Nosb Test

2. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The term 'oceanography' is derived in part from _______. the Greek word for water the father of the ocean nymphs in Greek mythology the Phoenician word for 'big water' the Greek word for waves the Latin word for water

3. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The Greek word 'graphia' refers to _______. the discipline of mathematics a visual representation of something one of the principles of logic the act of recording and describing a type of etching

4. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The physical description of the world and its biota is _______. oceanology oceanography geology geography biology

5. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The scientific study of the Earth and its processes is _______. geography meteorology seismology oceanography geology

6. The word root 'ology' means _______. W) the concept of X) the logical basis of

Y) the science of Z) the evolution of E) the appearance of

7. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Oceanography is customarily divided into four categories, which are _______. computational, experimental, field, theoretical tectonics, water characteristics, organisms, currents wetlands, estuaries, lagoons, open ocean physical, geological, chemical, biological near surface, midwater, deep water, abyssal depths

8. W) X) Y) Z)

The first stage of the history of oceanography is characterized by records of _______. the efforts of individual mariners systematic attempts to use a scientific approach to study the oceans the observations of individual scientists the studies of Pythagorus

9. W) X) Y) Z)

The third stage of the history of oceanography is characterized by records of _______. the Challenger expedition the first systematic attempts to use a scientific approach to study the oceans the development and use of new technology and collaboration among scientists Darwin's voyage on the Beagle

10. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The ability to explore and chart the seas safely depends on _______. good records and charts local knowledge accurate depth soundings good navigational skills modern communications devices

11. W) X) Y) Z)

Records indicate maritime activity in Egypt as long ago as _______. 4,000 B.C. 6,000 B.C. 8,000 B.C. 10,000 B.C.

E) 9,000 B.C.

12. By the sixth century B.C., the __________ had established sea routes throughout the entire Mediterranean region. W) Egyptians X) Greeks Y) Italians Z) Phoenicians E) English

13. By the sixth century B.C., the __________ had sailed as far north as the coast of England. W) Vikings X) Greeks Y) Phoenicians Z) Egyptians E) Italians

14. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Historians suspect the first people to circumnavigate Africa were the _______. Phoenicians English Spanish French Greek

15. In the period around 600 B.C., navigators charted the courses of their ships according to _______. W) prominent landmarks X) advice from local residents Y) patterns of wind Z) observations of the moon E) observations of the stars

16. The process in which sailors steer their craft in sight of land and rely on distinctive landmarks to determine their position is termed _______. W) dead reckoning

X) Y) Z) E)

line of sight navigation piloting eyeballing coastal navigation

17. The first Greek to sail around England and gauge the length of its shorelines was _______. W) Herodotus X) Pytheas Y) Homer Z) Plato E) Socrates

18. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Some historians believe that Pytheas may have sailed as far west as _______. Long Island Virginia Iceland Greenland Newfoundland

19. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Some historians believe that Pytheas sailed as far north as _______. Spain Norway England Scotland Iceland

20. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Historians have established that Greek sailors estimated latitude by _______. the angle of the moon above the horizon the time between sunset and moonrise the angle between Venus and the moon the length of the day the angle between Venus and the horizon

21. Greek mariners were unable to determine longitude because they had no accurate _______.

In 450 B. Europe.. W) Spanish X) French Y) Portuguese Z) English E) Vikings 25. __________ compiled a map in which Libya.C.W) X) Y) Z) E) compasses alidades chronometers altimeters astrolabes 22. the only notable exploration of the oceans by Europeans was done by the _______. English French Norse Spanish Greeks . W) Herodotus X) Plato Y) Pytheas Z) Socrates E) Pythagorus 24. W) X) Y) Z) E) Vinland was established in North America by the _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Who discovered that the tides of the Atlantic Ocean vary with the phases of the moon? Herodotus Magellan Diaz Cook Pytheas 23. During the Middle Ages. and Asia surrounded the Mediterranean Sea.

at the tip of South America at the tip of Africa between Spain and Africa at the tip of India at the tip of Italy . The Norsemen used the angular height of the _________ above the horizon to maintain a course on a predetermined line of latitude. W) Moon X) Sun Y) Morning star Z) North Star E) Big Dipper 28.26. New York Virginia Labrador Maine Newfoundland 27. W) currents X) prevailing winds Y) Sun Z) Moon 29. The Norsemen's daytime navigation relied on careful calculation of the position of the _________ for the time of year. what Portuguese sailor rounded the Cape of Good Hope? Bartholomew Diaz Vasco de Gama Ferdinand Magellan Sebastian del Cano Jose Gaspar 30. W) X) Y) Z) E) In 1487 and 1488. W) X) Y) Z) E) The Cape of Good Hope is located _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Vinland was established in the area we now know as _______.

Bartholomew Diaz Vasco de Gama Ferdinand Magellan Sebastian del Cano Jose Gaspar 32.31. __________ began a voyage in which his ships sailed around the world. W) X) Y) Z) E) What explorer was killed by natives on the island of Mactan? Magellan de Gama Diaz Cook del Cano 34. W) X) Y) Z) E) In 1498. Bartholomew Diaz Vasco de Gama Ferdinand Magellan Sebastian del Cano Jose Gaspar 33. _________ sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and continued to India. W) X) Y) Z) E) In 1519. W) X) Y) Z) E) Who completed the voyage begun by Magellan to circumnavigate the globe? Gaspar Diaz del Cano de Gama Cortez 35. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which major scientific society sponsored early oceanographic investigations? International Guild of Explorers Royal Society of London Royal Explorer's Society National Geographic Society Royal Audubon Society .

Johansen Cook Nansen Forbes Lamont . W) X) Y) Z) E) The Hawaiian Islands were discovered by _______.36. Who charted much of the coast of New Zealand. W) X) Y) Z) E) Captain __________ was the commanding officer of the HMS Endeavour. Who circumnavigated the globe as commander of the HMS Adventure and HMS Resolution? W) Thomson X) Forbes Y) Fitzroy Z) Maury E) Cook 39. James Cook Charles Darwin Matthew Fontaine Maury John Murray Wyville Thomson 37. W) X) Y) Z) E) Cook used the ___________ winds to round the Cape of Good Hope. Polar Northeasterly Prevailing Westerly Northeast Trade Southeast Trade Antarctic Circumpolar 40. and demonstrated that it was not a part of Terra Australis? W) Matthew Fontaine Maury X) Robert Fitzroy Y) James Cook Z) Edward Forbes E) Sir Robert Scott 38.

41. HMS Beagle HMS Challenger Fram HMS Adventure HMS Endeavour . W) X) Y) Z) E) Darwin was ship's naturalist on board the _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Who is known as the "father of physical oceanography"? Darwin Maury Fitzroy Cousteau Nansen 45.S. W) X) Y) Z) E) Maury was the Director of the _______. Maury wrote ___________ to familiarize the public with recent oceanographic findings. Cook sailed north into the __________. Hudson Bay Antarctic Ocean Bering Sea Red Sea North Sea 42. Naval Depot of Charts and Instruments HMS Beagle National Geographic Society Challenger Expedition National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration 43. W) Earth. Sea and Sky X) The Depths of the Sea Y) The Silent World Z) Ocean Currents E) The Physical Geography of the Sea 44. U. W) X) Y) Z) E) On his final voyage.

W) X) Y) Z) Forbes believed that animals could not live below 550 m due to _______.46. Whose observations of the morphology of coral reefs in the Pacific Ocean still provide the accepted model for their development? W) Forbes X) Maury Y) Cook Z) Nansen E) Darwin 48. Nansen made an important contribution to oceanography with his study of the ________ Ocean. W) X) Y) Z) E) The director of the Challenger expedition was _______. Maury Forbes Nansen Cook Thomson 49. cold temperatures darkness high water pressure all of the above 50. W) North Atlantic X) Pacific Y) Indian Z) Arctic E) Antarctic . Whose observations on the morphology of coral reefs in the Pacific Ocean are still the accepted explanation of the development today? W) Forbes X) Cook Y) Nansen Z) Fitzroy E) Darwin 47.

5 25 50 75 100 53. W) X) Y) Z) E) The findings of the Challenger expedition were published in ________ volumes. the northern tip of Greenland the South Pole the North Pole Hudson Bay the Bering Strait 52. Norway? Meteor Fram Beagle Challenger Nansen 55. W) X) Y) Z) E) What ship was trapped in the sea ice north of Siberia for three years? Fram Meteor Challenger Beagle Calypso 54.51. W) X) Y) Z) E) Nansen wanted to be the first European to reach _______. North Pacific South Pacific North Atlantic South Atlantic Indian . W) X) Y) Z) E) What oceanographic vessel is on display in Oslo. W) X) Y) Z) E) The Meteor expedition went to the __________ Ocean.

W) National Geographic Society X) Department of the Navy Y) National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Z) National Science Foundation E) United Nations 59. W) X) Y) Z) E) The Scripps Institution of Oceanography was founded by the _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Modern oceanography is said to have begun with the voyage of the _______. The Deep Sea Drilling Project. HMS Challenger Fram Glomar Challenger Calypso Meteor . from 1968-1975. Aluminaut HMS Challenger Glomar Challenger Meteor Deep Probe 60. the Scripps Institution of Biological Research the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution the United States Naval Academy the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration 57. W) X) Y) Z) E) The ship used in the Deep Sea Drilling Project was the _______.56. was organized and funded by the _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The first marine institution established in the United States was _______. University of California at Los Angeles University of Oregon University of California at San Diego University of Washington University of Massachusetts 58.

W) nitrogen X) oxygen Y) helium Z) carbon dioxide E) hydrogen 64. the United States Navy Emile Gagnon and Jacques-Yves Cousteau Auguste Piccard Jules Verne Wyville Thomson 62. without decompressing adequately. A feeling of euphoria that interferes with clear thinking during a deep dive is called _______. W) nitrogen narcosis X) the bends Y) mask squeeze Z) stomach cramps 65. The depth limit for diving using compressed air is caused by the amount of __________ that dissolves in the blood under pressure. nitrogen may come out of solution in the blood and form bubbles that cause _______. a fully-automatic aqualung was designed and tested by _______.61. The shallow sea bottom that extends from the low tide mark to a depth of about 60 m is termed the __________ zone. W) nitrogen narcosis X) the bends Y) helioxus Z) embolism . W) Supralittoral X) Littoral Y) Sublittoral Z) Intertidal E) Coastal 63. W) X) Y) Z) E) In 1943. If a diver ascends too quickly.

D.. W) X) Y) Who constructed a map projection of the world that was adapted to navigational charts? da Vinci Martyr Columbus .E) helium narcosis 66. Who determined the circumference of the earth using trigonometry and the angle of sunlight at Alexandria and Aswan? W) Pytheas X) Herodotus Y) Seneca Z) Eratosthenes E) Ptolemy 67. who published a discussion of the lunar control of the tides? W) Bede X) Eric the Red Y) Ptolemy Z) Leif Ericson E) Herodotus 68. W) X) Y) Z) E) Who completed the first trans-Atlantic crossing and discovered Baffin Island? Bede Eric the Red Leif Ericson Columbus Cabral 69. Between 673 and 735 A. W) X) Y) Z) E) Who described the Florida Current? da Vinci de Gama de Leon Cabral Columbus 70.

W) ocean basins X) mid-ocean ridges Y) island archipelagos Z) coral reefs E) guyots 75. marine research station? Thompson Agassiz Whitman Nansen Roosevelt 72.Z) Mercator E) Boyle 71. The first nuclear submarine to reach the North Pole underwater and under the ice was the USS _______.000 m X) 2.000 ft E) 10. “Ocean basin” refers to the portion of the ocean that lies at depths greater than _______.S. One of the main concerns of marine geologists is tracing the development of __________ since their formation on the Earth. W) Arizona X) Shark Y) Challenger Z) Thresher E) Nautilus 73. W) X) Y) Z) E) Who founded the first U.000 ft 74.000 ft Y) 2. The interior of the Earth is composed of _______. W) sand and gravel . W) 1.000 m Z) 1.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Density is usually expressed as _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The Earth's core contains high concentrations of _______. lead and silver aluminum and nickel iron and nickel silicon and lead iron and copper 77. grams per cubic centimeter ounces per cubic inch grams per square centimeter ounces per cubic inch cubic centimeters per second 79.860 km 6. W) hydrogen content . The layers of the atmosphere are separated from each other based on _______. Iron and nickel sank to the center of the Earth in its development due to the influence of _______. W) magnetic attraction X) gravity Y) atmospheric pressure Z) oceanic pressure E) seismology 78. W) X) Y) Z) E) The deepest drill hole on Earth has a depth of about _______. 4 km 1 mile 12 km 3.370 km 80.X) Y) Z) E) lava solid rock concentric shells of different materials minerals not found on the surface 76.

silicon. oxygen and carbon dioxide oxygen and argon oxygen and water vapor oxygen and nitrogen nitrogen and hydrogen 82. W) 40. When the Earth was a molten mass. its elements and compounds separated from each other according to their ________. The Earth's mantle has a thickness of approximately ________ kilometers. W) X) Y) Z) E) The atmosphere of the Earth consists primarily of _______. aluminum and iron? upper mantle outer core crust inner core lower mantle 85. W) X) Y) Z) E) The outermost shell of the Earth is called the _______. upper mantle core crust skin lower mantle 84.322 .X) Y) Z) E) oxygen content temperature density pressure 81. W) X) Y) Z) E) The rocks of which layer of the Earth are rich in oxygen. W) atomic number X) density Y) magnetism Z) radioactivity E) specific heat 83.

asthenosphere and crust mantle and crust uppermost mantle and crust molten and solid rock all parts of the Earth in contact with the atmosphere 89. 71 85 97 53 68 .900 5.500 1.X) Y) Z) E) 1. W) X) Y) Z) E) About _____ percent of the water at the Earth's surface is in the oceans. W) X) Y) Z) The asthenosphere is a portion of the _______. What effect does an increase in pressure have on the melting temperature of a substance? W) No effect X) Increases the melting temperature Y) Decreases the melting temperature 87. crust mantle outer core inner core 90.750 2. W) X) Y) Z) E) The lithosphere is comprised of _______. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following is thinnest? crust mantle asthenosphere core 88.280 86.

hydroscopic rndothermic ground water runoff transpired water 94. W) X) Y) Z) E) The water beneath the Earth's surface is termed _______. W) two X) five Y) six Z) eight . The waters in the oceans are ______ percent of the entire reservoir of water contained in the Earth. mineralogy topography biology currents waves 95. Living Earth Ecosystem Biological zone Green zone Biotic zone 93. W) X) Y) Z) E) Bathymetry refers to submarine _______. W) 20 X) 50 Y) 30 Z) 10 E) 40 92.91. W) X) Y) Z) E) All of the organic matter on earth is sometimes referred to as the _______. The bathymetry of the oceans can be broadly subdivided into __________ large physiographic provinces.

000 2. 4. rises wedges slopes shelves . W) ridge X) archipelago Y) plume Z) cordillera E) divide 99. drowned edges of the continents are called the continental _______.E) three 96. W) X) Y) Z) E) The drowned edges of the continents are referred to as the continental _______.000 6. they have been built up by sediments contributed by marine organisms the underlying crust is lighter they have been built up by sediment washed off of the continents they were formed in the last ice age. W) X) Y) Z) E) The continental margins are relatively shallow because _______.000 9. W) X) Y) Z) E) The deep-ocean basins are at depths greater than ________ meters. outskirts boundaries margins growth lines basins 98.000 100. W) X) Y) Z) The flat.000 8. when the oceans were shallower sea level has dropped in the last 100 years 97. The continuous submarine mountain range which winds through all the oceans is called the mid-ocean _______.

where the bottom steepens considerably. W) X) Y) Z) E) The average width of the continental shelf is about _______.000 10 500 130 20 105. 1. W) cliff X) drop-off Y) wall Z) slope E) break 102. is termed the shelf _______. 60 mi 60 km 50 mi 50 km 100 km 103. Arctic Antarctic Pacific Atlantic .E) ridges 101. Indian Pacific Arctic Antarctic Atlantic 104. W) X) Y) Z) The continental shelf is widest in the __________ Ocean. W) X) Y) Z) E) The continental shelf is more than 1000 km wide in the __________ Ocean. W) X) Y) Z) E) Shelf breaks occur at an average water depth of about ________ meters. The seaward edge of the continental shelf.

0 108. 0. W) X) Y) Z) E) The continental shelf is narrowest in the __________ Ocean. U V W 110. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following is not characteristic of the deep sea basins? Canyons Plains Hills Seamounts Guyots . has a slope of about _______ degrees. The shelf break. where the continental shelf transforms into the continental slope. W) X) Y) Z) E) The average slope of the continental shelf is about ________ degrees.0 0. W) X) Y) Submarine canyons have _______-shaped profiles.0 15. W) 2 X) 6 Y) 8 Z) 12 E) 20 109.0 10.5 5.E) Indian 106. Arctic Antarctic Pacific Atlantic Indian 107.

W) X) Y) Z) E) The flattest areas on Earth are the _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Most of the sediment of the abyssal plains is debris that has moved through _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Most of the sediment in the abyssal plains are derived from _______. W) igneous X) metamorphic Y) sedimentary Z) volcanic .111. erosion on land insoluble animal parts insoluble plant parts precipitated materials insoluble plant and animal parts 114. This plain is termed the __________. Most of the abyssal hills are __________ rocks that may be covered with a thin layer of sediment. floors of the trenches floors of the rift valleys continental shelves guyots abyssal plains 113. the ocean floor flattens out to a broad region formed from materials eroded from the adjoining continental shelf and slope. At the base of many continental shelves. W) abyss X) abyssal plain Y) continental plain Z) continental rise E) guyot 112. rift valleys trenches mid-ocean ridges submarine canyons guyots 115.

10'/mi less than 1 m/km 33'/km 2 m/km a 45° angle 118. volcanoes aretes domes guyots hotspots 117. rift valleys submarine canyons trenches deep basins fault scarps . W) X) Y) Z) E) Most of the abyssal hills are __________ composed of volcanic rocks.116. W) X) Y) Z) E) Guyots were once active volcanoes whose tops were flattened and leveled by _______. Extinct volcanoes with conical tops and steep sides in the ocean basins are called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The regional slope of the abyssal plains is _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The deepest parts of the oceans are the _______. currents wave erosion volcanic explosions solidified lava ice sheets in the last ice age 120. W) islands X) archipelagos Y) banks Z) atolls E) seamounts 119.

000 X) 15. The system of mid-ocean ridges forms a continuous mountain range that extends for over ________ km of the Earth's surface. 25 66 33 50 10 125. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following are associated with active volcanoes and strong earthquakes? Abyssal plains Abyssal hills Guyots Seamounts Deep-sea trenches 123. W) X) Y) Z) E) Deep sea trenches are normally found in association with _______. W) 75. W) X) Y) Z) E) The mid-ocean ridges occupy almost ______% of the ocean floor. seamounts continental margins mid-ocean ridges abyssal hills the continental rise 122.121.000 .000 E) 60.500 Z) 30. W) X) Y) Z) E) Fractured rocks slide past each other in which geologically active ocean region? Abyssal plains Mid-ocean ridges Seamounts Guyots Deep-sea trenches 124.000 Y) 1.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Only about _________ of the Earth's surface projects above sea level. 31% 27% 29% 34% 24% . W) X) Y) Z) E) The axis of the mid-ocean ridges is segmented by a series of _______. ratio proportion frequency relativity bathymetry 130. creating a zig-zag pattern 129. normal faults reverse faults thrust faults gravity faults transform faults 128. W) X) Y) Z) E) Movement along transform faults _______.126. W) X) Y) Z) E) The rift valley of the mid-ocean ridges is formed by _______. is caused by volcanic activity along mid-ocean ridges causes sediment to slide onto the abyssal plain results when rift valleys form causes canyons to form deflects the ridge axis. weathering melting solution faulting erosion 127. W) X) Y) Z) E) The number of times a particular phenomenon occurs is referred to as its _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) A dark-colored. granite limestone basalt shale quartz 135. limestone 132. granite limestone basalt shale quartz 133.131. sedimentary limestone. W) X) Y) Z) E) A light-colored igneous rock rich in silicon. oxygen and aluminum is _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Granite is rich in _______. basalt igneous. W) X) Y) Z) E) Rock which forms by solidification of molten rock is called _______. silica and aluminum silica and magnesium iron and aluminum aluminum and magnesium iron and magnesium . basalt granite. oxygen granite. W) X) Y) Z) E) The two basic rock types that characterize the Earth's crust are _______. silicon. igneous sedimentary metamorphic gabbro shale 134. oxygen and magnesium is _______. volcanic rock rich in silicon.

