COMPOSITE REPORT ON THE 2011, LIBERIA GENERAL ELECTIONS BY THE WEST AFRICA WOMEN ELECTIONS OBSERVATION TEAM (WAWEO

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WAWEO DECLARATION Liberian women participated impressively in various capacities in the 2011 general elections. Their enhanced capacities were manifested in the active roles they played as candidates, polling staff, party agents, observers, security personnel and voters The number of women observers on the field was increased by the WAWEO. Their vigilant observation ensured that electoral procedures were complied with and did not disadvantage women directly or indirectly.

WEST AFRICA CIVIL SOCIETY INSTITUTE

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Letter of Transmittal West Africa Women’s Election Observation Team Liberia General Elections, 2011 Palm Spring Hotel Congo Town Monrovia-Liberia

Dear Executive Director, I have the pleasure in transmitting our report to you. You will see that we have no hesitation in saying that in our view the electoral process was credible, the conditions existed for a free expression of the will by the electors and the results reflected the wishes people, and conditions existed for the women in Liberia to freely express their will through the polls. We thank you for inviting us to observe this general election. Now we hope that Liberia will go forward from this election success to strengthen all aspects of its democracy. Eunice Roberts Chairperson November 11, 2011

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TABLE OF CONTENTS Acknowledgement Map of Liberia 1. Introduction 2. Polling Process 2.1 Polling Landscape 2.2 Opening of the poll 2.3 Availability of Polling Materials 2.4 Polling Procedure 2.5 Performance of Polling Staff 2.6 Voters Conduct 2.7 Security 2.8 Accredited Party and Candidate Agents 2.9 Observers 3. Closing of the Poll 3.1 Reconciliation 3.2 Sorting and Counting 3.3 Declaration of Results 3.4 Signing of the Results 4. Women's Participation 4.1 Female Candidates 4.2 Participation 4. 2.0 Advocating for Peace 4. 2.1 Female Participation in the Electoral Process 5. Concerns 6. Recommendations 7. Conclusion 8. Appendix 8.1 Arrival Statement 8.2 Preliminary Statement 8.3 Preliminary Statement – Run-Off 8.4 Check List

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We are indebted to many organizations and individuals for their assistance to WAWEO during our mission in Liberia. In particular, we wish to thank the National Electoral Commission (NEC) of Liberia and its polling station staff. Without their cooperation and support, our work would have been impossible. We are most grateful to the political parties, civil society organizations, women's groups, the media and other stakeholders who briefed the team in Monrovia before the elections. We wish to express our heartfelt thanks and appreciation to the West Africa Civil Society Institute (WACSI) and the Women, Peace and Security Network (WIPSEN), Africa for giving us the opportunity to serve in this capacity. In conclusion, we thank IBIS -Liberia, Daphne Foundation, OSIWA and Humanity United for supporting this process.

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Map of Liberia

Republic of Liberia Profile a. Map of Liberia b. Area: 111,369 Sq km (43,000sq mi) c. Cities: Capital – Monrovia (pop. 1,010,970) Ganta (pop. 41,000) Buchanan (pop. 34,000) Gbarnga (Pop. 34,000) Kakata (Pop. 33,000) Voinjama (Pop. 26,00) d. Terrain: Three Areas i. Mangrove Swamps and beaches along the coast ii. Wooded hills and semi-deciduous scrublands along the immediate interior iii. Dense tropical forests and plateaus in the interior. Liberia has 40% of West Africa’s rain forest. e. People Population (2009): 3.955million Annual Population Growth: (2008) 2.1% There are 16 ethnics groups that made up Liberia’s indigenous population. The Kpelle in Central and Western Liberia is the largest ethnic group. The ethnic breakdown is as follows: Kpelle 20% Bassa 14% 4

Gio Kru

8% 6%

52% of the populations are spread over 12 other ethnic groups. There are also sizeable number of Lebanese, Indians and other West African Nationals who comprise part of Liberian’s business community. The Liberian constitution restricts citizenship to only people of Negro descent, and land ownership is restricted to citizens. Religions: Christians 85% Muslims 12% Other 1.5% No Religion 1.5% Languages: English is the official language. There are 16 indigenous languages. History on Election: The October 11, 2005 presidential and Legislative elections and subsequent November 8, 2005 presidential run-off were the most free, fair and peaceful elections in Liberia’s history. Ellen Johnson Sir-leaf defeated international soccer star George Weah 59. 4% to 40.6% to become Africa’s first democratically elected female president. She was inaugurated in January 2006. The president’s party, the Unity Party, does not control the legislature, in which 9 out of the 20 registered political parties are represented. Government and political Conditions Liberia has a bicameral legislature consisting of 64 representatives and 30 Senators. The 2005 elections placed a spectrum of political personalities, most for 6 -year terms. Senior senators were elected for 9-year terms. International efforts are aimed at sharing up the capacity of the judiciary. Liberia’s court system is divided into four (4) levels, including: justices of the peace, Courts of Records (Magistrate Courts) Courts of First instances (Circuit and Specialty Courts) The Supreme Court Traditional courts and lay courts exist in rural areas of the country. The formal judicial System remains hampered by severe shortage of qualified judges and other judicial officials. Locally, Political power emanates from traditional chiefs, mayors and district commissioners. There are 15 countries in Liberia. Counties Bomi Bong Gbarpolu Grand Bassa Grand Cape Mount Grand Gedeh Grand Kru Lofa Margibi Maryland Montserrado Nimba Rivercess Capital Tubmanburg Gbarnga Bopolu Buchanan Robertsport Zwedru Barclayville Voinjama Kakata Harper Bensonville Sanniquellie Cestos City 5

River Gee Sinoe 1. Introduction

Fish Town Greenville

Women in Africa are increasingly making their presence felt in the political arena. Despite this progress, the number of women actively and visibly engaged in politics remains low in most African countries mainly due to prevailing societal belief that politics is a male domain. 2011 and 2012 present new opportunities for women in West Africa with eight countries scheduled to hold parliamentary and presidential elections. In view of this, the delegates at the 2nd Annual West African Women Policy Forum convened by the West African Civil Society Institute (WACSI) and Women, Peace and Security Network (WIPSEN-Africa) under the theme: “Our Politics is NOW: Moving Beyond the Rhetoric of Women’s Political Participation” called for the formation of a West African Women Election Observation Team (WAWEO) consisting of two representatives from each of the fifteen ECOWAS member states. This initiative aims at promoting West African women’s active participation and representation in politics, enhancing women’s capacity to play active roles in electoral processes in West Africa by increasing the number of women observers and ensuring that electoral procedures including electoral laws and administration do not disadvantage women directly or indirectly. The WAWEO team was deployed during general elections to augment the work of the entire observation team across the sub-region. The first phase of this initiative consisted of the training of observers followed by deployment to observe elections. Due to insufficient funding, only 6 out of the 30 observers nominated could take part in the training and deployment for the Liberia elections. This report covers the pre-election, election and part of the post-election period. The WAWEO team was preceded by an advance team of two, Madam Eunice Akweley Roberts, chairperson of the WAWEO team and Afia Appiah, member of WAWEO. The mission of the advance team was to observe the gender aspects of the organization and conduct of the elections in accordance with the Laws of Liberia, relevant regional and international commitments. The objective was to reach a conclusion as to whether the conditions existed for the women in Liberia to freely express their will through the polls. In order to carry out their mission successfully, the advance team had a series of meetings with key stakeholders, namely Civil Society Organizations, the media and political parties among others. The interactions were fruitful and gave the team a viable background of the Liberian situation prior to the elections. The information gathered enabled the WAWEO observation mission to carry out its mandate successfully and productively as well as make meaningful recommendations.

