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- Reservoir Petrophysics Class Notes
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1%=

Calculation of Imbibition Relative Permeability for Two- and Three-Phase Flow From Rock Properties

CARLON S, LAND MEMBER AIME

USBt4 LARAMIE,

WYO.

ABSTRACT Relative permeability /urrctiovs are developed {or both two- arrdthrec.phase systems with tfie satr.:ation changes in the imbibition direction. An empiricul relation between residual nonwetting-phase safura. tion ajter water imbibition and initial nonwetting pbase saturations is /ound from pu.blishcd data. Fro7n this empirical relation, expressions are obtained /or trapped and mobile nonwetting-pb(~.se saturations which are used in conrzection with established theory relating re?at ive permeabiiit y to pore-size distribution. Tbe resulting equations yield relative permeability as a /unction o/ saturation having characteristics beiieved to be representative of real systems, Tbe relative permeability o/ water - wet rocks for both two- and three - pbuse systems, with the saturation cba,nge in the irnbibit ion direction, may be obtained by tijis method after properly selecting two rock properties: the residual nonwe tt ing-phase sat urvrtion aiter tbe cycle, and the cap illary complete imbibition pressure curve. INTRODUCTION Relative permeability is a function of saturation history as well as of saturation. This fact was first pointed out for two-phase flow by Geffen et al. 1 in the relative and by Osaba et al, z Hysteresis permeability-saturation relation also has been reported for three-phase systems. 3 Since saturations may change simultaneously in two directions in a three-phase system, four possible relationships arise between relative permeability and saturation for a water-wet system. The four saturation histories of this system were given by Sne114 as II, ID, DI and DD. I and D refer to the direction of saturation change (imbibition and drainage), with the first letter of the symbol

OrigJnal manuscript received In Society of Petroleun- Engineers office July 6, 1967. Revised manuscript received Feb. 21, 1968. Pape~ (SPE 1942) was presented at SPE 42nd AnnuaI F=ll M@etfng held in Houston, Tex., Oct. 1-4, 1967. @ Copyright 1968 American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc. lRaferences given at end of paper. Volume 243, which This paper wiH be printed in Zransacrions wiIl cover 1968. JUNE, 1968

indicating the direction of change of the Wa er phase. As used in this paper, the second letter of of saturation the symbol -cfers to the direction change of the gas phase, i.e., D and i indicate an respectively, in gas increase and decrease, saturation. Only a few thre=-phase relative pernleabi Iity curves have been published. Leverett and Lewis 5 curves for unconsolidated published rhree-phase sand, and Snel14 reported results of several English authors for both drainage and imbibition three-phase of unconsolidated sands. permeability relative Three-phase relative permeability curves for a consolidated sand were published by Caudle et al. s for increasing water and gas saturations (ID). Corey ef a/.6 reported drainage (DD) three-phase relative permeability for consolidated sands, Recently, Donaldson and Dean7 and Sarem 8 calculated threephase relative permeability curves from displacement data on consolidated sands, also for saturation changes in the drainage direction. relative only three -phase published The sands with permeability curves for consolidated saturation changes in the imbibition direction (11) are those of Naar and Wygal. g These curves are based on a theoretical study of the model of Wyllie and Gardner 10 as modified by Naar and Henderson. 1: Interest in three-phase relative permeability has increased recently due to the introduction of new recovery methods and refinements in calculation procedures brought about by the use of large-scale computers. The scarcity of empirical digital relations for three-phase flow, and the experimental difficulty encountered in obtaining such data, have made the theoretical approach to this problem attractive. RELATIVE PERMEABILITY AS A FUNCTION OF PORE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION Purcell used pore sizes obtained from mercuryinjection capillary pressure data to calculate the permeability of porous solids.lz Burdine extended the theory by developing a relative permeability-pore size distribution relation containing the correci tortuosity term.ls The works of Purcell and Burdine were combined by Corey14 into a form that has