5 17. iron and aluminum iron and magnesium silica and magnesium silica and aluminum aluminum and magnesium 137. asthenosphere lower boundary Moho Great Incontinuity break point 138. because _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Basalt is rich in _______.136.5 2. W) X) Y) Z) E) The Earth's continents are about __________ km thick. 12. 25 55 15 35 45 139.5 140. and the tops of the continents above it.5 22. W) the continental land mass is thicker X) the mantle beneath the sea floor is cooler Y) the weight of the water keeps the sea floor down Z) the sea floor and the continents are in isostatic balance with the mantle E) convection currents in the mantle keep the continents at a higher level . W) X) Y) Z) E) The sea floor is about _________ km thick.5 7. W) X) Y) Z) E) The boundary between the crust and the mantle of the Earth is termed the _______. The sea floor remains below sea level.

W) X) Y) Z) E) The Earth's crust “floats” on the mantle through the principle of _______. equality Archimedes hypersonics inequality isostasy 142. echo sounders seismic refraction transmitters seismic reflection transmitters fish finders sidescan sonar 144. . W) X) Y) Z) E) A sidescan sonar can be used to find _______. sub-bottom rock deposits sunken ships floating objects. The surface of the continental shelf consists mainly of _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Satellite altimeters allow sea height to be measured with a precision of _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The strongest sound pulses are typically produced by _______. W) Refracted sound X) Reflected sound Y) Transmitted sound Z) Absorbed sound 145. 7-10 cm 1-2 cm 25-30 cm 3-5 cm 15-20 cm 146.141. such as other ships subsea volcanoes schools of fish 143. Data on rock layers beneath the sea floor can be obtained by analyzing data from _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) solid rock mud unconsolidated sand sea shells gravel 147. a book by ___________ proposed the hypothesis of continental drift. All of today's land masses were joined together in the mega-continent of Pangaea about _________ million years ago. . W) 10 X) 50 Y) 100 Z) 200 E) 500 148. W) X) Y) Z) E) The rift valley of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is bounded by __________ faults. W) X) Y) Z) E) Wegener's supercontinent was called _______. J. strike-slip reverse thrust normal lateral 151. W) X) Y) Z) E) In 1915. Pangaea Gondwanaland Laurasia Panthallassa Unity 150. The rift valleys of the mid-ocean ridges are bounded at the sides by _______ faults. Tuzo Wilson Harry Hess Robert Scott Alfred Wegener Edward Teller 149.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Mid-ocean ridges show _______. W) X) Y) Z) Folds are produced by _______. Steep rock faces where crustal rocks fault and drop past each other are termed _______. W) guyots X) scarps Y) sinks Z) horsts E) aretes 154. W) X) Y) Z) E) Compression forces result in _______. rocks being pulled apart compression rocks sliding past each other lava cooling in contorted layers 155. high heat flow seismicity volcanism all of the above none of the above 153. heating stretching fractures volcanism folding 156. W) thinning of the sea floor .W) X) Y) Z) E) normal strike-slip transform fracture vertical 152. Tension forces at plate boundaries cause _______.

X) Y) Z) E) volcanism mountain building folding heating 157. When rocks cool. magnetometer data had to be combined with _______. W) mineral samples X) deep camera surveys Y) coring data Z) diver observations E) water temperature data 161. normal. A key piece of evidence that significantly advanced the study of sea floor spreading was the discovery of _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Magnetometer data across a mid-ocean ridge shows alternating bands of _______. they retain a record of _______. W) mid-ocean ridges X) continental rift valleys Y) ocean trenches Z) remnant magnetism E) undersea volcanoes 159. . To test the hypothesis of sea floor spreading. reversed and zero magnetism normal and reversed magnetism young and old rock granite and basalt molten and solid rock 160. anomalies polarities uncertainties auroras declinations 158. W) X) Y) Z) E) Variations in magnetic fields are termed magnetic _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Ocean basins get wider with time due to _______. . every 5 million years every 10 million years randomly with no clear pattern with every ice age randomly in conjunction with major sunspot events 163. 35 15 25 5 45 166. W) X) Y) Z) E) A magnetometer measures _______. The size of the Earth _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The Earth's magnetic field changes polarity _______. the presence of magnetized rocks the strength and orientation of the Earth's magnetic field the presence of a magnetic field the strength and orientation of the rock's magnetic field both B and D 164. erosion of continental margins sinking of continents palaeomagnetism rising sea levels sea-floor spreading 165.W) X) Y) Z) E) their age the strength of the Earth's magnetic field the direction to the North Pole the geographic location of the source of the lava the strength and orientation of the Earth's magnetic field 162. W) X) Y) Z) E) Sea floor spreading occurs at a rate of about _______ cm/year.

mantle plumes scarp faults active subduction island chains rift valleys 169.45 X) 5 . anthracite lava andesite lava Benioff lava collision lava extrusion lava 168. 50 500 250 150 350 170.10 . W) X) Y) Z) E) Andesite lava comes from rock melted about _______ km below the Earth's surface. W) 15 .W) does not appear to be changing X) is very slowly increasing as new sea floor is created Y) is very slowly decreasing as the Earth cools 167. W) X) Y) Z) E) A Benioff zone is characterized by _______. mid-ocean ridges subduction zones hot spots mantle plumes magnetic anomalies 171. W) X) Y) Z) E) The basaltic crust is being destroyed along _______. Subduction occurs at a rate of about __________ cm/yr. W) X) Y) Z) E) The lava created by volcanic activity near deep-sea trenches is called _______.

300 Z) 125 . W) mantle X) crust Y) asthenosphere Z) lithosphere 175. W) X) Y) Z) E) Tectonic plates are moved around by _______.190 E) 50 .100 172. The lack of subduction zones in the Atlantic. divergent convergent transform . 1920's 1930's 1940's 1950's 1960's 174. Indian and Arctic Oceans suggests that these ocean basins are ____________ with time. W) X) Y) Z) E) The global plate tectonics theory was formulated in the _______.Y) 200 . W) expanding X) shrinking Y) remaining constant 173. convection currents in the mantle gravity ocean currents pressure gradients in the crust the heating and cooling cycles associated with the seasons 176. W) X) Y) Compression is dominant at ___________ plate boundaries. The global tectonic plates that cover the Earth's surface extend downward through the _______.

W) divergent X) convergent Y) transform 179. divergent convergent transform 181. many active volcanoes a linear increase in island age from one end to the other a series of islands of random age a series of islands of identical size the presence of a subduction zone . The Himalayan Mountain Range of Asia is an example of a __________ plate boundary. subduction zone spreading centre volcano mantle plume earthquake zone 182. W) X) Y) Z) E) Island Chains are characterized by _______. divergent convergent transform stable 180.177. W) X) Y) Plates move apart along __________ plate boundaries. W) X) Y) Z) E) Island Chains are formed when a tectonic plate moves across a _______. divergent convergent transform 178. W) X) Y) Ocean floor is neither created nor destroyed along __________ plate boundaries. W) X) Y) Z) The San Andreas Fault in California is an example of a ________ plate boundary.

W) East African rift valleys. W) X) Y) Z) E) Marine sedimentary rocks make up over ______% of the outcrops on land. Himalayan Mountains. Mediterranean Sea. Himalayan Mountains 184. East African rift valleys Y) Red Sea. Pacific Ocean. Rank the following features in order according to their stage in the Wilson cycle. Pacific Ocean. The processes which break rock and minerals into smaller particles are collectively termed _______. Pacific Ocean. Pacific Ocean. Mediterranean Sea. high rates of evaporation dumping of mine waste volcanic activity exposed deposits of soluble minerals on the sea floor groundwater flowing through the deep crust 185. hot brine pools of the Red Sea are caused by _______. East African rift valleys. 50 60 70 80 90 187.183. Red Sea. W) X) Y) Z) E) The deep. W) gravel . Red Sea. The most common constituents of ocean sediments are _______. Himalayan Mountains X) Mediterranean Sea. Red Sea. Mediterranean Sea. Himalayan Mountains Z) East African rift valleys. W) metamorphism X) igneous activity Y) weathering Z) erosion E) fractionalization 186. from earliest to latest.

W) Biogenic X) Cosmogenous Y) Authigenic Z) Volcanogenic E) Terrigenous 190. Fine and coarse sediments derived from the hard parts of organisms are termed _______.X) Y) Z) E) organic materials mud and sand silt and clay colloids 188. Sediment particles precipitated near the sea floor by chemical or biochemical reactions are termed __________ sediments. W) X) Y) Z) E) Tiny grains of sediment that originate from outer space are termed _______. W) Biogenic X) Cosmogenous Y) Authigenic Z) Volcanogenic E) Terrigenous 191. W) Biogenic X) Cosmogenous Y) Authigenic Z) Volcanogenic E) Terrigenous 189. Fine and coarse grains of sediment produced by weathering on land are termed __________ sediment. Biogenic Cosmogenous Authigenic Volcanogenic Terrigenous .

W) X) Y) Z) E) Dredge samplers are used to collect samples of _______. specific sediment types rock or sediment in bulk quantities bottom dwelling organisms suspended sediments buried sediments 194. W) rapid X) slow 196. W) water X) ozone . well mixed well sorted by grain size eeposited further from their source well sorted by sediment source not traceable to their source 197. grab samplers piston corers gravity corers platform drilling 195. A sediment deposit that is well sorted is likely to have been deposited at a __________ rate. The average particle size of a deposit is proportional to the __________ level present at the time of deposition. gravel sand clay cobble boulder 193. W) X) Y) Z) E) Rapid erosion produces sediment deposits that are _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Mud is typically made of silt and __________-sized materials. W) X) Y) Z) The deepest sediment samples are obtained by _______.192.

which of the following would be most likely to be deposited? W) silt X) clay Y) coarse sand Z) mud 199.Y) pressure Z) energy E) tide 198. W) X) Y) Z) E) A Hjulstrom diagram is a plot of _______. W) mud and silt X) mud and sand . sediment type versus depth sediment type versus distance from shore current velocity versus particle size sinking rate versus particle size water current energy versus degree of sediment sorting 201. W) slope and trench X) continental shelf and deep sea Y) continental rise and mid-ocean ridge Z) rift valleys and trenches E) onshore and offshore 202. Beaches exposed to high wave energy are composed of _______. the two major areas where sedimentation occurs are the _______. Under high-energy conditions. On the basis of water depth. W) X) Y) Z) E) Piston corers can obtain cores as long as _______. 30m 20m 5m 40m 10m 200.

000 years ago. rising slowly not changing dropping slowly 207. the sea bottom is most strongly affected by _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) On the continental shelf. W) X) Y) Currently. Energy for eroding and transporting sand grains on the shelf is provided by windgenerated waves and currents and the _______. waves wind circulation pattern turbidity currents chemical precipitation 205. during the last major ice age. W) Coriolis effect X) magnetic fields of the Earth Y) plate movements Z) tides E) hydrologic cycle 204. sea level dropped to _______ below where it is today. increases decreases remains the same 206. W) X) Y) Bottom energy induced by surface waves _________ with distance offshore. mean sea level is _______. About 15.Y) bare rock Z) gravel and sand E) shale and sand 203. W) 225 m X) 175m Y) 75m Z) 125m E) 50m .

The continental shelves of polar regions are covered with __________ sediment deposits. 80% 30% 5% 60% 75% 209. W) poorly-sorted glacial X) river-supplied terrigenous Y) biogenic Z) precipitated 212. weathered material from the land extensive coral reefs mud and clay thick deposits of plant and animal remains 211. W) X) Y) Z) E) A major component of sediments in tropical seas is _______. A broad band of __________ sediment straddles the equator and extends into the subtropics on the continental shelf. sodium silicate calcium chloride sodium carbonate calcium carbonate ammonium nitrate . W) X) Y) Z) E) About _______ of the sediment on continental shelves can properly be termed 'relict'. W) biogenic X) river-supplied terrigenous Y) poorly-sorted glacial Z) precipitated 210. W) X) Y) Z) Continental shelves in mid-latitudes are covered by _______.208.

5. River-supplied terrigenous deposits are composed mainly of sand-sized grains of __________ and __________. gypsum E) quartz. aragonite Y) garnet. normal tides pass over an area tides. acting over many years. gravel. W) X) Y) Z) E) Winter storms can generate waves that affect the bottom even in depths of _______. feldspar .213. magnetite X) calcite. 75 m 10 m 125 m 100 m 25 m 216. the Earth has now been relatively stable for up to _______. W) gematite. remove all of the sediment muddy bottoms are impacted by tidal currents constricted passages cause strong tidal streams to develop tidal currents interact with deep circulation patterns 217. W) X) Y) Z) E) Geologically speaking.000 years 2.000 years 100 years 500 years 215. calcareous ooze radiolarian ooze till slump turbidites 214. W) X) Y) Z) E) Tidal scour results when _______.000 years 1. W) X) Y) Z) E) Unsorted glacial deposits of boulders. pyrite Z) talc. sand and mud are termed _______.

turbidity pressure gradients sea level differences rivers flowing into the ocean winds and tides 221. W) limestone X) granite Y) marble Z) basalt E) shale 219. W) 20 m/sec X) 10 m/sec Y) 30 m/sec Z) 25 m/sec E) 15 m/sec 222. The river-supplied sediments of the continental shelves are derived from the weathering of __________ on land. 1947 1867 1929 1886 1900 . Paleozoic Mesozoic Holocene Jurassic Cretaceous 220. W) X) Y) Z) E) Turbidity currents have been a recognized phenomenon since _______.218. The turbidity current triggered by the 1929 Grand Banks earthquake had a measured speed of about __________. W) X) Y) Z) E) The principle currents which move sediment across the shelf are created by _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The recent rise of sea level is referred to by the geologic time term _______.

W) bores X) scourge Y) waves Z) consolidation E) scour 225. W) X) Y) Z) E) The water level on the continental shelves fluctuates daily in response to _______. Eocene Cambrian Pleistocene Azoic Mesozoic 226. W) X) Y) Z) E) The 'dominant' Earth-shaping event of the past million years has been _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Another name for the Pleistocene Epoch is the _______. the tides the wind the Coriolis effect the Earth's rotation magnetic anomalies 224. W) X) Y) Z) E) The last million years of the Earth's history are referred to as the __________ Epoch.223. Erosion of sediment beds on the continental shelf by tidal activity is termed tidal _______. the appearance of life repeated glaciation events the cooling of the Earth's core the development of the atmosphere continental drift . Age of the dinosaurs Age of fishes Age of gigantic insects Ice age Age of cephalopods 227.

W) X) Y) Z) E) The most direct effect of ice-age glaciers on the oceans was to cause _______. river deltas formed at the _______. glacial erosion ice masses sediment-laden bottom currents ice caps deltas 232. continental rise same general area as now shelf break trench margin rift valley 229. W) X) Y) Z) E) Submarine canyons were deepened during interglacial periods by _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) During the height of glaciation. drastic changes in the salinity of seawater the addition of nutrients in soil pushed off the land into the sea immense waves as the glaciers broke up expansion of the oceans as the continents sank under the weight of the ice. Triangular deposits of sediment which form at the mouths of rivers are termed _______.228. drastic changes in sea level 230. W) X) Y) Z) E) Submarine canyons provide an important mechanism for _______. bottom-dwelling organisms to move from the shelf to the slope bottom-dwelling organisms to move from the slope to the shelf nutrient-rich water to spill off the shelf onto the slope sediment to be transported off the shelf free-swimming organisms to find hiding places from predators . W) alluvial fans X) island archipelagos Y) flood plains Z) deltas E) Inselbergs 231.

tropical rainforests grew in the areas of the continental shelves. W) X) Y) Z) Pacific-type continental margins are characterized by _______. Z) There were massive kills of coral reefs. large portions of the central and western parts of North America were covered by _______. widely on all continental shelves on shelf areas that were exposed to the atmosphere during periods of glaciation only in the tropical Pacific only on land areas once covered with ocean water on some continental shelves in tropical and sub-tropical regions . Y) Deposition and erosion rates increased in deep-sea environments that border the continental shelves. active faulting deep sedimentation rapid change deep trenches 236. steady development deep sedimentation tectonic stability active subduction 237.233. W) extremely rugged mountains X) warm. During the age of Pangaea. W) X) Y) Z) E) Carbonate sediments composed of the shells of marine organisms are found _______. Which of the following was not a modification of the continental shelf due to low stands of sea level during the Pleistocene Epoch? W) Ice caps and glaciers extended onto the shelf proper. W) X) Y) Z) Atlantic-type continental margins are characterized by _______. X) Rivers extended their channels across the continental shelves. slow. shallow seas Y) rift valleys Z) mid-ocean ridges E) glaciated valleys 235. E) Large. 234.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Turbidites are found _______. dolomite feldspar. sediment piles that slide down slopes intact turbidity currents created by unstable sediment loads depressions in the sea floor created when underlying gas deposits escape basalt landslides that break off of mid-ocean ridges the mechanism by which rift valleys form 239. gypsum calcite. feldspar calcite. California Oregon Florida Chile Peru . aragonite 242. W) X) Y) Z) E) A carbonate shelf system would most likely be found off the coast of _______. clay quartz. The part of a subduction zone between the deep-sea trench and volcanic arc is termed a/ an _______. W) alluvial fan X) delta Y) thrust fault Z) accretionary prism E) nodule 241.238. W) X) Y) Z) E) Slumps are _______. on the continental shelf at the mouth of submarine canyons in deep-sea trenches on the slopes of seamounts on the floors of submarine canyons 240. salt. W) X) Y) Z) E) Most shelves are covered by sand and mud composed of _________ and __________.

243. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Which of the following is a carbonate rock? Granite Basalt Shale Gneiss Limestone

244. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The Bahama platform is made primarily of __________ materials. granitic basaltic carbonate andesite pyroclastic

245. The fine-grained fallout of biogenic and terrigenous material that settles to the deep-sea floor through the water column can be called __________. W) terrigenous X) biological Y) extraterrestrial Z) foraminiferal E) pelagic

246. W) X) Y) Z)

Authigenic sediments are largely __________ precipitates that form in place. extraterrestrial inorganic biochemical volcanic

247. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Vertical, grain-size gradation in a layer of sediments is referred to as graded _______. sorting bedding selection stacking accretion

248. The cone-shaped deposits that form at the mouths of submarine canyons are called _______. W) fluvial cones X) alluvial fans Y) cones of depression Z) deep-sea fans E) deltaic fans

249. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Glacial marine sediments are characterized by _______. Inselbergs polygonal structures graded bedding homogeneous composition of rock and mineral fragments poor sorting and heterogeneous composition of rock and mineral fragments

250. W) X) Y) Z)

Glacial marine sediments are produced by _______. runoff from melting glaciers on land runoff from arctic islands in summer the remains of cold water organisms ice rafting

251. The reddish color of the pelagic clays is due to the oxidation of minerals rich in _______. W) iron X) calcium Y) carbonates Z) manganese E) magnesium

252. W) X) Y) Z)

Floating and drifting single-celled animals are referred to as _______. Diatoms Phytoplankton Zooplankton Coccolithophores

253. Floating and drifting single-celled plants can be referred to as _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E)

Foraminiferans Radiolarians Zooplankton Phytoplankton Pteropods

254. At least _________ of the content of 'biogenic' ooze must come from microscopic organisms. W) 30% X) 60% Y) 5% Z) 45% E) 15%

255. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The Sahara desert contributes ________ to deep sea sediments. sand chlorite gravel kaolinite calcium carbonate

256. W) X) Y)

Ferromanganese nodules are examples of _______. calcareous ooze siliceous ooze authigenic deposits

257. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Ferromanganese nodules are _______. sources of nutrient for sea floor communities a potentially valuable economic resource restricted to Polar seas found embedded in continental slope sediments found on tropical beaches

258. If carbonate oozes are compacted and cemented into sedimentary rock, the rock is called _______. W) shale

X) slate Y) sandstone Z) limestone

259. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Sedimentary rocks that form in layers are said to be _______. discontinuous stratified sorted graded calcareous

260. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The mineral name for calcium sulfate is _______. gypsum calcite anhydrite andesite halite

261. W) X) Y) Z)

Laminated rocks made of thin beds of carbonate mud and algae are called _______. coprolites trilobites zooxanthellae stromatolites

262. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Scientists postulate that for the Mediterranean Sea to dry up took about _______ years. 10,000 100 100,000 1,000 50,000

263. W) X) Y)

The dominant elements dissolved in seawater are _______. Na and Cl Mg and Hg Fe and Si

The smallest unit of an element that contains all the chemical properties of the element is a/an _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The central portion of an atom is the _______.Z) Ca and Na E) O and C 264. W) molecule X) proton Y) parcel Z) atom E) neutron 266. Orbitals Core Electrons Pycnocline Nucleus 268. Which of the following has a positive charge? W) Electron X) Neutron . nuculus nucleus nucular nuclear core 267. W) X) Y) Z) E) The protons and neutrons of an atom are located in the _______. The smallest unit of a compound that contains all the chemical properties of the compound is a/an _______. W) molecule X) proton Y) compound Z) atom E) neutron 265.

W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following has a negative charge? Electron Neutron Proton Soliton 271. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following has a neutral charge? Electron Neutron Proton Soliton 270. the nucleus electron shells the center of the atom a ring formation 272. molecule proton isotope . W) X) Y) A charged atom is called a/an _______. positive negative neutral 273. W) X) Y) Z) The electrons of an atom are located in _______.Y) Proton Z) Soliton 269. W) X) Y) A stable atom of an element has a __________ charge. W) X) Y) Atoms with more electrons than protons have a net __________ charge. positive negative neutral 274.

Z) ion E) electrode 275. W) X) Y) If you apply heat to a material. Ions Isotopes Compounds Inert Nobel 277. The single most important reason for an ion's ability to bond with other elements is its _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) __________ results from the physical vibrations of atoms and molecules. increases decreases remains the same 279. W) X) Y) Z) E) Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are called _______. electrons neutrons protons ions 278. W) X) Y) Z) Isotopes differ in the number of __________ they contain. W) atomic mass X) atomic number Y) abundance Z) charge 276. Heat Sound Light Color Stirring . the agitation of its molecules and atoms __________ .

The process in which water molecules are transformed into a gas by boiling is termed _______. The process in which water molecules change to a gas at temperatures below the boiling point is called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The energy of motion is termed _______.280.0° E) 15. W) 0. specific gravity density weight specific heat isostasy 284. potential radioactivity ionic kinetic latent 281. W) deposition X) sublimation Y) condensation Z) evaporation E) transpiration 282.0° Y) 5. W) deposition X) sublimation Y) condensation Z) evaporation E) vaporization 283.0° . W) X) Y) Z) E) The amount of mass contained in a unit volume is termed _______. Heat capacity is the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of substance ______ C .1° X) 1.0° Z) 10.

In a/an __________ bond. W) monocular X) dipolar Y) radioactive Z) anoxic E) ionic 287. The weak chemical bond that forms between bipolar molecules is called a/an __________ bond. the atoms of a compound share electrons. W) X) Y) Z) Hydrogen bonding is a type of __________ bonding between molecules. The clusters of water molecules formed by hydrogen bonding _________ in size when temperature increases. ionic hydrostatic electrostatic electrolytic 290. ionic covalent isotopic 286. A molecule that has a positively-charged end and a negatively-charged end is termed a/ an __________ molecule.285. W) water X) isotopic Y) hydrogen Z) oxygen E) liquid 289. W) increase . W) X) Y) The water molecule is an example of a/an ______________ chemical bond. W) covalent X) ionic 288.

they are joined by ionic bonds to form _______. they are attracted to each other because of their _______. W) halite . isotope proton electron cation anion 293. When two ions come into contact. isotope proton electron cation anion 294. W) X) Y) Z) E) A positively-charged atom is called a/an _______. W) radioactivity X) complementary shapes Y) opposite charges Z) gravitational attraction E) atomic mass 295.X) decrease Y) do not change 291. W) X) Y) Z) E) A negatively-charged ion is called a/an _______. Water's unexpectedly high boiling and melting temperatures depend on the __________ of the water molecule. W) size X) weight Y) eipolar structure Z) positive charge E) density 292. When a sodium ion and a chloride ion come into contact with each other.

the process is known as _______. a crystal of ice has a __________ shape.7° 300.3° 105. it is said to be _______. 45° 90° 105° 135° 180° 299. W) X) Y) Z) E) When water is added to a substance.5° 97.X) Y) Z) E) quartz calcite anhydrite gypsum 296. W) cubic . W) X) Y) Z) E) The angle between the hydrogen atoms in a molecule of ice is _______. In the solid state.0° 109. solution dissolution sublimation hydration condensation 298. W) X) Y) Z) E) The angle between the hydrogen atoms in a molecule of water is _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) When water cannot contain any more salt ions. 127. full geavy saturated hydrated anhydrous 297.5° 48.

it can be termed a/an _______.42° . minerals salts acids solutes solvents 303. 32. W) X) Y) Z) E) Since water dissolves all substances to some degree. The average salinity of seawater is __________ 0/000.X) Y) Z) E) octagonal hexagonal spheroidal square 301.3. antacid universal solvent universal solute polymer receiver 304. parts per hundred parts per thousand parts per ten thousand parts per hundred thousand parts per million 305.00° 18.2.05° 0° . W) X) Y) Z) E) Water reaches its maximum density at ______ C. W) X) Y) Z) E) The symbol '0/000' stands for _______. W) 22 . W) X) Y) Z) E) The substances dissolved in seawater are collectively called _______.98° 302.

015 kg 308. The 'Principle of Constant Proportion' allows us to determine the salinity of a sample of seawater by measuring the concentration of __________ .014 kg E) 1.7 3.2 2. respiration osmosis active transport photosynthesis anabolism 310. W) X) Y) Z) E) Plants convert the nutrients in seawater into food by the process of _______. . W) 1.X) Y) Z) E) 44 35 18 57 306. The most abundant gas dissolved in seawater is _______.4 5. Rivers annually contribute on the order of __________ of dissolved material to the oceans. W) X) Y) Z) E) The oceans have existed for as long as __________ billion years.2 6.4 309.010 kg Z) 1.012 kg X) 108 kg Y) 1. 1. W) micronutrients X) dissolved metals Y) CO2 Z) ClE) phytoplankton 307.

W) thermicity X) specific gravity Y) toxicity Z) chlorinity E) galicity 314. is termed _______. density specific gravity load salinity solubility 313. by measuring electrical conductivity. W) salinometer X) barometer Y) photovoltaic cell Z) hygrometer E) hydrometer . W) X) Y) Z) E) The total dissolved materials in seawater is termed _______. The total amount of halogens dissolved in seawater.W) X) Y) Z) E) nitrogen carbon dioxide oxygen argon hydrogen 311. expressed as g/kg. The physical and chemical processes that produce living matter in cells are termed __________ processes. A __________ measures the salt content of water indirectly. W) embryonic X) hydrologic Y) metabolic Z) anaerobic E) catabolic 312.

Plagioclase Orthoclase Kaolinite Illite Montmorillonite 319. W) X) Y) Z) E) When carbon dioxide is dissolved in water.315. it reacts with the water to form _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The residence time of both sodium and chloride ions in the ocean is __________. W) X) Y) Z) E) The mineral name of the potassium-bearing feldspar of granite is _______. Calcium carbonate Sodium bicarbonate Carbonic acid Orthoclase sediments Plagioclase sediments 318. W) X) Y) Z) E) Aluminum silicates bond with water to form _______.010 years 317. Pyrite Quartz Orthoclase Plagioclase Kaolinite . W) X) Y) Z) Over a long time period. the input of salts to the ocean __________ the output. exceeds is less than is not related to balances 316. less than 103 years between 103 and 105 years between 105 and 107 years between 107 and 109 years longer than 1.

and salt removal from. W) X) Y) Z) E) Precipitation of evaporite minerals from seawater represents a/an _______. Ions "stick" to the surface of some clay minerals in the ocean by the process of _______. Halite Evaporite Brine Pyrite Supersaturated 322.320. Halocline Sink Thermocline Source Reduction process 324. the oceans is thought to be in a _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) A very salty solution is termed _______. W) steady-state equilibrium X) state of mass flow Y) state of supersaturation Z) state of emergence E) state of plasticity 321. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following is an evaporite? Quartz Kaolinite Orthoclase Brine Halite 323. The relationship between salt input to. W) ion transfer X) absorption Y) condensation Z) adsorption E) radiation .

the freezing point is __________ than the temperature of maximum density.46° 327.98° -5.325. W) X) Y) Increasing the salinity of water ____________ its freezing point. Lines which connect points of equal temperature on an oceanographic chart are termed _______. W) X) Y) As the salinity of water increases. W) X) Y) Z) E) The average length of time an ion remains in solution in the ocean is termed _______. 3.17° -1. residence time radioactive decay rate half-life terminal time turnover time 326. increases decreases stays the same 330.91° 0° -8. decreases increases does not affect 328. W) Isobars X) Isotherms Y) Isometrics . its vapor pressure _______. In fresh water. W) less than X) greater than Y) the same as 329. W) X) Y) Z) E) Seawater with a salinity of 35 0/000 freezes at __________ C.

W) X) Y) Z) E) A/an __________ is an area where the temperature changes rapidly with depth. the oceans are characterized by a permanent thermocline lying at a depth of _______. In temperate latitudes. W) 100-200 m X) 1.000-2.Z) Thermoclines 331. Isotherm Pycnocline Thermocline Halocline Isobar 332. W) X) Y) Z) E) The surface salinity in the central parts of the world oceans is determined by _______. input of solar radiation changes in heat capacity due to salinity wind-driven mixing processes the concentration of phytoplankton all of the above 334.000 m Y) 50-100 m Z) 200-1.000 m . W) X) Y) Z) E) Zones of rapid salinity change with depth are called _______. Salt domes Isotherms Pycnoclines Haloclines Thermoclines 333. W) X) Y) Z) E) The temperature of the sea surface is determined by _______. the amount of rainfall in the area the amount of wind the balance between evaporation and precipitation the amount of freshwater runoff from the continents the stability of the water column 335.

The term __________ refers to the amount of gas at equilibrium that can be dissolved by a volume of water at a particular salinity. high levels of photosynthesis an increase in temperature a reduction in respiration levels all of the above none of the above . W) X) Y) Z) E) A pycnocline is created by strong vertical gradients in _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) A sharp density gradient with depth is called a/an _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Surface layers of the ocean may become supersaturated with oxygen due to _______. pressure and temperature. deep water of the central oceans in equatorial latitudes _______. Pressure ridge Pycnocline Thermocline Halocline Isobar 339.E) 500-750 m 336. W) solubility X) density Y) saturation value Z) gas law E) non-conservative property 340. light penetration water circulation dissolved material temperature or salinity organisms 338. W) X) Y) Z) The cold. sank directly from the surface sank in polar oceans and circulated towards the equator issued from cold springs in the sea floor sank down from the edge of the adjacent continental shelf 337.

341. Most of the oxygen found in the deepest parts of the ocean originally came from _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Anoxic water is water that contains no dissolved _______. Respiration Oxidation Ingestion Photosynthesis Digestion 343. food water sunlight oxygen air . Enzymes break organic matter down into simpler chemical compounds by the process of _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The chemical breakdown of food in cells for the release of energy is _______. W) chemical processes in deep water X) degassing from the mid-ocean ridges Y) the atmosphere Z) runoff from the continents 342. W) X) Y) Z) E) Anaerobic bacteria are those which need no _______. nutrients carbohydrates hydrogen oxygen gases 345. W) Respiration X) Oxidation Y) Photosynthesis Z) Solution E) Fractionation 344.

concentration Na+ concentration 350. W) CO2 X) Rn Y) CO Z) H2S E) O3 347. W) X) Y) Z) E) The vertical movement of a fluid is termed _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The horizontal movement of a fluid is termed _______. W) X) Y) Z) A pH of __________ is considered neutral. salinity temperature H+ concentration Cl.346. advection convection conduction radiation flow 349. advection convection conduction radiation flow 348. W) X) Y) Z) E) pH describes the __________ of a substance. 5 3 7 9 . Anaerobic bacteria produce the toxic gas __________ as a byproduct of their metabolic processes.

E) 11 351. warm water cold water saturated water 355. W) X) Y) Z) E) Sediments high in calcium carbonate are more likely to be found in _______. The oceans are considered to be well buffered due to the concentration of _______ found there. deep. anoxic acidic basic groundwater runoff . W) acidic X) basic Y) buffered Z) neutral 352. W) X) Y) Z) E) The water below the ground surface on land is termed _______. W) X) Y) Calcareous materials would dissolve most readily in _______. A solution which is hardly affected by the input or output of hydrogen ions is said to be _______. W) carbonates and bicarbonates X) dissolved salts Y) hydrogen ions Z) dissolved organic materials 353. cold ocean basins deep tropical seas deep canyons on continental margins shallow tropical seas areas affected by runoff high in calcium carbonate 354.

356. __________ exceeds __________. Aphotic Dysphotic Photic 361. Aphotic Dysphotic Photic 360. Over the whole of the oceans. W) evaporation. Red Green Yellow Orange Blue . W) icebergs X) Inselbergs Y) floes Z) rafts E) flows 359. on average. W) X) Y) Z) E) Detached pieces of floating sea ice are called _______. W) X) Y) The well-lighted portion of the ocean is termed the __________ zone. Large masses of floating ice that broke off of glaciers and were carried out to sea are called _______. icebergs Inselbergs floes rafts flows 358. W) X) Y) The zone of the ocean where there is no light is termed the _________ zone. precipitation X) precipitation. W) X) Y) Z) E) _________ light is transmitted the farthest distance through water. evaporation 357.

10-3 m 10-5 m 10-6 m 10-2 m 1m 365. W) X) Y) Z) E) Most of the light entering the ocean is absorbed in the upper _________. temperature salinity pressure sound velocity life 366.362. W) bottom X) continent Y) fish Z) atmosphere E) continental shelf 364. 1m 100 m 50 m 1. W) X) Y) Z) E) The sea-surface microlayer is about _________ thick. W) X) Y) Z) E) The SOFAR channel is a channel of minimum _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Biologists refer to the organisms of the surface microlayer as _______. Megazoa Plankton Neuston Benthos Biolumes . The surface microlayer is the surface where chemicals are exchanged between the ocean and the _______.000 m 500 m 363.

At sea level. oxygen carbon dioxide nitrogen argon methane 370. W) X) Y) Z) E) The most abundant gas of the atmosphere is _______. decrease increase stay the same 372. a column of air one inch square that reaches to the top of the atmosphere weighs an average of _______. W) hydrostatic X) partial Y) air Z) atmospheric E) gas 369. decreases increases stays the same 371.367. W) X) Y) Z) E) The author of Physical Geography of the Sea was _______. W) X) Y) The addition of water vapor to dry air causes the density of the air to ________. W) 1 kg . its density _______. W) X) Y) When air is heated. The pressure exerted by a column of air that extends from the top of the atmosphere to the surface of the earth is termed _________ pressure. Darwin Maury Cousteau Thompson Forbes 368.

high X) high. low 376.7 pounds 1 metric ton 28. W) 50. the change in pressure vertically in the atmosphere the change in pressure across a horizontal distance a chart of the air pressures of a region over a long period of time a method of grading the changes in pressure for accuracy . W) X) Y) Z) A pressure gradient is _______.X) Y) Z) E) 33 pounds 14.7 X) 30.7 375. W) X) Y) Z) E) Standard atmospheric pressure is equivalent to ____ atmosphere(s).4 pounds 373. A low-pressure zone is a region where the air pressure is less than ____ lb/in2. W) low.7 Z) 14. W) X) Y) Z) E) Wind is caused by _______. 1 2 3 4 5 374. Fluids (including air) move from ______ pressure to ______ pressure. the phases of the moon solar flares differences in air pressure the rotation of the earth evaporation 377.7 Y) 20.

W) in which they are going X) from which they are coming 381. W) X) Y) The Coriolis deflection is caused by _______. strong gentle short-term long-term 379.378. the wind-induced deflection of surface currents the gravitational attraction of the sun the combined gravitational attraction of the sun and moon . The surface of the Earth at the equator is characterized by __________ atmospheric pressure. W) southerly X) northerly 384. W) X) Y) Z) A steep pressure gradient results in __________ winds. W) in which they are going X) from which they are coming 380. Winds are named for the direction _______. high variable low 383. W) X) Y) High altitudes at the Equator are characterized by __________ atmospheric pressure. W) high X) variable Y) low 382. The surface winds in the Northern Hemisphere flow dominantly out of a _______ direction. Currents are named for the direction _______.

W) North X) South Y) right Z) left E) East 386. W) greater X) smaller Y) more variable Z) less variable 388. the Tradewinds blow out of the _______. In the Northern Hemisphere. Southeast Northeast Southwest . The velocity of rotation at a point mid-way between the equator and the pole is __________ than it is at the equator. In the Southern Hemisphere. all moving objects appear to be deflected to the _______ of their point of origin.Z) the rotation of the Earth on its axis E) atmospheric pressure differentials 385. all moving objects appear to be deflected to the _______ of their point of origin. The faster an object moves and the greater the distance it travels. W) greater X) less than Y) no different than 389. the _______ the Coriolis effect. W) X) Y) In the Northern Hemisphere. W) North X) South Y) right Z) left E) East 387.

A wind-driven current will flow at about ______ of the speed of the wind that created it. Subtropical X) Southwesterly. Polar. Northwesterly. Ferrel. W) X) Y) Sea-surface temperature can be measured by satellites using __________. W) Bermuda Triangle X) Subtropical Lows Y) Subpolar Lows Z) Subtropical Lows E) Doldrums 391. W) Polar. and _______ cells. Tropical. Earth's rotation Magnetic fields Aurora borealis wind salinity differences of surface waters 393. W) X) Y) Z) E) Most surface currents are driven by the _______. near infrared radiometers altimeters microwave radiometers . The circulation of winds in both hemispheres is arranged in the _______. Polar Z) Equatorial. _______. The Trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres converge in a region known as the ________________. Southeasterly Y) Hadley. W) 1% X) 3% Y) 6% Z) 10% E) 12% 394. Latitudinal 392.Z) Northwest 390.

