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Team 7 Joedi Brown | Fariba Ismat | Kamyar Lolavar Tehrani Pavlos Troulis | Chee Seong Lin | Apipong Ponsawapark June 2007
Workload has been distributed as follows:
Section 1: Apipong Pongsawapark
Section 2: Joedi Brown (Project Manager) Pavlos Troulis
Section 3: Chee Seong Lin
Section 4: Kamyar Lolavar Tehrani
Team 7 (MVP-Ruhiira) would like to thank all individuals interviewed and involved within our research during the time frame of May 3rd –May 10th (Professor Emmanuel Tumusiime Mutebille, Dr.Lawyer Kafureeka, Dr. Johnson Nkuuhe, Farida Rakiimi, Richard Edwards, Dr.Augustus Nuwagaba, David Siriri, Hilda Tusingwire, James Byaruhamgia, John Francis, James Amutworore, Besigye Matthus etc). A Special thanks is extended to Christine Ainomugisha, for her enthusiasm, valuable contributions and patience expressed during our visit to Mbarara, Uganda.
We would also like to acknowledge the assistance and valuable inputs obtained from course tutors at the Development Planning Unit (DPU).
Team 7 (MVP-Ruhiira) June 2007
findings/recommendations section. The purpose of our field to MVP-Ruhiira, Uganda as our terms of reference indicates was to assess the cont contribution of the MVP initiative in relation to Uganda’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP). In order for us to examine how MVP has contributed to PEAPs objectives, we have used the MDG policy framework. The fulfilment of our mission scope required that; in-depth research, consultation with different stakeholders and interviews with local people be carried out.
Our inception report therefore depicts our initial assessment of the situation in which several research questions are posed to be answered during fieldwork exercise. Research in the field was focused on 5 sectors, (1) Community Development ( i.e. Empowerment & Education), (2) Health, (3) Agriculture & Environment, (4) Infrastructure
Development and (5) Enterprise Development. After exploring findings in the field the remainder of our report breakdown each sector according to its strengths, weaknesses, areas for further research and concludes with the proposal of recommendations and strategic guidelines. These are aimed to help and facilitate future research into how MVP initiative can better enhance the mission of PEAP.
Finally, we take this opportunity to highlight that during fieldwork exercise we received contradictory data in a couple of instances from different stakeholders (e.g. funding from donors, ratios of students/teacher and patients/doctor). Therefore, further research may be required in order to obtain more coherent data. In addition, we acknowledge the fact that due to time constrains, we were unable to gather all data required and therefore we acknowledge that our research is limited in this perspective.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgment ………………………………………………………………. 3 Overview………………………………………………………………………… 4 Figures, Tables, Maps ……………………………………………………….… 6 Acronyms ………………………………………………………………………. 7 1. General Background....……………………………………………………… 8 1.1 Ruhiira ……...……..…………………………………………….................... 8 1.2 MVP Site: The selection of Ruhiira ………………………………………… 11 2. Theoretical Framework…………………………………………..…………. 2.1 Millennium Development Goals ………………………..……………………. 2.2 Poverty Eradication Action Plan……………………………………..... ……. 2.3 MDG & PEAP: Overlaps and Critique ………………………………………. 12 12 12 14
3. Mission Scope and Objectives………………..………………..…………….. 14 3.1 Mission Scope.……………………………………………………………… … 14 3.2 Objectives ……………………………………………………………………. 15 4. Methodology…..……………………………………………………………… 16 4.1 Research Questions……………………………………………………………. 17 4.2 Research Techniques………………………………………………………… 18 5. Institutional Landscape…………………………………………………….. 5.1 Primary Stakeholders ………………………………………………………… 5.2 Secondary Stakeholders ……. ………………………………………………. 5.3 Power Relationships among Key Actors ……………………………………. 6. Recommendations…………………………………………………………… 6.1 Community Development: Education....................................................... 6.2 Community Development: Empowerment ……………………………........ 6.3 Health ………………………………………………………………………….. 6.4 Agriculture and Development ………………………………………………. 6.5 Infrastructure Development …………………………………………………. 6.6 Enterprise Development ………………………………………………. 6.7 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………… 7. Bibliography……………………………………………………………….. 8. Appendices …………………………………………………………………… Power Matrix …………………………………………………………………. Uganda’s Local Government System …………………………………………. Transect Walk Map ……………………………………………………………. Sector Findings: Figures ………………………………………...…………. Interviews: Structured and Un-Structured …………………………………… 19 20 20 21 21 21-22 23-24 24-25 26-27 27-28 28- 30 31 32-34 35 36 37 38 39-41 42-49
FIGURES, TABLES and MAPS
Figures/Maps 1.1 Map showing Ruhiira within Isingiro District..................................................... 8 1.2 Ruhiira Millennium Village map………………….…………………………….. 9 2.1 MDG & PEAP Overlaps ……………………………………………. ……… 13 3.1 MVP Sectors ………………………………………………………………… 15 4.1 Stakeholders to be interviewed ……………………………………………… 17 5.1 Primary vs. Secondary Stakeholder…..………………………………………. 19
Tables 1.1 Ruhiira Millennium Village demographic data………………………………. 1.2 Initial conditions in Ruhiira……………….. …………………………………… 10 11
ACRONYMS HIPC IFI IMF MDG MVP MV PEAP PRA PTA PRSP SMC UNDP UN WB High Indebted Poor Country Initiative International Financial Institutions International Monetary Fund Millennium Development Goals Millennium Village Program Millennium Village Poverty Eradication Action Program Participatory Rural Appraisal Parent Teachers Association Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers School Management System United Nations Development Program United Nations World Bank
Part 1: Inception General Background 1.1 Ruhiira Figure 1.1 Map showing Ruhiira within Isingiro District
Ruhiira is located In Isingiro district
Source: Mbarara District Information Portal
Ruhiira is located in Isingiro District in the south-west of Uganda. It is approximately 1500 meters above sea level (UNDP, 2007). It shares its south border with Tanzania and is roughly 30 kilometres in the east to the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The Earth Institute in collaboration with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has launched Millennium Village Project (MVP) for one village site in Uganda,
which is Ruhiira. MVP-Ruhiira started in March 2006; however, field activities began in June 2006, (UNDP, 2007). It covers 2 sub-counties - Nyakitunda and Kabuyanda, which consists of 6 parishes, highlighted in Figure 1.1.
