OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name

OTEC Neg
OTEC Neg...............................................................................................................................................................1 Notes........................................................................................................................................................................2 T—USFG................................................................................................................................................................3 T-Alternative..........................................................................................................................................................4 Japan CP 1NC Shell..............................................................................................................................................5 Japan CP 1NC Shell..............................................................................................................................................6 Japan CP 1NC Shell..............................................................................................................................................7 Japan CP 1NC Shell..............................................................................................................................................8 1NC Shell – Deep Ecology K (1/4)........................................................................................................................9 1NC Shell – Deep Ecology K (2/4)......................................................................................................................11 1NC Shell - Alternative Addition (3/4)...............................................................................................................13 1NC Shell – Alternative Addition (4/4)..............................................................................................................14 Biodiversity...........................................................................................................................................................15 Biodiversity...........................................................................................................................................................16 Oil..........................................................................................................................................................................17 Solvency................................................................................................................................................................18 Solvency................................................................................................................................................................19 Solvency ext..........................................................................................................................................................20 Japan CP...............................................................................................................................................................21 States CP...............................................................................................................................................................22 International CP...................................................................................................................................................23 Spending Links.....................................................................................................................................................24 Politics Links .......................................................................................................................................................25

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OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name

Notes
The best strategy is probably to run the Japan CP with politics or spending and the Deep-Eco K. The states can solve though, so if you want to run states you can do that as well. There are pretty good case turns on biodiversity, and most of the oil advantage stuff can come out of the oil generic. The T-alternative violation card is also in the Solvency frontline, so if you read that (it might not the best idea), don’t read the card twice (cross-apply).

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Interpretation—United States is the area over which the USFG has exclusive authority Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. US territories. US Department of Defence 2005. including the following: a. B. 2. education. Standards— 1. 3 .OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name T—USFG A. and airspace of the United States. which allows for unpredictable cases such as increasing alternative energy to embassies and offshore military bases. Violation—the plan increases incentives for alternative energy in waters over which the USFG does not have exclusive authority C. and jurisdiction. internal waters. and commonwealths. possessions. Brightline—it’s either within the USFG’s jurisdiction or it’s not D. Topicality is a voter for fairness. territorial sea. and b. Other areas over which the US Government has complete jurisdiction and control or has exclusive authority or defense responsibility. Predictable limits—they allow affs to increase alternative energy outside of the USFG’s jurisdiction. Includes the land area.

According to Terry Penney. UNDERGROUND a. C. Cf. www. the Technology Manager at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. radio. and it’s still a matter of huge capital investment and a huge risk. etc. If we are not debating the best course of action.. a fully functioning OTEC prototype has yet to be developed. B.com Purporting to represent a preferable or equally acceptable alternative to that in general use or sanctioned by the establishment. 89. Although piecemeal experiments have proven the effectiveness of the individual components. a large-scale plant has never been built. Interpretation—alternative energy must be better than the current option OED. alternative society: see SOCIETY 3e. as alternative (i. non-nuclear) energy. 4 . the combination of cost and risk is OTEC’s main liability. the aff has destroyed policy debate. it’s not a preferable option Becca Friedman. 2b. and jurisdiction. FRINGE n. The high costs of building even a model pose the main barrier.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name T-Alternative A. “An Alternative Source Heats Up: Examining the future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.” Harvard Political Review Online Despite the sound science. 4d. T is a voter for fairness. Violation—OTEC is far more expensive than current options. and there are many [alternate forms of energy] that are less risky that could produce power with the same certainty. staff writer. medicine.” Penney told the HPR. education. “We’ve talked to inventors and other constituents over the years.oed. Predictability—the neg can’t predict the aff increasing a form of energy that is not better than the current alternative D. Standards Limits—this interpretation is key to limiting the topic to what the USFG should do. 2/26/06.e. Luis Vega of the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research estimated in an OTEC summary presentation that a commercial-size five-megawatt OTEC plant could cost from 80 to 100 million dollars over five years.

which evaporates and then is cooled for desalination. Japanese scientists said Tuesday.000 tons that employs an ocean-thermal energy conversion power plant built with assistancefrom Japan's state-run Saga University. The counter plan solves. The Indian institute successfully operated the plant continuouslyApril 13-16. The plant uses the deep-sea water to cool warm surface water through an OTEC heat exchanger to desalinate the seawater. development. Saga University has received a request for technological help to switch to OTEC power to desalinate seawater at the plant. 5/14/07. the scientists said. ''We would like to provide technological cooperation so OTEC power can generate the necessary electricity for the desalinationplant. head of Saga University's Institute of Ocean Energy. Japan is using OTEC now—providing clean water in developing countries. and use of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. said. While the plant currently relies on diesel power generation to siphon deep-sea water. theIndian institute installed a water-intake pipe with a diameter of 1 meter to siphon lowtemperature deep-sea water from a depth of about500 meters. The Indian institute is also willing to build a new desalination plant within a year with an output capacity 10 times greater than the existing pilot plant.'' 5 . OTEC uses the temperature difference between deep and shallow waters to desalinate warm surface water. Lexis India has succeeded in test operating a pilot seawater desalination facility with a daily output capacity of 1. A. Kyodo News International.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Japan CP 1NC Shell Counter plan text: Japan should increase research.000 tons of desalinated water. With the help of Saga University's Institute of Ocean Energy. “Japan’s OTEC technology helps India desalinate seawater. They said the new technology is expected to help resolve water shortages in developing countries because it does not consume large amounts of energy and can operate irrespective of the quality of the seawater. Masanori Monde.” Japan Energy Scan. India's National Institute of Ocean Technology has built the floating desalination facility off Chennai in southeastern India. producing a total of 4.

