Electrical Machines (Lab Manual

)

Faculty of Electronics Engineering, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS:
Sr. #
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Experiment
To study the voltage regulation for a single phase transformer using resistive & capacitive load. Calculation of the transformer parameters using Open Circuit Test & Short Circuit Test. To record the no load voltage generated, by a separately excited DC generator. Record the terminal characteristics of a separately excited dc generator (Keeping IF constant). Load characteristics of dc shunt generator. Record the external characteristic of a dc series generator. Load characteristics of dc series motor. Load characteristics of dc shunt motor Performance test of separately excited dc shunt motor using Swinburne test. Load characteristics of dc compound motor Record the magnetization characteristics of a 3 phase alternator. To record voltage variation at the alternator terminal, for

balanced resistive loads(Y- connected). 13 14 15 To find out voltage regulation of an alternator for a delta connected capacitive load. Load test of a single phase induction motor. Torque speed relationship of a single phase induction motor.

Experiment # 1
To Study the Voltage Regulation for a Single Phase Transformer Using ‡ Resistive Load ‡ Capacitive Load Equipment: ‡ Single phase transformer ‡ Voltmeter ‡ Ammeter ‡ Resistive load ‡ Capacitive load Circuit Diagram:

Theory: A transformer is a device that changes ac electric power at one voltage level to ac electric power at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field. It consists of two or more coils of wire wrapped around a common ferromagnetic core. One of the transformer winding is connected to a source of ac electric power, and the second transformer winding supplies electric power to the load. The transformer winding connected to the ac source is known as primary winding or input winding, and the winding connected to the load is called secondary winding or output winding. Output voltage of the transformer varies with the load even if the input voltage remains constant. To conveniently compare transformer in this respect we define a quantity known as Voltage Regulation. Full Load Voltage Regulation is a quantity that compares the output voltage of the transformer at no load with the output voltage at full load. * 100 Where, = Secondary voltage at no load

* 100 ‡ Plot a graph between %VR and load current. ‡ Gradually vary the load resistor & take readings of output voltage & load current. ‡ Connect a voltmeter in parallel with the load to measure the output voltage. ‡ After adjusting the secondary voltage to the rated value. Ideally VR = 0% Voltage regulation also varies depending upon the type of load connected to the transformer. VR > 0 for resistive & inductive loads and VR < 0 for capacitive loads. Procedure: ‡ First of all connect the primary of the transformer to the variable AC source.= Secondary voltage at full load Usually it is a good practice to have as low voltage Regulation as possible. find out the value of no load voltage. Primary winding is connected to the variable AC source because we want to adjust the secondary of the transformer to the rated voltage & find the voltage regulation at rated voltage. ‡ Connect the load resistor to the secondary of the transformer with an ammeter in series. Observations & Calculations: For Resistive Load: Sr. ‡ Calculate the percentage voltage regulation of the transformer at different loads by using the formula. ‡ Repeat all the above steps for capacitive loads. # Load Current IL (Amp) Output voltage VL (V) No load Voltage VNL (V) voltage regulation VR % .

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Load Current IL (Amp) Output voltage VL (V) No load Voltage VNL (V) voltage regulation VR % .1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 For Capacitive Load: Sr.

9 10 Experiment # 2 Calculation of the transformer parameters using ‡ Open Circuit Test ‡ Short Circuit Test Equipment: ‡ Single phase transformer ‡ Voltmeter ‡ Ammeter ‡ Wattmeter Circuit Diagram For Open Circuit Test: .

