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EXPERIMENT: STRAIN MEASUREMENTS: THIN-WALL PRESSURE VESSEL OBJECTIVES: (1) Experimentally determine the maximum principal strain and stress for a thin-wall pressure vessel. (2) Determine factor of safety against slip (using surface stresses) INTRODUCTION: In this experiment, the states of stress and strain associated with a thin walled pressure vessel under internal pressure loading are investigated. Four different configurations of strain gages are used to determine the principal strains and stresses. Three failure theories are used to predict the factor of safety at the operating pressure used in the experiment. BACKGROUND: A pressure vessel is generally classified as `thin walled' when the ratio of the wall thickness to the vessel radius is less than 0.1. For these cases, the stress variation through the wall thickness is less than 5 percent and may be approximated as constant. Figure 1 shows an internally pressurized thin walled vessel. Cutting planes are passed through the vessel and segments I and II are considered. Free body diagrams of these segments are shown in Figure 1. The forces PI and PII are the resultant forces due to the internal pressure acting on the respective segments. The forces FI and FII represent the resultant internal forces on the cut surfaces of the segments. The appropriate equilibrium equation is next applied to each of the segments. For these equations p is the internal pressure, r is the inner radius, and t is the wall thickness. Segment I Fx = 0 FI = PI a(2r)t = ( r2)p a = pr/2t Segment II Fy = 0 2FII = PII 2hLt = 2pLr h = pr/t

II

The stress component a from segment I is commonly referred to as the longitudinal or axial stress. The stress component h from segment II is commonly referred to as the circumferential hoop stress. Note that the magnitude of the hoop

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stress is twice the magnitude of the axial stress for a thin walled pressure vessel. Figure 2 shows a thin walled pressure vessel with four sets of strain gages attached to the surface. Each set of gages corresponds to a procedure, which may be used to determine the maximum principal stress. These sets of gages are describes as: a. b. c. d. Gages 1,2,and 3 forming a 0o,120o,240o ) rosette at an arbitrary orientation. Gage 4 oriented in the circumferential direction. Gage 5 oriented direction. in the longitudinal and requires the two principal strains, which can be obtained using equation (1b).

p1 =

E ( p1 + p 2 ) 1 2

(1a)

2

p1, p 2

x + y x y = 2 2

xy + 2

n =

x +y x y xy + cos 2 + sin 2 2 2 2

(1c)

Gages 6 and 7 oriented 90o to each other and at an unknown angle with the principal directions.

Assuming that the x-axis is oriented in the direction of gage 1, we may apply the transformation equation in the directions of gages 2 and 3. We may now substitute measured strain values for the three gages 1 ( 1 = x ), 2, and 3, and solve equations (1d) simultaneously for y and xy. and (1e)

2 1 3 (a)

These values may be then be used in equations (1b) to determine the principal strains.

2 =

FIGURE 2

x +y

2

x y

2

cos 240 +

xy

2

sin 240

(1d)

3 =

x + y

2

x y

2

cos 480 +

xy

2

sin 480

(1e)

The following procedures may be used to determine the maximum principal stress for each set of strain gages. a.) GAGES 1, 2, and 3 Strain measurements in three directions, in this case a (0o,120o,240o) rosette, are sufficient to determine the principal stresses. A relationship between the principal stresses and an orientation in the principal directions is not required. Equation (1a) is for the maximum principal stress

b.) and c.) GAGES 4 and 5 A single strain measurement can be used to determine principal stresses if the gage is oriented in one of the principal directions (the longitudinal or circumferential directions) provided the relationship between the hoop and the axial stress is known (hoop = 2axial).

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The developments are as follows: Gage 4 The following equations (2a) and (2b) can be written for strain in the x and y directions:

4 =

4 5 E

Assume: 5 = 4/2

4 1 2 4 E E 4 = = p1 (1 1 2 ) 4 4 =

Gage 5

x y E y x y = E x =

(2a) (2b)

y 2 x y = E

Now, if (2a) and (2c) are added:

(2c)

5 =

5 4 E

Assume: 5 = 4/2

x + y =

x (1 2 ) E

(2d)

1 2 4 4 E E 4 = = (1 2 ) 5 p1

5 =

x =

E ( x + y ) (2e) 1 2

Where p1 is the larger of the principal stresses. Both of the above equations determine the larger principal stress but use different principal strains. A theoretical relationship between these strains can be obtained by equating the two and assuming a Poisson's ratio of 1/3.

y =

E ( y + x ) (2f) 1 2

E E 4 = (1 1 2 ) (1 2 ) 5

4 = 55 (when = 1/3)