When near-surface water is moved offshore by Ekman transport. W) Upwelling X) Downwelling Y) Langmuir circulation Z) Franklin eddies E) Occlusion 399. The net flow of water to the right of the wind in the Northern Hemisphere is termed _______. W) Upwelling . W) Upwelling X) Downwelling Y) Ekman transport Z) Langmuir circulation E) Franklin gyre 398. wind the rotation of the Earth density differences solar storms wind drag 396. loops gyres seisms sinks gradients 397. such that Ekman transport drives water against the land. W) X) Y) Z) E) The large loops of surface currents in the ocean are termed circulation __________. When winds blow parallel to the coast. water from below replaces it in a process known as _______.Z) high-resolution imaging radar E) side-looking radar 395. W) X) Y) Z) E) Subsurface currents are driven mainly by _______. surface water sinks in the process known as _______.

W) 5-6 m .X) Y) Z) E) Downwelling Langmuir circulation Franklin eddies Occlusion 400. W) 45° X) 15° Y) 90° Z) 135° E) 180° 401. counter-rotating circulation cells with long axes aligned parallel to the direction of the generation wind is called ___________ circulation. The net transport of water in an Ekman spiral in the northern hemisphere is _________ to the right of the wind direction. W) X) Y) The equator is a zone of ___________ water. W) Franklin X) Ekman Y) Coriolis Z) Langmuir E) Pinet 403. upwelling downwelling stagnant 402. W) 5 m X) 5 cm Y) 3 m Z) 10 cm E) 1 m 404. Langmuir cells in the ocean can mix the surface layer to depths of _______. The difference in height between the centers of the large ocean gyres and their edges is about __________. A series of parallel.

continental masses north polar magnetic fields. gravity gyres. W) X) Y) Z) Geostrophic flow is a dynamic balance between _______ and _______. The narrow. swift current on the western side of the North Atlantic Ocean is the ________.X) Y) Z) E) 18-20 m 1-3 m 12-14 m 40-50 m 405. W) X) Y) Z) E) The slow current on the eastern side of the North Atlantic Ocean is the _________. W) Langmuir circulation . pressure gradient 407. wind. south polar magnetic fields Coriolis deflection. Benguela Current Canary Current West Wind Drift Brazil Current Gulf Stream 409. W) Benguela Current X) Canary Current Y) West Wind Drift Z) Brazil Current E) Gulf Stream 408. deep. The western arm of all ocean gyres is called the ____________. W) Coriolis X) Density Y) Geostrophic Z) Seismic E) Internal 406. Currents that result from a balance between pressure gradient and Coriolis effect are termed ________________ currents.

but is displaced to the ____________. Coriolis deflection. W) North X) South Y) East Z) West 412. E) The rotation of the earth. which stabilizes the water column. The faster the rate of flow of a current. The mound of water around which the geostrophic currents flow is steeper on its ______ edge. The amount of circular rotation around a vertical axis that masses of water undergo due to the spin of the Earth and current shear is termed __________. Higher wind speeds on the western edge of oceans. W) Northern X) Southern Y) Eastern Z) Western 413. the __________ the Coriolis deflection. which presses water against the western edge of the ocean basins. Deeper continental shelf areas on the western edge of oceans.X) Y) Z) E) Thermohaline circulation Western boundary intensification Continental deflector ridge Zone of geostrophy 410. Greater freshwater runoff from the adjacent land masses. 411. W) X) Y) Z) The characteristics of western boundary currents are a result of _______. The mound of water around which the geostrophic currents flow is not centrally located in the oceans. W) greater X) smaller 414. W) intensification X) vorticity .

Y) centrifuging Z) upwelling E) downwelling 415. W) X) Y) Cold-core rings form on __________ side of the Gulf Stream. W) X) Y) Warm-core rings form on __________ side of the Gulf Stream. ocean-going eel a deep-water fish a brown seaweed a salt deposit on the western boundary of oceans 417. Meander loops that pinch off from the main axis of the Gulf Stream are called _________. either the South-eastern the North-western . North Pacific South Pacific North Atlantic South Atlantic Indian 416. a Japanese word for tidal wave a large. either the Southeastern the Northwestern 419. W) Oxbows X) Meander scars Y) Rings Z) Wanderers E) Detached basins 418. W) X) Y) Z) E) The Sargasso Sea is located in the _______________ Ocean. W) X) Y) Z) E) Sargassum is _______.

When two water masses of different densities come into contact. The analogy between global scale oceanic circulation and an immense conveyor belt is _______. W) clockwise X) counterclockwise 421. evaporation precipitation land runoff heat exchange with the atmosphere all of the above 424. W) clockwise X) counterclockwise 422.420. W) X) Y) Thermohaline currents tend to flow very __________. salinity differences temperature differences density differences the Coriolis effect the wind 423. . The rings to the west of the Gulf Stream rotate ___________. The rings to the east of the Gulf Stream rotate ___________. W) X) Y) Z) E) Thermohaline circulation patterns are caused by variations in _______. rapidly slowly sporadically 426. W) X) Y) Z) E) The geostrophic currents of the ocean gyres are powered by _______. W) more dense X) less dense 425. the __________ water mass will sink beneath the other water mass.

pressure 428. its density ________. ________. Ocean basins are ________ systems between which water is exchanged.W) X) Y) Z) entirely theoretical strongly supported by theoretical analysis and direct observation compatible with general observations but highly simplified the only possible explanation for oceanic circulation 427. salinity. As the temperature of water increases. turbidity distance from land. resistance to wind drag temperature. W) increases X) decreases 430. and ________. chemical content. W) open X) closed 432. distance from land. As the salinity of water increases. W) 30° X) 45° Y) 60° . W) increases X) decreases 429. rate of flow rate of flow. turbidity. depth. W) X) Y) Z) Density of water is a function of its ________. W) X) Y) Z) E) Over ________ % of all ocean water has a temperature between 0°and 5°C. Water that is warmer than 10°C is confined to a lens that straddles the equator and extends out to ________ latitude in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres. 95 90 85 80 75 431. its density ________.

W) X) Y) Z) E) The Bering Strait extends between ________ and North America. W) Weddell Sea X) Sea Japan Y) China Sea Z) Antarctic Convergence E) Intertropical Convergence 435. W) China X) North Y) Weddell Z) Baltic E) Bering 434. The volume of water cascading down the underwater 'waterfall' at the Denmark Strait is _______. Antarctic Deep Water (AADW) flows northward at the surface until it reaches the ______. W) X) Y) Z) E) North Atlantic Deep Water originates near _______. Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is produced mainly at the surface of the ________ Sea. W) 0. South America Cuba Greenland Baffin Island Asia 437.Z) 75° 433. the Falkland Islands the Canary Islands Greenland Hudson Bay the Aleutian Islands 436.5 Sverdrups X) 15 Sverdrups .

W) X) Y) Z) Seas are semi-enclosed and are greatly influenced by _______.Y) 10 Sverdrups Z) 5 Sverdrups E) 12. W) X) Y) Z) E) The cascade of water down the Denmark Strait is the primary source of _______. W) 10 years X) 1 year Y) 50 years Z) 90 years E) 175 years 440. The length of time that water from the Atlantic Ocean stays in the Mediterranean is about _______. Arctic Intermediate Water North Atlantic Deep Water North Atlantic Central Water Antarctic Intermediate Water Common Water 439. oceanic water masses continental climates and drainage the rise and fall of sea level the oceanic gyres 442. W) Heavy X) Common Y) Polar Z) Equatorial E) Turbid 441. W) more .5 Sverdrups 438. The water at the surface of the Mediterranean gets ________ saline the longer it remains at the surface. The dominant type of water that occupies the bottom of the Pacific Ocean is referred to as _________ Water.

The length of time that incoming water stays in the Black Sea before leaving the basin is _______. W) X) Y) The Mediterranean Sea is _______.000 years 445. W) 90 years X) 3.000 years Y) 500 years Z) 20 years E) 10. W) X) Y) Z) E) When there is no dissolved oxygen in the water. the condition is known as _______. The Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea are remnants of an ancient sea known as the ________ Sea.X) less 443. W) Panhellenic X) Pangaea Y) Tethys Z) Proterozoic E) Eocene 444. fresh and cool salty and cool fresh and warm salty and warm 446. nutrient rich and productive nutrient poor and relatively unproductive moderately productive with average nutrient levels 447. anaerobic aerobic undersaturated anoxia toxic . W) X) Y) Z) Water flowing out of the Mediterranean Sea into the Atlantic is _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Bacteria which can live without oxygen are termed _______. aerobic anaerobic toxic sulfurous phosphatic 449.448. W) X) Y) Z) E) The smallest wind-generated waves are called __________ . W) X) Y) Z) E) The surface layers of the ocean move and swirl in response to _______. Which of the following methods of measuring water currents directly used a meter fixed to the ocean floor? W) Eulerian X) Langmurian Y) Lagrangian Z) Wilsonian E) Ekmanian 450. Which of the following methods of measuring water currents directly uses a neutrallybuoyant float that drifts with the water? W) Eulerian X) Langmurian Y) Lagrangian Z) Wilsonian E) Ekmanian 451. ripples wavelets capillary waves chop micro-waves . wind stress seismic activity density differences salinity differences temperature differences 452.

wind storms fronts seismic activity density differences 455.453. W) X) Y) Z) E) The horizontal distance between successive crests is the wave. W) X) Y) Z) E) Deep waters of the ocean move and swirl in response to _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The lowest point of a wave is the _______._______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The highest point of a wave is the _______. turbidity temperature current pressure sea level 454. length height crest trough period . summit height crest trough period 456. W) X) Y) Z) E) Surface waves can be measured by a ________ sensor mounted on the sea floor. length foot crest trough period 457.

W) X) Y) Z) E) The time that it takes two successive crests to pass a fixed point is the wave _______. Capillary waves Chop Swell Tsunamis Seiches . Bear's paw Dog's paw Shark's tail Cat's paw Cub's paw 462. W) X) Y) Z) E) The vertical distance between crest and trough is the wave _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Locally-generated waves with periods of about one second are termed _______. length height crest trough period 459. length height width trough period 460. W) X) Y) Z) E) Water waves with periods of less than one-tenth of a second are called _______.458. Tsunamis Tidal waves Capillary waves Chop Seiches 461. W) X) Y) Z) E) A ruffling of the water by a light breeze is called a _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Significant wave height is the average height of _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Waves with a period of about ten seconds are called _______. W) Capillary waves X) Chop Y) Tsunamis Z) Seiches E) Surge 465. fetch distortion convection defraction refraction 467. waves which can damage the shore structures in a particular area. W) Chop X) Tsunamis Y) Capillary waves Z) Seiches E) Swell 466. Capillary waves Chop Swell Tsunamis Seiches 464. waves which are associated with storm winds. all waves passing a fixed point in one hour. the highest 1/2 of the waves present in an area of the sea surface. Waves with periods of minutes or tens of minutes that are associated with earthquake activity are _______. The waves which slosh back and forth in harbors and have very long periods are called _______.463. . the highest of the waves present in an area of the sea surface. W) X) Y) Z) E) The distance over which the wind blows to create waves is termed _______.

W) X) Y) The significant wave height will always be ________ the average wave height. only up and down only back and forth in circular orbits 473. W) one-tenth X) one-third Y) one-half Z) one-sixth E) one-ninth 469. The significant wave height is the average of the highest ________ of all the waves present in an area of the sea surface. W) X) Y) Water particles in waves move _______. W) X) Y) Wind-generated waves are termed _______. standing waves progressive waves imaginary waves 472. The slight forward motion which occurs in the water as a wave passes by is called _______. A state of the sea where the energy in the waves has reached a maximum value for the given set of wind and fetch conditions is termed a/an _______. W) Brownian motion X) Wave transport . W) Swell X) Chop Y) fully developed sea Z) Seiche E) Tsunami 471.468. more than less than equal to 470.

W) Celerity X) Diagnostic Y) Fetch Z) Base E) Level 477. At the surface of the ocean. This depth is called the wave _______. . at what depth would you encounter the wave base? 2 5 4 7 6 478. W) wave celerity X) wave height Y) wave length Z) water depth E) water period 475. the orbits of water particles have a diameter equal to the _______. The size of the orbits of water particles is not detectable at a depth of about one-half the wavelength. W) X) Y) Z) E) If a wavelength is 10m.Y) Ekman transport Z) Progression E) Stokes drift 474. The energy of surface waves becomes essentially undetectable at a depth equal to about __________ . W) one-half of the wavelength X) the wavelength Y) two-thirds of the wavelength Z) twice the wave height E) three times the wave height 476. A deep-water wave is one that is moving through water that is deeper than _______.

A swell is a ________ wave.W) X) Y) Z) E) 200 m three times its height 1/2 its wavelength 3. W) X) Y) Only the ________ of a wave and not the mass of the wave is in motion.022 m 479. An intermediate-water wave is one that travels through water depths that are between 1/2 and ________ of the wavelength. W) velocity . The speed of a wave is termed its _______. energy orbit water 484. standing progressive rogue 481.000 m 11. W) X) Y) A tsunami is a ________ wave. W) 1/3 X) 1/10 Y) 1/4 Z) 1/20 E) 1/87 480. W) X) Y) A seiche is a ________ wave. W) standing X) progressive 483. standing progressive rogue 482.

destructive constructive cumulative confused 489. W) destructive .X) Y) Z) E) length celerity period orbit 485. ________ wave interference occurs. dispersion refraction diffraction surf interference 488. W) X) Y) Z) E) The interaction of several waves is called _______. When the crest of one wave coincides with the trough of another wave. W) 1/3 X) 1/10 Y) 1/5 Z) 1/20 E) 1/2 486. W) X) Y) Z) When several wave crests or troughs coincide. ________ wave interference occurs. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following will not change as a wave enters shallower water? wave height wave period wave speed wave length wave direction 487. A wave-group travels across an undisturbed sea surface at a speed of ________ the celerity of the individual waves.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Ever-changing wave interference patterns are called _______. W) dispersion X) refraction . Waves approach shore at an angle and then swing around and come in nearly parallel to shore in the process of _______. was not created by any known force does not obey the same laws that govern other waves is smaller than predicted by theory is an unusually large breaking wave was created by a seismic disturbance 491. cumulative destructive confused constructive 492. W) X) Y) Z) E) A rogue wave is a wave that __________. W) dispersion X) refraction Y) diffraction Z) reflection E) declination 494. according to length and period in the process of _______. W) X) Y) Z) Rogue waves are created by ________ wave interferences. hence. Waves sort themselves according to celerity and. Seiches Tsunamis Swells Seas Chop 493.X) cumulative Y) confused Z) constructive 490.

dispersion celerity period steepness node . W) X) Y) Where wave orthogonals diverge from each other. Wave rays which can be drawn perpendicular to wave crests and evenly spaced along the wave crests are termed _______. W) X) Y) Wherever orthogonals converge. the wave energy is _______. the wave energy is _______. focused defocused eliminated completely 497. W) octagonals X) rectangles Y) orthogonals Z) pentagonals E) polygonals 496.Y) diffraction Z) reflection E) declination 495. W) X) Y) Z) E) Wave height divided by wave length will give the wave _______. Which of the following would help predict when and where waves will become unstable and break? W) wavelength X) wave height Y) wave steepness Z) wave prolongation E) wave dispersion 499. focused defocused eliminated completely 498.

surging spilling plunging spilling 502. W) surging X) spilling Y) plunging Z) slipping 503. the upper part of the crest becomes oversteepened and spills down the front side of the wave. In a ________ breaker. steep gentle level 505. W) X) Y) Z) In a ________ breaker. but move slowly up and then down the beach. and collapses forward. Plunging breakers usually form where there is a ________ bottom slope. W) surging X) spilling Y) plunging Z) slipping 501. curls. W) X) Y) Z) The ________ breaker is the most common type. the waves don't actually break. the entire wave front steepens. W) steep X) gentle .500. W) X) Y) Spilling breakers usually form where there is a ________ bottom slope. In a ________ breaker. surging spilling plunging slipping 504. reflecting much of their energy seaward.

tornadoes thunderstorms tropical depressions . A substantial rise in sea level along a coast during a severe storm is called a storm ______. W) 1/13 X) 2/3 Y) 5/8 Z) 1/7 E) 3/5 508. W) X) Y) The most devastating storm surges are associated with ________. W) X) Y) Z) E) Strong winds combined with low atmospheric pressure can create _______. W) spilling X) plunging Y) surging Z) slipping 507.Y) level 506. W) tide X) surge Y) surf Z) swell E) tsunami 509. A wave will 'break' when the height has increased to about __________ of the wavelength. ________ breakers are associated with the steepest beaches where the crest is reflected off the beach and back into the sea. hurricanes oceanic gyres storm surges downwelling tsunamis 510.

node fulcrum antinode wave base dispersing point 513. standing seiche progressive 512. W) X) Y) The water level doesn't change at all at the ________ of a standing wave. W) node X) fulcrum Y) antinode Z) wave base E) dispersing point 514. The spot on a standing wave where no vertical displacement of the wave form occurs is termed the _______. node antinode fulcrum . W) X) Y) Z) E) Standing waves oscillate about a fixed point called a _______. W) node X) fulcrum Y) antinode Z) wave base E) dispersing point 515. The point on a standing wave where maximum vertical displacement of the wave occurs is termed the _______. W) X) Y) Seas. swell and breakers are ________ waves.Z) hurricanes E) tropical waves 511.

tsunami tidal surge tidal bore seiche rogue wave 519. the fetch the geometry of the basin the latitude of the basin the longitude of the basin 517. and of great height fast. W) X) Y) Z) The properties of a standing wave depend on _______. longitude Z) wave base. short wavelength. or estuary is called a _______. and of great height slow. Seiches become dangerous in semi-enclosed basins when the period of the tides is equal to the _______. and of great height . W) X) Y) Z) E) Compared to surface waves. short wavelength. and of minimal height slow. long wavelength. and of minimal height fast. depth Y) latitude. short wavelength. harbor. long wavelength. W) X) Y) Z) E) A standing wave in a lake. width X) length. W) natural period of oscillation of the basin X) latitudinal spin of the Earth Y) longitudinal time of the Earth Z) refraction of the shoreline E) angle of slope of the bottom of the basin 520.516. internal waves are _______. The period of oscillation of a standing wave is controlled by the ________ and ________ of the basin W) length. constructive wave interference 518. slow.

Tsunamis have ________ periods and ________ wavelengths. W) X) Y) Z) E) A solitary wave _______. plankton populations seiches density refraction resonance 522.521. 10 km/hr 75 km/hr 175 km/hr 500 km/hr 750 km/hr 526. W) X) Y) Z) E) A tsunami travels at speeds of _______. lacks a visible crest lacks a visible trough does not result in net movement of water is large and energetic is a deep water wave 523. earthquake volcanic tectonic faulting all of the above 524. W) X) Y) Z) E) Tsunamis are waves created by _________ activity. W) X) Y) Z) E) Internal waves are caused by differences in _______. W) X) Y) Z) The periods of internal waves are measured in _______. . seconds minutes hours days 525.

short 527. W) high tide X) low tide . W) X) Y) Z) E) Tides are waves with very large _______. long short. long short. The wave height of the tide is called _______. high tide low tide tidal range neap tide spring tide 529. distance between high and low water marks on a shoreline the vertical distance between high tide and low tide the area over which a particular tidal pattern will be observed the length of time between two successive high tides 531. W) X) Y) Z) The “tidal range” is the _______.W) X) Y) Z) long. high tide low tide tidal range neap tide spring tide 530. crests troughs wavelengths travel speed antinodes 528. short long. W) X) Y) Z) E) The crest of the tide is called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The trough of the tide is called _______.

