# MAE 113, Summer Session 1, 2009 HW #1 1.2, 1.7, 1.14, 2.3, 2.

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1.2 Develop the following analytical expressions for a turbojet engine: ° ° a) When m f << mo , Pe = Pa , and finlet = fnoz = 0, then the installed thrust is given by: T= From equation 1.5, F=
° ° ° Imo + m f M Ve - m0 V0 gc ° mo gc

HVe - V0 L

+ HPe - P0 L Ae

° ° when we apply m f << mo and Pe = Pa , we get F= From equation 1.9, T = FH1 - finlet - fnozL but, finlet = fnoz = 0, so T=F. Thus, T= b) By the same conditions, show TSFC = From equation 1.20, TSFC = and from equation 1.16, hP = from part (a), T=
° mo gc 2 Ve êV0 +1 V0 h P hT hPR ° Tgc êmo + 2 V0 2 hT hPR ° mo gc ° ° mo Ve - m0 V0 gc

HVe - V0 L

HVe - V0 L

T gc = Ve - V0 ° mo T gc V = Ve - 1 ° mo V0 0 T gc Ve = m V +1 ° V0 o 0

Printed by Mathematica for Students

174+2*0)/(2*0.400 lbfÿs2 Btu 778. plot the preceding equation for TSFC [in (lbm/h)/lbf] vs specific thrust T/mo [in lbf/(lbm/s)] for values of specific thrust from 0 to 120.16 ftÿlbf lbm Btu N+2 J0 or 500 s N ft N .6 1.174+2*500)/(2*0.20 to get TSFC = T gc ° +2 V0 mo 2 hT hPR ° c) For V0 = 0 and 500 ft/s.16).TSFC0.1:120.16 hP = hP J m ° 2 T gc +1+1 ° mo V0 T gc + 2N = 2 o V0 h P T gc J m + 2 V0 N = 2 ° V0 o hP 2 = T gc V0 +2 V V0 hP = ° 0 mo T gc ° +2 V0 mo 2 and.16).TSFC500) 1. You must multiply by the number of seconds in an hour to output the correct units.4 0. where X = T ° is mo the Printed by Mathematica for Students . ° It is very easy to mess up the units of this problem. is in lbf/(lbm/sec).4and hPR = 18.8 0.174 lbmÿft 2 H0. T/mo .6 0.2 0 0 20 40 60 80 Specific Thrust lbf/(lbm/s) 100 120 sec M hour JX lbf lbmês N J32. Use hT = 0. 400 Btu/lbm. You can set up an equation of the form TSFC = I3600 input variable Here's Matlab code you can use to make the plot: X=0:0. you must use the conversion 1btu=778.16 ft·lbf.nb plugging this into 1. TSFC0=3600*(X*32.2 MAE 113 HW1 solution-2.4 TSFC (lbm/hr)/lbf 1. plot(X.4*18400*778. finally. TSFC500=3600*(X*32.4*18400*778.2 1 0. Also. but the output variable is in (lbm/hour)/lbf. this goes into equation 1.4L J18.X. Note that the input variable.

and that TSFC increases linearly with specific thrust.MAE 113 HW1 solution-2. d) explain the trends You're on your own here. Say something about how TSFC is always higher when the inlet velocity is higher.nb 3 The blue line is the V0 = 0 line and the green line is the V0 = 500 ft ê s line. Printed by Mathematica for Students .

5.696 psia. VBe = 885 ft ê s. m f = 15 750 lbm ê hr.1248 lbm s H0LE F = 43 626 lbf b) Thermal efficiency.mB V0 E c c but V0 = 0.mB V0 E We have values for all the variables on the right hand side. we have two inlets and two exhausts. mB = 1248 lbm ê s.247 lbm s H0L + 1248 lbm s 885 ft s . 400 Btu lbm Equation 1. and ° ° ° mC = 247 lbm ê s.mC V0 E + 2 g AHmBL VBe .mC V0 + mB VBe . T0 = 518. P0 = 14. single exhaust = 2 g AImo + m f M Ve .174 lbmÿft lbfÿs2 AI247 lbm s + 15 750 lbm hour ft M 1190 s hour 3600 s . so ° W out = ° 1 AImC 2 gc ° ° 2 2 + m f M VCe + mB VBe E inserting this into the first equation gives us the result that hT = ° ° ° 2 2 AImC +m f M VCe +m B VBe E ° 2 gc m f hPR Printed by Mathematica for Students . VCe = 1190 ft ê s. we get an equation for the thrust for a bypass engine F= ° 1 AImC gc ° ° ° ° + m f M VCe .7 °R.4 MAE 113 HW1 solution-2. F= 1 32.V0 L Putting all these together. so we can calculate thrust.mC V0 E ° mB gc HVBe . we learn that thrust for a bypass engine is equal to the sum of the thrust from the core and the bypass stream. with bypass = W Cout + W Bout ° ° ° ° ° ° 1 1 2 2 2 2 W out = 2 g AImC + m f M VCe . hT .mo V0 E c ° ° Qin = m f hPR here.13 tells us that for a single inlet and single exhaust hT = ° W out ° Qin ° ° ° ° 1 2 2 W out. but again be very careful with units.nb 1. with hPR º 18. therefore ° ° ° W out. though. Estimate the following assuming P0 = Pe : a) Thrust From Problem 1.7 The JT9D high-bypass-ratio turbofan engine with V0 = 0. FC = ° 1 AImC gc FB = F = FC + F B ° ° + m f M VCe .