Japan is not a political superstate.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Japan CP 1NC Shell B. How can Japan gain soft power ? Currently. so that they would not help Japan elevate its soft-power capability in the post-Cold War era.. Admittedly.S. acid rain.. As Jessica Tuchman Mathews puts it. and other industrialized countries. “Japan's International Agenda: Technology and the Setting for Japan's Agenda”. 7 Whether the U. Nye. If Japan plays a major role in singlehandedlv giving her superior environmental and/or energy-saving technologies to countries who are seriously suffering from both security and economic threats caused bv deforestation. previously rendered porous by the information and communication revolutions and the instantaneous global movement of financial capital. forcing governments to grapple in international forums with issues that were contentious enough in the domestic arena. she is a technological state. departing from hitherto passive attitudes of following a conservative course taken by the United States. 78-79 If an argument based on soft resources is extended to the level of international politics. Therefore. Today. the United Kingdom. Environmental strains that transcend national borders are already beginning to break down the sacred boundaries of national sovereignty. a hegemon capable of exercising co-optive power. Taizo Vakushiji. The United States has more cooptive power than other countries. The once sharp dividing line between foreign and domestic policy is blurred. desertification. 6 . But as Richard Rosecrance puts it. ozone holes. top. namely manufacturing technology and environmental and/or energy-saving technology. that is. is a soft-power giant is worth debating. at the 1990 Houston Summit.. Jr. Japan might be able to gain political leverage if it mote actively engages in the international politics of the global environment. there emerges a new concept of "soft power." that is. It is quite noteworthy that Germany recently showed.' Japan is a leading country in both environmental legislation and technology. This power tends to arise from such resources as cultural and ideological attraction as well as rules and institutions of international regimes. greenhouse effects. Among these three kinds of Japanese preeminence. and less tangible. The changing nature of international politics has also made intangible forms of power more important. environmental issues such as deforestation. Japan would be able to fulfill two prerequisites to becoming a "soft hegemon. writes. but the importance of soft power itself is not questionable. trading power and manufacturing power are classified as types of hard power.. But even as a political dwarf. Power is becoming less transferable. where two conspicuous technologies.. etc." Joseph S. Japanese environmental leadership is key to its soft power. and the loss of biological diversity are becoming more and more globalized. p. environmental and/or energy saving technologies. enjoy world preeminence.. The assumptions and institutions that have governed international relations in the postwar era are a poor fit with new realities. Professor of political science and international relations at Keio University. Cooptive power is the ability of a country to structure a situation so that other countries develop preferences or define their interests in ways consistent with its own. Moreover. 1994.. let us focus on the third area. less coercive. a more assertive stance with respect to the global environment. Japan has neither an internationally acknowledged ideology nor a worldwidepenetrating culture.. desertification. Japan is a trading state.

Japan’s Goldilocks Strategy. Unlike the mercantile realists. 7 .4 A third choice. regional economic institutions as a means to reduce the likelihood of abandonment by the United States and would seek to maintain the United States’ protective embrace as cheaply and for as long as possible. only several thousand rallied in Tokyo’s Hibiya Park. more idealistic time when Japan could not imagine. It would bulk up the country’s considerable soft power in a concerted effort to knit East Asia together without generating new threats or becoming excessively vulnerable. would be to achieve prestige by increasing prosperity. least likely choice would be to achieve autonomy through prosperity. Autumn. expand the defensive-defense concept to the region as a whole. they would reject the alliance as dangerously entangling. negotiate a regional missile-control regime. Japanese soft power is key to solve for East Asian stability Richard Samuels. they would reduce Japan’s military posture. when millions took to the streets in Rome. London.S. open. The Asianists in this group would aggressively embrace exclusive regional economic institutions to reduce Japan’s reliance on the U. Like the mercantile realists. possibly even eliminate it. and New York City to protest the U. They would eschew hard power for soft power. 2006. Japan would once again eschew the military shield in favor of the mercantile sword.T.. exhortations for Japan to expand its roles and missions. 20 Pacifist ideas about prosperity and autonomy seem relics of an earlier. The final. many of whom today are active in civil society through nongovernmental organizations that are not affiliated with traditional political parties. much less openly plan for. the one preferred by the middle-power internationalists.S They would not abrogate the military alliance but would resist U. invasion of Iraq.S. campaign to establish Northeast Asia as a nuclear-free zone. Director of the Center for International Studies at M. The Washington Quarterly 29. This is the choice of pacifists.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Japan CP 1NC Shell C. Japan’s exposure to some of the more difficult vicissitudes of world politics would be reduced but only if some of the more ambitious assaults on the Yoshida Doctrine were reversed.I. 19 Their manifest problem is that the Japanese public is unmoved by their prescriptions. In March 2003. military contingencies. and rely on the Asian Regional Forum of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) for security.