Y) tidal range Z) neap tide E) spring tide 532. W) X) Y) Z) Tides vary irregularly twice daily in regions with ________ tides. diurnal mixed semidiurnal triurnal 535. diurnal mixed triurnal semidiurnal 536. W) X) Y) Z) E) Tides act like _______. shallow water waves capillary waves rogue waves deep water waves storm surges 533. W) X) Y) Z) Areas that experience two high tides and two low tides each day have ________ tides. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following is NOT one of the categories of tides? diurnal mixed semidiurnal triurnal 534. mixed triurnal semidiurnal diurnal . W) X) Y) Z) Areas that have one high tide and one low tide each day have ________ tides.

W) X) Y) Z) The greatest expanse of beach is exposed at low tide during _______. W) X) Y) Z) High tides are highest and low tides are lowest during _______. neap tides spring tides semidiurnal tides diurnal tides 542. W) X) Y) Z) High tide is lower than normal and low tide is higher than normal during _______. neap tides spring tides ebb tides semidiurnal tides 538. occur only in Fall have the smallest tidal range have the greatest tidal range occur once each year occur only in specific basin configurations 541.537. neap tides spring tides ebb tides semidiurnal tides 540. W) neap tides X) spring tides . W) X) Y) Z) E) Neap tides _______. occur only in Spring have the smallest tidal range have the greatest tidal range occur only in certain basin configurations occur once each year 539. W) X) Y) Z) E) Spring tides _______. The greatest expanse of beach is flooded at high tide during _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) F) Spring tides will occur _______. at the new moon at the quarter moon at the full moon at both A and B at both A and C at both B and C 544. W) the moon is smaller than the sun X) the moon moves more rapidly than the sun Y) the sun is made of gas and the moon is made of rocks and minerals . W) X) Y) Z) The most important factor influencing the Earth's tides is _______. W) X) Y) Z) The strength of gravitational attraction varies directly with _______. the sun the rotation of the Earth the configuration of the tidal basin the moon 547. the tilt of the Earth's axis with respect to the sun latitude and longitude the masses of the interacting bodies and the distance separating them the composition of the interacting bodies 545. The sun's gravitational effect on the Earth is much less than that of the moon because _______. W) 3 X) 6 Y) 9 Z) 12 E) 15 546. If the distance between two objects is tripled.Y) semidiurnal tides Z) diurnal tides 543. the gravitational force between them will be decreased by _______.

near the center of the Earth near the center of the Moon half-way between the Earth and the Moon between the Earth's surface and its core 549. W) equilibrium X) two-dimensional Y) dynamic Z) uniform 551. the Earth's surface is considered to be completely covered by seawater to an infinite depth. centrifugal force tidal bore activity ebb currents tidal resonance spring tides 550. In the ________ model of tides. The waves associated with the tides in the equilibrium model are assumed to be ________ waves. W) solitary X) progressive Y) standing Z) conservative 552.Z) the sun is so much farther from the Earth than the moon 548. W) X) Y) Z) The center of mass about which the Earth and the Moon rotate is _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The tidal bulge on the side of the Earth opposite the moon is due to _______. W) X) Y) Z) In which model of tides are there no land masses or effects of the sea floor? two-dimensional equilibrium uniform dynamic .

W) X) Y) Z) Mixed tides are more often found in _______. and Sun are aligned. W) X) Y) Semidiurnal tides are more often found in _______. W) X) Y) During the new moon. high tide will be _______.553. W) X) Y) Z) Diurnal tides are more often found in _______. which phase of the moon might you see? full 1/4 3/4 559. low tide will be _______. Moon. Moon. When the Earth. high latitudes shallow inlets mid-latitudes low latitudes 555. and Sun are oriented at a 90° angle to each other. W) X) Y) When the Earth. normal higher than normal lower than normal 558. which type of tides occur? W) spring . W) X) Y) During the full moon. high latitudes mid-latitudes low latitudes large bays 554. normal higher than normal lower than normal 557. high latitudes mid-latitudes low latitudes 556.

Y) 8:00 A. The tidal pattern observed at any point on Earth is actually the sum of ________ different factors that affect the tide. W) X) Y) Z) E) Maximum tidal ranges vary greatly. The times of high tide and low tide shift ________ each day. W) X) Y) Z) E) F) During neap tides _______. Z) 8:50 A. and can reach as high as __________. 564. at what time should you arrive? W) 8:00 P. W) 90 X) 75 Y) 65 Z) 55 E) 40 F) 3 562. X) 8:25 P.M. high tide is higher than normal high tide is lower than normal low tide is lower than normal low tide is higher than normal both B and D are correct both A and C are correct 561. on a particular day and you wanted to be there at the next high tide.M.M.M. . If a high tide occurred at a location with diurnal tides at 8 A. 5m 10 m 15 m 20 m 25 m 563.M.X) diurnal Y) neap Z) mixed 560.

and the Earth rotated through them. polygonal pentagonal octagonal rotary hexagonal 569. the tidal bulges remained fixed in place relative to the moon. W) X) Y) Z) E) An amphidromic system describes the ________ tidal motion relative to a fixed node. W) Isobars X) Isobaths Y) Cotidal lines . In the ________ model of tides. W) equilibrium X) uniform Y) two-dimensional Z) dynamic 568.W) forward X) backward Y) imperceptibly 565. The lines that radiate outward from the node of an amphidromic system are called _______. W) equilibrium X) uniform Y) dynamic Z) two-dimensional 566. In the ________ model of the tides. W) X) Y) Z) The effects of continents are considered in which of the models of tides? uniform equilibrium two-dimensional dynamic 567. water is permitted to respond actively to the tidegenerating forces.

. W) X) Y) Z) Corange lines link the points on the water surface that have equal _______. Tidal times Tidal ranges Tidal bores Tidal currents 573. W) clockwise X) counterclockwise Y) progressive 575. W) clockwise X) progressive Y) counterclockwise 574. W) X) Y) Z) Cotidal lines connect points _______. The rotary wave in an amphidromic system in the Southern Hemisphere travels in a ________ direction. the tidal range at the node is _______. The rotary wave in amphidromic systems travels in a ________ direction in the Northern Hemisphere. W) X) Y) Z) E) In an amphidromic system.Z) Isoclines E) Corange lines 570. at which the tidal range is always the same at which high tide occurs at the same time of the day at which low tide occurs at the same time of the day at which the tidal pattern is identical 571. The unusually large tidal range at the Bay of Fundy is a consequence of _______. 25' 50' 0 10 m 20 m 572.

As sea level moves up and down with the tide. water is transferred away from the coast as _______ currents. the Amazon River the Gulf of St. W) X) Y) Z) E) A visible wave that surges upriver with the incoming tide is called a _______. tidal surge tidal bore tsunami seismic sea wave flood tide 579. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following does NOT contribute to the occurance of tidal bores? coral reef formation a large tidal range a tapering basin geometry water depths that systematically decrease upriver 578. Lawrence the Bay of Fundy the Fu-Ch'un river of northern China 577. W) geostrophic .W) X) Y) Z) E) cotidal lines refraction tidal resonance reflection diffraction 576. W) hydraulic X) geostrophic Y) ebb Z) flood E) undertow 580. W) X) Y) Z) The largest tidal range in the world occurs at _______. water is transferred toward the coast as ________ currents. As sea level moves up and down with the tide.

the Bay of Fundy the La Rance River in France Biscayne Bay in Florida San Francisco Bay in California 583. W) X) Y) Z) E) Currents created by the buildup of water at a tidal inlet are called _______. Pelagic Epipelagic Oceanic Neritic . up-and-down flow back-and-forth flow rotary flow 582. W) X) Y) In the open ocean. W) X) Y) Z) The bottom environments of the oceans are referred to as the ________ province. surge currents tidal resonance currents hydrologic currents hydraulic currents tectonic currents 584. Pelagic Littoral Benthic Intertidal Bathyal 585. W) X) Y) Z) E) The waters of the ocean are referred to as the ________ province. W) X) Y) Z) The oldest and most successful tidal power plant is located at _______. tidal currents describe a ________ pattern.X) Y) Z) E) flood undertow hydraulic ebb 581.

E) Benthic 586. Bathyal Hadal Abyssalpelagic Neritic Oceanic 590. The study of the interrelationships between the physical and biological aspects of an environment is _______. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following is not a distinct subdivision of the open ocean water column? the bathypelagic the hadalpelagic the epipelagic the micropelagic . W) X) Y) Z) E) The waters of the ocean beyond the shelf break are called the ________ zone. W) geology X) ecology Y) oceanology Z) biology E) hydrology 588. the benthic province the demersal zone the neritic zone the oceanic zone the mid-water zone 587. W) X) Y) Z) E) The space or site occupied by a specific plant or animal is a/an _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The shallow areas overlying continental shelf areas can collectively be termed _______. home range faunal assemblage habitat community ecosystem 589.

W) Mesopelagic X) Epipelagic Y) Abyssalpelagic Z) Bathypelagic E) Hadalpelagic 594.000 m is called the ________ zone.000 m is called the ________ zone. W) Mesopelagic X) Epipelagic Y) Abyssalpelagic Z) Bathypelagic E) Hadalpelagic 593.000 m to 6. The segment of the oceanic zone that extends from 200 m to 1.000 m to 2.E) the mesopelagic 591.000 m to the bottom of the ocean is called the ________ zone. The layer of the oceanic zone that extends from 6. The region of the oceanic zone that extends from 1. W) Mesopelagic X) Epipelagic Y) Abyssalpelagic Z) Bathypelagic E) Hadalpelagic 595. The layer of the oceanic zone that extends from the surface to about 200 m is called the ________ zone. The part of the oceanic zone that extends from a depth of 2.000 m is called the ________ zone. W) Mesopelagic X) Epipelagic Y) Abyssalpelagic Z) Bathypelagic E) Hadalpelagic 592. .

W) X) Y) Z) E) The benthic province is broken into five zones based on _______. by volume. W) Intertidal zone X) Subtidal zone Y) Benthic zone Z) Splash zone E) Sub-littoral zone .W) X) Y) Z) E) Mesopelagic Epipelagic Abyssalpelagic Bathypelagic Hadalpelagic 596. Salinity Density Temperature Depth Pressure 598. W) Littoral X) Abyssal Y) Sublittoral Z) Bathyal E) Hadal 599. The ________ zone of the benthic province encompasses the floor of the continental shelf from the beach to the shelf break. W) X) Y) Z) E) The largest oceanic zone. That part of the sea bottom which is sometimes exposed to the atmosphere is termed the _______. the bathypelagic the abyssalpelagic the neritic the benthic the hadalpelagic 597. is _______.

Littoral Abyssal Sublittoral Bathyal Hadal 603. W) X) Y) Z) E) The benthic zone that is between 2 000 m and 6 000 m is the ________ zone. W) X) Y) Z) E) The sublittoral generally is the environment of the ________. W) Littoral X) Abyssal Y) Sublittoral Z) Bathyal E) Hadal 601. W) Littoral X) Abyssal Y) Sublittoral Z) Bathyal E) Hadal 602. The ________ zone of the benthic province encompasses the deep ocean trenches and all the bottom with a depth over 6 000 m. Littoral Abyssal Sublittoral Bathyal Hadal 604.600. The ________ zone of the benthic province of the ocean extends from a depth of 200 m to a depth of 2. W) X) Y) Z) E) The ________ benthic zone is roughly the continental slope and rise. Continental slope Continental rise Continental shelf Trench Abyssal plains .000 m.

W) X) Y) Which of the following is sometimes referred to as the "twilight" zone? dysphotic aphotic photic 609. the farthest that sufficient light for photosynthesis can penetrate is _______.605. W) X) Y) Z) E) The ocean can be divided into ________ zones on the basis of illumination. three five eight two four 607. The zone of the ocean where photosynthesis can be carried out effectively during the daylight hours is the ________ zone. W) dysphotic X) aphotic Y) photic 608. W) Darwin X) Bjorling . The classification system used in this text is one developed by the Swedish naturalist named _______. In the open ocean. W) 10 m X) 50 m Y) 100 m Z) 150 m E) 175 m 606. W) X) Y) The portion of the ocean that is in perpetual darkness is the ________ zone. dysphotic aphotic photic 610.

Y) Hess Z) Linnaus E) Wegener 611. In the binomial system of classification. W) families X) sub-orders Y) genera Z) phyla E) classes 612. Which of the following is not a member of the protista? . Orders of organisms are grouped together into _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Kingdom Protista refers to _______. Fungi Single-celled organisms that possess a true nucleus Bacteria and blue-green algae Plants attached to the sea floor Marine animals 615. Which of the following is always capitalized? W) Genus name X) Species name 613. Which of the following is never capitalized? W) Genus name X) Species name 614. W) X) Y) Z) E) Kingdom Monera includes _______. Fungi Single-celled organisms that possess a true nucleus Bacteria and blue-green algae Plants attached to the sea floor Marine animals 616.

W) X) Y) Z) E)

Dinoflagellates Blue-green algae Foraminifera Flagellates Coccolithophores

617. W) X) Y) Z) E)

In marine environments, fungi are most common in _______. the abyssal zone the deep ocean the sublittoral zone the intertidal zone the pelagic zone

618. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Kingdom Metaphytae refers to _______. Fungi Single-celled organisms that possess a true nucleus Bacteria and blue-green algae Plants attached to the sea floor Marine animals

619. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Kingdom Metazoa refers to _______. Fungi Single-celled Bacteria and blue-green algae Plants attached to the sea floor Marine animals

620. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The role of ________ is to decompose organic matter. fungi single-celled organisms that possess a true nucleus bacteria and blue-green algae plants attached to the sea floor marine animals

621. Which of the following is a mollusk?

W) X) Y) Z) E)

Fish Comb-jelly Squid Polychaete worm Sea cucumber

622. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Which of the following is a ctenophore? Fish Comb-jelly Squid Polychaete worm Sea cucumber

623. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Which of the following is a chordate? Fish Comb-jelly Squid Polychaete worm Sea cucumber

624. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Which of the following is an annelid? Fish Comb-jelly Squid Polychaete worm Sea cucumber

625. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Which of the following is an echinoderm? Oyster Barnacle Sea urchin Lamp shell Seal

626. Which of the following is an arthropod?

W) X) Y) Z) E)

Clam Shrimp Whale Star fish Sponge

627. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The term used for all floating and drifting organisms in the sea is: Plankton Polychaetes Monera Nekton Benthos

628. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The 'nekton' include all _______. animals found in the water column actively swimming animals passively drifting animals animals living on the bottom animals burrowed into the sea bed

629. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The bottom dwellers of the oceans are referred to as the _______. Plankton Polychaetes Monera Nekton Benthos

630. Floating and drifting plants in the oceans are referred to as _______. W) Zooplankton X) Phytoplankton

631. W) X) Y)

Plants that live on the sea bottom are termed _______. Epifauna Epiflora Infauna

632. W) X) Y)

Animals that live on the sea bottom are termed _______. Epifauna Epiflora Infauna

633. A/an ________ is the totality of an environment including the living and nonliving parts. W) niche X) ecosystem Y) aspect ratio Z) habitat E) community

634. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Lines of equal temperature are called _______. Isobars Isoclines Isotherms Isotemps Isoseisms

635. The body temperature of the majority of marine organisms is ________ the temperature of the water that surrounds them. W) the same as X) higher than Y) lower than Z) unrelated to

636. As a general rule, rates of biological activity of marine organisms double for every ______ increase in temperature. W) 1 C° X) 5 C° Y) 10 C° Z) 15 C° E) 20 C°

those in polar seas _______. W) dispersion .637. a narrow temperature range a narrow salinity range high levels of dissolved oxygen very warm surface waters ambient salinity of at least 35‰ 642. Equatorial Subtropical Polar 639. The process by which molecules move from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration is called _______. anchor dredge bottom trawl Clarke-Bumpus sampler Niskin bottle grab sampler 641. W) X) Y) Cold water has ________ nutrients as/than warm water. oceanographers can use a/an _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) F) G) Compared to organisms in tropical seas. W) X) Y) Z) E) To develop successfully. the embryos of Pacific cod require _______. more less the same amount of 638. W) X) Y) Z) E) To sample a discrete patch of the sea floor. live longer require more nutrients reproduce less often wwim more slowly both A and C both B and C both C and D 640. W) X) Y) The majority of marine plants grow in ________ waters.

X) Y) Z) E) molecular equalization concentration gradient osmosis diffusion 643. higher than the salinity of sea water lower than the salinity of sea water the same as sea water unrelated to the salinity of seawater 646. W) X) Y) Z) Marine fish osmoregulate by _______. Freshwater fish have body fluids that are _______. W) carbonation X) oxidation Y) osmosis Z) respiration E) photosynthesis 644. W) an embryonic fish X) an adult fish Y) a benthic organism Z) a nearshore planktonic organism E) an open ocean planktonic organism 645. W) saltier than the surrounding water X) less salty than the surrounding water . drinking large quantities of sea water excreting excess salt ions through their gills urinating infrequently all of the above 647. The diffusion of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane is called _______. W) X) Y) Z) Most marine fish have cellular fluids with salinity _______. Which of the following is likely the most able to withstand large changes in salinity _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Plants synthesize food chemically from inorganic matter in the process of _______. algae trees along the tidal flats found along coastal areas rooted in the bottom seed bearing 650. Helictites Stalactites Nerites Holdfasts Osmotes .Y) of the same salinity as the surrounding water 648. respiration transpiration sublimation photosynthesis osmosis 651. W) X) Y) Z) E) The pressure created by a stationary column of water is termed _______. osmotic pressure hydraulic pressure hydrostatic pressure barometric pressure isostatic pressure 649. Beta carotene Chlorine Chlorophyll Nitrous oxide 652. W) X) Y) Z) The green pigment of plants is called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) More than 90 percent of the ocean's plants are _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Many macroalgae have root-like structures called _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) The "box" of a diatom's shell is called the _______.653. W) X) Y) Z) E) The shell of a diatom is called a/an _______. Kelp Mangroves Sea grasses Sea fans Diatoms 654. W) X) Y) Z) E) The most abundant plants in the oceans are _______. Globule Epitheca Protoconch Hypotheca Spirula 657. W) X) Y) Z) E) The frustule of a diatom is composed of _______. Frustule Protoconch Theca Skeleton Beak 655. Globule Epitheca Protoconch Hypotheca Spirula 656. W) X) Y) Z) E) The "lid" of a diatom's shells is called the _______. Cellulose Lignin Silica Crystal Carbon .

W) X) Y) Z) E) Under ideal conditions. W) X) Y) Z) Dinoflagellates belong to the phylum _______. 2-4 days 2-4 hours 12-24 days 12-24 hours Year 661.658. cirri flagella theca frustules cilia 662. it is referred to as a phytoplankton _______. when average cell size decreases to some critical minimum when day length increases to a critical minimum when the population size decreases to a critical minimum when nutrient levels drop below a critical minimum when water temperatures increase above a critical minimum 659. The cell wall of dinoflagellates that have a theca is composed of _______. W) cellulose . W) X) Y) Z) E) Dinoflagellates use ________ to propel themselves short distances through the water. Porifera Protista Coelenterata Cyanophyta 663. W) crop X) harvest Y) bloom Z) fruit 660. When phytoplankton populations increase. W) X) Y) Z) E) Sexual reproduction in diatoms is triggered _______. diatoms divide once every ________.