Figure 1.2 Ruhiira Millennium Village map
Source: Adapted from Tusingwire, MVP 2007
As table 1.1 indicates, baseline information for Ruhiira depicts population growth at 3.5% in 2007. The percentage of male to female population is greater by 6%. The breakdown of households indicates that within Ruhiira 285 household are female headed whereas as 774 are male headed (MVP Annual report 2007: 281)
Table 1.1 Ruhiira Millennium Village demographic data Items Total population Household Population growth rate Percentage of Women Percentage of Men Male head households Female head households Members per household Land holding capacity per household (hector) Ethnic groups Bakiga Banyankore 86.4% 12.6%
Source: Adapted from UNDP (2007)
Data 5,571 1,059 3.5% 47.0% 53.0% 774 285 5.3 0.23
Some initial conditions in Ruhiira, before launching MVP, are demonstrated in Table 1.2. The residents of Ruhiira (90%) engages mostly in agriculture, experiences isolation from local markets, experiences lack of access to drinking water supply, have a low level of education-especially for women, and almost half of its residents live on less than 1$/day (Millennium Village Report, 2006).
Furthermore, malaria prevalence is 30% but HIV/AIDS prevalence is only 8 - 10%, and only 5% of women deliver birth within health units (MVP Annual Report 2007:288) People having 1 or 4 meals per day accounts for 5.6%, but one third of children are under weight. The nearest clean water is within 3 kilometres range from Ruhiira and only 5% of land are covered by trees.
Table 1.2 Initial conditions in Ruhiira Items People below the poverty line ($250) Employment in agricultural sector HIV/AIDS prevalence Malaria prevalence Ownership of Mosquito Nets Birth delivery in health units Availability of food 2 meals per day 3 meals per day 1 meal or 4 meals per day Under weight children below 5 years Nearest protected water spring (km) Land under tree cover 57.9% 31.0% 5.6% 30.0% - 40.0% 3 5.0%
Source: Adapted from (MVP Annual Report 2007)
Data 30.0% - 40.0% 90.0% 8.0% – 10.0% 30.0% 3.0% 5.0%
1.2 MVP Site: the selection of Ruhiira
MVP is regarded as a ‘bottom-up’ approach that is reflective of a rural-bias ensuring that Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are achieved, “a bottom-up approach to lifting developing country villages out of the poverty trap” (Cabral, Farrington and Ludi 2006: 2). MVP operates under the premise that by ensuring that the basic needs are satisfied, it is only then that economic development can truly take-off .
In order to be classified as a MVP site the following criteria must be met: Be in a hunger and poverty hotspot within African. Represent an important agro-ecological site.
Poverty as it relates to this report can be defined as the lack of basic means necessary to satisfy material and social needs (Chronic Poverty Research Centre 2005:16). It is within this overarching area that we have been assigned the task to explore and highlight the relationship between the two frameworks that will be embraced during the course of our research and analysis of Ruhiira. 2. Theoretical Framework: Relationship between poverty reduction and MVP 2.1 Millennium Development Goals MDGs promoted by the United Nations (UN) were ratified by the international community in 2000 and centres around 8 goals which includes- 18 targets and 48 indicators (United Nations Millennium Development Goals, 2000). These goals are:
Goal 1: Goal 2: Goal 3: Goal 4: Goal 5: Goal 6: Goal 7: Goal 8:
The eradication of extreme poverty and hunger Achieve universal primary education Promote gender equality and empower women Reduce child mortality Improving maternal health Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other infectious diseases Ensure environmental sustainability Develop a global partnership for development
(United Nations Millennium Development Goals, 2000).
MDGs are fully consistent with Uganda’s national policy priority regarding poverty reduction. As such, the Ugandan government is committed to achieving the MDGs by the targeted date of 2015 (Ministry of Finance 2004:10). The MVP initiative is consistent with MDGs policy framework and is therefore the best means of assessing project’s impact in Ruhiira.
2.2 Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) PEAP aims to transform Uganda from a least-developed country into a middle-income country through the process of industrialization and with a strong emphasis on investment
in competitive enterprises (Ministry of Finance 2004:1). Uganda can therefore be said to have embraced the doctrines of the international financial institutions (IFIs) with emphasis on market oriented growth instead of protecting domestic industry (Ministry of Finance 2004:1). By Focusing on the country’s comparative advantage of natural resources, there has been a heavy emphasis that industrialization should involve valueaddition on agricultural products (Ministry of Finance 2004:2)
PEAP supported on five pillars, identifies the following as critical areas for poverty eradication Economic management – an enabling environment for sustained economic growth and transformation. Production, competitiveness and incomes. Security, conflict resolution and disaster management. Governance. Human Development.