Like neutrons firing from a split atom. Since the signing of the NPT in 1968. the others are capable of constructing them. then the international arms control agreements that have been painstakingly negotiated over the past 40 years will crumble. Moreover. China modernizes its nuclear arsenal amid tensions with Taiwan and the United States. Joseph Cirincione. If a nuclear breakout takes place in Asia. the tabletop game where blocks are sequentially removed from a wooden tower until the whole structure collapses. critical decisions taken by any one of these governments could cascade into the second great wave of nuclear-weapon proliferation. If the United States disassembles diplomatic restraints. and moves from builder to destroyer of the nonproliferation regime. the treaty regime has greatly restricted the spread of weapons of mass destruction. perhaps. stimulate additional actions. Lexis Kennedy's arms control vision. quals. shatters carefully crafted threat reduction arrangements. March 22. Taking elements we don't like out of the regime structure starts a dangerous round of Jenga. East Asian proliferation will lead to a nuclear chain reaction. the United States could find itself embroiled in its fourth war on the Asian continent in six decades--a costly rebuke to those who seek the safety of Fortress America by hiding behind national missile defenses. negotiated by President Lyndon Johnson and implemented by President Richard Nixon. Japan's vice defense minister is forced to resign after extolling the benefits of nuclear weapons. Consider what is already happening: North Korea continues to play guessing games with its nuclear and missile programs. and Russia--whose Far East nuclear deployments alone make it the largest Asian nuclear power--struggles to maintain territorial coherence. has proved to be a global success story. Foreign Policy. If the frequency and intensity of this reaction cycle increase. India and Pakistan shoot across borders while running a slow-motion nuclear arms race. But Kennedy's legacy is now under siege. one nation's actions can trigger reactions throughout the region. These nations form an interlocking Asian nuclear reaction chain that vibrates dangerously with each new development. “The Asian Nuclear Reaction Chain”. and the nonproliferationclock may be set back to the 1960s. the first combat use of a nuclear weapon since 1945.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Japan CP 1NC Shell D. then there will be little to prevent new nations from concluding that their national security requires nuclear arms. The blocks would fall quickest and hardest in Asia. South Korea wants its own missiles to match Pyongyang's. where proliferation pressures are already building more quickly than anywhere else in the world. bringing regional and global economic and political instability and. which in turn. 2000. Five of these states have nuclear weapons. 8 .

Indeed. and thus non-human—marking them for extermination. the human community. and the reduction of greenhouse gases. the Holocaust. even when such domination is not articulated. All of these policies are based on the beneficial consequences that will result for human beings and human society. S. saving the rainforest. Winter 1997. wherein all humans are treated as equally worthwhile. and we demonstrate our power ." as nonhuman or as subhuman. “Nature’s Healing Power. nature is seen as a nonhuman "other" to be controlled.” Judaism. manipulated. "what we call man's power over nature turns out to be a power exercised by some men over other men with nature as its instrument. conceived as a philosophical "other. From the starting point of anthropocentrism. Even the practice of ecological restoration.col1 As I have argued elsewhere. we. or destroyed in the pursuit of human good. other humans become similarly subservient. As C. Lewis wrote fifty years ago in The Abolition of Man. Technology.(12) Humans want to live in a world that is comfortable . Associate Professor of Philosophy and Director of the Science. domination and oppression are easily justified. This anthropocentrism is. Eric Katz. manipulate. We humans thus achieve two simultaneous goals: we relieve our guilt for the earlier destruction of natural systems. Although natural entities. are the chief beneficiary of our policies. What ties together environmental policies such as these is their thoroughgoing anthropocentrism . the idea of human slavery has been justified from the time of the ancient Greeks onward by designating the slave class as less than human. goods. of course. and happiness are the central goals of public policy and human action. Link and Impact . In this century.be it a specific race or religious group. nature has no valid interests or good of its own. satisfaction.whether it be economic. Historically. nature can be understood as merely a resource for the development of human interests. but we also find its echoes in the ethnic civil war in the former Yugoslavia. The 1AC deploys a logic of human advancement that replicates the genocidal logic of domination When we view nature as subservient. in which degraded ecosystems are restored to a semblance of their original states. or spiritual. In the formation of environmental policy. as a nonhuman other.the power of science and technology . human control.the ideology of anthropocentric domination also extends to the oppression of other human beings. the evaluation of other people as subhuman finds its clearest expression in the Nazi propaganda concerning the Jews. and Society Program at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. or even animals or natural entities . modified.or at least. thereby constructing nature as an eternal human tool and participating in ecocide.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name 1NC Shell – Deep Ecology K (1/4) A. will also be helped by environmentalist practices. they are artefacts. But who or what counts as a human is a question that cannot be answered from within anthropocentrism . Consider briefly those popular examples of an enlightened environmental policy: pollution control and abatement. we generally only preserve those natural habitats and species that provide us with some direct good .but the irony is that the same purpose.(15) From within anthropocentrism.and the answer to this question will determine the extent of the practice of domination. This turns the case because it re-entrenches the dichotomy of human and non-human which is the root cause of the 1AC harms. the primary goal of the Enlightenment project of the scientific understanding of the natural world is to control. the current environmental crisis. Humanity is in the business of creating and maximizing human good.(13) But the domination of nonhuman nature is not the only result of an anthropocentric worldview . The oppressed class .the plan only helps the environment to help humanity. such as endangered species and individual animals and plants. habitat and species preservation. a world that is not hostile to human happiness and survival. Schwartz reminds us 9 . http://findarticles. the clean-up of hazardous waste sites.human interests. motivates much of environmentalist policy and practice. and modify natural processes for the increased satisfaction of human interests."(14) Anthropocentrism does not convert into a thoroughgoing humanism. Thus the ideas of anthropocentrism and domination tie together a study of the Holocaust. and the environmental crisis. Anthropocentrism as a world view quite easily leads to the practices of domination. acres of farmland are subjected to a controlled burn and a replanting with wildflowers and shrubs to recreate the oak savanna of pre-European America. A marsh that had been landfilled is reflooded to restore wetland acreage. strip-mined hills are replanted to create flowering meadows. and the Jewish conception of the proper relationship to Nature. This purpose is easy to understand when we view technological and industrial projects that use nature as a resource for economic development . only humans have value and only human interests and goods need to be pursued. As a nonhuman other.over the natural world. is permeated with this anthropocentric ideology. Natural ecosystems that have been harmed by human activity are restored to a state that is more pleasing to the current human population." The reason that this exercise of power is justifiable is that the subordinate people are not considered human beings: "they are not men at all. not surprising.is simply denied admittance to the elite center of value-laden beings.com/p/articles/mi_m0411/is_n1_v46/ai_19353459/pg_4?tag=artBody. aesthetic.

