening Night text, and group D was asked to constructs question from Going Camping text. Like the second meeting, ten minutes later, R. Shanti, the leader of group A was ready to ask her question and appoint her classmates to answer questions from her group. The interesting performance was performed by group D. No group could answer two questions from group D. The first question constructed by Aulia, the leader of group D was, what did they do in the evening?, could not be answered by everyone outside group D. Moreover, the question from Tieneke was, how long was the trip from the writers place to the camping ground?, could

110

not be answered by everyone outside her own group. After group D had asked its questions, the fourth meeting ended.

111

Appendix 3e
RESEARCH JOURNAL

Meeting 5 Date

: Doing group competition strategy about recount texts : Monday, November 3, 2009

In the last meeting of conducting group competition strategy, students were more interested in doing group competition strategy. It happened because in the fifth meeting they had to work hard to compete with the other groups. The fifth meeting was the meeting in which class would be determined which group would get the highest and lowest score. All of the groups wanted to be the winner in that competition. When the teacher entered the class, students had already sat with their groups. After greeting the students, students were asked to do group competition strategy. In that meeting, it was the tasks of group E, F, G, and H to construct and ask questions to their classmates. Group E had the first turn to do this activity .The leader of group E, Devinta came in front of the class. Like the previous meeting, group G could construct a question which the other groups could not answer. The question was How they felt in that afternoon?, constructed by Vivi, the leader of group G. Therefore, group G got 1 point from Vivis question. The activity of asking and answering questions was conducted repeatedly until group H got the turn to ask and answer questions. After all of the groups had finished doing group competition strategy about recount text, they were asked to accumulate/total all the scores from the second up to the fifth meeting. Moreover, the secretary had to write down the questions constructed by her/his group. In the last meeting, the secretary from each group was asked to accumulate/total all of the scores her/his group listed from the second meeting up to the fifth meeting. Researcher and students determined which group got the highest score and which group got the lowest score. Finally, the highest score was obtained by group C which was 13 points and the lowest score was obtained by group H which was 7 points only. In the last meeting after the class, the group with the lowest score had to sing a song and dance together in front of the class. Group H which consisted of

112

boys sang two songs determined by the class. They also danced in front of the class. The class was noisy at that time. Most of the students laughed at those boys performance. Meanwhile, the highest score got the prize, four bars of chocolate, based on the decision before. After that, students were guided to fill the questionnaires given. The questionnaires were about the implementation of group competition strategy in teaching reading comprehension. After they had completed the questionnaires, the class ended In the last meeting, researcher also did some conversations with the students to review the facilities and reading materials used in the implementation of group competition strategy. From the conversation, researcher could conclude that the facilities in the implementation of group competition strategy were good. Students said that the facilities, like the note book, the material, and also some dictionaries provided were good. They said that researcher had facilitated well in implementing group competition strategy in their class. Another question about the reading materials used in the implementation of group competition strategy was neither easy nor difficult. Most of them said that because some vocabularies had to be found by them in a dictionary. They found some difficult vocabularies in the reading materials given. Sometimes, some of those vocabularies were asked to the researcher. Furthermore, researcher also asked students about the continuity of group competition strategy in their class. Students thought that they would be so enthusiastic attend English class if their teacher would implement it. They felt bored with the book oriented lesson used by their teacher. Usually not all of them got chances to be active in class. Therefore, they thought that it should be implemented in English class. Besides they could cooperate with other members in their group, it would develop their creativity, especially in constructing questions. It was more interesting when they were promised reward and punishment.

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Appendix 4a
Students Scoring on Their Friends Performance Group A Tables Score from group A in doing group competition strategy which were written in second and fourth meetings The score in the second meeting Group Score Total Score A B I 1 C II 2 D I 1 E F I 1 G H Note: Students who can answer questions from group A: 1. Atik Nayli (Group B) 4. Aulia (Group D) 2. Lilik (Group C) 5. Nadia M (Group F) 3. Ines (Group C) Questions: 1. How is the situation in this hotel? 2. What is the job of bellboys? 3. What does the receptionist do? 4. Why do many people visit this hotel? 5. What facilities do the each room have? The score in the fourth meeting Group Score A B II C D E F G H I I I

Total Score 2 1 1 1

Note: Students who can answer questions from group A: 1. Setyowati (Group C) 2. Ahmad E. (Group H) 3. Andy (Group B) Questions: 1. When did they saw the dark shadow? 2. When did the writers team arrive at the Olympic? 3. How did the writer feel in March? 4. What did they do after the starting gun went off? 5. Where was rowing competition held?