(Ministry of Finance 2004:5-6)
Figure 2:1 MDG & PEAP Overlaps
2.3 MDG & PEAP: Overlaps and Critique Firstly, both PEAP and MDG seek to incorporate a participatory approach towards poverty reduction. Secondly, there is an overlap in principles of MDG and PEAP with regards to human development and production/competitiveness/incomes. For example as illustrated in figure 2:1, PEAP pillar on human development overlaps with MDG numbers 1, 2, 5 and 6. With regards to PEAP pillar on economic management, there is a slight overlap with MDG goal 8 which calls for developing a global partnership for development. For example, within MDG goal 8 one of the indicators to measure attainability of this goal stems around the need to foster a relationship with the private sector so as to ensure the dissemination of new skills related to updated technology. On the other hand, MVP attempts to achieve MDG goal 1 through increased agricultural productivity. However, it seems to ignore the fact that according to the Ministry of Finance, regional inequalities are wide and signify a marked decline in living standards. As a result, inequality might endanger the potential benefits brought by increased productivity (Ministry of Finance 2004:15)
Finally, although both MVP and PEAP include the goal to diversify agriculture into livestock and high value crops etc, it is still unclear as to how this transition will be initiated and achieved. Furthermore, according to the Ministry of Finance, the gender gap in most levels of primary education has been eliminated; however there is still absenteeism and high drop out rates for girls (Ministry of Finance 2004:23). MVP responds to this by improving the education standards. Nevertheless, there are no clear commitment on solid gender equality policies, and/or improvement in hygiene and sanitary conditions which are mainly associated with girls’ absenteeism and drop out rate (Ministry of Finance 2004: 23)
3. Mission Scope and Objectives
3.1 Mission Scope Our mission scope is to explore the relationship that MVP has with poverty reduction
initiatives within Uganda. In addition key issues will be identified for future research in order to enhance the correlation between MVP and PEAP. Based on frameworks for MVP and PEAP, the primary challenges identified for MVP- Ruhiira encircles the issue areas of; 1) community development, 2) agriculture and environment 3) health, 4) infrastructure development, and 5) enterprise development (Tusingwire, MVP 2007). Our research aims to explore and compile additional information within each thematic area as this will enable us to have a better understanding of the project’s impacts. The key issues derived from each thematic area can be identified in hunger and malnutrition, water and sanitation, health, education, environment degradation, enterprise development and energy –all of which are goals and targets for MDGs (Tusingwire, MVP 2007). Figure 3:1 MVP Sectors
The aim and objective of our research will observe closely the overlaps identified theoretically of both MVP and PEAP. Our research objectives as expressed in our research questions section will enable us to have a better understanding of MVP and be better able to analyze projects impact. Our mission scope objectives can be summarized
Community Development To explore the issue of gender inequality through site visit and interviews and to assess how well the issue of gender inequality has been implemented within project design of MVP. To understand the local primary educational system in order to assess its effectiveness, the quality vs. quantity divide (attendance and educational statistics). Agriculture and Environment To understand the agricultural production system and its sustainability after the project period has ended. To assess dependency on subsidized farm inputs such as seeds and in-organic fertilizers. Health To understand local healthcare issues such as family planning, health education and the availability of medicine as a result of MVP initiatives. Infrastructure Development To understand the existing infrastructure condition in schools, health centres, water supply, sanitation, communication, information technologies, energy and transportation. Enterprise Development To understand the business sector development at the local level such as entrepreneurship training. Assess the role of private sector that will take over from the donors within the context of sustainability of small business development. To find out any future proposals or strategies being designed to deal with current economic situation or to assist with strengthening employment and income growth. To find out what support and/or strategies are designed to promote alternative employment and means of income for Ruhiira.
4.1 Research Questions The following questions comprise the thematic areas mentioned before that are crucial in assessing the linkages between MVP and poverty reduction strategies. We expect to have our questions answered with a random selection of villagers, as well as different stakeholders’ which we can briefly summarize as:
Figure 4:1 Stakeholders to be interviewed Name Johnson Nkuuhe David Siriri Hilda Tusingwire James Amutwuorore John Francio Richard Happy Dr. Emmanuel Atuharrwe Grace Sikahurwa
Position Uganda MDG Support Advisor UN MVP Science Coordinator MVP Community Development Coordinator MVP Gender Facilitator MVP Agriculture Facilitator MVP Enterprise Facilitator MVP Health Facilitator Local District Council Sub-county Chief
The questions to be addressed through the help of the above individuals will draw upon: The issue of ‘Land Tenure’ within Ruhiira, do all residents enjoy secure land tenure? Will insecure ownership pose problems in fulfilling MVP aims? The sustainability of the project – i.e. exit strategy, the ‘scaling up’ of project, the issue of “Big Push”, aid dependency and macroeconomic stability will be explored within this area. The current management and traditional governance structure of villages as well as the management and administration of these villages after 5 years. In addition, the
issue of ‘capital assets for shared use’ (e.g. generator, trucks and the ambulance) will be explored. The level of participation from the local community in practice and local adaptation to project. Gender equality-among other goals- will be hard to achieve in Uganda (Antonacci, 2007), we will therefore assess how MVP addresses the issue of gender inequality and explore the breakdown of households for a better understanding of empowerment initiatives undertaken. The differences and overlapping interests of MVP and PEAP. The level of homogeneity of Ruhiira in terms of ethnical and religious differences and the level of inequality as a defining factor in poverty reduction through economic growth. Demographics of Ruhiira. Health condition before and after the MVP. Potential for the future and specific statistics to assess the situation. Educational standards. Potential improvements and statistics.
4.2 Research Techniques1 Research and primary data collection techniques proposed to be undertaken includes: (UNCHS, 1996) Transect walk/direct observation data collection: Team’s own observations and understandings of the surrounding environment. Useful for collecting data by individual perceptions from the field. Unstructured interview/Oral testimonies: Useful for unpredicted interviews which mostly concern the local population of the villages as well as different staffs from different sectors. Semi-structure interviews: Used for officials and/or representatives of various stakeholders. Targets specific areas within each sector and aims for comprehensive and objective answers for each question.
Please refer to appendix for a summary our research techniques.(appendix 3 & 5)
Another crucial aspect that will be carefully considered while in the field is the knowledge of local developers which is of great importance as their inputs are considered valuable for our project. Local developer’s proximity to the ongoing events in the field and their daily interaction with local villagers give them an extra understanding about the needs and priorities as well as strengths and weaknesses which will otherwise remain undetectable by our research group.
In addition to primary data collection techniques, secondary data collection will be gathered through the use of news articles, annual reports, emails, presentations and other means of desk research. 5. Institutional Landscape MVP is designed and implemented with stakeholders from the village, local, national and international level. We have therefore broken down our key actors into primary and secondary which is expressed in figure 5.1 below, “Primary stakeholders are those affected by the project either in a positive or negative way. Secondary stakeholders are those engaged in an intermediary role in the delivery of project benefits” (Potts 2002:2346).
Figure 5:1 Primary vs. Secondary Stakeholders Primary Ruhiira Village (5,571 residents) involving the local communities that consist of villagers such as: Teachers, Headmasters, Health workers (Doctors, Nurses, and Midwives), Farmers and local entrepreneurs. Secondary UNDP (Implementing Partner of Millennium Village Project), the project implementing team includes: Science Coordinator, Country cocoordinator, Enterprise Trainer, Agriculture officer, Education and health facilitators, Water Engineer, Community Development Coordinator, Technoserve (A Business Development Organization; offering
marketing techniques and training) and 18 community health workers. Stakeholder at local government: Isingiro District Council – LC5 Japan and German governments (major donors); and Millennium Promise NGO (Fund Raiser)
Nyakitunda and Kabuyanda sub-county Councils Ruhiira village Parish Village Council – LC – LC2 – LC1
(* consult appendix for visual depiction) Central Government Earth Institute (Scientific Advisor) Faculty of Medicine and Faculty of Development Studies – Mbarara University, Ministry of Health and Marie Stopes Clinic , Forestry Resource Research Centre and World Agro Forestry Centre.