> 10 .(16) Genocide and ecocide are similar in that we conceive of our victims as less than human.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name that the danger in Judaism's desacralization of Nature is that it may lead to the destruction of Nature. as outside the primary circle of value.

263). The more we know a mountain or a watershed. self defense. Naess. whole rain forest ecosystems. 6).. therefore. life. and. Examples of such identification abound in the philosophy and literature connected with the deep ecology movement.when I say that the fate of the sea turtle or the tiger or the gibbon is mine. becoming infinitely larger and infinitely more differentiated in the process.. local communities." a view of ourselves and all other existents as leaves on a "tree of life" that has "developed from a single seed of energy and that has been growing for some fifteen billion years. the difference between personal and transpersonal identification is that the latter extends our sense of community to entities with which we have not had personal contact. the upshot of this process is that as our sense of self increases... and consequently feel concern for." (1995. And I shall defend myself. 67). Naess says that "from identifying with 'one's nearest. activist John Seed recounts a time when he was working to protect rainforests. These twin possibilities hold. entities whose component members change over time (1995. both individual entities and the collectivities that they comprise. who writes that ". and as Fox mentions in his discussion of personal identification. such as an individual tree or animal. the development of such an expansive sense of self is depicted as a process proceeding from identification with our immediate surroundings. whales. and says that identification can extend to entities as diverse as "individuals.. tribes. 1134). saying that conservation of nature is "." (1985. All that is in my universe is not merely mine. When we have identified with nature-as-a-whole. compatriots.. Bill Devall and George Sessions describe identification as leading to a sense of self that includes "not only me." This sense of belonging was so strong that. 424).. In Simple in Means. and so on" (Devall & Sessions. Accounts of such broad-based identification. cosmological identification gives us a renewed understanding of "our place in the larger scheme of things.. 70). and was suddenly "gripped with an intense. the most important of which he calls "cosmological identification. In Fox's words. Similarly. 235). as before. the more we can feel its suffering" (1988. ecosystems and landscapes.. Rich in Ends. but also in relation to "more abstract kinds of entities. grizzly bears. for Seed. with regional and global ecosystems. is to develop a sense of connectedness to entities in the local natural community with which we have had personal contact. Naess also believes that we can identify with [End Page 6] nature both "individually" and "collectively" (1989. a threat to any element of the ecospheric community is a threat to our ecological Self. 262). Often. I shall defend myself not only against overt aggression but also against gratuitous insult.. not only for personal identification..' higher level unities are created through circles of friends. humanity. 52). As the above examples illustrate.. it issued in the realization that he "was literally part of the rainforest defending herself" (1988. in fact." (2003. Echoing these sentiments. Frederick Bender. Fox cites a passage from John Livingston. speaks of identifying with "all life forms and with the greater units: the ecosystems and Gaia. In a clear reference to his personal experiences in the forests of the northwestern United States. 256). an individual human. Like Fox.. are easy to come by in the texts of deep ecology supporters. When I identify with primeval forests of redwood trees I want to defend them from logging because they are a part of my sense-of-place" (1988.9 11 . species. 2007. for example. Devall writes that "the more we know a place intimately." This variety of transpersonal identification involves an affirmation of our belonging to natural processes that are inclusive of all things. profound realization of the bonds that connect us to the Earth. the tiniest microbes in the soil.7 Returning to the initial distinction we were drawing. like accounts of personal identification. thus providing a sense of community with all existents and not only those in our immediate locale. we can identify with. the fabulous old planet of ours" (1995b. Christian Diehm Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point. but for all forms of identification: regardless of what sort of identification is at issue. races. it is me. I mean it. Ethics and the Environment. [End Page 7] mountains and rivers. Devall draws the practical implication of such "intimate" identification." such as a place or an entire ecosystem. identification can take place not only in relation to "concrete" entities. and ultimately with Earth's ecosphere as a whole. 249-50).. and feel it as our self.8 Fox describes two "varieties" of transpersonal identification. so too does our sphere of concern." Hence we are lead "to identify ourselves more and more with the entire tree rather than just our leaf.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name 1NC Shell – Deep Ecology K (2/4) B. explains how we might realize our ecological self through a "mindfulness practice" in which we recognize our "interdependence with other living beings locally. Alternative – engage in an environmental philosophy that seeks personal identification with the non-human world in order to counteract the Affirmative’s anthropocentrism..unity with the supreme whole" (1985. for example. too. 181).. ultimately. Autumn 2007 To identify personally with nature. the more we can increase our identification with it." (Livingston 1981. Here. to identification with nature-at-large. but all humans.

OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name 12 .

Alternative Addition (3/4) Environmental philosophy is the most effective way to create a new conception of the world and spur activism.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name 1NC Shell . (insert third card in Deep-eco shell) 13 .

OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name 1NC Shell – Alternative Addition (4/4) Continued… 14 .

This massive flow may disturb the thermal structure of the ocean near the plant. However. nutrients. it would only collapse one small ecosystem. and turbidity. change salinity gradients. where water temperatures can differ by more than 20 degrees. Pondicherry University.” Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology. Turn—OTEC destroys ocean water S. 2.” Japan Energy Scan Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). “The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. and is also touted as having a minimal impact on the environment. Abbasi and Naseema Abbasi. and discharge them at some intermediate depth between 100 and 200 m. both from the surface layer and from the deep ocean. team up on ocean power research. “Palau. Such plants would require entraining and discharging enormous quantities of seawater.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Biodiversity 1.sciencedirect. No Impact—Your Christian Science Monitor card doesn’t say what you want it to Your card says that over fishing has only “occasionally” produced unpleasant results and just talks about slight shifts in ecosystems—it won’t lead to the drastic biodiversity collapse that you claim.000 meters deep. 1/24/2000. which means your impact would have already happened. there is no internal link saying this will spillover to total collapse of marine biodiversity. 3. developed by the university's science and engineering department. Professors at Pondicherry University. and change the amounts of dissolved gases. OTEC is especially suited to tropical or subtropical regions. http://www. It also says only 4 percent of oceans are free of human impact. abundance of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems can spell serious trouble as it can lead to eutrophication and all the adverse consequence associated with eutrophication. Kyodo News International. The university plans to build a plant in Palau in the near future in cooperation with the country. These changes could have adverse impacts of magnitudes large enough to be highly significant. involves generating electricity by taking advantage of temperature differences in the ocean between the surface and 800 to 1. The plants will displace about 4 m3 of water per second per MW electricity output. the officials said. 4/25/01. 15 . OTEC has no environmental benefit.com Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plants have the potential to cause major adverse impacts on the ocean water quality. Even if it did. Saga Univ. carbonates.A.

A. the surface waters will not be enriched. Furthermore. This will have impacts on organisms and microclimate. may not be as easily controllable as the proponents of OTEC may like to believe. pressure. S. Sea surface temperatures in the vicinity of an OTEC plant could be lowered by the discharge of effluent from the cold water pipe. 1/24/2000. A major change occurring in the cold water pipe is the depressurization of up to 107 pascals in water coming from a depth of 1000 m to the surface. Abbasi and Naseema Abbasi. If ammonia is the working fluid and it leaks out. causing stress to marine life.com Further.sciencedirect. Pondicherry University. The pumping of large volumes of cold water from depths of the ocean to the surface will release dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide. Double-bind.sciencedirect. by designing the OTEC plant to discharge its water below the photic zone (the region in the surface waters where photosynthesizing organisms live). there is lot more to OTEC than mere utilisation of the thermal gradiant across ocean depth. turbidity. and dissolved oxygen. “The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. or they don’t solve their biodiversity advantage. the fish living below the photic zone do not feed on these nutrients. http://www. However.A. “The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. 16 . there could be serious consequences to the ocean ecosystem nearby.” Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology. can be very difficult to control or mitigate. Abbasi and Naseema Abbasi.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Biodiversity 4. In summary. either dinoflagellates turn case. and nitrogen to the atmosphere. if the algal blooms caused by artificial upwelling include certain dinoflagellates. such as chlorine. there may be other problems. 5. Small fishes and crustaceans may be entrained through the system. Turn—OTEC destroys marine biodiversity S. If nutrient-rich water is discharged anywhere near the surface water intake valves. This would influence water pH and DO status. the disturbance being ‘non-point’ in nature. 6. Professors at Pondicherry University. For example shellfish consume dinoflagellates and if these shellfish are consumed by humans. Professors at Pondicherry University. used to prevent biofouling of the pipes and heat exchanger surfaces may be irritating or toxic to organisms. Biocides. The large-scale utilisation of this phenomenon can profoundly disturb the fragile marine ecosystems. Further. salinity. http://www. Pondicherry University. oxygen.com Marine biota may be impinged on the screens covering the warm and cold water intakes of an OTEC plant. OTEC advocates hope that. given the magnitude of disturbances that would be caused by OTEC. All this puts serious question marks before the viability of OTEC. it can lead to serious illness.” Centre for Pollution Control and Energy Technology. 1/24/2000. where they will experience rapid changes of temperature. these are unknowns and. it could cause biofouling inside the pipes. Turn—OTEC cultivates deadly dinoflagellates.