REPORT OF MEETINGS WITH STAKEHOLDERS BY ADVANCE TEAM

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Upon arrival on October 5, 2011, the advance team met with the media, read the arrival statement and gave copies to them, introduced themselves and announced their mission in Liberia. In their interaction with the media, the team informed them that they wanted to be familiar with arrangements made by all stakeholders to ensure women go out and vote. They assured them that they will be impartial throughout the process because they are there to observe the elections and ensure that women vote freely. After their observation, a report will be sent out on the overall organization and conduct of the elections.

The interview was conducted by the following journalists: 1. Richard Manuba ELBC/ Liberia Broadcasting System Email: richnmon@yahoo.com Tel: 06 38 78 03 2. Nathaniel Walker Insight Newspaper nattwalker@yahoo.com Tel: 06 12 96 15/0776 86 33 3. Ben Morris radio Veritas 97.8 Fm morrisben4@yahoo.com Tel: 06 46 80 36

4. Sylvester W. Korwor Radio Veritas/WADR Tel: 0777 020 609

5. William Selmah West Africa Democracy Radio wselmah@yahoo.com Tel: 06 537 776
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October 6, 2011 was a busy day for the team. Meetings were arranged with CSOs, Representatives of political parties, Media and NEC (National Elections Commission).

WANEP-LIBERIA & WIPNET The team met Mr. Sam Darplor, Coordinator of Capacity Building of WANEP and Ms. Lena Commis, Coordinator of WIPNET.

The objective of the meeting was to: Brief the team on their preparations towards the elections; Find out the status of women’s participation in the electoral process; Assess the general security arrangements made to allow free and fair elections.

The team seized the opportunity to introduce the WAWEO initiative and expressed willingness to hear and collaborate with WIPNET since it is a women’s organization.

Overview of the security situation in the country The team was informed that there have been major security reforms during the first term of the current government. Training sessions have been organized for the police and the military to build their capacity. According to WANEP, some political parties have expressed mistrust in the National Election Commission (NEC). They are accused them of not being transparent and have therefore demanded that the election process is open to observers and political parties should be allowed representation at all collation centers. As a result of this, WANEP has put in place an early warning indicator project to monitor the elections so that political parties do not tally and announce their own results as they have threatened. The team was told that on Election Day, security will be provided at all polling centers by the Liberia Police Force; however, they will not be armed. Lena Commis of WIPNET briefed the team that women are being educated on the need for peace. She said they have taken several initiatives: met with political parties; launched programs for the youth on non-violent elections; met with security officers; organized women to fast and pray for peace in the country; carried out sensitization campaigns;
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distributed many fliers on violence free elections in Liberia ; cautioned women not to engage in political arguments.

The advance team expressed its appreciation of the efforts made so far and assured them of their support throughout the process.

Meeting with representatives of political parties The first meeting was with representatives of the National Democratic Coalition (NDC), a coalition of 5 political parties with the same interest. The team met with the ViceChairman of the Party, who informed them that political parties are not financially supported by government; they raise their own funds for their operations. He told the team that they have a presidential candidate, candidates vying for the Senate and House of Representatives. However, they did not file a candidate for the senatorial seat in Montserrado County (the capital district). When asked their plans for women in the event that they won the elections, the Vice-chairman stated that the party’s main objective is to empower women: create jobs for women (encouraging companies to employ women); capacitybuilding (adult literacy programs for market women to enable them to read, write and speak English). introduce a one-year national service scheme to help the youth get hands-on experience; ensure that women have access to loans with low interest rates; pass a law to make men take responsibility for their children in order to curb the high level of street children

He also informed the team that they have trained their agents to be attentive and disciplined at all polling centers and intend to organize training sessions to refresh their minds a day or two before elections. The Vice-Chairman expressed the party’s confidence in the NEC.

1. Ciapha Gbollie Vice-Chairman/Administration gbolliemueyoeh@yahoo.com
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Tel: 06582291

2. William B. Kollie Recording secretary, NDC mdafumkpa@yahoo.com

3. Jonnie Q. Mah Tel: 06 57 39 20

Meetings with the Media The team visited the Liberia Women Media Action Committee (LIWOMAC), a media and women focused organization. This is an initiative of the Women Media Action Committee (WOMAC) aimed at giving a voice to the voiceless. The project comprises of advocacy, capacity building and media skills. They are making a conscious effort to boost the number of women involved in the electoral process. This is being done through: getting prominent women to talk about peace, encouraging women to vote for women, sensitizing women to be careful with the language they use.

1. Weade Kobbah-Wineh

Professor of mass communication University of Liberia wkobbah@yahoo.com Tel: 06 424 728
2. Eliza Dahn

Executive Producer and Head of Interim Management Team Liberia Women Democracy Radio elizadahn@yahoo.com Tel: 06 524 124

The team also visited Truth Fm, introduced the advance team and held discussions with them on the role of the media in the electoral process.
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National Elections Commission (NEC) The final visit of the day was with the NEC which is responsible for the organization and the conduct of the elections in Liberia. The team met with Mr. Langley, Executive Director of the National Elections Commission of Liberia. He briefed them on their preparations so far. This included:      recruitment and training of polling centers staff, printing and dispatch of ballots papers dispatch of other logistics (ballots boxes, stationaries, seals, etc.) arrangement for security personnel at each polling center (police, immigration and prison officers) invitation to attend a briefing on the 8th October 2011

Meeting with Election Coordinating Committee On October 7, 2011, the advance team met with Mr. Oscar Blow (SFCG/TDS) and Mr. Joe Pemagbi (OSIWA) who briefed them on the formation of the Election Coordinating Committee, set up to recruit and train domestic observers. They said that so far they have recruited and trained 2000 domestic observers and have deployed them to observe the upcoming elections alongside other Domestic and International observers.

During the period, the team observed the closing rallies of the CDC (Congress for Democratic Change) and UP (Unity Party) in Monrovia. The streets were full of enthusiastic party supporters in their paraphernalia, singing, dancing and chanting party slogans. The atmosphere was that of excitement.