W) X) Y) Z) When copepods lose their shell. molting shedding sloughing metamorphosis 665. W) families X) schools . W) CaCO3 X) SiO2 Y) Cellulose Z) Phosphate E) Iron oxide 667. capturing individual phytoplankton cells filtering water to remove its contents swallowing large amounts of water and its contents extruding protoplasm to capture food grazing on macroalgae 666. W) X) Y) Z) E) Herbivorous copepods feed by _______. W) X) Y) Z) Forams belong to the phylum _______. Killer whales are often found in groups of three to thirty individuals. the process is called _______. called _________. Foraminifera secrete shells of _______.X) Y) Z) E) lignin silica crystal carbon 664. Coelenterata Porifera Protista Chrysophyta 668.

pectoral anal dorsal caudal 673. length weight height cross-sectional areas speed 670. W) X) Y) Z) The large. W) X) Y) Z) The friction between a fish's body and the surrounding water is called ________ drag. W) X) Y) Z) E) Form drag is proportional to the ________ of a fish's body.Y) teams Z) pods E) flocks 669. soft fin on a fish's back is called the ________ fin. pectoral anal dorsal caudal . form drag turbulent drag surface drag tail drag 672. W) X) Y) Z) The tail fin of a fish is called the ________ fin. form turbulent surface tail 671. W) X) Y) Z) The retarding force that strongly robs speed from a moving object is called _______.

W) balconies X) terraces .674. -3 7 0 1 4 678. W) pectoral X) anal Y) dorsal Z) caudal 675. the fish's body the caudal fin the pectoral fin the fish's head 676. W) fin X) swimming Y) drag Z) aspect E) speed 677. W) slow swimmers X) fast swimmers 679. The parallel bands of plants and animals on the bottom of the ocean are termed _______. The ratio of the height of the caudal fin squared to the area of the caudal fin is termed the ________ ratio. W) X) Y) Z) The speed of a fish depends directly on the shape of _______. Long-bodied fish with high aspect ratios will be _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) A roughly square caudal fin will have an aspect ratio of _______. The fins which protrude from the fish's body in the gill area are called the ________ fins.

W) X) Y) Z) E) An example of a deposit feeder is a/an _______. Which of the following would be used to collect samples of floating and drifting organisms for study? W) Trawling gear . Deposit feeders obtain food by processing ________ and selectively removing organic food mixed in it. W) X) Y) Z) E) F) Which of the following are more likely to be found high on the shoreline? Mussels Clams Blue-green algae Kelp A and C above B and D above 681. W) X) Y) Z) E) The dominant organisms in sandy and muddy bottoms are _______. crab lobster snail sand dollar octopus 684. W) rock X) water Y) mud Z) algae 683. Epifauna Large plants Infauna Corals Lobsters 682.Y) vertical zonation Z) meridians E) latitudes 680.

crustaceans plants fish calcareous sediment 687. W) 5 m X) 10 m Y) 20 m Z) 40 m E) 75 m 689. the density of the kelp _______. Sargassum weed Mangrove trees Kelp Turtle grass Surf grass 688. As the density of sea urchins increases in an area where kelp grows. W) X) Y) Z) Manatees feed mainly on _______. W) increases . Kelp forests are dominated by specimens of Macrocystis.X) Y) Z) E) Anchor dredges Plankton nets Grab samplers Nansen bottles 685. which can reach ________ in length. W) X) Y) Z) E) The genus Macrocystis is commonly called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following would be used to collect nektonic life? Purse seines Plankton nets Anchor dredges Grab samplers Nansen bottles 686.

X) decreases Y) is not affected 690. W) X) Y) Primary producers are called _______. Which of the following refers to the totality of an environment. W) X) Y) Z) E) The process of photosynthesis converts solar energy into _______. heterotrophs mesotrophs ectomorphs . sea otter seal manatee sea urchin killer whale 691. physical. beta carotene PABA chlorophyll chlorofluorocarbon chlorine 694. and geological parts and all the plants and animals? W) niche X) food web Y) ecosystem Z) habitat E) domain 692. plants chemical energy potential energy food heat 693. W) X) Y) Z) E) Orcinus orca is the technical name for the _______. including all of its chemical. W) X) Y) Z) E) The chemical pigment which allows plants to photosynthesize is _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following are the primary producers? plants herbivores carnivores decomposers omnivores 699. W) X) Y) Z) E) All organisms which require prefabricated food are termed _______.Z) autotrophs E) plants 695. The study of nutritional interconnections among the parts of an ecosystem is called ________ dynamics. heterotrophs mesotrophs ectomorphs autotrophs ectotrophs 696. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following would be found at the third trophic level or higher? plants carnivores herbivores detritus feeders . W) X) Y) Z) 'Trophic' refers to _______. W) thermoX) hydroY) energy Z) trophic E) photo- 698. a warm area near the equator an energy level the process of nourishing the kind of food eaten by an animal 697.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Plant-eaters are called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Bacteria and fungi would generally be listed as _______. A linear succession of members of an ecosystem based on nutritional relationships is called a _______. carnivores omnivores decomposers herbivores autotrophs 703. carnivores omnivores decomposers herbivores autotrophs 701. carnivores omnivores decomposers herbivores autotrophs 702. W) X) Y) Z) E) Animals which eat mainly meat are called _______. W) trophic level X) food web Y) production line Z) food chain E) nutrition portfolio . carnivores omnivores decomposers herbivores autotrophs 704. W) X) Y) Z) E) Animals which eat both plants and animals are termed _______.700.

705. sunlight 707. Limited supplies of ________ and ________ are the principal factors that limit primary production in the ocean. W) X) Y) Z) E) Plants may manufacture which of the following? carbohydrates fats proteins nucleic acids all of the above 708. W) 2 X) 10 Y) 8 Z) 15 E) 5 706. nutrients Y) carbon dioxide. sunlight E) water. carbon dioxide X) sunlight. nutrients Z) carbon dioxide. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following is typically a grazer? shark crab barnacles copepod . W) X) Y) Z) E) The reverse of photosynthesis is called _______. W) water. A typical food chain in an oceanic environment might have as many as __________ trophic levels. respiration consumption hydrolysis burning oxidation 709.

E) polychaete worms

710. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Which of the following is typically a predator? shark crab barnacles copepod polychaete worms

711. W) X) Y) Z) E)

An example of a scavenger is a _______. shark crab clam oyster polychaete worm

712. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Which of the following is a filter feeder? mussel dolphin crab lobster sea urchin

713. The size of the population of any organism is usually a direct function of its ______ supply. W) oxygen X) carbon dioxide Y) food Z) habitat E) water

714. W) X) Y) Z)

Dinoflagellate blooms can reach population sizes of ______ cells/L. 103 106 104 108

E) 1010

715. W) X) Y) Z) E) F) G) H)

Decomposers found in the marine environment include _______. fungi dinoflagellates copepods bacteria both A and D both A and C both B and D both B and C

716. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The process of decomposition releases __________ into the water. sugars bacteria organic nutrients inorganic nutrients nitrogen

717. Which of the following lists is ranked in order of ease of chemical breakdown (from easiest to hardest)? W) glucose, bone, cartilage, chitin X) cartilage, glucose, chitin, bone Y) bone, glucose, chitin, cartilage Z) chitin, glucose, cartilage, bone E) glucose, chitin, cartilage, bone

718. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Bacteria secrete a wide assortment of ________ that react with organic matter. fats proteins carbohydrates proteins enzymes

719. The cellulose-like substance that forms the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects is called _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E)

phosphate calcium carbonate chitin silicon dioxide manganese

720. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Organisms which require oxygen are referred to as _______. oxidized anaerobic decomposers aerobic bacteria

721. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Decay does not occur in the absence of free ________. water vapor carbon dioxide sunlight oxygen salt

722. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Bacteria which can live without free oxygen are termed _______. oxidized anaerobic decomposers aerobic bacteria

723. Anaerobic bacteria obtain oxygen chemically from _______. W) NO2 X) H20 Y) SO4 Z) PO4 E) C6H12O6

724. Scientists have known of the existence of hydrothermal vent communities for about __________ years. W) 75 X) 100 Y) 35 Z) 5 E) 20

725. Chemosynthetic bacteria use the chemical energy released by oxidation of inorganic compounds to produce _______. W) light X) carbon Y) food Z) limestone E) quartz

726. W) X) Y) Z)

Which of the following is a primary factor limiting plant growth? nutrient concentrations upwelling and turbulence grazing intensity water turbidity

727. As a rule of thumb, the compensation depth for phytoplankton in the ocean is often assumed to coincide with light levels that are about _________ of those at the surface. W) 10% X) 25% Y) 5% Z) 8% E) 1%

728. Net primary productivity is the amount of ________ fixed by photosynthesis that exceeds the respiration demands of the plant and goes into growth. W) oxygen X) carbon Y) glucose Z) cellulose

W) X) Y) Z) E) The source of carbon as a nutrient in seawater is _______. Chemical substances that plants must have to live. W) 16: 100: 23 X) 116: 16: 1 Y) 50: 23: 1 Z) 125: 37: 1 . supernutrients supranutrients micronutrients macronutrients piconutrients 730. W) X) Y) Z) E) Compounds that contain phosphorous. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen to phosphorus extracted from seawater by phytoplankton is about __________. coal dissolved on the ocean floor elemental carbon from the air carbon dioxide from all the animals bicarbonate carbonic acid in the water 732. The two nutrients that typically limit productivity of ecosystems are nitrogen and ________. W) supernutrients X) supranutrients Y) supranutrients Z) micronutrients E) piconutrients 731. W) carbon X) phosphorous Y) sodium Z) iron E) magnesium 733. nitrogen.729. but that are needed in only very small quantities are termed _______. and silicon are called _______.

W) X) Y) Z) Phytoplankton obtain most of their phosphorus in the form of _______. photosynthesis osmosis respiration oxidation bacterial decomposition of dead cells and tissues 736. elemental phosphorus organic phosphates inorganic phosphate phosphoric acid 735. chaotic flow of fluids which mixes the water column and brings nutrients to the surface is termed _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The most productive areas of the ocean are characterized by _______. W) smooth X) irregular . Turbulent flow is most pronounced when the sea floor is ________ and currents are strong.E) 116: 7: 25 734. W) stagnation X) advection Y) overturn Z) turbulence E) the Ekman spiral 738. W) X) Y) Z) E) Nutrients are regenerated in the ocean by _______. The irregular. eddies upwelling warm waters stagnant waters downwelling 737.

W) herbivore biomass X) fecal material Y) kinetic energy Z) stored energy E) reproductive material 741. Tropical oceans are infertile because the ________ of the region inhibits mixing of the water column. W) 10% X) 20% Y) 5% Z) 25% E) 15% 742. most of the energy derived from the plant turns into __________. the ability to reflect the sky better than cold waters the high concentration of plant cells in the water the absence of plant cells in the waters higher salt content of the waters lower salt content of the waters 743. W) permanent thermocline X) permanent halocline Y) permanent pycnocline Z) high rainfall E) excessive runoff from the land . the full moon increasing day length phytoplankton blooms times of high salinity times of low salinity 740. only about __________ of the energy in a trophic level will be transferred to the next level. On average. W) X) Y) Z) E) Tropical waters are very clear and blue in color due to _______. When a herbivore eats a plant. W) X) Y) Z) E) Many herbivorous zooplankton time their egg laying to coincide with _______.739.

high rates of plant productivity moderate rates of plant productivity low rates of plant productivity .744. growth zone photic zone thermal zone aphotic zone mixing zone 746. W) X) Y) Z) E) Biological productivity in polar seas tends to be limited by _________________. W) X) Y) Z) E) The illuminated area of the ocean is termed the _______. nitrate availability temperature levels phosphate availability solar energy micronutrients 745. The spring diatom bloom of temperate ocean waters occurs in response to increasing levels of _______. W) X) Y) Z) carbon monoxide methane chlorofluorocarbons sugar 748. W) X) Y) The waters of the continental shelves are marked by _______. Photosynthesis converts inorganic carbon of CO2 into organic carbon in _______. W) nutrients X) cool water Y) light Z) upwelling E) respiration 747.

749. The coastal upwelling regions tend to be located on the ________ edges of land masses in the low to middle latitudes. At its peak. W) X) Y) Z) E) The El Nino phenomenon modifies currents located off the coast of _______. W) X) Y) Z) In an El Nino year. W) X) Y) Z) Near surface waters off Peru are typically _______. the annual yield of the Peruvian anchoveta fishery was about __________ million tons. warm and nutrient rich warm and nutrient poor cold and nutrient poor cold and nutrient rich 754. Brazil Chile Mexico Peru Cuba 752. W) 12 X) 8 Y) 15 Z) 6 E) 18 . W) eastern X) western 751. upwelling downwelling turbulence 750. W) X) Y) The waters adjacent to Peru are an area of coastal _______. near surface waters off Peru become _______. warm and nutrient rich warm and nutrient poor cold and nutrient poor cold and nutrient rich 753.

W) X) Y) Z) E) A food web consists of a system of interconnected _______. Ekman transport moves water _______. downwelling E) polar. Calculations of primary production and the study of food transfer show that ________ and ________ regions produce the majority of the world's fish. upwelling Z) polar.755. coastal X) coastal. W) embayment. W) X) Y) Z) E) Primary production in the temperature latitudes varies with the _______. animal species plant species currents food chains nutrients 758. downwelling Y) coastal. supersonic transports standard salinity and temperature sea-surface temperatures seismic sea tilts swelling subsurface trails 756. SST stands for _______. phases of the moon angle of tilt of the Earth season amount of rainfall amount of runoff from land 757. W) X) Y) Z) E) In this chapter. downwelling F) tropical. down the coastline up the coastline toward the coastline away from the coastline . W) X) Y) Z) Off Peru. upwelling 759.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Most of the animals that live around the volcanic vents of the ocean floor are _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Whale sharks feed primarily on _______. crabs filter feeders carnivores herbivores autotrophs 764. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following has a cartilaginous skeleton? Tuna Cod Shark Halibut Swordfish 762. humans dolphins and porpoises killer whales baleen whales plankton 763. Mammalia Coenterata Protista Porifera Chordata 761. W) X) Y) Z) E) Marine vertebrates belong to the phylum _______.760. W) X) Y) Z) E) The base of the food webs in the deep-sea communities is _______. photosynthesizing phytoplankton photosynthesizing crustaceans chemosynthetic crustaceans chemosynthetic bacteria small anchovies .

765. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The Coastal Zone Color Scanner is used to assess variations in _______. the size of the whales in the oceans primary productivity in the oceans schools of game fish for sport fishermen numbers of sharks in coastal waters large tropical cyclones of the oceans

766. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Chlorophyll reflects what color light? Red Blue Green Orange Yellow

767. W) X) Y) Z) E)

North Atlantic eels spawn _______. in coastal lakes and rivers in the waters of the Gulf Stream in the deep ocean in the Sargasso Sea in the Caribbean Sea

768. W) X) Y) Z) E)

A baby eel is called a/an _______. Moray Sea snake Elver Alevin Shiner

769. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Most of the energy that reshapes beaches comes from _______. tidal action long-term sea level changes storm surges breaking waves rivers

770. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The currents that move the sand in the surf zone are caused by _______. wind waves tides runoff tidal bores

771. Waves approach shore at an angle, then swing around and come in nearly parallel to shore in the process of _______. W) diffraction X) reflection Y) distortion Z) refraction E) overwash

772. W) X) Y) Z)

Wave setup is a process by which _______. waves increase in height and break incoming waves are refracted until they are almost parallel to the shoreline large masses of water are created in the surf zone a concentration gradient causes currents to form

773. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Waves cause water to move towards shore by a process known as _______. mass transport Ekman drift advection longshore currents Langmuir spirals

774. In very shallow water, waves become oversteepened and unstable and collapse as _______. W) fjords X) breakers Y) runouts Z) rip currents E) storm surge

775. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The type of breaker that forms depends mainly on _______. wind speed wind duration fetch slope of the bottom celerity

776. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Rip currents form when _______. longshore currents diverge water carried into shore by waves flows directly back out the tide is ebbing longshore currents converge the wind is blowing directly offshore

777. The region between where the breakers begin to form and the mean high tide mark is termed _______. W) nearshore X) surf zone Y) offshore Z) backshore E) swash zone

778. W) X) Y) Z) E)

The 'swash' zone comprises that part of the nearshore environment where _______. breaking waves occasionally splash water rooted plants are capable of growing the beach is covered and uncovered by water with each wave storm waves can cause significant erosion the sea bed is only exposed to air at low tide.

779. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Which of the following is NOT one of the subdivisions of the "beach"? breaker zone surf zone offshore estuary backshore

780. W) X) Y) Z)

The open water seaward of the breaker zone is the _______. offshore zone swash zone backshore zone surf zone

781. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Most of the wave energy is expended in the _______. offshore zone swash zone backshore zone nearshore zone surf zone

782. W) X) Y) Z) E)

Currents that are created by wave and flow parallel to the shoreline are called _______. runouts rip currents undertow longshore currents in's-and-out's

783. For waves of the same height, the greater the angle of wave approach, the ________ the longshore currents that will be created. W) greater X) weaker

784. When wave crests are parallel to shore, longshore currents can still develop due to _______. W) bottom configuration X) offset orthogonals Y) intersecting orthogonals Z) wave set-up E) undertow

785. The water surface of the surf zone is often uneven due to _______. W) wave set-up X) longshore currents

W) X) Y) Z) A long period of incoming swell will _______. gently sloping beach 787. hauled away . W) X) Y) Z) E) The furthest extent of ice advance during an ice age is often marked by _______. Sand budgets are the principal sand ________ and sand ________ for a stretch of shoreline. W) X) Y) Z) E) Sand input to a beach can be caused by _______. offshore sand bars a barrier island long. depositions Y) dredged up. cause a beach to grow slowly erode beachfront have no effect on sand distribution along a shoreline create a narrow. W) credits.Y) rip currents Z) runouts E) estuaries 786. narrow lakes a terminal moraine ice scour basins 788. rip currents cliff erosion storm activity long term swell both A and C 790. W) X) Y) Z) E) Sand removal from a beach is typically caused by _______. debits X) movements. rip currents cliff erosion storm activity long term swell both B and D 789.

Z) dunes. flat surface of backshore is called a _______. and C are correct 792. longshore currents converge longshore currents diverge there are no appreciable longshore currents water is carried directly out to sea 794. bar intersect transect profile budget 795. onshore transport offshore transport wind erosion estuaries A. beach face sea cliff stack longshore bar berm . W) X) Y) Z) At the 'nodal point' on a beach _______. a/an ________ condition exists. W) imbalanced X) inequality Y) steady state Z) erosive 793. B. W) X) Y) Z) E) The near horizontal. W) X) Y) Z) E) Sand is removed from a section of shoreline by _______. If the input and output of sand are equal along a shoreline. bars 791. W) X) Y) Z) E) The shape of a beach along a survey line is termed a beach ________.

the average grain size of the sand of a beach ________. a gently sloping beach face. A beach profile characterized by a broad berm and steep beach face is termed a/an ________ profile.796. W) X) Y) Z) E) The section of a beach that is subjected to a wave uprush is termed the beach _______. W) fjord profile X) estuary profile Y) storm profile Z) swell profile E) delta profile 799. W) fjord X) estuary Y) storm Z) swell E) delta 800. W) X) Y) Z) E) A submarine deposit of sand that is parallel to the shoreline is termed a/an _______. and submarine bars is termed a/an _______. berm groin washover fan delta longshore bar 798. berm face profile stack swell 797. A beach profile characterized by a narrow berm. W) X) Y) During a storm. increases decreases remains the same .