. ammeter & wattmeter are connected to the primary side as shown in circuit diagram. primary current & input power from the wattmeter. we apply the rated voltage at the input of the primary winding. No load primary current is 2-10% of the rated IL. ‡ After adjusting the secondary voltage to the rated value. note down the primary voltage. no current is flowing through it.Theory: In open circuit test of transformer. As the secondary winding is open circuited so. This is so because we want to adjust the secondary of the transformer to the rated value. while the secondary winding is left open circuited. Voltmeter. Thus the wattmeter measures the core losses at no load and they remain the same at all loads. Procedure: ‡ First of all connect the primary of the transformer to the variable AC source. Rated voltage is applied to the primary side of the transformer so iron losses will occur in the transformer core. so primary copper losses are negligible and secondary copper losses are zero.

the following parameters can be measured by the open circuit test ‡ Iron losses ‡ No-Load Current ‡ Ro. Ro & Xo are the excitation branch components in transformer equivalent circuit. Xo & power factor at no load.‡ After noting down the values from the open circuit test. Xo ‡ Power factor at no load Ro Xo cos o . Input power = losses Now Input power = V1Io cos o = Wo No load power factor = cos o = Wo/V1Io Ro = V1/Io cos o Xo = V1/Io sin o Where. calculate Ro. Measurements & Calculations: Wattmeter Reading Wo (Watts) No-load Current Io (Amp) Applied Voltage V1 (Volts) Input power = Output power + Losses Output power = V2I2cos As I2 = 0 (Due to the open circuited secondary winding) So Output power = 0 Therefore.+ So.

Procedure: ‡ Connect the primary of the transformer to the variable AC source.Circuit Diagram For Short Circuit Test: Theory: In short circuit test of transformer. Input voltage in short circuit test is 25% of the rated input voltage. Voltmeter. ‡ Slightly increase the primary voltage such that the secondary current measured by ammeter is nearly equal to rated value of secondary current. At this point I2 also has full load current. ‡ Short the secondary terminals by a wire including an ammeter in series. . ammeter & wattmeter are connected to the primary side as shown in circuit diagram. Under these conditions copper losses are maximum while the iron losses are negligible because of the small primary voltage. while the secondary winding is short circuited. we apply a fairly low voltage at the input of the primary winding. The primary voltage is gradually increased until the full load current I1 flows through the primary winding.

‡ After noting down the values from the short circuit test. . Input power = losses (Copper losses at full load) Now Ws = VsIscos Where cos = Ws/ VsIs (Short Circuited power factor) Copper losses = Ws = Wattmeter reading Ws = Is2R01 R01 = Ws/Is2 Z01 = Vs/Is X01 = Where R01 & X01 are the equivalent resistance & reactance of the transformer windings (primary & secondary) referred to primary side. Measurements & Calculations: Wattmeter Reading Ws (Watts) Full load Current I1 (Amp) Applied Voltage V1 (Volts) Input power = Output power + Losses Output power = V2I2cos As V2 = 0 (Due to the short circuited secondary winding) So Output power = 0 Therefore. R01 = Rp + a2 Rs X01 = Xp + a2 Xs Where. primary current & input power from the wattmeter.‡ After adjusting the secondary current to its rated value note down the primary voltage. X01 & power factor at short circuit. calculate R01.

of a separately excited DC generator. I1 ‡ R01.a = turns ratio = NP/Ns So. X01 ‡ Power factor at short circuit R01 X01 cos o Experiment # 3 To record the magnetization characteristic. Equipment: ‡ DC compound motor (To rotate the rotor or armature shaft of the DC generator) ‡ DC shunt motor/generator set ‡ DC supply for separate excitation ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter on the control panel ‡ Supply leads Circuit Diagram: . the following parameters can be measured by the short circuit test of transformer ‡ copper losses ‡ Full Load Current.

. When no load is connected to the terminals of the generator. By Kirchhoff¶s voltage law terminal voltage VT is related to the internally induced voltage EA as. terminal voltage VT is equal to the internally generated voltage EA. There are five major types of dc motors ‡ Separately excited dc motor ‡ Shunt dc motor ‡ Permanent magnet dc motor ‡ Series dc motor ‡ Compound dc motor There are five major types of dc generators.Theory: DC machines are generators that convert mechanical energy to dc electrical energy & motors that convert dc electrical energy to mechanical energy. ‡ Separately excited generator ‡ Shunt generator ‡ Series generator ‡ Cumulatively compounded generator ‡ Differentially compounded generator A separately excited dc generator is a generator whose field current is supplied by a separate external dc voltage source. classified according to the manner in which their field flux is produced.