2. POLLING PROCESS 2.1 Polling Landscape

The NEC has demarcated for ease of voting by the 1,779,187 registered voters the following; o o o 19 magisterial districts/areas 1,780 polling precincts 4,500 polling stations

The contested positions in the elections were 11

o o o 2.2

1 presidential position 15 senatorial positions 73 house of representative seats Opening of the poll

The polling centers were supposed to open from 0800hrs to 1800hrs. All the five (5) polling centers where the opening process was observed opened on time at 0800hrs. 2.3 Availability of Polling Materials

At the time of opening of the polls all the relevant materials were available at the polling station observed. The following materials were checked and accepted as intact by all observers and party agents present: o Ballot Boxes o Seals o Ballot Papers o Voter's Register In all centers observed there were no shortages of polling materials reported. 2.4 Polling Procedure

Generally, the polling centers were accessible to voters registered. However in one location a polling place was located on the 3rd floor of a building, challenging pregnant women, disabled and aged voters. Voters who needed assistance to vote (including the visually impaired and physically challenged) were at all times brought to the front of the queue and allowed to vote without delay. Provision was made for the aged, pregnant and women with babies to be given priority to vote. Set-up of some of the polling places strongly influenced the ease of voting by the electorate. Small rooms did not allow for free flow of human traffic and this caused congestion and delay. Set-up of the polling places allowed for secret balloting. In instances where this was compromised the polling booths were moved to ensure secrecy of the ballot. The general procedure followed at the centers observed was: o o o o o o Presentation of voter's ID card by the voters Verification of the voter's ID by the Voter Identification Officer Validation and issuing of the ballot papers by the Ballot Paper Issuer Voters proceeding to the voting booth to secretly mark by pen or thumbprint their candidate of choice Application of Electoral Stain by the Inker Voters casting their ballots guided by the Ballot Box Control officer

In the few instances where there were spoiled ballots, they were shown to the party agents and observers then marked and stored according to NEC procedure. 12

The voting process was observed to be slow in some polling places, while in others it proceeded swiftly. All WAWEO observers reported that the atmosphere at the polling stations visited was peaceful with the voter's in cheerful spirits. There was no campaigning going on at or near the polling stations with no observed election posters displayed in or outside the centers. 2.5 Performance of Polling Staff

The polling staffs were predominantly youthful and this active engagement of the youth in this vital democratic process has a positive impact on the violence-free electoral process. The staff wore official NEC - Polling Staff aprons which clearly identified them from the electorate. In their interaction with the electorate, party agents and observers, the polling staffs were courteous and patient in explaining electoral procedure to all concerned. They were particular in being impartial, efficient and transparent in their operations. Their efficiency reflected the depth of capacity building that had taken place prior to the elections. 2.6 Voters Conduct

At all the 5 polling centers observed, voters had queued before the start of the polling exercise. Some voters mentioned they had queued as early as 0600hrs. Voters followed the polling procedure in an orderly manner, patiently waiting in queues to cast their ballots, despite heavy rain and hot sun. 2.7 Security

Security at the polling station was provided by Liberian security agencies. 2.8 Accredited Party and Candidate Agents

Political parties and independent candidates were represented by their accredited agents at all the polling stations observed. The following parties were represented at the centers visited. o o o o o o o o o o o Unity Party (UP) Liberian Transformation Party (LTP) National Union for Democratic Progress (NUDP) Congress for Democratic Change (CDC) National Democratic Coalition (NDC) Liberty Party (LP) Liberia Destiny Party (LDP) Progressive People's Party (PPP) All Liberia Coalition Party (ALCOP) Movement for Progressive Change (MPC) Victory for Change Party (VCP)

All agents at the centers comported themselves well and cooperated with the polling staff in the discharge of their duties. They were seated in locations of the polling place where they could clearly 13

observe the voting procedures. They took notes of all proceedings diligently, painstakingly recording the number of voters. They were cordial to each other. 2.9 Observers

There were domestic and international observers at the polling stations visited. The domestic observers were from o o o o Election Coordination Committee (ECC), Human Rights Monitors Liberian Council of Churches Community Watch Forum

The international observers were from o o o o o o o o o Electoral Institute of South Africa (ELSA) Carter Center ECOWAS African Union United Nations American Embassy Japan Embassy Wayne State University MARWOPNET

The observers were professional and went about their activities unobtrusively. 3. CLOSING OF THE POLL At all the polling places observed, polling closed at 1800hrs and there were no queues at the time of closing. Generally, the closing procedure mandated by NEC was followed by the Polling Officer generating a feeling of transparency within the polling station to the satisfaction of all present. 3.1 Reconciliation

The polling staff meticulously counted the unused ballot papers and the ballots cast to reconcile all ballots issued for the presidential, senatorial and representative positions. The ballots cast were then securely placed in the ballot boxes and sealed. This was done in the presence and to the satisfaction of all party agents and observers. 3.2 Sorting and Counting

Each ballot was sorted according to parties/candidates and the invalid ballots were identified, agreed upon and set aside in envelopes. Counting was conducted in sets of 50s and each candidate's votes were consolidated. The counting process was meticulously done. 3.3 Declaration of Results

The PO declared the results and subsequently entered them onto to the results forms. 14

3.4

Signing of the Results

Party agents were invited to sign the results forms to indicate their acceptance of the declared results. Copies of the results were given to the party agents for the three leading parties. Observers were however not given copies of the results. The results were pasted on the walls of the polling center for the attention of all interested.

4.

WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION

It is significant to note that, Liberian women were confident in their participation in the entire electoral process from their representation among the electoral officials, security personnel, party agents and the overwhelming number of women voters. 4.1 Female Candidates

Even though the electoral laws do not discriminate against women, the participation of women in this year's elections was very low. Contested Position Presidential Vice-presidential Senatorial House of Representatives Total Candidates 16 16 99 NA Female 2 1 10 NA

A conscious effort from all women's groups and gender sensitive individuals must ensure increased women's participation in the political process. It is time for women's groups to examine the strategies that have been used so far and see how they can be improved upon to increase women's candidature in elections. 4.2 4.2.0 Female Participation in the Electoral Process Advocating for Peace

The women of Liberia lay in the sun and rain praying and fasting for peaceful and violence-free elections.

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Members of Women in Peace-building Network (WIPNET), a Liberian grassroots women's organization that has been campaigning for peace in Liberia since the days of the civil war, demonstrate in capital Monrovia demanding continued peace as the National Elections Commission is set to declare preliminary final results of the national elections. (http://unmil.org/) 4.2.1 Participation

Female participation in the 2011 Liberia elections was massive. This was manifested by the impressive turn-up of women electorate to vote as well the high number of women who served as party and candidate agents. Above 50% of election observers representing civil society and faithbased organizations were female. This high female representation was reflected in the official personnel from NEC and security personnel maintaining law and order. 5. o o o CONCERNS Size of spaces used for polling places In some polling places, the size of the space used hindered the polling processes. No provision was made for the visually impaired for the voting process Citing of polling places In some polling places, the voters had to climb stairs to the 3rd floor to cast their votes. This was prohibitive for some aged and infirm voters. Lack of understanding of the voting process at the polling places by some of the women voters which slowed down the voting process. The counting process was slow and complicated, particularly by the need of the polling staff to reassure party agents of the transparency of the process. Insufficient lighting at the polling places slowed down the sorting and counting process. Starting the election at 0800 and closing the poll at 1800hrs created problems with the closing processes at the polling centers.

o o o o

6. RECOMMENDATIONS o The size of the polling place should be given high priority as a criterion for selecting the venue for polling. This will ensure that free flow of voters in a polling place. o Tactile ballots should be provided for the visually impaired and adequate education provided to ensure maximum use of the facility when provided. 16

o o o o o

Citing of polling places should be selected to ensure easy access for the electorate. Continuous voter education targeting women should be intensified and conducted in a timely manner NEC should investigate alternative means of sorting and counting to hasten the process while maintaining transparency. Increase provision of adequate lighting for the polling places. The polling process should be started at 0700hrs and completed at 1700hrs to maximize use of daylight for the poll closing processes.