801. is very salty because of _______. W) rip currents X) overwash during storms Y) overwash during spring tides Z) storm surges E) tidal inlets 804. photosynthesis. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following is NOT characteristic of barrier islands? a back-island flat a leeward cliff zone a dune field a salt marsh 805. W) X) Y) Z) The most important role of sand dune vegetation is _______. the lagoon between Padre Island and the mainland. Which of the following is NOT likely to be a factor in the breakdown of a sea cliff? . W) regular inflow of salty ocean water X) input of river water which carries high levels of dissolved salts Y) high rates of evaporation and limited exchange with the ocean Z) underlying beds of soluble substrate which are slowly dissolving 806. Laguna Madre. The primary long-term factor in developing the shape and characteristics of the Oregon coastline has been __________. to provide food for dune grazers to bring water nearer to the surface via their deep roots to stabilize the sand of the dunes to provide microhabitats for small organisms 802. W) subduction X) winter storms Y) river input Z) erosion by rip currents E) wave-driven erosion of cliffs 803. The open ocean connects with the water between a barrier island and the mainland via _______.

granite. limestone. unconsolidated sediment. fjord spit estuary jetty groin . shale. granite 808. the material that is easiest to erode first)? W) Unconsolidated sediment. Islands that are large deposits of sand separated from the mainland by the water of lagoons. unconsolidated sediment. unconsolidated sediment. W) alluvial X) deltaic Y) washover Z) fjord E) estuary 810. W) X) Y) Z) E) A sand bar that is attached to the shoreline at one end is termed a/an _______. shale. granite X) Unconsolidated sediment.e. limestone. and estuaries are called _______. W) offshore bars X) submarine bars Y) barrier islands Z) fjords E) jetties 809.W) X) Y) Z) E) Compression of air Increases in groundwater Impact of solid materials thrown against the cliff by waves Dissolving of soluble materials Saltation of wind-blown materials 807. bays. limestone. A fan-shaped accumulation of sand on the leeward of a barrier island that is deposited by storm waves overtopping the island is termed a ________ fan. granite Y) Shale. shale E) Shale. Which of the following lists of materials is listed in increasing order of resistance to erosion (i. limestone. granite Z) Limestone.

W) front X) back Y) plain Z) prodelta E) protodelta 815. delta front delta back delta plain prodelta protodelta . A substantial rise in sea level along a coast during a severe storm is called a storm _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Deltaic deposits on the inner continental shelf are called the _______. W) tidal wave X) bore Y) surge Z) surf E) swell 812. W) X) Y) Z) E) A triangular deposit of sediment at the mouth of a river is termed a/an _______.811. delta alluvial fan offshore bar distributary salt marsh 813. front back plain prodelta protodelta 814. The shoreline and the broad submerged portion of the delta to seaward are called the delta _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The flat lowland portion of a delta that is at or above sea level is the delta _______.

W) topset beds X) foreset beds Y) bottomset beds 819. W) X) Y) Z) E) The delta plain is drained by a system of channels called _______. A ________ delta is one where waves and tides are ineffective in rearranging the river deposits. A ________ delta is one where wave energy is high relative to the supply of river sediment. W) river-dominated . Delta plains are underlain by sequences of flat-lying beds of sand and mud which are collectively called _______. W) topset beds X) foreset beds Y) bottomset beds 820. The flat-lying beds composed of fine river silts and clays which are deposited on the prodelta are called _______. tributaries levees sills dikes distributaries 817. W) topset beds X) foreset beds Y) bottomset beds 818. The delta front consists of thick sands and silts that dip seaward and are called _______.816. W) river-dominated X) wave-dominated Y) tide-dominated 821.

W) piers X) spits Y) groins Z) jetties E) seawalls 825. Structures that are built along eroding beaches to trap sand artificially and promote accretion are _______. Which of the following is essentially a dam designed to impound sand rather than water? W) piers X) spits Y) groins Z) jetties E) seawalls 826. W) X) Y) Z) E) The Mahakam River delta is a good example of _______.X) wave-dominated Y) tide-dominated 822. The structure that is built in front of harbors or shorelines to redirect wave energy away from the shoreline is a _______. river dominance tide dominance wave dominance both A and B both A and C 823. The structure that is built to prevent or diminish sediment deposition at the mouth of harbors is called a _______. . W) pier X) spit Y) groin Z) jetty E) seawall 824.

W) X) Y) Z) E) pier groin seawall jetty breakwater 827. W) X) Y) The sediment deposited at the end of a glacier is called a _______. refraction reflection diffraction subduction reduction 829. roads. W) X) Y) Z) E) Seawalls and the steep bottom of the nearshore cause wave _______. Seawalls ________ the turbulence of the water at the front of the barrier. deposited by currents dredged from offshore quarried on land deposited by storm waves both B and C 831. Structures that are built on shore. W) increase X) decrease 830. on the assumption that they protect beaches. lateral moraine medial moraine ground moraine . W) X) Y) Z) E) Beach nourishment relies on sand _______. W) piers X) groins Y) seawalls Z) jetties E) breakwaters 828. and bluffs from erosion by storm waves are _______.

A pile of boulders placed at the base of a cliff or beach to protect it from wave action is called _______.Z) terminal moraine 832. intertidal fringe of a coastline is a/an _______. FL Padre Island. the glaciers retreated the glaciers advanced the glaciers remained stationary 833. A plant-covered. W) X) Y) Z) Waves that move into progressively shallow water are termed ________ waves. W) X) Y) Recessional moraines were deposited as _______. NC Hutchinson Island. . TX Sea Island. Cape Hatteras. FL Merritt Island. W) a seawall X) a stack Y) riprap Z) a jetty E) a groin 835. mangrove swamp estuary salt marsh lagoon 837. tidal standing shoaling intermediate 836. W) X) Y) Z) Dense tree growth of tropical and subtropical shorelines is a/an _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The longest barrier island in the United States of America is _______. GA 834.

A river valley that was modified by a glacier and partially filled by the sea is a _______. W) estuaries X) bays Y) fjords Z) lakes E) lagoons 840. .W) X) Y) Z) mangrove swamp estuary salt marsh lagoon 838. deltas groins jetties alluvial fans moraines 842. Semi-enclosed coastal bodies of water which receive essentially no inflow of fresh water are called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Irregular mounds or ridge-like deposits of till are called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Poorly sorted sediment deposited by glaciers is _______. A partially enclosed body of water where there is a free mixing of fresh and salt-water is called a/an _______. W) estuary X) lagoon Y) spit Z) salt marsh 839. shale limestone till foraminiferal ooze muck 841.

W) X) Y) Z) Estuaries typically exhibit _______. tidal action storm events rainfall river input both A and D 845. W) X) Y) Z) E) The dynamics of an estuary are most strongly influenced by _______. low species diversity and high productivity high species diversity and high productivity low species diversity and low productivity high species diversity and low productivity 847. W) X) Y) Species diversity in estuaries is low due to _______. W) X) Y) Z) Drowned river valleys were formed when _______. W) X) Y) Z) The surface currents in a salt-wedge estuary are usually _______.W) X) Y) Z) E) fjord jetty delta distributary tributary 843. large numbers of mosquitos heavy rainfall thick deposits of mud . the weight of ice-age glaciers depressed the margins of the continents tectonic changes resulted in increased tidal range sea level increased as a result of melting glaciers erosion during flooding scooped out the substrate from the river mouth 844. slow and steady fast and turbulent slow and turbulent fast and steady 846.

groins jetties morainal barriers loess deposits spits 850. currents tides salinity gradients bottom sediments predator species 851. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following is/are least likely to be found on a sandy substrate? starfish bryozoans polychaete worms sponges . W) X) Y) Z) Estuaries are very fertile because _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The zooplankton population of estuaries tends to be regulated by _______. rivers supply large quantities of dissolved nutrients nutrients supply large quantities of dissolved nutrients the water is well ventilated with oxygen by tides and waves all of the above 849. W) X) Y) Z) E) Circulation in fjords can be sluggish near the bottom because of _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following is/are least likely to be found on a rocky substrate? sea urchins barnacles polychaete worms bryozoans A and C 852.Z) widely fluctuating environmental conditions E) low nutrient availability 848.

W) X) Y) Z) E) The biomass of the benthos in estuaries is typically large due to _______. If longshore currents form a spit across an embayment. W) erosional X) tectonic Y) glacial Z) bar-built E) rip current 857. an estuary is _______.E) B and D 853. warm temperatures abundant food strong currents abundant rainfall large amounts of oxygen 856. W) X) Y) Z) For most organisms. W) erosional X) tectonic Y) depositional Z) volcanic E) bar-built . an easy place to live a stressful habitat a good place to find food an ecological desert 854. it may produce a ________ estuary. Estuaries that are formed when folding and faulting create basins that fill with water are ________ estuaries. lagoons are primarily tropical estuaries are significantly more productive lagoons do not receive appreciable freshwater input estuaries have sills separating them from the ocean 855. W) X) Y) Z) The major difference between an estuary and a lagoon is that _______.

858. A series of submerged. highly stratified unstratified weakly stratified 860. W) X) Y) Z) E) The majority of sediment going into salt-wedge estuaries comes from _______. W) tombolos X) spits Y) shoals Z) stacks E) inselbergs . irregularly-shaped sand bars that are navigational hazards in salt-wedge estuaries are called _______. its water column is ________. The character of circulation in an estuary is determined by the relative effects of river input and ________. its water column is ________. longshore current tidal currents rip currents river transport from inland sources upwelling 862. W) X) Y) If an estuary is a tide-dominated system. W) average annual rainfall X) influx of groundwater Y) transpiration Z) respiration E) tidal mixing 859. highly stratified unstratified weakly stratified 861. W) X) Y) If an estuary is a river-dominated system.

a partially mixed estuary receives a substantial amount of sand and mud from _______. salt-wedge partially mixed well-mixed 868. W) X) Y) Z) E) Clay particles stick together to form aggregates by the process of _______. Because of the strong bottom flow from offshore. W) land runoff X) river flow Y) the inner continental shelf Z) the continental slope 865. W) seismic activity X) shearing of the surface river flow Y) tidal flow Z) tidal bores 864. . carbonation oxidation lthification flocculation metamorphism 867. Internal waves are created on the surface of the halocline of a salt-wedge estuary by _______. W) X) Y) The halocline is obliterated in _________ estuaries. W) carnivorous fish larvae X) herbivores Y) plants Z) filter-feeders E) planktonic herbivores 866.863. The strong currents associated with a well-mixed estuary import large amounts of fineand coarse-grained sediment from _______. Many of the mud particles that are concentrated near the halocline in partially mixed estuaries are ingested by _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) If water contains no dissolved oxygen.W) X) Y) Z) rivers streams land offshore 869. W) hypothermia X) supersaturation Y) anoxia Z) hypoxia E) oxidation 870. W) X) Y) Z) E) Marsh grasses are typically rooted in _______. During the summer the bottom water of Chesapeake Bay has very low levels of dissolved oxygen. advection of low oxygen water from outside the bay bacterial breakdown of plant material bacterial breakdown of dead fish and shellfish lack of mixing with oxygenated surface waters. W) low tide mark and dry land X) zonation pattern of grasses . 872. Salt marshes are subdivided into two principal zones based on _______. the condition is referred to as _______. This condition is termed _______. sand gravel shell materials directly onto the bedrock mud 873. hypothermia supersalination anoxia hypoxia oxidation 871. W) X) Y) Z) Low oxygen levels in the bottom waters of Chesapeake Bay are the result of _______.

salt hay grass saltwort grass cordgrass spike grass leather grass 876. the highest neap tide the lowest spring tide the highest mean tide the highest spring tide mean high tide 878. there is insufficient exposure to salt water in the high marsh it can not overcome competition from high marsh plants the high marsh is exposed too often to the air there are insufficient nutrients in the high marsh temperatures are too high in the high marsh 877.Y) animal life in the marsh Z) runoff from the land E) wave action 874. W) X) Y) Z) E) Salt marshes are separated into two zones by a line marking _______. root-like stems that send out roots and grass shoots are called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The high marsh extends inland to the level of _______. neap high tide spring high tide spring low tide neap low tide mean low tide 875. W) X) Y) Z) E) The low salt marsh often has extensive growths of ___________. W) X) Y) Z) E) Spartina does not grow in the high marsh because _______. W) rhizomes X) bladders . Buried.

W) X) Y) Z) An organic soil composed of partially decomposed vegetation is called _______. caliche laterite clay silt . W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following would be found in the high marsh? smooth cordgrass turtle grass saltwort grass surf grass eel grass 880.500 Z) 2. W) 250 X) 750 Y) 1.000 882.500 E) 4. W) X) Y) Z) E) Uca pugnax is commonly known as the _______. raccoon mussel apple snail fiddler crab sand crab 881. Annual primary production rates of Spartina alterniflora in salt marshes can reach as high as _______ grams of organic matter per square meter.Y) seed roots Z) pips E) tests 879. W) X) Y) How much of the plant growth of the salt marsh is grazed by animals? most of it little of it almost none of it 883.

the calcium carbonate of coral reefs is called _______. throughout the year only in local fall only in local winter only in local spring only rarely 886. W) X) Y) Z) E) The bulk of a coral reef is composed of _______. W) X) Y) Z) The coral animal is called a/an _______. W) herbivores X) carnivores Y) detritus feeders Z) bacteria and fungi E) omnivores 885.E) peat 884. shale limestone sandstone slate siltstone 888. W) X) Y) Z) E) Leaf fall in mangrove swamps occurs _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) In rock form. aragonite calcium carbonate granite living organisms montmorillonite 887. amoeba elver polyp anemone . Energy flow through the food chains in mangrove swamps is dominated by __________ .

E) corallite 889. W) X) Y) Aside from the zooxanthellae. The most accurate term for the relationship between zooxanthellae and coral is _______. Chrysophytes Zooxanthellae Cyanophytes Rhodophytes Thallassia 892. The bottom of the coral exoskeleton is divided into compartments by vertical partitions called _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The algae living in the tissues of coral animals are called _______. test theca hypotheca corallite sheath 890. W) parasitism X) symbiosis Y) mutualism Z) commensalism E) herbivory 893. W) septa X) meridians Y) boards Z) hermatites E) shells 891. the other plants around reefs are _______. benthic algae mangrove trees thick patches of turtle grass . W) X) Y) Z) E) The calcium carbonate exoskeleton of a coral animal is called a _______.

15 20 25 30 35 898. two three four five six 895. Coral reefs can grow at temperatures as low as ______ C. W) X) Y) Z) E) Reef coral growth is normally restricted to water depths of less than ________ m. benthic hermatypic aberrant ahermatypic abyssal 896. 10 15 20 25 30 899. W) X) Y) Z) E) Corals live best in water with salinity of about ________ 0/000.Z) dense kelp forests 894. W) X) Y) Z) E) The food pyramid of a coral reef consists of ________ tiers. W) X) Y) Z) E) Corals that can live in the deep ocean are called _______. Which type of coral forms reefs? W) hermatypic X) ahermatypic 897. .

15° 5° 10° 35° 20° 901. mangrove buffer zone algal ridge reef face buttress zone reef terrace 904. 2 7 20 25 4 902. W) X) Y) Z) E) An average female manatee will produce about _______ calves in her lifetime. W) X) Y) Z) E) Swell is disrupted by the _______. mangrove buffer zones an algal ridge the reef face the reef terrace the buttress zone 903.W) X) Y) Z) E) 0° 5° 10° 18° 12° 900. W) X) Y) Z) E) On the windward side of a reef the waves are absorbed by _______. Which of the following extends downward from the buttress zone? . W) X) Y) Z) E) Coral reefs typically require water temperatures of at least _____ C for optimal growth.

Reefs which form limestone shorelines around islands and the tropical areas of continents are called _______. W) barrier reefs X) fringing reefs . W) barrier reefs X) fringing reefs Y) atolls Z) reef flats 908. patch reefs coral pockets passes hammocks outriggers 906. W) X) Y) Z) Reefs that are separated from the mainland by a lagoon are called _______. Circular reefs surrounding a central lagoon are called _______. algal ridge buttress zone reef terrace patch reef lagoon 907. W) X) Y) Z) E) Reef corals that may grow in the lagoon between the reef and the shore are _______. barrier reefs fringing reefs atolls reef flats 909. W) X) Y) Z) E) Brain coral is well adapted to live on the ___________ section of a reef.W) X) Y) Z) E) reef face algal ridge reef terrace wave-cut terrace wave-built terrace 905.

W) X) Y) Plankton tend to be distributed _________ in their three-dimensional world. globigerina copepods radiolarians foraminifera fusulinids 913. uniformly randomly in discrete patches 914. W) X) Y) Z) E) Fish swim in groups called _______. pods clusters schools communities gaggles .Y) atolls Z) reef flats 910. silicoflagellates dinoflagellates coccolithophores diatoms both B and D 912. W) X) Y) Z) E) The dominant phytoplankton in shelf waters are _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) The zooplankton of shelf waters are dominated by _______. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following initially formed around a volcanic island? barrier reefs fringing reefs atolls reef flats 911.

W) extensive mud flats X) sand and gravel Y) large boulders Z) diverse infaunal communities 920. narrow patches of plankton floating at the surface are probably due to _______. W) the Coriolis effect X) schooling habits Y) Langmuir circulation Z) converging longshore currents E) upwelling 918. W) X) Y) Z) The highest energy benthic environments in the continental shelves are found _______. they can search for food more efficiently they gain protection from predators the utilize less energy individually the do not have to search far to find a mate collectively. W) turbidity currents . W) X) Y) Z) In a group of fish swimming together. near the shelf break adjacent to deep canyons in shallower water near shore in areas affected by river runoff 919. each member is _______. they can capture larger food items 917.915. Elongated. W) X) Y) Z) E) The greatest advantage fish gain by traveling in schools is _______. The bottom energy on continental shelves is a function of wave energy and _______. a different size the same size smaller than the one in front of it larger than the one in front of it 916. High-energy benthic environments on continental shelves tend to be characterized by _______.

W) X) Y) Z) Gravel and coarse-sand bottoms are populated dominantly by _______. filter feeders detritus and deposit feeders carnivores herbivores 924. mud sand hard-bottom . Low-energy benthic environments on continental shelves tend to be characterized by _______.X) Y) Z) E) longshore currents Langmuir currents density currents tidal currents 921. Which of the following would you expect to find living on a bare rock bottom with strong currents? W) anemones X) corals Y) oysters Z) mussels E) all of the above 923. Seaweeds tend to grow extensively in _______. W) extensive deposits of mud and silt X) extensive deposits of sand and gravel Y) exposed areas of rock Z) diverse communities of filter feeders 922. W) hard-bottom communities X) soft-bottom communities 925. W) X) Y) The Macoma community typically dwells in _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) The most abundant animals in open ocean waters are _______. It has been estimated that whale feeding in the Bering Sea is responsible for the resuspension of _________ of sediment annually. dinoflagellates foraminifera radiolaria copepods both B and C 930. hard-bottom mud sand 927. W) X) Y) Z) E) The only seaweed in the open ocean of the North Atlantic Ocean is _______. W) 103 m3 X) 1010 m3 Y) 105 m3 Z) 108 m3 E) 106 m3 . The population of plants and animals in the open ocean and on its bottom is sparse due to _______. W) X) Y) The Venus community typically dwells in _______. kelp sargassum gulfweed turtle grass eel grass surf grass 929. W) lack of nutrients X) strong currents Y) low temperatures Z) high wave intensity E) storms and low pressures 928.926.