If the x axis is assumed to be oriented in the direction of gage 6 and the y axis oriented in the direction of gage 7, equations (2e) and (2f) may be solved for x and y. The principal stresses may be determined in terms of the shear and normal stresses in a x-y coordinate system by the equation:

This indicates that a small error in strain measurement in the 4 direction would be less serious than in the 5 direction. It follows that orienting the gage in the direction of the largest principal strain direction is preferred when a choice is possible.

p1

2 x + y x y + xy 2 = + 2 2

p2

x + y x y = 2 2

2 + xy 2

d) GAGES 6 and 7

If the values for p1 and p2 are added the resulting expression is:

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(p1 + p2) = (x + y) Therefore, for plane stress, the sum of the normal stresses on any two orthogonal planes is a constant. below. A more complete presentation may be found in the EM 324 textbook. Maximum Normal Stress Theory: Failure is predicted to occur when the maximum normal stress at any point in the body reaches the axial failure stress of the material. Depending on the material and application, the axial failure stress may be chosen as the proportional limit, the yield stress, or the ultimate stress of the material. For this experiment, the yield stress is used to define failure. Thus, failure is predicted to occur when p1 = yield FIGURE 3 This may also be illustrated using Mohr's circle, shown in Figure 3. It can be seen that the center of the circle is located at: y + x 2 or p1 + p2 2 The factor of safety, FS, is defined as the ratio of the failure stress, f, to the actual maximum normal stress, p1. For failure by yielding, the factor of safety is given by FS = yield p1 Maximum Normal Strain Theory: Failure is predicted to occur when the maximum normal strain at any point in the body reaches the axial failure strain of the material. The axial failure strain may be determined from the axial failure stress of the material and Young's modulus using the relation f = f E Once again, failure stress may be chosen as either the proportional limit, the yield stress. or the ultimate stress. For this experiment, the yield stress is used to define failure. Thus, failure is predicted to occur when p1 = yield E

The above equation reduces to the same expression as above: (p1 + p2) = (x + y) For a thin walled pressure vessel, the hoop and axial stresses are principal stresses and are related by the expression: p2 = 1/2 p1 Substituting, 3/2p1 = x + y Thus, by knowing the normal stress acting in any two perpendicular directions on the surface, the maximum principal stress may be determined. THEORIES OF FAILURE: Two theories of failure are considered in this laboratory experiment. Each is discussed briefly

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The factor of safety, FS, is defined as the ratio of the failure strain, f, to the actual maximum strain, p1. REPORT: For failure by yielding, the factor of safety is given by FS = yield/E p1 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED: Aluminum pressure vessel Strain indicator Switch and balance unit PROCEDURE: PRELIMINARY CALCULATIONS: Preliminary calculations are not required. The report outline found in Appendix A should be used. REPORT REQUIREMENTS: (1) Provide a sketch of gage locations on pressure vessel (2) Determine and tabulate principal stress for: the maximum (7) Use the computer program VESSEL to verify results. Include a print-out in the report.

a. (0o,60o,120o) Rosette (strain gages 1,2, and 3) in an arbitrary orientation. b. Strain gage oriented circumferential (hoop) direction in the

c. Strain gage 5 oriented in the longitudinal (axial) direction. d. Strain gages 6 and 7 oriented at 90 degrees to each other, at an arbitrary orientation. (3) Calculate the principal stresses for the thinwalled cylindrical pressure vessel where Pressure = Mean diameter = Wall thickness = 200psi 6.75inch 0.072 inch

DATA REQUIREMENTS: Strain readings at 200 psi pressure need to be recorded. Assume the wall thickness of the pressure vessel to be 0.072 inches, the yield stress to be 35,000 psi, the modulus of elasticity to be 10x106 psi, and Poisson's ratio to be 1/3. TESTING PROCEDURE: (1) Check the strain gage hook-up through the switching unit and identify each gage by number. Show on a sketch. (2) (2) Zero all gage readings at the no load condition. (3) Apply 200 psi pressure (4) Read indicated strains for each gage at 200 psi. (5) Release pressure (6) Turn off strain indicator box.

(4) Compare the results obtained using four sets of strain gages. Compare these results to the predicted maximum principal stress found in part (3). Discuss possible sources of discrepancies and errors. (5) Determine and tabulate factors of safety against failure by yielding for the pressure vessel at 200 psi operating pressure. Use the following theories of failure (use stress determined from the rosette readings) a. Maximum normal stress theory b. Maximum normal strain theory

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