4. Devinta 5. Hida

(Group E) (Group B)

114

Group B Tables Score from group B in doing group competition strategy which were written in second and fourth meetings The score in the second meeting Group Score Total Score A B C I 1 D E III 3 F I 1 G H Note: Students who can answer questions from group B: 1. Berliana (Group E) 4. Devinta (Group E) 2. Nadiya Elsa (Group F) 5. Nur Azizah (Group C) 3. Aan (Group E) Questions: 1. How far can kangaroo run? 2. What are the characteristics of kangaroo? 3. What are the characteristics of baby kangaroo? 4. Where can you find kangaroos? 5. What food does kangaroo eat?

The score in the fourth meeting Group Score A I B I C I D E F I G I H -

Total Score 1 1 1 1 1 -

Note: Students who can answer questions from group B: 1. Nadya M. (Group F) 2. Nining (Group A) 3. Anggita (Group G)

4. Lilik 5. Hida

(Group C) (Group B)

Questions: 1. Who wanted to go on a boat trip in the afternoon? 2. What tenses was on the text? Mention one! 3. What did Mario want to do on Monday? 4. What did they see in the beach? 5. How long did Marios family spend their time at a resort on the coast?

115

GROUP C Tables Score from group C in doing group competition strategy which were written in second and fourth meetings The score in the second meeting Group Score Total Score A II 2 B C D II 2 E F G H Note: Students who can answer questions from group C: 1. R. Shanti (Group A) 3. Bella (Group D) 4. Aulia (Group D) 4. R. Shanti (Group A) Questions: 1. How many islands are in East Nusa Tenggara? 2. Where can we find moister and denser vegetation? 3. What is the name of the famous mountain which is colored mineral lakes? 4. What islands do belong to Nusa Tenggara?

The score in the fourth meeting Group Score A I B C D E I F I G H I

Total Score 1 1 1 1

Note: Students who can answer questions from group C: 1. Nadya M. (Group F) 2. Ahmad E (Group H) Questions: 1. How was the condition at that night? 2. What did the writer see when he was jump up? 3. Where did the full moon disappear? 4. What did the snapping branches sound like?

3. Berliana 4. R-Shanti

(Group E) (Group A)

116

GROUP D Tables Score from group D in doing group competition strategy which were written in second and fourth meetings The score in the second meeting Group Score Total Score A B I 1 C II 2 D E I 1 F G I 1 H Note: Students who can answer questions from group D: 1. Ines (Group C) 4. Setyowati (Group C) 2. Hida (Group B) 5. Berliana (Group E) 3. Asvrilla (Group G) Questions: 1. How is leather puppet performed on a screen? 2. How is wayang performed? 3. What does dalang literally mean? 4. What wayang does West Java have? 5. When we can see wayang performance?

The score in the fourth meeting Group Score A B C D II E F I G I H I

Total Score 2 1 1 1

Note: Students who can answer questions from group D: 1. Aulia (Group D) 2. Tieneke (Group D) 3. Vivi (Group G)

4. Siti 5. Febri

(Group F) (Group H)

Questions: 1. What did they do at evening? 2. How long was the trip from the writers place to the camping ground? 3. What was the weather at that time? 4. Who helped them in performing drama? 5. What did they feel at that time?

117

GROUP E Tables Score from group E in doing group competition strategy which were written in second and fourth meetings The score in the third meeting Group Score Total Score A I 1 B C I 1 D E F I 1 G I 1 H I 1 Note: Students who can answer questions from group E: 1. Novita (Group A) 4. Wahyu (Group H) 2. Ines (Group C) 5. Eva (Group F) 3. Defy (Group G) Questions: 1. Mention two types of earthquake! 2. What is the cause of tectonic earthquake? 3. What is earthquake? 4. What is the cause of volcanic earthquake? 5. What is the cause of smaller earthquake? The score in the fifth meeting Group Score A I B C D II E F G I H I

Total Score 2 1 1

Note: Students who can answer questions from group E: 1. Hanif (Group H) 2. Liria Rosa (Group D) 3. R. Shanti (Group A)

4. Bella 5. Vivi

(Group D) (Group G)

Questions: 1. How many countries did Mr. and Mrs. Gunawan visit? Mention them! 2. How long did they do the tour? 3. What did the guide tell them to check? 4. Who facilities were the coach provided? 5. Where did they stay during the tour?