149

been accepted widely. These relations have been derived from the capillary tube model,12 ~13 the Kozeny equation 15 and the model of Wyllie and Gardner. 10 Corey and co-workers 6 extended the concept of relative permeability dependence on poreisize distribution to three-phase flow with saturation changes in the drainage direction. Using the model of Wyllie and Gardner that was adapted to include a trapping mechanism for the nonwetting phase, Naar and Henderson 1 developed equations for two-phase imbibition relative permeability. The imbibition relative extensioo to three - phase permeability then was made by Naar and Wygal.9 Capillary pressure-saturation relations are subject co hysteresis, due in part to entrapment of the nonwetting phase when the wetting - phase saturation is increased. Fundamental to the development of imbibition relative permeability curves-is the concept that pore-size distribution of a porous medium is defined by drainage capi]lary pressure-saturation reIation. If the saturation of the nonwetting phase that is mobile after a saturation change in the imbibition direction can be asaigned t? the correct pore sizes, imbibition relative permeability curves can be derived from known theory. For the general case of two- and three-phase flow, a Corey -Burdine equation can be written,

1=

S~i S~i = l+CS~i 1 (Sg, )max

I ($$r)mom

-1

or

P.

. . . . . . . .

(2)

where

C =

-1.

Plots of the data of several authors are shovn in Fig. 1. The solid lines are least-squares fits of Eq. 2 to the data. In some cases, the critical wetting-phase saturation was not reported, and a reasonable assumption of this value was made to convert all saturations to the reduced saturations. The initial effective gas saturations greater than unity shown in Fig. 1 are results of converting initial saturations to effective saturations when the data reported were for samples containing no water. Data from all available sources yield~d a good fit to Eq. 2. TWO-PHASE IMBIBITION RELATIVE PERMEABILITY To develop equations for relative permeability with rhe saturation change in the imbibition direction, it is first necessary to be abIe to predict the saturation of the nonwetting phase that remains mobile at any saturation. In the following discus. sion, the nonwetting phase is gas at,d the wetting phase is water. Consider that the porous medium initially contains by a gas saturation S* i which was established withdrawal of water f drainage). If the water saturation is now increased from its initial value SJi to its maximum value 1 - S&, the gas saturation S; assumes every value between S*i and S& as rhe saturation S~i - S&is replacefby water. During this change in saturation, the saturation of gas

k rn =

. .

(1)

where S~B is the mobile or rfree saturation of .,. phase r.r, whose relative permeability krn is being sought; and Sp and ~ are the saturations corresponding to th= minimu-m and maximum pore sizes occupied by S~F. Saturations S; and .$~ are particular values of S* which is the fraction of the ~ffective porosity represented by the sum of al I pores smaller than the pore size being considered. For simplicity, reduced or effective saturations are used throughout this paper, i.e., saturations are fractions of pore volume, excIuding pore volume occupied by the critical (immobi Ie) wetting phase. TRAPPED GAS SATURATION

Several papers 16-20 have been published relating the initial gas saturation to the residual gas saturation left trapped after imbibition. Plots of data reported in these papers result in curves having a characteristic shape. It is found from these data that the difference in the reciprocals of the initial and residual gas saturation approximately are constant for a given sand. Residual saturation increases with an increase in the initial gas saturation. When the initial gas saturation is unity, the residual gas saturation is the maximum residual

1 so

IHIIIALGASSAWRAIIOIA, Sei*

SOCIETY OF PET ROLEUW

ENGINEERS JOURNAL

that has been trapped St increases from zero at $ the initial conditions Sg = S~i co a value of S& when S~ = S& At any gas saturation S;, the trapped gas saturation S~t does not contribute to gas flow and is distinguished from the gas saturation that has remained mobile or free S&. Then the trapped and mobile gas saturations at any instant are parts of the total gas saturation (S; = S:t + S:p) as S; varies from S~i to S * . If the water satu!~tion now is increased from its initial value so that gas saturatiar S; has a value between S~i and .$;,, the saturation S;i - .$* has been replaced by u%er, S& has been trappe ~ and .$F is considered to be unaffected by tbe increase in water saturation. The mobile gas saturation -$;F is that part of S; that is susceptible to displacement and entrapment upon further reduction of S;. of S*F to If .$; is reduced to S;,, the contribution the residual gas saturation can be found by app7ymg S&F as an initial saturation in Eq. 2.. The gas saturation that is trapped S*t at aay gas saturation % s:, plus rhe additional gas t at will be trapped (the contribution of S~F) during a reduction in gas saturation from S* to S* must equal the residual value S& associated $;~h S* .. Then the trapped gas saturation can be express% as

where c = Z/h + 3. In an oil-water system in rhe absence of gas, the above equations are equally valid with subscript g repIaced by o if it is assumed that the porous medium is completely water wet. In the two-phase system, the entire wetting phase remains mobiIe. As water saturation increases, the water invades the next larger size pores, trapping some gas in pores of the size invaded. Since some of the pores of the size occupied by water contain trapped gas, for a particular water saturation some water must occupy pores of a larger size than it would occupy if the trapped gas were not present. Water relative permeability under these conditions can be expressed by the equation