6 CONCLUSION Finally, we would like to pay tribute to the people of Liberia for their responsible and orderly participation in the 2011 general elections. The NEC demonstrated maturity and gender sensitivity in conducting the entire electoral process. To the women of Liberia who did not only fast and pray, lying in the sun and rain, but who also came out in their numbers to vote, we are proud of you. We commend the political leaders and their parties, for taking part in the electoral process responsibly. They deserve to be congratulated on their demonstrated belief in, and their commitment to democratic values and ethics, particularly to free, fair and transparent elections. This was an election well planned and executed with maximum participation by the people of Liberia. It was violence free, no intimidation or harassment with the electorate free to cast their vote. The electorate's freedom from fear was manifested by the high presence of women everywhere. The voting process proceeded smoothly with electoral rules and regulations adhered to by the political parties and candidates. The nascent democracy and youthfulness of the participants engaged in the electoral process imbued it with buoyancy and excitement The Liberia 2011 general election process experienced its challenges and triumphs in successfully allowing the electorate to exercise their franchise. Therefore, our heartfelt congratulations go to the women and all people of Liberia, the NEC and all actors in the electoral process and urge them to continue striving for the ultimate in democratic standards. Thank you. God bless you.

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LIBERIA PRESIDENTIAL RUN-OFF ELECTIONS TUESDAY NOVEMBER 8, 2011

[PAD1]

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TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Polling Process

2.1 Polling Landscape 2.2 Availability of Polling Materials 2.3 Polling Procedure
2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Performance of Polling Staff Voters Conduct Security Accredited Party and Candidate Agents Observers

3. Closing of the Poll 3.0 Reconciliation

3.1Sorting and Counting 3.2 Declaration of Results

3.3 Signing of the Results 4. Women's Participation
3.4 Female Candidates 3.5 Participation

5. Concerns
6. Recommendations 7. Conclusion 8. Appendix a. Preliminary Statement

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1.

INTRODUCTION

After the October 11 2011 General Elections, none of the 16 contestants for the presidential race obtained the constitutional requirement of absolute majority to win the presidential elections. As per Article 83 of the Liberian Constitution 1986 (as amended) which states that, “All elections of public officers shall be determined by an absolute majority1 of the votes cast. If no candidate obtains an absolute majority in the first ballot, a second ballot shall be conducted on the second Tuesday following. The two candidates who received the greatest numbers of votes on the first ballot shall be designated to participate in the run-off election.” Therefore, the runoff election was scheduled to take place on November 8, 2011 between the two leading candidates arising from the Presidential Elections. These are Madame Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf of the Unity Party (UP) and Mr. Winston A. Tubman of the Congress for Democratic Change (CDC). WAWEO arrived in Liberia on November 4, 2011 to complete the observation of the Liberia Presidential Run-Off Elections. On arrival, the team met with some stakeholders including the National Electoral Commission (NEC), where we were briefed by the Executive Director on their preparedness for the run-off elections on Tuesday November 8, 2011. We were informed that CDC, one of the contenders, demanded the resignation of the Chairperson of NEC. After the Chairperson resigned, CDC made further demands including the following: a. b. c. d. e. Dissolution of the entire NEC Board of Commissioners and reconstituting it with 50% representatives each from both CDC and UP Replacement of all Returning Officers and Presiding Officers Direct access to the NEC website NEC should pay CDC Elections Observers CDC Observers should be allowed to accompany ballot papers to the Counties for distribution before the elections

The Executive Director confirmed that ballots were ready and that political parties would be permitted to escort the distribution of ballots in order to ensure transparency. He explained that NEC had replaced defaulting officials while strengthening logistics for the elections. He emphasized
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“Absolute Majority of Votes” means a number of votes greater than one-half the number of all voters who vote at an election, exclusive of voters whose ballot papers are rejected – S1.2 of the New Elections Law 1986 (as amended). Section 4.15 of the New Elections Law 1986 (as amended) provides that where in the first round of elections for the President and Vice President no candidate obtains an ‘absolute majority’ that is “fifty percent plus one vote,” a second ballot with the top two candidates shall take place the second Tuesday after the announcement of the results of the first ballot.

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that NEC and international donors such as UNDP were putting in efforts to increase women’s political participation in the electoral process. WAWEO also met with the Angie Brooks International Centre to find out their preparations towards the November run-off election. According to Councilor Yvette Chelson, head of the organization, they have been working with different partners before, during and after the October 11 elections and were preparing for the run-off. She explained that the Centre has been working with 200 observers drawn from 40 local and international partner organizations including: 1. Femmes Africa Solidarité (FAS),

2. MARWOPNET, West Africa Network for Peace-building (WANEP), 3. Women in Peace-building Network (WIPNET), 4. Federation of Liberia Youth, 5. Market Women Associations, 6. ECOWAS, 7. Paramount Women Association, 8. Liberia Students Association and confirmed that the majority of them are women. She informed us that a Situation room has been set up in the City Hall to receive calls and complaints as well as incidents which could not be handled by their observers on the ground. This Situation room, she explained, is made up of ministers and high profile women who can resolve issues immediately they came up. Madame Yvette Chelson brought up the issue of women’s participation as candidates and revealed that about 14 seats previously occupied by women had been lost during the October 11 elections. She gave reasons for this loss including the fact that women were not prepared or organized as a group. She explained that initially the media was hostile towards women candidates. As a result of this, Angie Brooks International Center facilitated a series of meetings with the media both radio and newspapers to encourage responsible reporting and avoid stirring up violence in the country. This was followed by a meeting with the Director for Good Governance of ECOWAS Mr. Okorodudu who briefed us on the political impasse between CDC and NEC and the intense efforts being made to get the CDC to meet with the President of ECOWAS and members of the Council of the Wise. He however stressed that the demands being made by the CDC were constitutional issues that could not be changed without an amendment to the Liberian Constitution. On Saturday, November 5, 2011 the team met with the Civil Society Elections Coordinator Mr. Oscar Blow, who informed us that civil society in Liberia has trained one thousand people to observe the run-off election and that additional people will be recruited in the counties to help. He informed the WAWEO Team that civil society had made efforts to bring the CDC to the table with NEC and come to an agreement but this had not succeeded. He commended women’s political participation in the October, 11 elections even though the outcome did not favor them. 21