flux in the machine increases & thus internally induced emf also rises. ‡ Set the regulator knob to zero position. K = constant depending upon the construction of machine. ‡ Measurements are made with increasing & decreasing values of currents to see the magnetic hysteresis effect on terminal voltage. Internally generated voltage is given by the equation EA = K Where = flux within the machine = speed of rotation of the machine. ‡ Connect dc motor/generator set to the dc shunt generator terminal on the panel. ‡ Record the speed by using stroboscope. IARA is the voltage drop in armature winding due to the flow of current through armature winding. ‡ Slightly vary the knob in equal steps. . ‡ Switch on the main circuit breaker & dc main circuit breaker on the control panel also start the compound motor. Procedure: ‡ Connect the compound motor with the compound motor terminal on the panel. ‡ Now draw the graph between field current & terminal voltage both for ascending and descending voltages on the same graph.IARA Where. By increasing field current.VT = EA . ‡ Record the magnetization characteristics by measuring the voltage VT delivered by the value of excitation current obtained by acting on the control knob.

# Speed (rpm) (Almost const.) IF (mA) Generated Voltage VT (volts) Ascending IF Descending IF 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Experiment # 4 Record the terminal characteristics of a separately excited dc generator (Keeping IF constant). Equipment: ‡ DC compound motor (To rotate the rotor or armature shaft of the DC generator) ‡ DC shunt motor/generator set ‡ DC supply for separate excitation ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter on the control panel ‡ Resistive Load ‡ Supply leads Circuit Diagram: .Observations & Calculations: Sr.

If EA increases.Theory: A terminal characteristic of a machine is a plot of the machine¶s output quantities versus each other. For a dc generator output quantities are terminal voltage & line current. By Krichhoff¶s voltage law. ‡ Change The Speed Of Rotation: If increases. Change the field Current: ‡ . the terminal voltage is VT = EA . then EA = K increases.IARA For a separately excited dc generator IL = IA Control of Terminal Voltage: The terminal voltage of a separately excited dc generator can be controlled by changing the internal generated voltage of the machine. so VT increases too. The terminal characteristic of a separately excited generator is thus a plot of VT versus IL for a constant speed . VT will increase & vice versa. Since the internally generated voltage EA is given by the equation. EA = K So there are two possible ways to control the voltage of the generator.

‡ Connect a resistive load to the output terminals of the generator. EA must rise too. So VT increases. ‡ Switch on the main circuit breaker & dc main circuit breaker on the control Panel. ‡ Now draw the graph between armature or load current & terminal voltage. ‡ Vary the amount of load connected to the output terminals. ‡ Measure corresponding load current and terminal voltage. start the compound motor with the help of 4 point starter. ‡ Record the speed by using stroboscope.If RF is decreased. then the field current increases. VT EA IARA drop IL Procedure: ‡ Connect the compound motor with the compound motor terminal on the panel. Observations & Calculations: . ‡ Connect dc motor/generator set to the dc shunt generator terminal on the panel. Therefore the in the machine increases. The terminal characteristic of a separately excited dc shunt generator at a constant speed n field current is as follow. As the rises.

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Speed (rpm) (Almost const.) IF (mA) VT (volts) IA = IL Experiment # 5 Load characteristics of dc shunt generator. Equipment: ‡ DC compound motor (To rotate the rotor or armature shaft of the DC generator) ‡ DC shunt motor/generator set ‡ DC supply for separate excitation ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter on the control panel ‡ Resistive load ‡ Supply leads Circuit Diagram: .Sr.