sharing rule-making functions with others. but cannot solve for it entirely—your Huang ’03 evidence has no warrants saying that it can replace oil entirely. Winner of pulitzer prize. 3. They value great power concert. In their view.12 I have my doubts. US heg destroys international relations Charles. as we have seen. They are prepared to engage in a pragmatic multilateralism. They seek Security Council support not because it confers any moral authority. a single hegemon risks far more violent resentment than would a power that consistently acts as primus inter pares. OTEC may reduce dependence on oil. Winter 03. The United States made an extraordinary effort in the Gulf War to get UN support. “The Unipolar Moment Revisited”. but because it spreads risk. who see the new unilateralism I have outlined as hubristic. former Commonwealth Scholar in politics at Balliol. assemble a coalition and. and MD Harvard. Did that diminish the anti-American feeling in the region? Did it garner support for subsequent Iraq policy dictated by the original acquiescence to the coalition? <Insert cards from the oil generic> 17 . They can’t solve fast enough to solve peak oil crisis. share decisionmaking. Krauthammer. honors degree in political science and economics from McGill. deny itself the fruits of victory in order to honor coalition goals. and whose objections are practical. The National Interest A THIRD critique comes from what might be called pragmatic realists.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Oil 1. 2. Oxford.

the surface can potentially modify global weather as does La Nina. 2/26/06. Becca Friedman.” Potentials.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Solvency 1.” Harvard Political Review Online Despite the sound science. Houston Univ. the combination of cost and risk is OTEC’s main liability. USA. TX. Although piecemeal experiments have proven the effectiveness of the individual components. For Space Syst..R. or near. (2002). The high costs of building even a model pose the main barrier. The deep cold waters take centuries to accumulate. Were a country completely dependent on oceanic energy.” according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory spokesman. there is a risk that the salt water surrounding an OTEC plant would cause the machinery to “rust or corrode” or “fill up with seaweed or mud.” Penney told the HPR. For extended discussions of the aforementioned power options.. staff writer. OTEC is inefficient and could alter global weather patterns Criswell. OTEC is highly vulnerable to the elements in the marine environment. severe weather could be debilitating. IEEE Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is proposed to extract the energy from the differences in temperature of the warm surface waters of the tropical oceans and the cold deep waters. OTEC is an inefficient and costly system that must mine huge quantities of the deep cold waters by pumping them to the surface. Inst. and there are many [alternate forms of energy] that are less risky that could produce power with the same certainty. Big storms or a hurricane like Katrina could completely disrupt energy production by mangling the OTEC plants. staff writer. 2/26/06. the Technology Manager at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 3. a fully functioning OTEC prototype has yet to be developed. D. 18 . In addition. “An Alternative Source Heats Up: Examining the future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. and it’s still a matter of huge capital investment and a huge risk. “We’ve talked to inventors and other constituents over the years. Hoffert et al. see Criswell (2001. According to Terry Penney.” Harvard Political Review Online Moreover. 2002a). OTEC plants are extremely cost inefficient. Operations. (2002). OTEC is highly vulnerable to natural disasters and other natural destruction. a large-scale plant has never been built. Luis Vega of the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research estimated in an OTEC summary presentation that a commercial-size five-megawatt OTEC plant could cost from 80 to 100 million dollars over five years. and Pimentel et al. and are not a worthwhile alternative to other forms of energy Becca Friedman. 2. “Lunar Solar Power. 6/1/04. Pumping cold waters to. “An Alternative Source Heats Up: Examining the future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