5.1 Primary Stakeholders We have identified villagers as being primary stakeholders as MVP initiatives work directly with the respective communities which are critical to MVP success (Millennium Project, 2006:3). The Isingiro district council has overall responsibility of villages’ management and along with central government has committed political and material support to the project2 (MVP 2007 Annual Report: 284). In addition to general support, the local government seconds three of its staff to MVP - a water officer, an agriculture facilitator and a community development officer. 5.2 Secondary Stakeholders
The UNDP as identified in figure 5:1 is a secondary stakeholder that plays a critical role in the coordination of village site and national-level activities as well assisting in the scaling up of MV initiatives to a national level (Millennium Project 2006:3).
see appendix # 2 for local government system chart
secondary stakeholder is Millennium Promise which is a US based non-for-profit organization whose central activity is to raise funds in support of MVP (ibid) for example; the governments of Japan and Germany are main donors to the projects’ initiative. The Earth Institute at Columbia University has been identified as providing scientific advice on matters like public health, energy, nutrition, hydrology, environment and agronomy (ibid). And finally, Mbarara University has been identified as offering field support services and medical staff to Ruhiira’s health clinic 1. 5.3 Power Relationship between key actors3: The November 2006 progress report highlights the relationship between the villagers and MVP team as cooperative and mutually beneficial to all parties involved (Millennium Project 2006:2). However with MVP explicitly linked to achieving the MDG and with key intentions of scaling-up project, we therefore question the magnitude of consultation and participation of villagers and have deduced that the MVP team possesses more power within this relationship. For example: UNDP and MVP donors can be classified as highly important and influential stakeholders, since funding is the backbone of project initiative and the fact that UNDP is the implementing body of project.
For Power matrix, please refer to appendix 1
Part 2 : Findings and Recommendations Our findings and recommendations will be broken down into the 5 sectors previously identified and will proceed in the following order Key findings (strength and weaknesses) Recommendations o Further research area in order to fill gaps identified o Strategy guidelines
Finally this section will be concluded with overarching key recommendations.
6.1 Community Development- Education The sector of community development has been broken down into education and empowerment due to the nature of its activities.
MVP introduced a school feeding program, along with supports from Parent Teachers Association (PTA) and School Management Committees (SMC), to increase the number of students attending school. As a result of this only 14% of children did not attend school in December 2006. In addition, student enrolment has increased in Ruhiira from 283 students in March 2006 to 513 in December 2006.Lastly, Ruhiira demonstrates a low teacher to student ration 1:55 in comparison to national statistics (MVP Annual Report 2007: 298).
The ratio of teacher to student in Ruhiira’s public school is considerable high in comparison to local private school in which the ratio is only 1:15. Other identifiable weaknesses include - the lack of school materials such as books and stationary supplies,
early marriage, pregnancy at a young age and long distance between children’ houses and schools
The above weakness fosters a low rate of passing for the first grade of which only 2 out of 300 students passed successfully (MVP Annual Report 2007: 298).
6.1c Future Research and Recommendation
The implementation of a school feeding program has led to an increase in student enrolment however only 0.67% of enrolled students have passed the first grade. Therefore there needs to be an improvement in the quality of education and this should be explored further.
6.1d Strategic Guidelines
Since the education development in Ruhiira focuses on only quantity, our strategic guidelines calls for an improvement of education quality in the village. For example, to increase number of teachers in Ruhiira’s public schools in order to reduce the ratio of teachers to students; to raise awareness and interaction between teachers and parents regarding student performance and to introduce training program to improve quality of teaching for teachers. These guidelines would help to truly increase human capital of the village, which also corresponds to PEAP pillar 5 "Human Development".
6.2 Community Development – Empowerment 6.2a Strengths To foster community participation, MVP has established five committees from each village to be responsible for each sector and to work along with the local government. The village community has also been actively engaged in associations such as SMC and PTA contributing to action plans for education.
We have identified that gender was overlooked during the planning phase of MVP, as such we believe this negligence could actually debilitate MVP goals on poverty reduction from being realized. For example: we could not identify how participants for entrepreneurship class were chosen or whether both men and women felt they had equal opportunities in participating. We also could not gauge if villagers (both men and women) felt they have been given the tools necessary to continue initiatives started by MVP once the project has ended. For example – knowledge of knowing that an agricultural extension officer could be consulted from their local district council for advice.
6.2c Future Research and Recommendation
Gender inequality is a weak area of MVP in its attempt to tackle poverty reduction in Ruhiira. The disaggregation of project impacts as it affects both men and women’s access and control to resources should be explored further. In addition, we recommend that villagers are questioned as to whether or not they are aware of the resources readily available around them.
6.2d Strategic Guidelines
As previously stated the issue of gender was not fully addressed in the design and implementation stage of MVP, we therefore advocate for a proper gender mainstreaming system to be created. This would help to support PEAPs pillar 5 “Human Development”. It is also important that access to resources and information is disseminated evenly among both male and female residents of Ruhiira. We hold the belief that through capacity building both men and women within Ruhiira will be fully empowered to decipher through information presented and to make appropriate decisions that will lead to poverty reduction from a local-national level.
Our findings indicate that capacity in the health sector has increased. This increase has evolved from the improvements of the physical capacity (several health units built and several others under construction) and medicine supply. Another improvement has been improvements in preventative measures to combat malaria. For example - 33,000 long lasting treated nets were distributed to over 12,000 households with their effectiveness being monitored by community health workers (Tusingwire, MVP 2007).
In addition, provisions to train and utilize the informal health sector (i.e. traditional healers and mid-wives) in order to increase their effectiveness are being looked into. Our research demonstrates that traditional health healers still enjoy great popularity amongst villagers. One example is that “most pregnant mothers deliver at home sometimes with the help of traditional birth attendants, and only 5% deliver in health units.” (MVPAnnual Report 2007: 283).
Further significant achievement for this sector has been the increased participation of local villagers with in-kind contribution; the health unit under construction in Ruhiira has received more than 50% in-kind contribution from the local villagers which signify the importance of this sector to villagers.
The main weakness of this sector is the huge dependency on the supply of drugs. Drugs are being supplied by the central government and topped-up by donors which as mentioned before has increased the sector’s capacity but at the same time is becoming a threat to the sustainability of the sector. In addition low accessibility and connectivity – i.e. lack of proper roads and absence of an ambulance for emergency cases as well as
limited working hours in this sector makes it even harder for the villagers to access health services.