Finally, WAWEO met with the press and made a passionate appeal to all parties to maintain peace by allowing reason to prevail and to remember that Liberia is bigger than everyone. Sadly, on the eve of the Run-Off, the CDC organized a protest at their party headquarters which went out of control, spilled onto the streets and led to violence resulting in the death of at least one person. On the morning of the Run-off Election, the Chairperson of WAWEO called the UN Security Contact to confirm the security situation, He confirmed that the environment was calm and observers can move freely as structures have been put in place to ensure security. 2. a. Polling Process Polling Landscape

As in the 1st round elections, there were: 1780 Polling Precincts 4500 Polling Centers As was done in the first round, WAWEO Observers were deployed to the following counties: Montserrado Margibi Bomi Our observers saw the polling process on polling day and the counting process. On Election Day, they were at the polling stations before polling started at 8:00 am. b. Polling Procedure

At the opening of the poll, the Presiding Officers showed the empty ballot boxes to those at the polling stations – Party Agents, Observers and NEC staff to demonstrate that the boxes were empty. The boxes were then sealed and placed in full view of all present, ready for voting. When voting started, a Polling staff (Voter Identification Officer) checked the voter’s card to ensure that it had not already been used. A mark also was placed next to the voter’s name on the register. The voter was then issued with a ballot paper that was validated by stamping at the back. The voter then proceeded to the polling booth to mark the ballot. As a further security measure, the last left finger (pinkie) of the voter was dipped into a pot of indelible ink (electoral stain) after which the voter then deposited the ballot paper in the ballot box. WAWEO had earlier been informed by NEC that attempts had been made to ensure that polling stations had not more than 500 voters per polling station in order to avoid overcrowding at the polling centers. And to maximize use of the existing spaces available.

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Observers visited as many polling centers as possible during the day, revisiting centers that were of special concern. At each polling center, the observers spoke to the Presiding Officer, party agents, security Officers, voters and observers.

c.

Availability of Polling Materials

It was observed that staff at some polling centers encountered problems with some of their logistics e.g.   There were a number of faulty Punches with polling staff resorting to the use of scissors, nails and hammers to punch the voters’ identity cards. Also, some of the ballot papers were not properly perforated which made tearing off very difficult and so polling staff used scissors and rulers to cut the ballot papers. d. Performance of Polling Staff

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Polling Staff comprised of: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. A Presiding Officer A Voter Identification Officer A Ballot Paper Issuer An Inker A Ballot Box Controller A Polling Place Queue Controller

A polling station worker waits for voters, at a polling station in Monrovia, Liberia, on November 8, 2011, the election run-off date. (http://unmil.org/) There was an increase in female polling staff. The staff was well trained and properly attired making identification easy. Some of the polling staff appeared more knowledgeable and experienced which made the voting process shorter. They were friendly, courteous and helpful and willingly assisting voters as and when needed. Overall, the polling staff exhibited team spirit and professionalism. 24

However, in a few instances, performance was not up to par and it was observed by all that the Inker also doubled as the Ballot Box Controller.

e.

Voters Conduct

An elderly voter casts his ballot at a polling station in Monrovia during the 08 November run-off presidential elections in Liberia. (http://unmil.org/) The atmosphere at the polling centers was peaceful and voters were generally calm, well behaved and followed the procedures at the polling centers. It was also observed that apart from the queues at some of the polling centers at the start of voting, voters trickled in during the day and by the close of poll, there were no queues. However, some voters did not cooperate with officials when it got to the stage of applying the electoral stain. f. Security

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Members of the all-female Indian Formed Police Unit keep vigil outside the office of the National Elections Commission as Liberia gets ready for the presidential run-off election. (http://unmil.org/) Security for the run-off election was provided by the Liberian National Police (LNP) with support from Immigration, National Security and UNMIL. While it is true that the government had assured the citizens of maximum security on the day of the elections run-off, the visibility of the security at the polling centers was low in most of the centers WAWEO observers visited but there was still law and order. In spite of this, it was observed that in Central Monrovia, the security presence was very visible. Unlike the first round of elections where the presence of female security personnel was high, this time around, it was not so. g. Accredited Party and Agents

Although NEC had made provision for all contesting parties to have their agents observe the run-off election, it was only Unity Party that had observers at all the polling centers visited. It was observed that there was an equitable representation of male and female as party agents by Unity Party. h. Observers

As in the first round, there were Domestic and International observers at the polling centers visited. The Domestic observers were from   Election Coordination Committee (ECC) Liberian Council of Churches

The International observers were from  West African Women Elections Observation team (WAWEO)  Carter Center  ECOWAS  African Union (AU)  European Union (EU)  United Nations (UN)  The American Embassy to Liberia  MARWOPNET  WIPNET  The Sierra Leone Embassy to Liberia  Angie Brooks International Center The observers were professional and went about their activities unobtrusively.

3.

Closing of the Poll 26

Polling closed at 1800hrs at all the polling places observed. There were no queues at the time of closing. Generally, the closing procedure mandated by NEC was followed by the Polling Officer generating a feeling of transparency within the polling station to the satisfaction of all present.

a.

Reconciliation

The polling staff meticulously counted the unused ballot papers and the ballots cast to reconcile all ballots issued for the elections. The ballots cast were then securely placed in the ballot boxes and sealed. This was done in the presence and to the satisfaction of party agents and observers present. However, in some of the polling centers visited, the Presiding Officers failed to follow this process and skipped the reconciliation of ballot papers and went directly to sorting and counting of the ballot. b. Sorting and Counting

A polling station worker waits for voters, at a polling station in Monrovia, Liberia, on November 8, 2011, the election run-off date. (http://unmil.org/)

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(http://unmil.org/) Each ballot was sorted according to the two candidates with the spoiled and invalid ballots identified and set aside. Counting was conducted in sets of 50s and each candidate's votes were consolidated. The counting process was meticulously done. In some instances, there were recount of the ballots.

As in the October 11, elections, lighting still posed a problem at the tail end of the counting process because the lanterns provided by NEC did not provide adequate light. In spite of this, it was observed that one of the centers where this problem had existed was provided with a generator which ensured that counting was done to the satisfaction of all. c. Declaration of Results

The Presiding Officers declared the results and subsequently entered them onto to the Statement of Result Forms. d. Signing of the Results 28

Party agents were invited to sign the statement of result forms to indicate their acceptance of the declared results. A copy of the statement of results was given to agents of the Unity Party and in one instance, international observers were given a copy. Generally, observers were not given copies of the statement of results. The results were also pasted on the walls of polling centers for the attention of the public. It was observed in one polling center, that the carbonated sheet of the statement of results did not work and so the presiding officer had to write on each of the copies.

4.

Women's Participation

A proud mother displays Proof of her voting at a polling station (http://unmil.org/) It was observed that Liberian women continued to participate in the entire electoral process by serving as electoral officials, security personnel, party, observers, and as voters.