Sw

k rw =

*2

J

/$$Oc

&

. . . (7)

() If I*

sit

Eq. 4 is an expression for the gas saturation that remains mobile after the gas saturation has been reduced from S~i to S;, This gas saturation may be used in the equation relating gas relative permeability to pore-size distribution.

f-n

P= is a function of S*, the fraction of the effective porosity that is the sum of all pores smaller than the largest containing water. Since the integrand in the nu;nerator of E;. 7 is to be integrated with to express either Pc respect to S*W it is necessary as a function of S; or S: as a function of .S. Pc can be expressed as a function of S$ since S* = 1 - -$F and S~F is reiated to S& through Eq. 4. The resulting capillary pressure as a function of S; is the imbibition capillary pressure which would be obtained if the contact angIe is the same in imbibition as in drainage. For the purpose of developing equations of S; is treated as a funcrion reIative permeability, of S*, Since S* is the sum of the water saturation and the trapped gas saturation, Eq. 7 can be written

k rw

Sw

*2

Jo

Eq. 5 yields relative permeability - saturation for the nonwetting phase with the relations saturation change in the imbibition direction. For porous media havi~g a pore-size distribution such hat (w) bution factor, where A is a pore-size 2 21 integration of Eq. 5 gives distriEq. 3 can be wrirten in terms of S*, since S~F results in an equation =1 - S*. This .sJbstitution which, when differentiated, yields

Substituting

JUNE,

1968

1s1

k rw=

Sw

*2

H

o L

S*W+S:t s* -% y

I 4S ~

S:+s;

ro

&

*C

1- 1[

(s;r)mox}s* Q

II

- (s~:ax

/[

This equation can be generalized as k,wi = k,wd + f(s~) where /(S~), the last term of Eq. 12, is the difference in imbibition and drainage relative permeability brought about by the redistribution of the water phase. The function /(s~) is different for each pore-size distribution, and the numerical values given by the function increase with increasing range of pore sizes. When all pores are of the same size (f = 3), /(S;) = 0. THREE-PHASE IMBIBITION RELATIVE PERMEABILITY When three phases saturate the porous medium, the equat?ons for imbibition gas relative permeability are the same as for the two-phase system. This is because the gas, being nonwetring, occupies the same pores regardless of the nature of the liquids present. For similar reasons, if the porous solid is water wet, the imbibition relative permeability to water is the same function of water saturation for both the two- and three-phase systems. In a three-phase water-wet system of water, oil and gas, both oil and gas are trapped as water saturation is increased. To develop the following equations for the relative permeability to oil, the assumption is made that rhe maximum residual hydrocarbon saturation is the same, regardless of whether the initial hydrocarbon saturation is gas, oil or both. This usually is considered to be trqe;

Jo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (lo)

For the speciaI of Eq. 10 results case in corrst./Pc2 = S, integration

r

k rw-

L-

+ 1- !1-

,

I .... . . . (11) )]

l-, 1- (S~r)ma~

:s;[

Fig. 2 is a plot of imbibition relative permeability calculated from Eqs. 6 and II for c-= 4 and a maximum residual gas saturation (s:, )max = O.A. The parameter in Fig. 2 is the initial gas saturation. Also shown (dashed lines) are drainage ,curves calculated from Coreys equations for c = 4. The curves for gas permeabilit-y shown in Fig, 2 are similar in appearance to experimental curves of Geffen et all A greater permeability to water in the imbibition direction than the drainage direction (Fig. 2) also has been observed.1 The water curve for .$~j = 1 is of particular interest since it is the curve of the complete imbibition cycle. The equation of this curve in Fig. 2 is