6.3c Future Research and Recommendation
For future research, we suggest that the issue of dependency on drug supplement should be carefully considered and that further disease prevention policies should be applied. The importance of this sector is that it fulfils the 2nd and 5th pillar of PEAP (Human Development and increase in income) which also overlaps with MDG goals 4 (reduce child mortality), 5 (improving maternal health) and 6 (Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other infectious diseases) and collectively plays a significant role in poverty reduction in Ruhiira and Uganda.
6.3d Strategic Guideline
As for the strategy guideline, we highly recommend that the effectiveness and efficiency of this sector should be maximized. Interviews conducted as well as observations indicated that with limited doctors’ hours coupled with not enough doctors present created a scenario of high waiting period leading to less consultations therefore an ineffectiveness of available resources. A pivotal improvement in effectiveness would lead to the enhancement of PEAPs pillar on human development.
6.4 Agriculture and Environment
According to the MVP Annual Report (2007), agriculture is the main occupation in Ruhiira - the research village of the MVP – and 90% of the population are involved in agriculturally related activities. Taking also into account the fact that per capita food production in Ruhiira has been declining over the years, it is profound that agriculture is a key element in the MVP.
6.4a Strengths Firstly, MVP has contributed in increasing and sustaining bean, maize and banana production within Ruhiira. According to the MVP Annual Report due to the improved seeds and the use of fertilizer, ‘‘bean yields increased from an average of 500 kg/hectare to 1100 kg/hectare’’. Also, improved maize seed and fertilizer resulted in ‘‘above average on-farm performance and farmers are expecting a good harvest’’ (MVP Annual Report 2007: 290-291)
With regards to banana production, according to the UNDP (Tusingwire, MVP 2007) training communities in soil and water conservation and disease management in banana are expected to deliver increased and sustained productivity. Secondly, ‘‘production of fruits offers opportunities for farmers to diversify their cropping system and income base” (MVP Annual Report 2007: 292). Last but not least, the loss of environmental resources and the improvement of ecosystem take place through the establishment of tree nurseries and the procurement of various tree seeds (Tusingwire, MVP 2007).
Due to the high emphasis of project initiatives within the sector of agriculture, we have not identified any major weakness within this sector.
6.4c MVP-Agriculture & PEAP
Profoundly, the MVP overlaps with the second pillar of the PEAP-Enhancing Production, competitiveness and incomes. Furthermore, it indirectly overlaps with MDG 1. MVP boosts agricultural production through the provision of fertilizer and improved seeds, leading in this way to an increase in incomes. Also, the use of fertilizers and the planting of trees assist towards this direction by improving the quality of the soil and the environment in general. In the end, the training that was mentioned above can be beneficial in enhancing human development, which is the fifth pillar of the PEAP.
6.4d Future Research & Strategic Guidelines The most important issue in this section derives from the fertilizers and the sustainability of increased production after the project has ended. The fertilizers for MVP are imported, so it would be advisable to research whether organic fertilizers or locally produced fertilizers can potentially substitute the imported ones. Also, we think that further research needs to be undertaken in terms of identifying diversification options and prioritizing them (e.g. livestock, exotic fruits). Depending on the outcome of the research with regards to the fertilizer, a potential recommendation would be to reduce dependency on imported fertilizer through the use of locally produced or organic one. Also, further efforts should be made in order to avoid soil erosion and environmental deterioration. Some of them could refer to planting more trees and expand terracing. 6.5 Infrastructure 6.5a Strengths There is 80% increase in school attendance from 283 students to 513 students in Ruhiira area (MVP Annual Report 2007:299).The increase in pupil is due to the expansion of school facilities such as classroom and sanitation system. Another positive key finding is the increase in availability of clean water supply; the evidence shows that water spring is constructed through underground channel system to prevent contamination from overland flow. 6.5b Weaknesses With respect to existing condition at Ruhiira, there are some key weaknesses that can be identified from our research. First, there is still insufficient clean water supply to the local resident though rainwater tanks and underground water channel system have been installed in the village. Second, poor sanitation system is commonly found within the village. Third, there is insufficient energy supply in the village such as electricity. Last, poor accessibility to/from village is caused by unreliable transport link and poor road conditions.
6.5c Future research and recommendation Infrastructure development is one of MVP objectives that closely overlaps with the second pillar of the PEAP -Enhancing Production, Competitiveness and Incomes to address poverty reduction in Ruhiira. Although, MVP has attempt to tackle the current situation, there are some remaining areas that need further investigation in order to better assess the project’s impact. First, water spring will need further measurement against the level of contamination and water treatment process. Second, there is a need for further research regarding information and communication technology (ICT) such as solar generated system
6.5d Strategy Guidelines According to Jeffrey Sachs infrastructure development is one of three main areas to achieve poverty reduction (Sachs, 2006). PEAP also emphasizes the importance in strengthening infrastructure development to support services and markets in its second pillar-enhancing production, competitiveness and incomes. In order to fulfil the goal and enhance the infrastructure development, guidelines are needed for future action. First, additional clean water supply is needed through underground channel. Second, transportation is important for bringing in business to the rural area, and expanding market to other villages and urban area. Therefore, it is important to put transportation as a priority in order to facilitate and support other developments by providing adequate accessibility and connectivity. 6.6 Enterprise Development4
6.6a Strengths Entrepreneurship development in Ruhiira village was carried out through a ‘sensitization workshop’ and ‘Support to Women Groups’ Initiatives’.
For sector finding figures on enterprise development, agriculture and environment and
health; please refer to appendix4.
The sensitization workshop on entrepreneurship development involved 200 villagers (men, women and youth). They were sensitized over the causes of their poverty, 30 were selected out of 200 for further training (MVP 2007Annual Report: 296). Through
technoserve (business development organisation) they received training and exhibition on marketing, record keeping, business planning, costing and sales techniques (MVP 2007Annual Report: 296). Our personal observation and interviews acknowledged the fact that villagers have benefited from this enterprise training mainly the agriculture sector i.e. farmers who previously were overexploited by the middle man; now are able to sell their products directly to the market and generate better income as a result improving their social and economic well being. This achievement is considered to complement 3 of PEAPs pillar which aims at - human development, economic management and production, competitiveness and incomes.