IARA This type of generator has a distinct advantage over the separately excited dc generator in that no external supply is required for field circuit. . IA = IF + IL By Kirchhoff¶s voltage law terminal voltage VT is related to the internally induced voltage EA as. A shunt dc generator is a generator that supplies its own field current by having its field connected directly across the terminals of the machine. The armature current of the machine supplies both the field circuit & the load attached to the machine.Theory: Dc shunt generator is also called as self excited generator as field is connected across the armature so that the armature voltage can supply the field current. Some residual magnetism must exist in the magnetic circuit of the generator. Procedure: ‡ Connect the dc compound motor to 4 point starter on the control panel. VT = EA . Because of this residual magnetism small voltage appears across the armature terminal even when the field current is disconnected.

‡ Measure corresponding load current and terminal voltage. S2. keep the terminal voltage constant by varying the field current. ‡ Switch on the main circuit breaker & dc main circuit breaker on the control Panel. F1 to A1 & F2 to A2. S3. ‡ Now draw the graph between load current & terminal voltage. also start the compound motor with the help of 4 point starter. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Load (Ÿ) VT (Volts) IL IF (ampere) (m.‡ Connect dc generator armature winding to the generator terminals on the control panel. ‡ Connect a resistive load to the output terminals of the generator. ‡ Note the readings in the table. ‡ Vary the amount of load connected to the output terminals of the generator by adjusting the selector switches S1. ‡ Connect the dc generator field winding to the armature terminals.amp) IA = IL + IF (amp) EA=VTIARA (Volts) . ‡ Record the speed of generator by using stroboscope. & S4. Observations & Calculations: Speed =-------------------(rpm) Sr.

7 8 9 10 Experiment # 6 Record the external characteristic of a dc series generator. Equipment: ‡ DC compound motor (To rotate the rotor or armature shaft of the DC generator) ‡ DC series motor/generator set ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter on the control panel ‡ Supply leads Circuit Diagram: .

Theory: A series dc generator is a generator whose field is connected in series with the armature. field current & line current all have the same value. For a dc series generator armature current. .C supply C.B ‡ Switch on the DC main circuit breaker and 4 point supply switch in on the control panel ‡ Start the motor with the help of 4 point starter ‡ Record the speed of generator by tachometer ‡ Record the external characteristics of the generator by measuring the voltage VT at the terminals as the function of the load current IL ‡ Connect the load resistance on the panel terminal and increase the load step by step ‡ Record the recordings in the table ‡ After completing the experiment turn OFF all switch and circuit breaker. IF = IA = IL The kirchhoff¶s voltage law equation for this machine is VT = EA ± IA (RA + RS) Procedure: ‡ Connect the DC compound Motor to the 4 point starter on the control panel ‡ Connect the DC series generator terminal on the control panel ‡ Switch on the main A.

Equipment: ‡ DC series motor with mechanical break ‡ DC 2-point starter on the control panel ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter on the control panel ‡ Supply leads Circuit Diagram: .Observations & Calculations: Speed = ------------------------rpm Sr. # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Load resistance (Ÿ) VT (volts) IF = IA = IL (amp) Experiment # 7 Load characteristics of dc series motor.

. In a series motor. field current & line current are all the same IF = IA = IL The kirchhoff¶s voltage law equation for this machine is VT = EA + IA (RA + RS) Terminal characteristics of a series dc motor are very much different from that of shunt dc motor. ‡ Connect the voltmeter & ammeter according to circuit diagram. ‡ Load the motor step by step by means of mechanical break. The basic behavior of a series dc motor is due to the fact that flux is directly proportional to the armature current until saturation is reached. the armature current. ‡ Switch on the main circuit breaker & dc circuit breaker on the control panel also make 2-point starter switch on. Procedure: ‡ Connect the DC motor to the 2-point starter on the control panel. ‡ Record the motor speed by stroboscope. ‡ Set the mechanical break. load is carried by moving the screws on the mechanical breaks &note the reading until motor full load current reaches its rated value. spring balance at zero position.Theory: A series dc motor is a dc motor whose field windings consists of a relatively few turns connected in series with the armature circuit.