118

GROUP F Tables Score from group F in doing group competition strategy which were written in third and fifth meetings The score in the third meeting Group Score Total Score A B II 2 C I 1 D II 2 E F G H Note: Students who can answer questions from group F: 1. Hida (Group B) 4. Nur Azizah (Group C) 2. Hida (Group B) 5. Nadiah Ika (Group D) 3. Bella (Group D) Questions: 1. How was the ancient Egypt rope made? 2. Where does abaca grow? 3. How do people call Abaca which grows in Philippine? 4. What is the best type of rope? 5. Where does the fiber come from for making ropes? The score in the fifth meeting Group Score A B C II D I E I F G I H -

Total Score 2 1 1 1 -

Note: Students who can answer questions from group F: 1. Vivi (Group G) 2. Kartika (Group E) 3. Bella (Group D) Questions: 1. What is the reorientation of Rope text? 2. How did they go to Botanic Garden? 3. What did they do in Botanical Garden? Mention! 4. With whom did they go o Botanical Garden? 5. What did they do after taking some pictures?

4. Ines 5. Setyowati

(Group C) (Group C)

119

GROUP G Tables Score from group G in doing group competition strategy which were written in third and fifth meetings The score in the third meeting Group Score Total Score A B C I 1 D I 1 E F II 2 G H I 1 Note: Students who can answer questions from group G: 1. Lilik (Group C) 4. Febri (Group H) 2. Aulia (Group D) 5. Nadiah M (Group F) 3. Faizatur (Group F) Questions: 1. What is the name of that hotel? 2. How many buildings are there in Grand Bali Beach Hotel? Mention them! 3. In what room cant be stayed by guests? 4. Why this room cant be stayed? 5. Who is not allowed to enter room 2041? The score in the fifth meeting Group Score A I B C II D E F G I H I

Total Score 1 2 1 1

Note: Students who can answer questions from group G: 1. Firliano (Group H) 2. Lilik (Group C) 3. Vivi (Group G) Questions: 1. What was the name of the game they played? 2. When did they play hide and seek? 3. How did they feel at that afternoon? 4. Who threw a ball? 5. Who did play hide and seek?

4. R. Shanti 5. Ines

(Group A) (Group C)

120

GROUP H Tables Score from group H in doing group competition strategy which were written in third and fifth meetings The score in the third meeting Group Score Total Score A III 3 B C D E I 1 F G I 1 H Note: Students who can answer questions from group H: 1. R. Shanti (Group A) 2. Vivi (Group G) 3. Nining (Group A)

4. Kurniarun 5. Yeni

(Group E) (Group A)

Questions: 1. What is the traditional music usually used in Ondel-Ondel show? 2. What do people believe about Ondel-Ondel? 3. When is Ondel-Ondel usually performed? 4. Where does Ondel-Ondel come from? 5. What is Ondel-Ondel?

The score in the fifth meeting Group Score A I B II C D E F G II H -

Total Score 1 2 2 -

Note: Students who can answer questions from group H: 1. Vivi (Group G) 2. Fatimah (Group B) 3. Mahrulina (Group B)

4. Rini 5. Delvira

(Group A) (Group G)

Questions: 1. Mention four mountains which belong to Bromo group? 2. When did they do during tour to Bromo? 3. How did they go to Bromo? 4. What did the writer do in Bromo? 5. What did they do in Penanjakan?