Pneumatophores Nematocysts Cnidoblasts Photophores Luminaphores 934. herring amphipods crabs clams plankton 932. W) X) Y) Z) E) Euphausiids preferentially feed on ________ while in surface waters. W) X) Y) Z) E) The light-generating organs of deep-sea organisms are called _______. photonic bioluminescent incandescent phosphatic irridescent 935. W) X) Y) Z) E) Creatures that create their own light are termed _______.931. copepods crustaceans lantern fish diatoms foraminiferans . W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following would be found in the dysphotic zone? tuna prawns sargassum gulfweed kelp corals 933. W) X) Y) Z) E) Gray whales feed on _______.

W) X) Y) Z) E) About 75 percent of the deep-sea fish species are _______.936. high diversity and high population numbers low diversity and high population numbers high diversity and low population numbers low diversity and low population numbers 940.000 .000 Z) 6.000 X) 100 . W) X) Y) Z) E) The most abundant of the midwater fishes are the _______.6.000 E) 3.1. . The aphotic zone begins at a depth of about ________ m and is constantly dark and cold.000 939. lantern fishes gulpers cyclothones hatchet fish angler fish 938.300 Y) 500 .10. Deep sea organisms tend to reproduce _______.000 . W) X) Y) Z) E) Midwater fishes tend to feed on _______. each other detritus copepods ostracods benthic organisms 937.3. sharks rattails rays angler fishes flounders 941. W) X) Y) Z) Deep ocean communities tend to have _______.000 . W) 1.

reach total lengths of at least __________. W) for protection from predators . members of the genus Architeuthis. the high variability of the environment the low variability of the environment the high number of available niches the high concentration of nutrients 943. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following is a trait of the abyssal depths of the ocean? perpetually dark very cold high hydrostatic pressures sparse food supply all of the above 944.W) X) Y) Z) E) in spring year round when food is abundant in summer when daylength is longest 942. The largest of the squid. W) X) Y) Z) The high diversity of deep sea communities has been attributed to ______. W) 10 m X) 26 m Y) 18 m Z) 5 m E) 40 m 945. Penguins huddle together _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following has lost the ability to fly? puffin penguin albatross petrel shearwater 946.

the Truman Declaration the Geneva Convention the Law of the Sea Treaty the United Nations . W) X) Y) Z) The exploitation of resources of the continental shelf is regulated by _______.X) Y) Z) E) for camouflage against the snow for breeding to conserve body heat for feeding the young 947. W) 100 X) 50 Y) 75 Z) 200 E) 150 950. Sargassum Histrio Cephalopoda Gastropoda Alterniflora 948. W) X) Y) Z) E) Squids belong to the class _______. W) 1885 X) 1918 Y) 1945 Z) 1954 E) 1978 949. For legal purposes. the continental shelf is defined as the submarine land that extends seaward to a water depth of no more than __________ fathoms. American jurisdiction over the resources of the continental shelf dates from about _______.

The Exclusive Economic Zone of the United States covers approximately _________ million km2. the United States Government the United Nations the Global Drilling Project the World Bank . About ________ % of the world's oceans are under the control of Exclusive Economic Zones. W) 5 X) 12 Y) 15 Z) 20 E) 200 952. W) X) Y) Z) The International Seabed Authority is a chartered agency of __________.951. The Law of the Sea treaty defines a coastal nation's territorial seas. as extending seaward from its coastline for __________ nautical miles. W) it had not yet been signed by the Government X) it was vetoed by the President Y) it had not yet been ratified by Congress Z) it had not yet been ratified by the Senate 953. the United States had not adopted the Law of the Sea Treaty because _______. As recently as 1994. W) 5 X) 7 Y) 10 Z) 15 E) 25 954. W) 60 X) 15 Y) 75 Z) 35 E) 40 955. over which it has direct jurisdiction.

200 Z) 1.650 E) 2. W) X) Y) Z) Methane is formed in underground deposits _______. W) 450 X) 700 Y) 1. W) X) Y) Z) Which of the following is NOT required for the production of petroleum? Organic material Heat Time Oxygen 957. thick layers of mud and sand igneous rock formations salt-created sea floor structures .000 960.E) the International Development Agency 956. W) X) Y) Z) E) Petroleum deposits are formed over _________ of years. at an early stage of petroleum formation after liquid oil has already formed in parallel with the production of liquid oil when petroleum development proceeds at low temperatures 959. thousands tens of thousands hundreds of thousands millions tens of millions 958. W) X) Y) Oil and gas reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico have been trapped by _______. The Mars oil field in the Gulf of Mexico has estimated oil reserves of _________ million barrels.

sonar scout boats aircraft satellite observations all of the above . W) X) Y) Z) E) Manganese nodules can contain as much as _____ % manganese. W) X) Y) Z) E) Sand and gravel dredged from the sea floor could be used for _______. The Mississippi river provides about __________ metric tons of sand and mud to the Gulf of Mexico every year. improving highways replenishing beaches building construction creating wetlands all of the above 963. cobalt and aluminum cobalt and manganese manganese and lead magnesium and cobalt magnesium and silver 964. W) 50 x 106 X) 100 x 106 Y) 250 x 106 Z) 400 x 106 E) 550 x 106 962.961. W) X) Y) Z) E) Extremely rich deposits of ________ have been found in the oceans. W) X) Y) Z) E) Modern fishing fleets use _________ to find fish at sea. 5 45 30 15 60 965.

W) X) Y) Z) Most American shrimp and lobster farms are located in _______.5 Z) 7. W) X) Y) Z) E) Data suggest that a limited commercial hunt for _______ whales might be sustainable. South Carolina and Hawaii Louisiana.0 968. Georgia and Rhode Island California. North Carolina and California Hawaii. W) X) Y) Z) E) Antarctic krill are considered to be a __________ species. Texas. light plastic monofilament light twine light rope heavy plastic monofilament light cotton cord 967. W) 15. The 1989 Convention for the Prohibition of Long Driftnets urges all nations to ban the use of driftnets longer than _________ km.0 Y) 2.5 E) 25.0 X) 75. Texas and Louisiana 970. W) X) Y) Z) E) Drift nets are constructed of __________. Blue Minke Humpback Right Sei 969. capstone foundation keystone lynchpin cornerstone .966.

In many areas. it is referred to as _______.971. W) bioremediation X) biomagnification Y) dredging Z) emulsification E) pollution 974. hinder marine activities.1-10 mm 10. W) X) Y) Z) The neuston layer is about _________ thick. present hazards to human health. 0. W) X) Y) Z) E) In which of the following areas of the ocean does pollution tend to concentrate? on the sea floor in the pelagic zone at a pycnocline in the upper mixed layer both A and C 975. 25 15 35 5 42 973.0-20.0 mm 2-5 cm 25-50 cm . When man introduces substances or energy into the marine environment in such quantities as to harm living resources. W) salt marshes X) tropical lagoons Y) coral reefs Z) coastal estuaries E) mangrove swamps 972. the development of shrimp farms has been at the expense of _________. W) X) Y) Z) E) The mariculture industry produces as much as ______ % of the fish eaten today. or impair the quality for use of sea-water.

W) X) Y) Z) Whether crude oil is light or dense depends on _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Polluting materials are mixed into the sediment of the sea floor by _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Pollutants commonly are concentrated along pynoclines in _______. currents waves tides large fish burrowing benthic organisms 977. carbohydrates salts hydrocarbons bromides amines 980. W) X) Y) Z) E) The air-sea interface is called the _______.100 cm 976.E) 50 . deep scattering layer diurnal migration layer thermocline neuston layer pynocline 979. the coal content the size of the hydrocarbon molecules the number of the hydrocarbon molecules the number of hydrocarbon molecules . W) X) Y) Z) E) Petroleum is a complex mixture which consists primarily of _________. the open ocean the swash zone estuaries rivers coral reef areas 978.

fractionation. atmospheric fallout E) Atmospheric fallout. W) emulsification X) sublimation Y) distillation Z) biomagnification E) bioremediation 985. tanker accidents. Kerosene. When the Torrey Canyon sank. or the formation of new substances is called __________. an attempt was made to clean up the spill using _______. diesel fuel. separation purification cascading distillation refraction 982. and which is used for purification. The process which drives off gas or vapor from liquids or solids by heating and condenses them to liquid products. tanker accidents. W) X) Y) Z) E) The process of separating crude oil into different components is termed _______. W) booms X) bioremediation Y) slick lickers Z) chemical dispersants E) high-pressure hoses 984. seepage. seepage Z) Seepage. . gasoline. Which of the following is arranged in order according to the amount of petroleum they contribute to the oceans (from highest to lowest)? W) Rivers. and many other types of petroleum products are made from crude oil by _______. offshore petroleum production Y) Tanker operations. tanker accidents.E) the amount of lead in the oil 981. offshore petroleum production. atmospheric fallout X) Rivers. coastal facilities 983.

W) X) Y) Z) E) As an oil spill ages. W) kerosene . W) X) Y) Z) E) The process in which one liquid is suspended in another liquid is called _______. The heavier. W) X) Y) Z) Most of the oil spillage at sea is due to _______. evaporates is completely broken down by bacteria is converted into harmless chemicals becomes thick and sinks dissolves 989. solution sublimation distillation emulsification fractionation 990. insoluble hydrocarbon residues that are spilled into the ocean eventually emulsify and become balls of _______. tanker accidents leaks when aircraft are being refueled above the ocean incompletely burned fuels and standard operational discharge broken oil pipes on offshore oil rigs 987. the surface oil eventually _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following does NOT happen to oil spilled on the sea? emulsification evaporation distillation dissolution sedimentation 988.W) X) Y) Z) E) emulsification biomagnification bioaccumulation distillation bioremediation 986.

Which of the following areas is most susceptible to damage from spilled oil? W) the open ocean X) an estuary . W) 50 X) 800 Y) 500 Z) 175 E) 95 995. The 1969 oil spill in Buzzard's Bay. W) X) Y) Spillage at sea seems to be ________ damaging than/as spillage near shore. most of them were minor.X) Y) Z) E) mud tar gasoline plastic 991. Massachusetts reduced the average density of benthic organisms from 200 000/m2 to __________ /m2. more less about as 993. W) X) Y) Z) E) Oil compounds are toxic to which of the following? sargassum seals penguins sharks all of the above 992.000 Z) 50 E) 2 994. Chesapeake Bay was the site of a little over __________ oil spills in 1981. Fortunately. W) 0 X) 100 Y) 1.

W) high-pressure hoses X) oil booms Y) bioremediation Z) combustion E) dispersants 997. having learned from the Torrey Canyon disaster.Y) a small bay Z) a salt marsh E) the continental shelf 996. used __________ as the primary method of cleaning fouled beaches. pathogen toxin poison bioaccumulation PCB 998. W) X) Y) Z) E) Society discards an estimated 20 x ______ tons of waste each year. W) turbulent X) stagnant . W) X) Y) Z) E) A common means of disposing of pollutants is _______. Water that is still and not flowing is termed _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Any disease-producing organism can be referred to as a _______. dumping them from shifts stacking them in landfills storing them in sealed containers discharging them from underwater pipes in the oceans purifying them and spraying them on the land 1000. The groups cleaning up after the Exxon Valdez spill. 106 104 1012 109 1.015 999.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Municipal sewage consists of _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following are critical nutrients for plants? carbonates sulfates nitrates phosphates both C and D 1003. The process of decomposition reduces the level of dissolved ________ in the water column. excessive no little . organic chemicals inorganic chemicals human waste microbes all of the above 1002. biological organic deposits biological oxygen deposits biological oxygen demand blooms of diatoms 1005. W) X) Y) Water that is hypoxic has ________ oxygen.Y) turbid Z) rampaging E) laminar 1001. W) X) Y) Z) BOD stands for _______. W) Hydrogen X) Oxygen Y) Helium Z) Nitrogen E) Chlorine 1004.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Most of the metals that occur naturally in seawater were supplied by _______. W) X) Y) Z) Water that is anoxic has ________ oxygen. heavy industry mining sewage rivers solution from the ocean floor 1010. oxygen hydrogen nutrients organisms heat 1008. W) X) Y) Z) E) Heavy metal pollutants include _______. lead magnesium mercury tin A and C 1009. W) X) Y) Z) E) Eutrophication is usually due to excessive _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) CH3Hg + is named _______.Z) exactly enough 1006. excessive no little exactly enough 1007. ethyl chloride bleach methyl mercury mercuric oxide Chlorox .

The process by which a pollutant becomes more concentrated at higher steps in the food web is called _______. in a process termed _______. W) biotic concentration X) physiological loading Y) bioaccumulation Z) biomagnification E) trophic enhancement 1013. The concentration of a pollutant in the body of an organism can increase over time. W) phosphate X) nitrate Y) lead Z) mercury E) carbonates 1014. PCB STP DDT Chlorox . W) X) Y) Z) Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro-ethane is better known as _______.1011. W) biotic concentration X) physiological loading Y) bioaccumulation Z) biomagnification E) trophic enhancement 1012. W) X) Y) Z) E) DDT and PCB's are both members of a group called _______. Organohydrides Organochlorines Organomercurates Inert gasses Chlorinated ethylamines 1015. Neurological dysfunctions and kidney malfunctions may occur in humans who eat fish and shellfish tainted with _______.

paint electrical equipment adhesives insecticides plastics 1020. the runoff from agricultural lands ice in Antarctica deep sea muds all of the above none of the above 1017. eels. increased decreased not changed 1019. The world has roughly ________ km of shoreline. W) are X) are not 1018.E) Mercuric chloride 1016. DDT and PCB's ________ readily degraded by bacteria or by chemical reaction. W) 45. W) X) Y) The world production of DDT has ________ since it was banned in the West. and striped bass has been prohibited in the New York Bight area because of ________ contamination. W) X) Y) Z) E) DDT has been detected in _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) PCB's are NOT used in the manufacturing of _______. W) DDT X) sewage Y) PCB Z) mercury E) pesticide 1021.000 . Fishing for bluefish.

The oil tanker which ran aground and broke up on a rock reef off the coast of Alaska in 1989 was the _______.500.000 Z) 4. . What oil tanker broke up off the coast of Great Britain in 1967 after running aground on a Rock reef? W) Exxon Valdez X) Torrey Canyon Y) Shell Voyager Z) Aarco Princess E) Glomar Challenger 1024. biomagnification bioaccumulation bioremediation eutrophication aquaculture 1025.000 1022.X) 4. water pigs fish eels clams snails 1023. W) Exxon Valdez X) Torrey Canyon Y) Shell Voyager Z) Aarco Princess E) Glomar Challenger 1026. W) X) Y) Z) E) Using microorganisms to degrade contaminants is termed _______. The main problem associated with the dredging and dumping of sand and gravel is _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Quahogs are types of _______.500 Y) 450.

The reproductive success of yellowtail flounder off New England is affected by _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Manganese nodules are also important sources of _______. W) X) Y) Z) E) Which of the following is/are NOT used in calculating maximum sustainable yield? food web information water temperatures spawning success current pattern B and D 1029. copper and nickel magnesium and iron cobalt and iridium iron and copper tin and cobalt 1028. W) 33% X) 15% Y) 40% Z) 27% E) 12% . Some people estimate that the amount of fish discarded due to their small size or inferior quality is as high as __________ of the reported global annual harvest of fish. W) nutrient levels in the water X) winter temperatures Y) summer temperatures Z) predation on eggs E) the timing of the spring phytoplankton peak 1030.W) X) Y) Z) smothering of organisms at the dump site toxic effects of contaminants in the dredge spoils advection of dredge spoils to sites outside of the dumping area increased turbidity in the water column due to the presence of particulate matter 1027.

W) X) Y) Z) E) Global warming will lead to a rise in mean sea level via _______. Some scientists are proposing a new model for fishery management. W) 15 cm X) 100 cm Y) 150 cm Z) 65 cm E) 46 cm . advocates restraints on fishing practices that inadvertently reduce fish stocks for future generations.1031. W) maximum sustainable yield X) minimum harvest principle Y) economic-ecological model Z) precautionary principle E) single-species stock assessment 1032. thermal expansion of water increased precipitation melting of polar ice increased and larger storms A and C 1035. This new model. 75% 30% 45% 60% 15 % 1034. W) X) Y) Z) E) Increased levels of carbon dioxide in the modern atmosphere are attributed to _______. based on the __________. W) X) Y) Z) E) Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels have increased by about _________ since 1850. the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation the respiration of increased populations of animals release of carbon dioxide from the oceans to the atmosphere a shift in the pH of the oceans reductions in plant populations due to nutrient depletion 1033. There is a 10% chance that during the next century mean sea level will rise by about ________ cm.

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773. 778. 789. 791. 794. 779. 766. 769. 770. 795.759. 783. 774. 780. Z E Y E X Z X Y Z Y Z X Z Y W X Z Z W Y Z W E Z W Z W W Z E E W E Y X Z E X E Y . 776. 786. 763. 797. 785. 762. 767. 788. 793. 764. 792. 796. 761. 784. 781. 765. 768. 790. 782. 775. 777. 798. 787. 771. 760. 772.

812. 816. 834. 823. 805. 838. 820. 806. 815. 828. 837. 833. 831. 811. 803. 801. 836. 821. 826. 827. 813. 800. 830. 832.799. 835. 802. 817. 829. 810. 809. 814. 822. 808. 818. 824. 807. 804. 819. 825. Z W Y W E X Y E W Y Y X Y W Y W Z E W X Y W X Z Z Y Y E Y X W E Z W Z Y Y W Y W .

872. 849. 870. 860. 878. 865. 843. 852. 873.839. 846. 847. 859. 876. 875. 862. 841. 871. 863. 861. 845. 842. 874. E Y E W Y E X W Z Z Y Y E E X Y X Z X E W X Z Y X Y Z Z Y Z Z Y X E X W Y X Z W . 848. 864. 854. 840. 844. 851. 867. 866. 850. 855. 856. 877. 869. 858. 857. 853. 868.

891. 916. 883. 914. 909. 894. 900. 917. 881. 893. 906. 903. 908. 882. 915. 918. 899. 880. 897. 886. 889. 905.879. 896. 890. 913. 911. 907. 910. 892. Y Z Z Y E Y W X X Y Z W X Y W Y Z W E E Z E X X Z W W X X W Y Y E X Y Y X X Y Y . 904. 898. 888. 902. 887. 895. 884. 912. 901. 885.

947. 955. 942. 933. 935. 953. 949. 948. 928. 939. 956. 945. 951. 930. 938. 943. 927. 950. 926. 952. 941. 923. 922. 954. 936. 924. 934. 940. 921. 925. 932. 944. 946. 929. 920. 931. X E W E W W W Y W X E Z X X Z X Z W Y Y Y Z X X E Y X Z Y Z W Y X Z Y E X Z E X . 937. 957. 958.919.

966. 985. 977. 974. 971. 984. 969. 961. 982. 987. 978. 992. 990. 976. 973. 996. 964. 986. X Y Z E X Y E W Y X W Y E W E E W E Y Z Y X Z X Z Y Z Y Y Z Z Y E X E X Z W W Z . 991. 989. 988. 979. 997. 968. 981. 962. 975. 967. 970. 993. 960. 983. 980. 998. 994.959. 965. 963. 995. 972.

1035. 1008. 1024. 1017. 1026. 1027. 1004. 1020. 1021. 1023. 1029. 1002. 1014. 1016. 1005. 1011. 1030. 1032. 1018. 1009. 1003. 1015. 1001. 1000. 1006. 1007. 1022. Z X E E X Y Y X Y E Z Y Y Z Z X Y Z X W Z Y Y Z X Y W X W E X W Z W Y E Z . 1031. 1033. 1010. 1034. 1028. 1013. 1025.999. 1012. 1019.