A young Liberian woman entering a polling station to cast her vote in Monrovia 29

a.

Female Candidates

The run-off election was between the incumbent President Madame Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf and Winston Tubman. b. Advocates for Peace

It was observed that during the protest by CDC on Monday, November 7 2011, the women of Liberia engaged the party’s supporters through dialogue at their party office to eschew violence. They further encouraged them to participate peacefully in the run-off election.

5. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. 6. i. ii. iii.

Concerns There were no formal provisions by NEC for polling staff to record the number of male and female voters and submit the same with the results forms. In some polling centers, the secrecy of the ballots was not assured. Some polling centers were still cited in storied buildings making them inaccessible particularly for persons with disabilities, the aged and mothers with children. Some polling centers were small and not conducive for the exercise. Provision of faulty electoral materials e.g. Punches slowed down the process at the voter identification phase. The breakout of violence on the eve of the run-off elections had an impact on voter turnout on Election Day. Recommendations NEC should ensure there is provision for the collection and inputting of gender disaggregated data throughout the electoral process. There is a need to take steps to ensure the secrecy of the ballots by providing sufficient privacy so the voters marking of the ballot paper could not be seen. Improving the organization and accommodation facilities for the voting process by providing spacious and conducive environment for all voters including persons with disabilities, the aged and expectant mothers. NEC should ensure that all electoral materials/logistics are in good working condition and provide adequate alternatives when necessary. v. An effective Early Warning System should be instituted in consultation with security agencies to prevent, monitor and respond to electoral violence before it escalates.

iv.

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7.

Conclusion

WAWEO would like to congratulate the people of Liberia for coming out to vote in spite of the call by the leadership of the CDC to boycott the run-off election and the violence that took place on the eve of the election. We found the overall conduct of the electoral process to be transparent, peaceful, free, fair and violence free. The National Electoral Commission (NEC) continued to demonstrate consistency, maturity and gender sensitivity in conducting the entire electoral process despite the challenges that confronted them. We would like to commend ECOWAS and the UN for the role they played in mediating in the political impasse between the CDC and the NEC. We applaud the women of Liberia who maintained their role as peace builders by engaging the supporters of the CDC during their protest to discourage the escalation of violence. The voting process proceeded smoothly with electoral rules and regulations adhered to by all. In conclusion, the West Africa Women Elections Observation Team (WAWEO) urges the people of Liberia to live in Unity and support each other for a better Liberia.

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APPENDIX A 2011 LIBERIA ELECTIONS – ARRIVAL STATEMENT Monrovia, 6th October, 2011 Arrival statement by Madam Eunice Roberts, Chairperson Women’s Election Observer Group We are here in Liberia to observe the October 11, 2011 General Elections. Our group has been constituted by the West Africa Civil Society Institute (WACSI) and the Women International Peace and Security Network – Africa (WIPSEN-AFRICA) in response to the call by the West Africa Women’s Policy Forum which took place in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire in November 2009. It is my honor and privilege to have been asked to lead the Group and be here in Liberia for these important Elections. As observers we will be serving in our individual capacities. Our task is to observe the gender aspects of the organization and conduct of the Elections in accordance with the Laws of Liberia as well as relevant regional and other international commitments, and at the end reach a conclusion as to whether the conditions existed for the women in Liberia to freely express their will through the polls. We have no executive role. Our function is to observe the process as a whole and form an impartial judgment on the credibility of the exercise. In conducting our duties and undertaking our assessment, we will be impartial and objective. We will be constructive in our observation and remarks, with the intent to help further strengthen women’s participation in the democratic process in the country. In the pre-election period, we will meet with a wide range of stakeholders, including the Electoral Commission, representatives of political parties, civil society, media and other international and national observers groups. These meetings should add greatly to our knowledge and appreciation of the situation in Liberia and in turn, go a long way to facilitating our work. 32

I wish the people of Liberia well and encourage women in particular to come out in their numbers to participate in the democratic process and choose freely and fairly those who will govern them.

APPENDIX B PRELIMINARY STATEMENT, 2011 LIBERIA ELECTIONS

By:

Mad. Eunice Roberts, Chairperson, West Africa Women's Election Observers (WAWEO)

Monrovia, October 13, 2011 – WAWEO arrived in Liberia on October 5th, 2011 and deployed in three (3) counties; Montserrado, Margibi and Bomi. It is too early to give an overall judgment on the entire electoral process. That judgment will be provided in our final report; however it is possible for me to make some remarks today based on observations of the WAWEO team. First, I want to pay tribute to the people of Liberia for their responsible and orderly participation in the 2011 general elections, - the women of Liberia who did not only fast and pray, lying in the sun and rain, but also came out in their numbers to vote, and - the political leaders and their parties, who partook responsibly in the electoral process. They deserve to be congratulated on their demonstrated belief in, and their commitment to democratic values and ethics, particularly to free, fair and transparent elections. The general atmosphere before and during the election was essentially peaceful and free of fear. 33 -

As observers, we had full access to Liberia. The team came to Liberia primarily to observe the gender dimensions of the elections i.e. its organization and conduct, with the intent to strengthen women's participation in democratic processes in West Africa. The team conducted preliminary consultations with stakeholders and institutions involved in the electoral process, namely, the National Elections Commission (NEC), political parties, civil society organizations (including women’s groups) and the media in order to gain insights regarding women’s place in the Liberian society and the status of their participation in politics and the electoral process. It is significant to note that, Liberian women were confident in their participation in the entire electoral process from their representation among the electoral officials, security personnel, party agents and the overwhelming number of women voters. During the pre-election period, the media reported freely and political parties campaigned freely. The chairman, commissioners and staff of NEC deserve to be commended on their overall performance. Organizing elections is a major logistical challenge. In spite of some defects, the overall conduct of the 2011 general elections was well organized and peaceful.

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APPENDIX C PRELIMINARY STATEMENT LIBERIAN PRESIDENTIAL RUN-OFF ELECTIONS By Madam Eunice Roberts, Chairperson of the West African Women Election Observation Monrovia, November 9, 2011 – The West African Women Election Observation (WAWEO) team returned to Liberia on November 4, 2011 to observe the Presidential Run-off Elections as part of activities to complete its work of observing the Liberian elections 2011. The run-off elections became necessary when none of the 16 presidential candidates in the October 2011 elections, obtained “absolute majority of valid votes” cast as required by Law. Section 4.15 of the New Elections Law 1986 (as amended) provides that where in the first round of elections for the President and Vice President no candidate obtains an ‘absolute majority’ that is “fifty percent plus one vote,” a second ballot with the top two candidates shall take place the second Tuesday after the announcement of the results of the first ballot. On our arrival, WAWEO was informed by the Executive Director of National Elections Commission (NEC) of the announcement by Congress for Democratic (CDC) to boycott the run-off elections if some demands they have made to the NEC are not met. Unfortunately, on Monday, 7 November 2011, the eve of the run-off elections, a protest by CDC supporters at their headquarters turned violent and resorted in the death of at least one person. When the WAWEO team was constituted by WACSI and WIPSEN – Africa in response to the call by the West Africa Women Policy Forum in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire in November 2009, we had two (2) main objectives: 35

To observe the gender aspects of the organization and conduct of the elections in accordance with Laws of Liberia as well as relevant regional and other international commitments; and To determine whether conditions existed for women in Liberia to freely express their will through the polls.