121

Group A B C D E F G H Total

The Final Score from each group in every meeting 2nd 3rd meeting 4th meeting 5th meeting meeting 2 4 2 3 2 2 3 2 5 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 4 1 2 1 2 3 3 0 1 2 2 5 0 2 3 2 19 20 19 20

Total Score 11 9 14 11 8 8 10 7 78

122

Appendix 4b
RECORD OF STUDENTS PARTICIPATION Responding 2nd meeting 3rd meeting 4th meeting 5th meeting Total Score
I II I I

No

Name

I I II I II I I II I I I I I I I I I I I II II I II II I I I I I I I I

I I

I I I II I I I I I I

I II I

I I I I I

II I I

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 IIII 19 I I I 20 19 20

AAN PUSPITASARI AHMAD EFENDI ANDY RACHMAN T ANGGITA ELVIRANA ASVRILLA H ATIK NAYLI FAUZIAH AULIA RAMADHANI HALUINDO BELLA PRADINA NOVITA W BERLIANA INDAH APRILIANI DEFY FERNANDA DELVIRA MARTHA SALVILA W. DEVINTA REZA PRASANTI EVA YULIANA FAIZATUR ROSIDA FATIMAH TUHJAHRO FEBRI HERDIANSYAH R FIRLYANO FADLY HANIF SEPTIAWAN HIDAYATUS SOLIKHAH INES AMALIA RIZKY KARTIKA INDRA F KURNIARUM CAHYANINGTIAS LILIK WINARSIH LIRIA RHOSA EFENDI MAHRULLINA MAHIROTUL A NADIAH IKA FEBRIYANTI NADIYA ELSA FEBRIYANA NADYA MAULUDIN N. NINING RAHMAWATI NOVITA ARIANI NUR AZIZAH R. SHANTI GRADIANA RINI DUWI ASTUTIK SETYOWATI FITRI ISTIANTI SITI CHUMAIYAH TIENIKE DANISWARA VIVI IRIANTI YENI PUJI RAHAYU M. ARIF WAHYUDI Total Score

1 2 1 1 1 1 4 4 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 5 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 4 1 2 2 6 1 3 1 1 6 1 1 78

122

123

Appendix 5a QUESTIONNAIRE (for the students) Berilah tanda (X) atau () dalam mengisi kolom tanggapan!
NO 1. PERTANYAAN Apakah Anda senang dengan penggunaan Group Competition Strategy ini? TANGGAPAN (a) sangat senang (b) senang (c) biasa saja (d) tidak senang (e) sangat tidak senang (a) sangat mudah (b) mudah (c) biasa saja (d) tidak mudah (e) sangat tidak mudah (a) sangat cepat (b) cepat (c) biasa saja (d) lama (e) sangat lama (a) sangat cepat (b) cepat (c) biasa saja (d) lama (e) sangat lama (a) sangat memadai (b) memadai (c) biasa saja (d) tidak memadai (e) sangat tidak memadai (a) sangat mudah (b) mudah (c) biasa saja (d) tidak mudah (e) sangat tidak mudah (a) sangat membantu (b) membantu (c) biasa saja (d) tidak membantu (e) sangat tidak membantu (a) sangat membantu (b) membantu (c) biasa saja (d) tidak membantu (e) sangat tidak membantu (a) sangat membantu (b) membantu (c) biasa saja (d) tidak membantu (e) sangat tidak membantu

2.

Bagaimanakah menurut Anda tentang membuat pertanyaan dalam Group Competition Strategy?

3.

Menurut Anda, cepatkah Anda mempelajari cara membuat pertanyaan dalam Group Competition Strategy?

Menurut anda, cepatkah anda menyiapkan pertanyaan berdasarkan teks yang anda pahami?

5.

Apakah fasilitas yang digunakan dalam pembelajaran reading dengan teknik Group Competition Strategy memadai?

6.

Menurut anda, Apakah teks-teks yang diberikan dalam Group Competition Strategy mudah dipahami?

7.

Apakah Group Competition Strategy membantu Anda dalam memahami cerita lebih mendalam?

8.

Menurut Anda, apakah penggunaan Group Competition Strategy membantu Anda dalam belajar reading?

9.

Menurut Anda, apakah penggunaan Goup Competition Strategy membantu Anda dalam belajar bahasa Inggris secara umum?

10.

Menurut Anda, apakah penggunaan Group Competition Strategy dalam belajar bahasa Inggris perlu dilanjutkan dalam kegiatan belajar di kelas?

(a) sangat perlu (b) perlu (c) biasa saja (d) tidak perlu (e) sangat tidak perlu

124

QUESTIONNAIRE (for the students): Translated Version Give cross (X) or check () in filling the response column! No Questions 1. Do you like this implementation of Group Competition Strategy?