PErROLkll M EXGIXEER>

PERMEINITIAL

1s2

SO CISTY

OF

]oIIR!iAL

however, other assumptions could be made which would lead to different sets of equations. The above assumption, when applied to Eq. 2, results in

I (%)max

S;r + S:r

S;i + sol *

s;,

S~i~. or s:. I t C(S~, + S~i) Making use of the procedure previously used to arrive at the expression for the free gas saturation, the free oil saturation is fcund to be . . . . . . . (13)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (16)

When 1/P=2 results in is a linear function of .S, Eq. 16

k ro

s::

[

( I-

s;F)2- [s;

t s:t)2

_2/c

( W:$In.

hr)mox

(s:- S:r)~?

C S:, relative

Imbibition

s:t s;

d S: ~ k ro =

...

.,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (17)

If water saturation increases at the expense Of oil saturation while the gas saturation remains constant (or is increasing), Eq, 17 simplifies to ... . . (15)

s:;

[ s:+ s:+ nl

Eq. 18, which is for the ID case, is equivalent to the equation of Corey et al. G for oil relative permeability in rhe drainage direction, with .$: being replaced by .T:F, and S;, by .$;, . S:*. When all gas contained by the porous medium is trapped (the limiting II case), Eq. 17 can be written

S~ + .f:t ~ Yieds

= S* aod as:t

kto=

s;;

Jt)

).

S:r

C&

The last term of Eq. 19 takes into account the bypassing of the trapped gas by the oii, analogous to the corresponding term in the equation for water permeability. Figs. 3 and 4 show relative permeability to oil as functions of water saturation with gas saturation

JUNE, 1968 16s

. . . . . .. (19)

as a parameter. In Fig. 3, which is a plot of Eq. 19, the gas saturation is trapped; in Fig. 4, obtained from Eq. 18, the gas saturation is mobile. Eqs, 18 and 19 are presented in the conventional triangular diagram as Figs. 5 and 6, respectively. AH the curves were constructed for the imbibition cycle starting with an initial water saturation of zero. Eq. 17 may be used to plot oil relative permeability curves for any history of gas saturation between these two extremes, and for initial water saturations other than zero. DISCUSSION OF EQUATIONS results are not the accuracy of the

concepts and equations developed here. The only three-rdlase imbibition re!ative . Dermeabilitv , curves . that were found in the literature are the theoretical curves of Naar and Wygal. 10 Although the two - phase curves of Naar and Henderson were derived from a model study, the equations for these curves may be derived by the procedure given here if the relation of residual gas saturation to initial gas saturation is taken as

The

mobile

gas

saturation

from this

relation

is

0.9 8 [\

When this expression-for S~F is used in Eq. 5, the resulting relative permeability satisfies the relationship of Naar and Henderson between imbibition and drainage saturations at equal gas permeability. the maximum However, in this development, residual gas saturation is restricted to a value of

0.5.

$Q

q

.2

I

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

WATER SATURATION,S:

PERMEABILITY TO OIL AS A FIG, 3 RELATIVE FUNCTION OF WATER SATURATION, SHOWING THE EFFECT OF A TRAPPED GAS SATURATION. FIG. 5 OIL ISOPERMS AS FUNCTIONS OF WATER, OIL AND MOBILE GAS SATURATIONS FOR THE IMBIBITION CYCLE STARTING WITH .SWi = 0,

0.1

0.2

0.3

Q.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1,0 FIG. 6 OJL ISOPERMS AS FUNCTIONS OF WATER, oIL AND TRAPPED GAS SATURATIONS FOR THE IMBIBITION CYCLE STARTING WITH Swi = O.

SOCIETY OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERS JOURNAL

WATER SATURATION, S:

PERMEABILITY TO OIL AS A FIG. 4 RELATIVE FUNCTION OF WATER SATURATION, SHOWING THE EFFECT OF A MOBILE GAS SATURATION.