174 N J15 750 3600 s lbm h N J1190 s N +1248 h 3600 s ft 2 lbm s J885 s N F Btu ft 2 N J18. S= S= 15 750 lbm hr T V0 ° W out ° mf F 43 626 lbf lbmêhr lbf S = 0. hP = And since V0 = 0. hP.08 % c) Propulsive efficiency. hP = 0 From equation 1.3308 hT = 33.0028 ÿ 10-4 lbmês lbf Printed by Mathematica for Students .14.400 Btu 778.MAE 113 HW1 solution-2.10.16 ftÿlbf lbm N hT = 0.nb 5 and now we can put in values hT = BJ247 lbm s +15 750 lbmÿft lbfÿs2 lbm hr hr 2 J32.361 = 1. and uninstalled thrust specific fuel consumption. S As defined in equation 1.

29 and 1. K2 = 0. CD0 = 0. K1 = 0. Use eqns 1.47 says that CL * = CL * = CD0 K1 0.000 lbf and Mach 0. find a) The maximum CL ê CD and corresponding CL and CD Equation 1.30b.29 and 1.2 CL * = 0.04 b) The flight altitude and drag for aircraft weight of 45.02 0.906 CD * = 0.8L2 H0.02L H0.2L +0 C * J CL N D = 2 C * J C L N = 7.30b are L = n W = C L q Sw g g 2 2 q = 2 P M0 = 2 d Pref M0 Solving for d and combining the two equations.2.906 D Also.8.48 is used here J CL N = C D * 1 2 CD0 K1 +K2 1 H0.3162 now we can find CD * 0.7 lbf 144 in2 in2 ft2 2q 2 g Pref M0 2JC nW L Sw N 2 g Pref M0 2nW 2 g Pref M0 C L Sw 2 H1L H45 000 lbfL N H0.6 MAE 113 HW1 solution-2.4 J14.nb 1. equation 1.3162 CD * = 7.3162L I800 ft2 M d = 0. d = d = d = Now we can plug in values d = 1.02.14 An aircraft with wind area 800 ft2 in level flight at maximum CL ê CD .1876 Printed by Mathematica for Students . Equations 1.

D = CD D = 0.3162 D = 5692.8L2 H0. V =aM ft V = 1116 s 0.04 H1L nW CL H35 000 lbfL 0. Also. Use appendix A and the note that speed of sound a=astd q.6 lbf c) Flight altitude and drag for an aircraft of weight 35. d = d= 1.3162 D = 4427.3162L I800 ft2 M d = 0.6 lbf d) Range for an installed engine TSFC rate of 0.8 (lbm/hr)/lbf.04 H1L H45 000 lbfL 0. First start with equation 1. Next.7 in2 lbf 144 in2 ft2 2nW 2 g Pref M0 C L Sw 2 H1L H35 000 lbfL N H0. equation 1.nb 7 Use Appendix A to see that this corresponds to an altitude of about 39.8 Analysis is nearly identical to part b.8 V = 774 ft s Printed by Mathematica for Students .4 J14.000-1bf difference in aircraft weight between parts b and c is due only to fuel consumption.43 for range factor RF = gc CL V CD TSFC g0 We need to calculate velocity in ft/s rather than Mach.000 lbf and Mach 0. 000 ft .7519 0.MAE 113 HW1 solution-2. use Appendix A to see that this corresponds to an altitude of about 45.31 gives us drag D = C D q Sw nW D = CD C L D = 0. 800 ft . if the 10. with only a change in weight.1459 Again.

3162 = 0.04 lbmêhr hr 0.nb Now we can go back to RF RF ft 32.174 nm RF = 27 533 115 ft 6080 ft lbmÿft lbfÿs2 lbmÿft lbfÿs2 RF = 4528.5 nm lnI 35 000 lbf M 45 000 lbf s = 1138 nm = 1309.45a to find the range.8 MAE 113 HW1 solution-2. s Wf Wi = expI.5 nm Next.RF M s W f s = RF ln J W i N s = 4528. we use equation 1.8 lbf 3600 s 32.6 mi Printed by Mathematica for Students .174 774 s 0.