Responses (a) very like (b) like (c) neither like nor dislike (d) dislike (e) very dislike (a) very easy (b) easy (c) neither easy nor difficult (d) difficult (e) very difficult (a) very fast (b) fast (c) neither fast nor not fast (d) not fast (e) very not fast (a) very fast (b) fast (c) neither fast nor not fast (d) not fast (e) very not fast (a) very good (b) good (c) neither good nor bad (d) bad (e) very bad (a) very easy (b) easy (c) neither easy nor difficult (d) difficult (e) very difficult (a) really helpful (b) helpful (c) neither helpful nor unhelpful (d) unhelpful (e) really unhelpful (a) really helpful (b) helpful (c) neither helpful nor unhelpful (d) unhelpful (e) really unhelpful (a) really helpful (b) helpful (c) neither helpful nor unhelpful (d) unhelpful (e) really unhelpful (a) very necessary (b) necessary (c) neither necessary nor unnecessary (d) unnecessary (e) really unnecessary

2.

What do you think about constructing questions in Group Competition Strategy?

3.

In your opinion, are you fast enough to learn how to construct question in Group Competition Strategy?

4.

In your opinion, are you fast enough to prepare in constructing question in Group Competition Strategy?

5.

What do you think about the facilities used in implementing group competition strategy?

6.

What do you think about the reading material used in the implementation of group competition strategy?

7.

In your opinion, do you think group competition strategy help you to comprehend the reading texts?

8.

In your opinion, do you think group competition strategy help you in learning reading?

9.

In your opinion, do you think group competition help you in learning English?

10.

In your opinion, do you think group competition should be continued in your English class?

125

Appendix 5b The Result of Questionnaires No 1. Questions Pendapat siswa tentang pelaksanaan group competiton strategy Responses (a) sangat senang (b) senang (c) biasa saja (d) tidak senang (e) sangat tidak senang (a) sangat mudah (b) mudah (c) biasa saja (d) tidak mudah (e) sangat tidak mudah (a) sangat cepat (b) cepat (c) biasa saja (d) lama (e) sangat lama (a) sangat cepat (b) cepat (c) biasa saja (d) lama (e) sangat lama (a) sangat memadai (b) memadai (c) biasa saja (d) tidak memadai (e) sangat tidak memadai (a) sangat mudah (b) mudah (c) biasa saja (d) tidak mudah (e) sangat tidak mudah (a) sangat membantu (b) membantu (c) biasa saja (d) tidak membantu (e) sangat tidak membantu (a) sangat membantu (b) membantu (c) biasa saja (d) tidak membantu (e) sangat tidak membantu (a) sangat membantu (b) membantu (c) biasa saja (d) tidak membantu (e) sangat tidak membantu (a) sangat perlu (b) perlu (c) biasa saja (d) tidak perlu (e) sangat tidak perlu Frekuensi 12 20 7 0 0 0 12 18 9 0 0 12 23 4 0 0 8 24 7 0 18 17 4 0 0 0 13 22 4 0 11 21 7 0 0 14 21 4 0 0 10 22 7 0 0 19 15 5 0 0 Frekuensi (%) 30,8 51,2 18 0 0 0 30,8 46,2 23 0 0 30,8 59 10,2 0 0 20,5 61,5 18 0 46,2 43,6 10,2 0 0 0 33,3 56,5 10,2 0 28,2 53,8 18 0 0 36 53,8 10,2 0 0 30,8 56,4 12,8 0 0 53, 8 38,5 7,7 0 0

2.

Pendapat siswa tentang membuat pertanyaan dalam Group Competition Strategy?

3.