154

A similar procedure for three-phase oil permeability does not yield the results of Naar and Wygal, although S~F cart be expressed similarly. To obtain their equation for three-phase oil relative permeability, Naar and Wygal integrated an equation that differs from Eq, 15. h-t comparing the oil curves of Naar and Wygal with the curves reported here, it is noticed that the curves of Naar and Wygal for the 11 case are more nearly represented by the ID case of this paper. The upper limit of integration of the equation of Naar and Wygal places the trapped gas in the largest pores, which is also the po-s>tion occupied by a gas saturation from the drainage cycle. For this reason ordy one set of curves gives oil relative permeability that is independent of the gas-saturation history. If the oil relative permeability is influenced by the behavior of the gas saturation, the direction of change of the gas saturation, as well as that of the water saturation, must be considered in selecting the correct curves to be appIied to a particular process. The ID case is beIieved to apply to oil recovery by in-.=. tu combustion, i while the 11 case applies to waterflooding a reservoir having an initial gas saturation. In this paper, equations are developed and and (S~r)max = 0.4. plotted using S* = const./Pc2 These equations are used as examples because they are considered as fairly representative of slightly consolidated porous media. However, similar curves may be constructed using any desired value of (sir )max and any pore-size distribution. Eqs. 5, 7 and 15 are integrated readily by numerical methods when experimental capillary pressure curves are used. Geffen 1 reported that although hysteresis is observed in the relative ~ermeabilitv , function when . reversing the direction of saturation from drainage to imbibition, the imbibition curve is reversible. Drainage relative permeability after imbibition follows the imbibition relative permeability curve until the maximum nonwetting saturation of a previous drainage cycIe is reached. In the derived relative permeability functions, the trapped saturations are distributed within a range of pore sizes in such a way that if the direction of saturation change is reversed from imbibition to drainage, the trapped saturation is reIeased in the reverse order of entrapment. With this saturation distribution, a trapped saturation becomes mobile when pores of the size containing the trapped saturation are invaded by a mobi Ie saturation of the same phase. The imbibition relative permeability functions can be considered reversible without the necessity of reassigning pore sizes to mapped saturations, or accounting for a trapped saturation and a mobile saturation of the same phase occupying the same as would be necessarypore sizes, ior other saturation distributions. CONCLUSIONS The relations

196a

three-phase imbibition relative permeability were derived from established theory of the dependence of relative permeability on pore-size distribution. In addition, the equations saeiafy an empirical relation of residual nonwetting-phase saturation to initial nonwetting-phase saturation for the imbibition cycle. As a consequence of the combination of these two fundamental requirements ,zhe derived relations have properties which agree with reported laboratory observations. FolIowing are characteristic of th~ derived functions for two-phase flow which agree with laboratory observations. 1. The wetting-phase relative permeability in the imbibition direction is greater than ia the ,drainage direction. 2. wtre~ the direction of saturation change is reversed from draiuage to imbibition, a distinct path is traced by the nonwettirtg-phase relative permeability as a function of saturation to a residual nonwetting-phase saturation that depends on the saturation established in the drainage direction. 3. The path followed by relative permeability as a function of saturation when the saturation change is in rhe imbibition direction is reversible. In extending the concepts to three-phase flow, equations arise that predict behavior that, aIthou8h not experimentally observed, seems reasonable. This behavior results in the difference in the ID and H cases. In the water-wet, three-phase system, oil relative permeability is influenced by the direction of the change of gas saturation. This effect appears to be a necessary result of the distribution of gas saturation, and is analogous to the difference in the relative permeability to water observed in the imbibition and drainage directions. Due to the lack of experimental data, accuracy of the equations has not been evaluated. However, since the relative permeability relations were developed to meet required conditions of nonwettingphase entrapment, they are thought to be sufficiently accurate for many reservoir calculations. With the proper choice of residual hydrocarbon saturation and pore-size distribution, relative permeability as a function of saturation may be calculated to represent the reIative permeability characteristics of any water-wet sand. NOMENCLATURE Standard SPE Ietter symbols following exceptions. S* = effective saturation, pore space, are used, fraction with the

of effective S* =

S* = w - w=, w - Swc

L,

1 - SW=

S;=

SO1 1 - SW=

(S;,)m.x = residual

effective gas saturation left in the sand after completion of an starting with an imbibition cycle effective gas saturation of unity

developed

here

for

two-

and

c=

(S;,)max

-1,

a trapping

characteristic,

JUNE,

1ss

constant

for each

sarid of a

Permeability

Studies,

RI

c = 2/A + 3, exponent of saturation in the equation for drainage wetting-phase relative permeability, krw = S~c SUBSCRIPTS F = free or mobile t = trapped d = drainage ity) i = imbibition bility) n = phase n (used (used with relative with reIative permeabilpertrfea -