Also women in Ruhiira village are supported by ‘Ruhiira Millennium Cooperative Bank’, apart from offering banking advice this micro credit facility offers low interest rate loans to members and helps women with the purchase of household necessities. The success of this sector indicates the achievement of MDG #1- ‘eradication of extreme poverty and hunger’. This scheme has not only created a form of social security net but has also contributed to PEAPs pillar on income generation and human development.
6.6b Weaknesses The achievement of this sector depicts an agricultural bias and therefore although this sector aims to help foster business ideas, other small businesses have been sidelined by agriculture production sector. In addition, marketing strategy has a narrow focus mainly on cost reduction as opposed to a comprehensive strategy that would cover other areas.
6.6c Future Research and Recommendations
In order to build on the existing successes of this sector we feel there is a need for other sectors to be researched and expanded to help diversify development of other sectors.
Also human and financial capacity of the bank should be looked into and if possible increased in order to offer further benefits beyond meeting primary needs of the villagers. Finally, the marketing strategy within this sector needs further research to find out in what other ways local entrepreneurs can improve their productivity and income.
6.6d Strategy Guidelines
In order to achieve long term sustainable development for the village we propose that MVP needs to look beyond comparative advantage of the village which heavily relies on agriculture and that other areas of income generation should be encouraged and introduced to the village. This would foster not only employment generation but would protect villagers from unexpected environmental shocks – i.e. lack of rain, soil erosion could threaten the livelihood of Ruhiira’s farmers which constitute 90% of the population.
6.7 Conclusion Although sector recommendations have been provided, it is our belief that the issue of sustainability and scalability constitutes our overarching recommendation for further research. The project itself defines sustainability in terms of economic growth and sustained income generation for the villages; however our group firmly believes that in order to sustain attempts to reduce poverty an equal participation will be needed from the following stakeholders: government, private sector and the civil society. Finally, it is too early to assess whether the project can be scaled up, however the research questions posed for further research will hopefully facilitate a better understanding.
Bibliography Antonacci, Kate. ‘Nkuuhe, Siriri Discuss Project’, Observer Online. March 27th, 2007. http://media.www.ndsmcobserver.com/media/storage/paper660/news/2007/03/27/News/ Nkuuhe.Siriri.Discuss.Project-2793509.shtml * accessed on 26/04/07 Bhatnagar B & Williams A C. “Participatory Development and the World Bank: potential directions for change.” World Bank Discussion Paper No. 183, Washington DC, Annex 2. 1992. Cabral, Lidia, Farrington, John and Ludi, Eva. “The Millennium Villages Project: A new approach to ending rural poverty in Africa.”, 101 Overseas Development Institute, 2006 http://www.odi.org/uk/nrp/nrp101_web.pdf Chambers Robert. “Participatory Rural Appraisal and the Reverse of Power.” Cambridge Anthropology, Vol. 19 No 1. 1996, pp 5-23 Chronic Poverty Research Center “ Chronic Poverty in Uganda: The Policy Challenges”, Chronic Poverty Research Center, UK 2005. Earth Institute.” The Millennium Villages: A New Approach to Fighting Poverty” The Earth Institute at Columbia University. 2006, http://www.earth.columbia.edu/millenniumvillages/index.php Fountain Publishers. Uganda District Information Handbook: Expanded Edition 20052006. Fountain Publishers: Kampala. 2005 Gibson Tony.” Planning for real: The approach of the Neighbourhood Initiatives Foundation in the UK.” RRA Notes. No.11, 1991 Government of Uganda, Ministry of Local Government, 2005, http://www.molg.go.ug/LocalGovernments.htm *accessed on 26/04/07 Mbarara District. “District Information Portal: Mbarara District”, Uganda Communication Commission (UCC). 2003, http://www.mbarara.go.ug/index.htm Mbarara District Information Portal, [http://www.mbarara.go.ug/overview/dist_map.htm] (accessed 31.05.07)
Mbarara District Profile, nd. http://www.ugandadish.org/mbarara.doc * accessed on 26/04/07
Millennium Promise. “Millennium Villages: A closer look: Ruhiira, Uganda”. 2006, http://mp.convio.net/site/PageServer?pagename=mv_ruhiira * Access 24 April, 2007 Millennium Villages Project “ Annual Report for Ruhiira, Uganda Millennium Village Year 1: February 2006-February 2007” Edited by United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Millennium Village Report.“The Millennium Village Project”. Press Report November 2006, UNDP. 2006, http://www.undp.org.sn/new/mv/Newsletter%20nov.pdf * Access 24 April, 2007 Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development. “Poverty Eradication Action Plan 2004/5-2007/8”, Ministery of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Kampala. 2004 Nyamugasira, Warren and Rowden, Rick. “New Strategies, Old Loan Conditions: Do the New IMF and World Bank Loans Support Countries' Poverty Reduction Strategies? The Case of Uganda.” http://www.africaaction.org/docs02/ugan0204.htm * accessed April 24, 2007. OEDC and African Development Bank, “African Economic Outlook 2004/2005: Uganda”, ODEC Emerging Economies Number 5. Development Centre: Paris 2005, pp. 425-437 Piron, Laure-Hélène and Norton, Andy, "Politics and the PRSP Approach: Uganda Case Study", Working Paper, Number WP240, Overseas Development Institute: London. 2004. Sachs, Jeffrey. “Foreign Aid Skeptics Thrive on Pessimism” L.A. Times May 7th, 2006 Op-Ed piece. * Accessed via UN-Wire daily news round up on May 8th, 2006. School of Peace and Conflict Management, 2005, An Assessment of Civic Literacy in Uganda’s Local Government. http://www.royalroads.ca/NR/rdonlyres/4864D118-CD0F43A5-8F1F-2F331FA8F3A1/0/CanadaCorpReportFinal.pdf * accessed on 26/04/07 Shaw, Timothy and Mbabazi, Pamela."Two Africas? Two Ugandas? An African 'Democratic Developmental State'? Or another 'failed state?” Conference on Making Peace Work, UNU, WIDER, Helsinki. 2004, Siriri, David. “Questions Regarding Ruhiira MV Site.” Email Correspondence April 18th 2007. Tusingwire, Hilda “Ruhiira Millennium Villages Project” * Presentation given on May 8th, 2007 at Mbarara University of Science and Technology.