Pendapat siswa tentang mempelajari cara membuat pertanyaan dalam Group Competition Strategy Pendapat siswa tentang menyiapkan pertanyaan berdasarkan teks yang anda pahami Pendapat siswa tentang fasilitas yang digunakan dalam pembelajaran reading dengan teknik Group Competition Strategy Pendapat siswa tentang mudah tidaknya teks-teks yang diberikan dalam Group Competition Strategy Pendapat siswa tentang Group Competition Strategy dalam membantu siswa memahami cerita lebih mendalam Pendapat siswa tentang penggunaan Group Competition Strategy dalam membantu siswa belajar reading Pendapat siswa tentang penggunaan Goup Competition Strategy dalam membantu Anda dalam belajar bahasa Inggris secara umum Pendapat siswa tentang penggunaan Group Competition Strategy dalam belajar bahasa Inggris perlu dilanjutkan dalam kegiatan belajar di kelas

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

126

The result of Questionnaires (translated version) No 1. Questions Students opinion about the implementation of Group Competition Strategy Responses (a) very like (b) like (c) neither like nor dislike (d) dislike (e) very dislike (a) very easy (b) easy (c) neither easy nor difficult (d) difficult (e) very difficult (a) very fast (b) fast (c) neither fast nor not fast (d) not fast (e) very not fast (a) very fast (b) fast (c) neither fast nor not fast (d) not fast (e) very not fast (a) very good (b) good (c) neither good nor bad (d) bad (e) very bad (a) very easy (b) easy (c) neither easy nor difficult (d) difficult (e) very difficult (a) really helpful (b) helpful (c) neither helpful nor unhelpful (d) unhelpful (e) really unhelpful (a) really helpful (b) helpful (c) neither helpful nor unhelpful (d) unhelpful (e) really unhelpful (a) really helpful (b) helpful (c) neither helpful nor unhelpful (d) unhelpful (e) really unhelpful (a) very necessary (b) necessary (c) neither necessary nor unnecessary (d) unnecessary (e) really unnecessary Frequency 12 20 7 0 0 0 12 18 9 0 0 12 23 4 0 0 8 24 7 0 18 17 4 0 0 0 13 22 4 0 11 21 7 0 0 14 21 4 0 0 12 22 5 0 0 21 15 3 0 0 Frequency (%) 30,8 51,2 18 0 0 0 30,8 46,2 23 0 0 30,8 59 10,2 0 0 20,5 61,5 18 0 46,2 43,6 10,2 0 0 0 33,3 56,5 10,2 0 28,2 53,8 18 0 0 36 53,8 10,2 0 0 30,8 56,4 12,8 0 0 53, 8 38,5 7,7 0 0

2.

Students opinion about constructing questions in Group Competition Strategy Students opinion about how to learn to construct question in Group Competition Strategy Students opinion about the preparation of constructing questions in the implementation of group competition strategy Students opinion about the facilities in implementing group competition strategy

3.

4.

5.

6.

Students opinion about the reading material used in the implementation of group competition strategy Students opinion about on group competition strategy in helping students to comprehend the reading texts Students opinion about on group competition strategy in helping students in learning reading Students opinion about on group competition strategy in helping students in learning English Students opinion on group competition strategy in should be continued in English class

7.

8.

9.

10.

127

Appendix 6 The Photographs of the Implementaion of Group Competition Strategy

Students practiced to construct some questions in front of class

Students had discussion in their own group

Some students was complaining to a certain group

128

Group G had discussion

Students wanted to be appointed to answer questions by raising their hands

The leader of group D performed in front of the class

129

Only a student who could answer from a certain group

Teacher controlled the implementation of group competition strategy

130

CURRICULUM VITAE

Rinu Pamungkas was born on January 29, 1988 in Trenggalek, East Java. Although he was majoring in natural science in Junior High School, he is interested in studying English. He actively joined English competition when he was in Junior High School. Besides, he once became English debate trainer in one institution in his hometown. Moreover, he also joined KIR extracurricular and succeeded to get the first winner in East Java KIR competition with the theme The Implementation of Effective Technology through Farming Products in East Java. Then, he graduated from SMA Negeri 1 Trenggalek in 2006 with the bright score. Although he wanted to be a doctor, finally he continued and finished his study at English Education Program of State University of Malang. Before in State University of Malang, he was also accepted as a student in Social Economy Poultry in Gajah Mada University. However, he chose English Language Education as a program which he wanted to be mastered. During his study, he worked as a teacher in one institution in Malang, a freelancer private teacher, and also a freelancer translator. He joined some courses in Business because he wanted to be an entrepreneur. His undergraduate degree could be finished in 3, 5 years. His big goal is that he wants to get his M.B.A soon after he had changed his mind to be a doctor.