The result process is not yet complete so we do not want to comment at this stage. However it is possible for us to make some remarks in the form of this interim statement based on the observations of the members of the WAWEO team. Arising from the report of our observers we know there was peace and calm. There were also genuine efforts to enable people to vote freely without fear or intimidation. Despite the violence that took place on the eve of the run-off elections, many voters still came out to vote. We would like to recognize the role of the women of Liberia who intervened in the violence that occurred on Monday 7, 2011, through peaceful dialogue with CDC supporters to maintain the peace and prevent the violence from escalating. The challenge for Liberia in the weeks and years to come is to go forward to strengthen all aspects of the country’s democracy. We believe that ECOWAS and the UN will be ready to provide support, cooperation and assistance in this regard. We wish the Liberian people well in their efforts to ensure that this country’s democracy is full, certain and enduring. A final report including detailed recommendations would be completed and published within a month. Contact information:  Madam Eunice Roberts, Chairperson of the West African Women Election Observation (WAWEO) Team Email: amanua2005@yahoo.com

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APPENDIX D

ELECTION CHECKLIST

Normally on Election Day you will be required to observe;    The opening of the poll at one polling station Proceedings at several polling stations The closing of the poll at one polling station

The sample election checklist consists of three kinds of election observation forms labeled A, B and C. The forms have been formulated against the backdrop formulated against the backdrop of good electoral practices generally, but there is nothing sacrosanct about them: they could be easily adapted to suit local peculiarities. The forms have been designed in such a way that you will use only one of A and C, but several of B in doing your observation. How you are to proceed is authorized below:   Arrive at the polling station where you are going to observe the opening of the poll about one hour before the stipulated opening time. Watch the opening closely. Then observe the first voters voting and complete Observation Form A. After that proceed to visit the other polling stations you have selected for each one, complete one Observation Form B. In the case of polling stations where you notice problems, it is advisable to return to them later on the day to see whether the situation has cleared. You may also want to select one such polling station for your observation of the closing of the poll and vote count. Arrive at the polling station where you are going to observe the closing of the poll and vote count about 30 minutes prior to the stipulated closing time. Use Part 1 and Part 2 of Observation Form C to record your observations there when all the transactions at this polling station have been fully completed, proceed to the collation centre, the place where 37

the votes for the various candidates from all the polling stations will be added up, and use Part 3 of Form C to record your observations. Do your best to complete the forms thoroughly, even though you may find the information you are recording to be repetitive in most cases. The repetitiveness in itself tells a significant story about the election. If you notice any important occurrences that are not catered for by the forms, or if you want to make comments on any particular matter, please record them on the back of the forms. Finally, perhaps you could do with some friendly advice.       Familiarize yourself thoroughly with the observation forms before Election Day, so that you know what to look out for; Upon entering a polling station first greet the presiding officer and identify yourself to him/her and show your accreditation Be polite and cordial at all times, even when you feel you are not well received Never interfere in the work of an election officials. Remember that your duty is to observe the election process not to conduct the election If you notice any mistake problem or fraud, politely bring it to the attention of a responsible officer. Make a detailed note of any explanation given or action taken. But do not give the officer any instructions. Please do not try to be a heroine: leave any place as soon as you sense danger. ELECTION OBSERVATION FORM - A OPENING OF THE POLL N.B. Arrive at the polling station (PS) at least 30 minutes before the time voting is supposed to begin. Name of Observer ___________________________________________________________ PS Name ______________________________PS Code (if any) ___________________ Time of Arrival _______________________ Time of Departure_____________________ What was the number of voters on the main voters’ register/roll/list? _____________ Was there any supplementary list to be used for voting? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, what is the list called? ___________________________________________________ How many voters were on it? ______________________________________________________ Were security personnel present at the PS? Yes______ No______ If yes, how many? ______________________________________________________________________ Were there party/candidates’ agents at the PS? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, which parties? ______________________________________________________________________________ Did the Presiding Officer (PO) show the empty ballot boxes to the agents before voting started? Yes ____ No ____ If no, what did s/he do? ______________________________________________________________________________ 38

Did the PO show the ballot papers to the agents before using them for voting? Yes ____ No ____ If no, what did s/he do? ______________________________________________________________________________ Did the PO officially record the total number of ballots issued to the station before starting to use them? Yes ____ No ____ Were party agents and observers allowed to record the number? Yes ____ No ____ About how many voters were in the queue just before voting started? __________ How many of them were female? ____________________________________________ At what time was the first ballot paper placed in the ballot box? ______________________________________________________________________________ Was the PS set up in such a way as to enable the voter to cast a secret ballot? Yes _____ No _____ If no, please explain: ______________________________________________________________________ Was the PS set-up such that agents/observers could clearly see the voting process? Yes ____ No Did voters have to show identification? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, what kind? _____________________________________________________________________________ Was anyone allowed to vote without the identification? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, what explanation was given? _____________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Was any person allowed to vote whose name was not on the register? Yes _____No _____ if yes, what explanation was given? ______________________________________________________________________________ Were some people not allowed to vote? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, how many _______ and for what reason(s) ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________ How many were females? __________________

Was each ballot paper validated before it was given to a voter? Yes ____ No ____ if no, describe what happened: ______________________________________________________________________ Were voters marked with electoral stain (indelible ink) when they voted? Yes _____ No _____ Were any voters assisted to vote? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, how many? _________ Describe the manner of assistance: ______________________________________________________________________________

Did voters confer with each other in the station about whom to vote for? Yes_______ No_______ Did a voter return a spoiled ballot? Yes ___ No ___ If yes, was s/he given a new ballot? Yes ____ No ___ Did the processing of voters proceed smoothly? Yes ____ No ____ If no, please explain: _____________________________________________________________________________ 39

_____________________________________________________________________________ Was the atmosphere at the PS peaceful and orderly? Yes ____No ____ If no, please describe the scene: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Did you see any form of campaigning going on near the PS? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, how close to the PS? ________ Describe the nature of campaigning ______________________________________________________________________________ Did you see any election posters displayed in or outside the PS? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, what kind? ______________________________________________________________________________ Were there other observers at the PS? Domestic _______________ International ______________________________________________________________________________ At the time you were leaving the PS, how many people had voted? ___________ How many of them were women? ___________________________________________ ELECTION OBSERVATION FORM – B POLLING N.B. Use a fresh FORM B for each polling station you visit, except the one where you observe the opening of the poll (use form A) and when you observe the closing of the poll, vote count and tabulation (use form C) Name of Observer ______________________________________________________________________________ PS Name _______________________________ _____________________PS Code (if any) ______________________________________________________________________________ Time of Arrival _______________________ Time of Departure_______________________ What was the number of voters on the main voters register? ___________________ Was there any supplementary list to be used for voting? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, what is the list called? ________________________________________________________ How many voters were on it? _________________________________________________ Were security personnel present at the PS? Yes______ No______ If yes, how many?_______________________________________________________________________ Were there party/candidates’ agents at the PS? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, which parties? ______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________ How many were women? ___________ Was the PS set up in such a way as to enable the voter to cast a secret ballot? Yes _____ No _____ if no, please explain: ______________________________________________________________________________ 40