Uganda’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP), International Monetary Fund, http://www.imf.org/external/NP/prsp/2000/Uga/01/index.htm *Access 11 April, 2007 United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT). “An urbanizing world: Global Report on Human Settlements.” Oxford University Press, 1996. pp.322-326 United Nations Millennium Development Goals. 2000 http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/index.html * accessed 4/25/07 UN Millennium Project. “Millennium Villages: A New Approach to Fighting Poverty”, Millennium Project. 2006, http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/mv/index.htm World Bank, World Development Report 2000/2001: Attacking Poverty, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTPOVERTY/0,,contentM DK:20195989~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:336992,00.html * Access 25 April, 2007
APPENDIX # 1: Power Matrix
High Importance A1 B3 A3 A2 B1
Key Primary Stakeholders: A1 - Ruhiira Village Residents A2 – local Government A3 – Central Government
Secondary Stakeholders: B1 – UNDP the executing organization B2 – Staff within UNDP B3 – Donors and Fund raisers B4 – Scientific Advisor B5 – UN agencies B6 – Other NGOs
APPENDIX # 2: Uganda’s Local Government System
APPENDIX # 3 : Transect Walk Map
APPENDIX # 4 : Sector Findings Figures 4.1 Enterprise Sector Before 1 market for 2000 villagers Over exploitation of farmers by middleman Over 15 km walk to nearest market Limited opportunities for investment Still the same Has been improved mainly for women by establishment of Millennium Village Cooperative Bank No value addition to produce sold by communities Has not been address by the existing marketing strategy (hence we are recommending a more comprehensive marketing strategy) Farmers individually sold their stock, earning 4000 USh per bunch of Matooke Farmers group formed and bulking centres established, bunches are sold at 6000 USh now earning better profit for farmers. After Still 1 market for 2000 villagers Has been addressed
4.2 Agriculture and Environment Sector Figures Activities Bean yields increase (kg/hector) Number of trained farmers for bean production Number of trained farmers for maize collection Improved bean seed (tons) Improved maize seed (tons) Improved DAP fertilizer (tons) Improved DAP (kg) Improved Urea (kg) Maize demonstration (gardens) Tree central nurseries Raised & distributed Grevillea tree seedlings Raised & distributed Calliandra tree seedlings Value from 500 to 1100 1300 66 12 32 25 15 15 12 4 15,000 2,000
4.3 Health Sector Findings: Major health issues
In children Malaria Worm infestation Syphilis RTIs Diarrheal diseases Fungal infections Source: Annual Report for Ruhiira
In adults Malaria Syphilis TB HIV/AIDS
Condition Only 3% of households used mosquito nets Malaria cases in Ruhiira: 2141 (Aug ’05) 182 community workers selected & trained Average patients attending health clinics – 2 (Aug ’05)
Progress Over 33,000 nets distributed to 12,000 households Malaria cases in Ruhiira: 751 (Oct ’05) Selection of an addition of 91 community workers Average patients attending health clinics – 50 (Oct ’05)
APPENDIX # 5: Interviews – Structured and Unstructured Foreword: Material presented within this section is solely a representation of the research techniques engaged in during the course of fieldwork exercise therefore does not reflect our findings wholly. Due to the constraint of time and space, we had to cut back presentation of our findings and present a summary in order to demonstrate the methodology. The key findings however are fully expressed within the body of actual report.
Name: James Byaruhamgia Date: 08/05/07
Position: Sub-county Chief Type: Semi-structured
Place: Sub-county office Count: 1
What are the contributions of MVPs to PEAP? By looking at the focus of the government of Uganda on agriculture and crop production and its later provisions for commercialization, it seems that MVPs are contributing a lot to reduction of poverty at a national scale.
Could you tell us about the administration structure at different levels from villages to county level? There are leaders present in each village which are elected directly by the villagers themselves. These villages are linked together to form a parish. At parish level, there is an Administration Unit which is a committee consisting of these village leaders. Then councils are elected at parish level from the parish Administration Unit to represent the parish. The chairman is elected by subcounty population. There is also another system which are the Parish Chiefs which are appointed by District Service Commission which is the body which recruits for civil servants within the district.
What about the issue of sustainability? I do not know much about the sustainability of the project, but I know that it would be a serious matter to analyze when the project is handed over to the government (after 5 years). But at the same time, we do not have much capacity at sub-county level.
Could you expand a bit on the land tenure system? Right now we do not have a formal title system. Mostly it is still being done in the customary way. However, we do not have severe land conflicts and it should even be fine at national level.
In your opinion, how has gender equality being addressed in MVs? Right now there is an officer at sub-county level to address gender issues. We respect gender issues. But at the same time we have allocated budget for activities and facilitation. We have even included gender inequality in various assessments we have made.
And what about participation and empowerment; how have this been addressed? The villagers are the most active in MVPs. At sub-county level we know all the happenings within the MVs. We are invited to meetings and consulted by different MVP bodies.
Could you tell us more about monitoring and evaluation of the project? This is totally out of the scope of our (Sub-county council) responsibilities. What we get are only the reports from MVPs and I absolutely know nothing about the evaluation.
What about the various partnerships that you seem to have or will have in the future? (He ignored this question)
Anything else you would like to mention? We require more capabilities (it seems that he is unhappy with the allocation of resources and believes that in order for them to become more actively involved, they need more resources). And for sustainability, I strongly believe that there are certain programs in the project that will suffer at later stages. Especially the big ones.
Thank you very much for your time and concern.
Name: David Siriri Date: 10/05/07
Position: UN MVP Science Coordinator Type: Semi-structured
Place: UNDP-Ruhiira Count: 2
Could you tell us about the monitoring and evaluation system in this project? We have already captured the baseline information. However the majority of our data has only been collected from our research village which as you know is Ruhiira. The assessment of the impact of this project will not take place till 2009. But we have continuous data collection and monitoring during the implementation 43
phase. We also have a sector-specific monitoring system. Still apart from the baseline surveys, there is no properly designed monitoring and evaluation system. That is because if a monitoring and evaluation is designed, it should be uniform all over Africa therefore UNDP is waiting for Columbia University to advise on further actions. We have realized that sustainability and dependency are the two most important issues in this project, what are your plans to tackle issues arising within this context? For example, we have found that imported fertilizers have created a huge dependency in the agriculture sector: We have always mentioned to the community that these would stop (by these he meant supplements and subsidies). Don’t forget that this project is a model with a high per capita investment. There are 4 key ingredients that one should take into consideration: 1-local government’s involvement. 2-community ownership and involvement 3-building a local private sector 4-local institutions Regarding the fertilizers, we are really looking forward to the private sector taking over the supplement of seeds and fertilizers.