are other OTEC advantages. Advantages and disadvantages The most important advantages and disadvantages of this sea energy conversion technology are stated below. researches show that power plants with a rated power lower than 50 MW can not compete with other energy sources.. Therefore. • Highly available energy resources. • Higher cost than other energy sources (hydroelectric. Zamora et al. 19 .T. 1) Advantages • Damaging environmental effects are minimized if the cold water is discharged to the ocean at enough depth. Electrical Engineering Department. Its cost could be up to the 75 % of the total power plant costs. I. E. • Although floating OTEC plants could apparently be a solution. produced cold water for mariculture and hydrogen by electrolysis. • The suitable locations to harness this kind of energy are reduced to equatorial and tropical zones.S. OTEC’s problems trump its advantages. University of Basque Country. • Floating plants and piping of land based plants must withstand high stresses during storms. a 50 MW power plant would require a 3 km long pipe with a 8 m diameter to pump 150 m3/s of cold water [14].I.” D.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Solvency 4.I. As an example. maintenance and repair costs would also be high. 2006 “Sea Energy Conversion: Problems and Possibilities. 2) Disadvantages • The small land based OTEC plants need kilometres of piping to move a high volume of cold water from deep ocean. • Low thermal efficiency due to the low temperature difference between the cold and hot reservoir (around 22 ºC). • Desalinize seawater. wave energy and diesel) in islands.

To ameliorate the enormous problems of Global Warming.net/node/16811 Given all the fantastic promise OTEC presents. Peak Oil. 20 . the amount of useful energy that can be obtained from each cubic meter of sea water is relatively small.energybulletin. and Food supplies. "The discharge flow from 60. “A warm bath of energy—ocean thermal energy conversion." [3] OTEC is a technology of oceanic magnitude. Deep cold water intake tubes 11 meters (36 feet) in diameter with pumps of the same scale are proposed for 100 megawatt units. The quantity of water that would have to be processed to produce a significant amount of useful energy would be enormous. we are going to need proportionally large solutions. Fresh Water. 6/5/06.” http://www.000 MW (0. OTEC is extremely inefficient Rick Dworsky.6 percent of present world consumption) of OTEC plants would be equivalent to the combined discharge from all rivers flowing into the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (361.000 m3 s-1). Our task would be easier if we could reverse Human Population pressures.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Solvency ext.

5 trillion JP¥ annual production amount and will employ 10. Palau President Tommy Remengesau and Saga University President Nobumichi Sako participated in a ceremony to sign the agreement at the university in Saga city. it would be expected that total 1. the designing of standardized OTEC power station will be worked out for verifying the economic competitiveness in this capacity range. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC).000MW of Multi-OTEC station would be built in Japan annually in near future.ac. Japan is well known as world-leading country in ocean development and shipbuilding industry. university officials said. Japanese OTEC development is uniquely key. team up on ocean power research.000 new people.jp/FDE2002/02_Hitachi%20Zosen(f). Saga Univ. For the sake of commercialization of OTEC. This kind of plant is very beneficial for the island nations. At that time. it means that a new industry having 1.5 shows an illustration of 310MW class prototype OTEC barge for demonstration and dissemination. Hitachi Zosen Corporation. With this kind of offshore plant. Kyodo News International. According to the preliminary prediction. The plant should be built somewhere in an island country in the Pacific Ocean like Palau. 4/25/01. “Palau. Fig.saga-u.ioes. in regard to this enterprise. 10/17/02 “‘Water’ from the Ocean with OTEC” http://www.000 meters deep. SP Project Team. Fig. Hiroki Kobayashi. 21 . assessment of environmental conditions by introducing an OTEC power plant is also a part of the majors concerns in executing each of the above steps.” Japan Energy Scan The South Pacific island nation of Palau and Saga University signed an agreement Friday to promote technological cooperation and research exchanges for a promising power-generation method utilizing ocean temperature differentials.6 shows an illustration of larger 50100MW class commercial scale offshore OTEC plant built as a basic energy source. has started to develop conceptual design for several OTEC applications with the latest technologies in alliance with Saga University and Xenesys Inc. one of historic shipbuilder in Japan and keen on environmental solution fields. involves generating electricity by taking advantage of temperature differences in the ocean between the surface and 800 to 1. Needless to say. research and development programs should be followed up by strategic demonstration and dissemination activities.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Japan CP Japan has developed OTEC and wants to put more research into improving it. developed by the university's science and engineering department. In order to realize the OTEC. too. Hitachi Zosen Corporation (Hitz). since it is to provide not only clean energy and freshwater but also local industries by multiple usage of DOW resource.pdf Positive movement is recognized in Japan. technologies developed and accumulated in shipbuilding industry are very helpful.