It has radius r0 . We can combine these two equations to get ⁄Fs = ° ° IM out .M inM = .MAE 113 HW1 solution-2.M in M dMs dt by assuming conservation of mass (since there is no sink or source).M in M Where F is the force required to keep the pipe in place and A is the area of the pipe.P2 L A 1 gc c These equations are wrong. ° ° ° ° because that would imply that if M in > M out. This means that we have defined our sum of forces to be in a different direction in each of the equations. velocity V1 . M in > M out implies that air is moving from back to front. Instead. ⁄Fs = The sum of the forces is ⁄Fs = -F + HP1 . the force would be postive. the first part of this equation does not make sense.I r M F r 2 0 with uniform pressure P2 .P2 L A c Printed by Mathematica for Students . Use the conservation of mass and momentum equations to show that the force necessary to hold the pipe in place can be written as F = p r2 JP1 . and pressure P 1 . ° ° IM out .P2 + 0 Start with equation 2.M out. Force should not be proportional to M in . which should decrease the force required to keep the pipe steady.3 Consider the flow shown in Figure P2.M outM + HP1 . the equation should read: ° ° 1 F = g IM out .P2 L A ° ° 1 F = g IM in .F + HP1 . The fluid leaves with a velocity V2 = Vmax B1 . ° ° However. However.2.P2 L A 1 gc = 0.M inM + HP1 .20 ⁄Fs = 1 gc 2 r V1 N 3 gc I dMs dt ° ° + M out .nb 9 2.

2 r 2 + r 4 N „ r 0 0 ° r2 r4 r6 r0 M 2 = 2 p r Vmax 2 B 2 .I r M > 2 p r „ r 0 0 V1 = V1 = 2 Vmax r0 r3 Ÿ0 :r .2 + 6 F ° p r Vmax 2 r0 2 M2 = 3 Similarly.P2 Conservation of mass can be used to find Vmax r gc J Vmax 2 3 .V1 2 N> ° ° m1 = m 2 r r 2 p r2 r V1 = r Ÿ0 0 Vmax :1 .nb Momentum flux can be obtained by integrating ° ° ° M out = M 2 = Ÿm V2 „ m ° 2 ° r M 2 = Ÿ0 0 r V2 2 2 p r „ r ° r r 2 2 M 2 = Ÿ0 0 r JVmax B1 .2 4 r 2 + 6 r 4 F 0 0 0 2 ° r0 4 r0 6 2 r0 M 2 = 2 p r Vmax B 2 .2 I r M + I r M N r „ r 0 0 ° r3 r5 2 r0 M 2 = 2 p r Vmax Ÿ0 Jr .M inM + HP1 .r0 2 > „ r r2 0 2 Vmax r2 r4 r0 B 2 .I r M N 2 p r „ r 0 ° r 2 r 4 2 r0 M 2 = 2 p r Vmax Ÿ0 J1 . ° ° ° ° M in = M 1 = Ÿm V1 „ m 1 ° r M 1 = Ÿ0 0 r V1 2 2 p r „ r ° r2 r0 M 1 = r V1 2 2 p B 2 F 0 ° 2 2 M 1 = r V1 p r0 And plugging into to the equation for force above ° ° 1 F = g IM out .10 MAE 113 HW1 solution-2.4r 2 F 2 r0 0 0 2 Vmax r2 0 V1 = B 20 V r2 r4 0 4 r0 2 F V1 = max 2 Vmax = 2 V1 Printed by Mathematica for Students .I r M FN 2 p r „ r 0 ° r0 r 2 2 2 M 2 = Ÿ0 r Vmax J1 .P2 L A c F = p r0 2 :P1 .2 4 r 2 + 6 r 4 F 0 0 ° r0 2 r0 2 r0 2 M 2 = 2 p r Vmax 2 B 2 .

V1 2 N> 3 r V1 2 4 I 3 .MAE 113 HW1 solution-2.P2 + r gc H2 V1 L2 .1M> gc 2 r V1 4 I 3 .P2 + r V1 2 > 3 gc Printed by Mathematica for Students .nb 11 And we arrive at F = p r0 2 :P1 .1M> gc J F = p r0 2 :P1 .P2 + F = p r0 2 :P1 .P2 + F = p r0 2 :P1 .

The momentum equation in the x-direction is ° ° ° 1 ⁄Fx = Fx = g IM x core out + M x fan out . at a velocity of 890 ft/s and pressure of 14. there is no net force in the y-direction. with 1500 lbm/s of air at 60°F and 14. Assume an ambient pressure of 14.12 MAE 113 HW1 solution-2.5.7 psia. 945 lbf This means a force of 28.nb 2. Printed by Mathematica for Students .7 psia.675 000 s2 F s2 Fx = -28. Determine the force on the strut.7 psia entering the engine at a velocity of 450 ft/s and that 1250 lbm/s of bypass air leaves the engine at 60° to the horizontal.7 psia. By symmetry. The remaining 250 lbm/s leaves the engine core at a velocity of 1200 ft/s and pressure of 14. Fx.945 lbf slowing the plane.174 lbmÿft lbfÿs2 B300 000 ftÿlbm s2 + J-556 250 ftÿlbm ftÿlbm N . the force is Fx = 1 32.M x in M c ° lbm ft ftÿlbm M x in = I1500 s M I450 s M = 675 000 s2 ° lbm ft ftÿlbm M x core out = I250 s M I1200 s M = 300 000 s2 ° lbm ft ftÿlbm M x fan out = I-1250 s M I890 s M cosH60 °L = -556 250 s2 Therefore.6 Using Figure P2.