We have been told by the officials in the District Council’s Office that their interaction with MVP is fading, what is your answer to this claim? It seems that at sub-county level there is a high intervention and interaction while at district level, these interactions start to lose order.
How, in your opinion, is MVP contributing to PEAP? MDGs are realized as one of the best ways to eradicate poverty. What is actually being done is the reposition of PEAP to meet MDGs (PEAP is realigned to meet MDGs!) and actually PEAP & MDGs are quite the same. What is happening is that PEAP is shifting from a World Bank-based model to a more or less UN-based one.
You mentioned about fertilizers earlier, could you please expand on that? When the project started, we didn’t even have organic components for fertilizers and the soil condition was so bad that we decided to jump-start the process. Now people have realized the importance of the fertilizers. Fertilizer are now provided by the donors but we are planning to subsidize it and decrease these subsidies gradually in order to – hopefully – see if people are willing to buy fertilizers from the local market. Fertilizers will be provided by the local private sector which is being looked at by our Enterprise coordinator (Richard Happy).
What about the supplement of drugs in health sector? Local government has a small contribution to supplement of drugs. (Then he moved on and talked about a future scheme that he called “Health Insurance Scheme” which was not clear to any of us and seemed too idealistic). But still, if properly utilized, even a short supply of drugs would suffice.
We have been told that traditional approaches are being discouraged by UNDP. If you admit that drugs are becoming a major issue then why don’t you utilize the informal health sector and mobilize them so that they will become more effective? Our traditional healings are based on superstitions and most healers do not have enough knowledge regarding effective medication. Traditional healers are outlawed by Uganda legal system. But for the ones with sufficient knowledge, we feel that we need to train them in order to be able to use them. Actually one of the reasons for a high number of mortality is because of these traditional healers.
What about gender issues? How have you addressed them? For this purpose, we have recruited a gender facilitator but I must admit that there has not been a properly managed and designed program apart from some interventions in schools. Our biggest challenge is property ownership and use. According to the Land Act 1998 by Ugandan government, land belongs to both men and women. But still this hasn’t been applied practically.
What are your plans to improve transportation and infrastructure? In infrastructure sector, we are looking at : 1-building construction 2-road construction 3-ICT 4-Energy For the first year, the priorities were mostly water and food issues. Now we have plans to construct new access roads. As soon as this is done, it is believed that the private sector will enter and facilitate growth. And regarding affordability, we think that if the income of people increases, people will afford it. And we have bought an ambulance which is being managed by all health units. (But actually, the health unit officials told us that there is no ambulance).
Could you tell us more about education in MVPs; their water supplies, their feeding program and their textbooks for example? For everything we do, we are guided by the community action plans. We have identified the priorities of different schools and have developed a time frame. We don’t have the capacity to undertake all priorities simultaneously and we also
need the in-kind contribution for other areas as well. Each school has different priorities but the work plan is there and we are working on it. For our last question, could you tell us more about the marketing and promotion of agricultural products? People here have started to think of what ‘sells better’ rather than what ‘is better’ as foods. We are planning to facilitate market linkages, negotiation and capacity building. The elimination of middlemen and the grouping of farmers has helped with the negotiation of better prices and the provision of additional services.
Thank you very much Mr.Siriri for your time.
Name: Unknown Date: 09/05/07
Position: Restaurant owner Type: Unstructured
Place: Ruhiira Village Count: 1
How has your business been affected since MVP has been introduced to the village? MVP hasn’t affected my business much. I cannot indicate any significant change or improvement to my business.
Are there any training initiatives given to you by MVP staff which can help you to enhance your business? I have had only one session of training by the Enterprise officer. We actually haven’t had a local group meeting with MVP, but we have had meetings with the local council.
Could you tell us a bit about your operating hours? When do you open and when do you close? I open early in the morning and my shop is open all day.
Anything else that you want to mention? Yes, I think that this project is only benefiting the farmers and does not offer much for our other businesses.
Name: Unknown Date: 09/05/07
Position: Men saloon and banana wholesaler Type: Unstructured
Place: Ruhiira Village Count: 2
How has your business been affected since MVP has been introduced to the village? I have more customers these days and my business has improved. MVP staffs have added to my previous customers and they buy from us.
What are you going to do with these bananas? (There was a bunch of banana in front of the shop) I have just bought these bananas from the farmers in the village and I am waiting for someone to buy them from me here and resell them in Mbarara.
When do you think they will come to buy your bananas? It usually doesn’t take more than a day or two for a buyer to come and buy our products.
What do you think you need the most from MVP? What we all need the most is first water and then electricity.
Thank you very much for your time.
Name: Unknown Date: 09/05/07
Position: Grocery store owner Place: Ruhiira Village Type: Unstructured Count: 3
How has your business been affected since MVP has been introduced to the village? The sales volume has increased, there is more variety of products available and, of course, I am making more money these days.
Have there been any negative effects from MVP to your business? So far, no. (interviewee seemed distracted, so we decided to leave)
Name: Unknown Date: 09/05/07
Position: Grocery store owner Place: Ruhiira Village Type: Unstructured Count: 4
How has your business been affected since MVP has been introduced to the village? We have been doing OK. Don’t forget that we have opened this shop only after MVP. But there has not been any significant increase in sales as we have basically the same number of customers.
What do you think you need the most from MVP? What we need the most – in my opinion – is electricity.
Name: Christine Arinaitwe Date: 09/05/07
Position: Housewife Type: Unstructured
Place: Ruhiira Village Count: 5
How many children do you have? And do they go to school? Four. Three of them attend schools and the other one is still young.
What are the main problems in your village? Our biggest issue is water. But I hope that it will improve in the near future.
How do you feel MVP has affected you and your family? I am very happy about the school feeding program, but my family income is still low. I still have to fetch water which is a big problem.
What about your rights as a woman; what has changed? Nothing has changed so far. As I said, we still have to fetch water and actually women do all the work here while the money only goes to food.
Do you know that MVP staff will be here for 5 years? What are your concerns after they leave? In my opinion, there would be no problem if they bring water and the water stays when they leave. 48
Anything else that concerns you apart from water? Yes. The food. We want to sell our food to gain some money.
Do you think agriculture is enough for your income? It is fine as long as we get to sell them and/or exchange them for other foods (she mentions tomatoes as an example).
Thank you very much Christine.
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