Relative Permeability 8. Sarem, A, M,: Three-Phase Measurement by UnBteady-State Method, Sot. Pet. .%@ J. (Sept., 1966) 199-205, Imbibition % Naar, J. and Wygal, R. J.: Three-Phase Relative Permeability, Sot, Per. Etrg. J, (Ilec,, 1961) 254-258. 10. Wyllie, M. R, J. and Gardner, G. H. Generalized Kozeny-Carmen Equation~s, (March and April, 1958)121, 210. 11. Naar, J. and Henderson, F.: The

World Oil

J, R.: An Imbibition Model Its Application to Flow Behavior and the Prediction of Oil Recovery, Sot. Pel. Etig, J, (June, 1961)6170. *

12.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT The research from which rhia report was conducted under a cooperative between the U.S. Dept. nf the Interior, of Mines and the U. of Wyoming.

REFERENCES

T, M,, Owens, W. W., Parrish, 1. Geffen, Investigation Morse, R. A.: Experimental Affecting ment, 2. Osoba, Ha fford, Laboratory Relative Trar?s., AIME(1951)V D, R, and

MeasPurcell, W. !?,: ~(Cspillary PressuresTheir urement Using Mercury and The Calculation of Permeability Therefrom$, Trans., AIME (1949) Vol. 186, 39-48. ckkUkth.XM 3. Burdine, h-. T,: ~lRelative Permeability From Pore Size Distribution Data)), Trans., AIME (1953 )V01, 198, 71-78. Between Gas and 4. Corey, A, T,e ~$The ~terrelat]on Oil Relati\e Permeebilities, Prod. Morztlrlv (Nov., 1954) vol. 19, 38.

Wyllie, M, R. J. and Spangler,

Resiativity of Electrical

15.

M. B,: Measurement

Application to Problems

of Factors Measure-

J. S., Richardson, J. G., Kerver, J, K., J, A. and Blair, P. M.: gLaboratory Measure.

3. Caudle,

Permeability

Holmgren, C. R. and Morse, R, A.: Effect of Free Gas Saturation on Oil Recovery by Water Flooding, ~fr?nS., AIME (1951) Vol. 192, 135-140. 17, Dyea, A, B,: (rfaroduction of Water-Driven Reservoirs Below Their Bubble Point, Trans., AIME (1954) Vol. 201, 240-244. 18. Kyte, J. R., Stanclift, R, J., Jr,, Stephan, S, C., Jr. and Rapoport, L, A.: Mechanism of Watcrflooding in the Presence of Free Gss, Trans., AIME (1956) Vol. 207, 21.5-221, of Gas by S, G.: ~~The Displacement 19. Dardaganian, Oil in the Presence of Cormste Water, MS Thesis, Texas A&M U., College Station (1957).

20.

B. H,, Slobod, R. L. and Brownscombe, E. R.: Developments in the Laboratory DeterminTrans., AIME (1951) ation of Relative Permeability!, vol. 192, 145-150. History Dependence of 4. Snell, R. W.: ~~The Satwation Three-Phase Oil Relative Permeability, ]. Jnst, tIFurther

Pet, (March, 1963) Vol, 49, 81, Steady F1OW of Unconsolidated M, C. and Lewis, W. B.; s. Leverett, Gas-Oil-Rater Mixtures Through

Crowell, D. C., Desn, G. W, and Loomis, A. G,: t<Efficien~y of @S Displacement from a Water-Drive Reservoir~, RI 6735, USBM (1966). Proper. No. 3,

q

Sands,

6. Corey,

Vol.

142, 107-116.

A. T., Rathjens, C, H,, Henderson, J, H, and Wyllie, M, R. J,: Three-Phase Relative Permeability, Trrztis., AIME (1956)VOL 207, 349-351. E. C. and Dean, G. W.: {Twoend

210 Brooks,

R. H, and Corey, A, T.: i Hydraulic ties of Porous Media, Hydraulic Paper Colorado State U., Fort Collins (1964).

7. Donaldaon,

**

1s6

$iOCrETY

OF

PET ROLEIIM

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JO IIRNAL

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