Congress. ocean energy projects have received little assistance in the form of incentives or subsidies from the state or federal governments.us/specialrpt/energy/pdf/20-OceanPower. Susan Combs.S.23 Nevertheless. Th is installation eventually will have a capacity greater than 1 MW.”22 Th ere is one recent. the House Committee on Science and Technology approved the “Marine Renewable Energy Research and Development Act” that would provide $50 million a year for the next four years to promote ocean energy research and projects. appears to be giving ocean energy some new attention.S. although Florida has included it in a state tax incentive for commercial electricity production.S. Th e current federal renewable energy tax credits do not cover ocean energy. although ocean power companies would have to receive permits from FERC for power plants tied into multi-state electrical grids. In June 2007. the “U.window. government…has supported the development and demonstration of all electricity technologies except ocean wave energy. 22 . only Maine. which is considered to have a high potential for tidal energy. According to EPRI.state. Navy is funding a wave power plant built by Ocean Power Technologies at a base in Hawaii.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name States CP States can provide tax incentives for Ocean Thermal Energy. Some already are.”27 Th e state of Texas off ers no subsidies or incentives for ocean power. includes any support for research into ocean (tidal) power in its eligible renewable technologies.25 While many states are supporting research in renewable energy. however.S. Th ere are no state or federal taxes or fees specifi c to ocean power. Texas Comptroller of Public Affairs “The Energy Report” May 2008 http://www. minor exception to that statement: the U.pdf To date. EPRI considers the lack of government support to be the foremost obstacle to the development of this energy resource. this emerging technology has received little promotion in the U.24 Th e U.tx.26 Hawaii includes both wave energy and ocean thermal conversion in its generous 100 percent tax credit for investment in “high tech business. its fi rst wave power device was installed in 2004.

In Portugal. primarily because they are situated near valuable ocean energy assets (e. due in large part to government assistance. Various ocean power technologies are planned. however. Texas Comptroller of Public Affairs “The Energy Report” May 2008 http://www.pdf Other nations.window.tx. Spain. particularly wave power. in place or being tested in the United Kingdom. Portugal.us/specialrpt/energy/pdf/20-OceanPower.g.29 23 . a wave power project already has begun delivering electricity to homes. have led the way on ocean energy. good tide diff erentials or wave intensity). Australia and Japan..state.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name International CP Other countries are ahead of the US on ocean energy progress Susan Combs. and new sites and designs are being pursued in these nations and others.

and it’s still a matter of huge capital investment and a huge risk. Becca Friedman. 24 . “An Alternative Source Heats Up: Examining the future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.” Penney told the HPR. “We’ve talked to inventors and other constituents over the years. a large-scale plant has never been built. and there are many [alternate forms of energy] that are less risky that could produce power with the same certainty. Although piecemeal experiments have proven the effectiveness of the individual components. According to Terry Penney. Luis Vega of the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research estimated in an OTEC summary presentation that a commercial-size five-megawatt OTEC plant could cost from 80 to 100 million dollars over five years.” Harvard Political Review Online Despite the sound science. staff writer.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Spending Links Their 1AC Combs ’08 provides the link—50 million for research. The high costs of building even a model pose the main barrier. 2/26/06. a fully functioning OTEC prototype has yet to be developed. the combination of cost and risk is OTEC’s main liability. OTEC will cost 80 to 100 million dollars. the Technology Manager at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

It’s not the Democrats. a company specializing in OTEC technology. There is not any other renewable energy that can compare with OTEC. Even environmentalists have impeded OTEC’s development. they think pollution. There are a few people in the Department of Energy who have blocked government funding for this. According to Penney.” Harvard Political Review Online Even environmentalists have impeded OTEC’s development.squarespace. costs. Examining the Future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.” Harvard Political Review June 12. Despite enthusiastic projections and promising prototypes.OTEC Case Neg DDI 2008 <CM> Your Name Politics Links Public’s perception of the plan is bad Becca Friedman. Political Analyst for Harvard Political Review. people do not want to see OTEC plants when they look at the ocean. there was a small [governmental] program for OTEC and it was abandoned…That philosophy has carried forth to this day..” Harvard Political Review June 12. Political Analyst for Harvard Political Review. however. told the HPR. they think pollution. The potential is huge. the potential is so big.com/an-alternative-source-heats-up/ //wndiT. staff writer. Becca Freedman.com/an-alternative-source-heats-up/ //wndiT. there is a lack of institutional support. a lack of governmental support and the need for risky capital investment have stalled OTEC in its research and development phase. and uncertain popularity of OTEC. Becca Freedman. not the Republicans. “An Alternative Source Heats Up. halting the project at the research and development phase. “Years ago in the ’80s.” 25 . Dr. experts in oceanic energy contend that the technology to provide a truly infinite source of power to the United States already exists in the form of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). it seems unlikely that federal support for OTEC is forthcoming. 2/26/06. When they see a disruption of the pristine marine landscape. It is more than 100 to 1000 times more than the current consumption of worldwide energy. According to Penney.squarespace. Examining the Future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.” Plan is unpopular—environmentalists. Given the risks. It’s a bureaucratic issue. Although OTEC could provide an infinite power source for the entire United States. oceanic energy experts have high hopes. 2008 http://hprsite. cofounder of Sea Solar Power Inc. “An Alternative Source Heats Up: Examining the future of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. When they see a disruption of the pristine marine landscape. Joseph Huang. “If we can use one percent of the energy [generated by OTEC] for electricity and other things. 2008 http://hprsite. “An Alternative Source Heats Up. people do not want to see OTEC plants when they look at the ocean. told the HPR. Jim Anderson. the feds prove. Regardless. Although it may seem like an environmentalist’s fantasy. Senior Scientist at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and former leader of a Department of Energy team on oceanic energy.

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