Was the PS set-up such that agents/observers could clearly see the voting process? Yes ___ No ___ if no, please explain: ______________________________________________________________________________ Did voters have to show identification? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, what kind? ______________________________________________________________________________ Was anyone allowed to vote without the identification? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, what explanation was given? ____________________________________________________________________________ Was any person allowed to vote whose name was not on the register? Yes _____No _____ if yes, what explanation was given? ______________________________________________________________________________ Were some people not allowed to vote? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, how many _______ and for what reason(s) ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________ How many were women? _______________ Was each ballot paper validated before it was given to a voter? Yes ____ No ____ If no, describe what happened: __________________________________________________________________________ Were voters marked with electoral stain (indelible ink) when they voted? Yes _____ No _____ Were any voters assisted to vote? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, how many? ______ Describe the manner of assistance: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________

Did voters confer with each other in the station about whom to vote for? Yes_______ No_______ Did a voter return a spoiled ballot? Yes ___ No ___ If yes, was s/he given a new ballot? Yes ____ No ___ Did the processing of voters proceed smoothly? Yes ____ No ____ If no, please explain: ___________________________________________________________________ Was the atmosphere at the PS peaceful and orderly? Yes ____No ____ if no, please describe the scene: ______________________________________________________________________ Was any form of campaigning going on near the PS? Yes ____ No ____ if yes, how close to the PS? _________________ Describe the nature of campaigning _____________________________________________________________________________ Did you see any election posters displayed in or outside the PS? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, what kind? _____________________________________________________________________________ Were there other observers at the PS? Domestic ___________International ________________ What kind of ballot box was used for the election? Transparent _______ Opaque________ At the time you were leaving the PS, how many people had voted? ________

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ELECTION OBSERVATION FORM – C CLOSE OF POLL, VOTE COUNT, AND VOTE COLLATION N.B. Be at the PS you have selected to observe the count at least 30 minutes before voting ends Stay there until the votes have been counted and the results compiled Then proceed to the centre where the overall votes will be collated

Name of Observer ________________________________________________________ PS Name ____________________________________ PS Code (if any) __________ Time of Arrival at the PS _______________________ Time of Departure ___________________ PART 1: CLOSE OF POLL Were there any voters in line waiting to vote at the stipulated closing time? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, how many? _________ Were they allowed to vote? Yes _______ No ______ If no, explain what happened. ______________________________________________________________________________ What time did voting actually end? __________________________________________ PART 2: THE VOTE COUNT What was the total number of voters on the main voters list plus any supplementary list(s)? ___________ Were the ballots counted at the polling station? Yes _____ No _____: if no, where were they counted? ____________________ How were they conveyed there? ____________________________________ Was the ballot box opened and the ballot papers removed in the presence of party agents and observers? Yes ______ No ______ If no, describe what happened: _____________________________________ Were the votes counted openly in the presence of party agents and observers? Yes _____ No ______ If no, please explain: ______________________________________________________________________ Did anyone other than the polling staff help the PO to count the votes? Yes _____ No _____ If yes, who helped? ______________________________________________________________________ Was the counting done accurately? Yes ______ No ______ If no, please explain:

Were any ballots counted that did not have the validation mark? Yes ___ No ___ If yes, how many? _____ What explanation was given? ____________________________________________________________ 42

Was each rejected ballot shown to the agents and the reason for the rejection given? Yes ____ No ____ if no, describe what happened: _____________________________________________________________________________ Were observers allowed to be close enough to see the marks on the ballots and how they were being sorted out? Yes _____ No _____ If no, please explain: ________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Was there disagreement over any rejected ballots? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, how many ballots? ______ How was the disagreement resolved? ______________________________________________________________________ Did any candidate or agent ask for a recount of the ballots? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, was the request granted? Yes ____ No ____ If not granted, state the reason given: ________________________________

Was the number of votes obtained by each candidate correctly recorded? Yes ______ No ______ If no, please explain: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Were the following items openly recorded? Total number of valid ballots Total number of used ballots Total number of unused ballots Total number of rejected ballots Number of spoilt ballots Yes_____ How many? _____________ No ______ Yes _____ How many? _____________ No _____ Yes _____ How many? _____________ No _____ Yes _____ How many? _____________ No _____ Yes _____ How many? _____________ No _____

After the counting, were the ballots put into sealed containers/envelopes? Yes _____ No_____ If no, describe what happened: ______________________________________________________________________________ Were the party agents given an opportunity to endorse the results? Yes _____ No If yes, how? If no, describe what happened:__________________________________________________________________

Were party agents given certified copies of the results? Yes _____ No _____ If no, were they allowed to write down the results? Yes _____ No _____ Did the PO fill all the necessary forms at the polling station? Yes ____ No ____ If no, who filled them and where? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Either obtain a copy of the PS results or record the results in the space below __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 43

How were the results relayed from the PS or the counting place to the collation centre? ______________________________________________________________________________ At what time did you leave the PS? ___________________________________________ PART 3: VOTE COLLATION Time of arrival at the collation centre _____________ Time of departure _______________ Where was the collation done? ______________________________________________________________________________ At what time did the collation actually begin? ______________________________________________________________________________ Who actually did the collation? ______________________________________________________________________________ Was the collation process well organized and orderly? Yes _______ No ______ If no, please explain:

Was the collation done openly and in a transparent manner? Yes ____ No ____ If no, please explain: ______________________________________________________________________________ Were candidates or party agents present to witness the collation? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, indicate the candidates/parties: ______________________________________________________________________________ Were observers allowed to be close enough to see how the collation was being done? Yes ____ No ____ If no, please explain: ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ Were other observers present? Domestic ___________International ______________________________________________________________________________ Was any electronic device/s used to tally the votes? Yes ____ No ____If yes, what device/s? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ Did any candidate/agent complain of discrepancies in the results being collated? Yes ____ No ____ If yes, describe how the complaint was treated/resolved: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ If candidates or agents were present, were they made to endorse the results? Yes ______ No _____ If candidates or agents were present, were they given certified copies of the results? Yes _____ No______ If no, were they allowed to write down the results? Yes______ No ______ Were the results announced at the centre immediately after the collation? Yes _____ No ______ If no, please describe what happened: _____________________________________________________________________________ Either obtain a copy of the collated results or record the results in the space below __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 44

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ At what time did proceedings at the centre come to an end? _________________

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