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Load (lbs or kg) Speed (rpm) IL (amp) Experiment # 8 Load characteristics of separately excited dc shunt motor.Observations & Calculations: Sr. Equipment: ‡ DC shunt motor with mechanical break ‡ DC 4-point starter on the control panel ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter on the control panel ‡ Supply leads Circuit Diagram: .

Theory: A separately dc shunt motor is a motor whose field circuit is supplied from a separate constant voltage power supply. while a shunt dc motor is a motor whose field circuit gets its power directly across the armature terminals of the motor. spring balance at zero position. ‡ Record the motor speed by stroboscope. ‡ Set the mechanical break. ‡ Switch on the main circuit breaker & dc circuit breaker on the control panel also make 2-point starter switch on. When the supply voltage is assumed to be constant The kirchhoff¶s voltage law equation for armature circuit of this machine is VT = EA + IA RA For a separately excited dc shunt motor IA = VT/RA Whereas field current is given by IF = VF/RF Procedure: ‡ Connect the shunt dc motor to the 4-point starter on the control panel. ‡ Connect the voltmeter & ammeters according to circuit diagram. .

# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Load (lbs or kg) Speed (rpm) IA (amp) IF (m. Observations & Calculations: Sr. Equipment: ‡ DC shunt motor/generator set ‡ DC supply for separate excitation ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeters ‡ Supply leads .amp) Experiment # 9 Performance test of separately excited dc shunt motor using Swinburne test. load is carried by moving the screws on the mechanical breaks &note the reading until motor full load current reaches its rated value.‡ Load the motor step by step by means of mechanical break.

Procedure: ‡ Connect the shunt dc motor to the 4-point starter on the control panel. Once the losses are known its efficiency can be measured at any desired load. So this test can be used for small as well as big motors.Circuit Diagram: Theory: In this experiment dc machine runs as a motor at no load and losses are determined.Ia2Ra The only drawback of swinburne test is that it does not provide any information about maximum temperature. But it is valid only for shunt motors where the field current is constant. ‡ Connect the armature of the dc shunt motor a variable dc supply of 0-220 volts ‡ Connect the field winding to a separate dc supply. For no load Output = 0 So input = losses VI = Wc + Ia2Ra where Wc = constant losses Wc = VI . ‡ Connect the voltmeter & ammeters according to circuit diagram. It is an economical test because the motor draws as much power as to overcome the losses. .

‡ Make the field current constant at nearly 50mA.‡ Switch on the main circuit breaker & dc circuit breaker on the control panel also make 4-point starter switch on. Applied Input Input Field Variable Constant Total % # voltage current power current losses losses losses 2 V IA VIA IF IA RA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Constant losses = Wc = VIA.IA2RA Total losses = WT = Wc+IA2RA Percentage efficiency = % = (Input ± WT)/Input*100 . input current & input power of the motor at each reading. ‡ Start increasing the applied voltage from control panel & take readings at regular intervals. ‡ Complete the table & calculate efficiency at all applied voltages. Observations & Calculations: Sr. ‡ Note down the voltage applied.

Experiment # 10 Load characteristics of dc compound motor. Equipment: ‡ DC compound motor with mechanical break ‡ DC 4-point starter on the control panel ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter on the control panel ‡ Supply leads .

spring balance at zero position. In a compound motor. . ‡ Connect the voltmeter & ammeter according to circuit diagram. ‡ Set the mechanical break. field current & line current are related as IA = IL . ‡ Switch on the main circuit breaker & dc circuit breaker on the control panel also make 2-point starter switch on. ‡ Load the motor step by step by means of mechanical break.IF The kirchhoff¶s voltage law equation for this machine is VT = EA + IA (RA + RS) And IF = VT/RF Procedure: ‡ Connect the DC motor to the 4-point starter on the control panel. load is carried by moving the screws on the mechanical breaks &note the reading until motor full load current reaches its rated value. the armature current. ‡ Record the motor speed by stroboscope.Circuit Diagram: Theory: A compound dc motor is a motor with both a shunt & a series field winding.

Observations & Calculations: Sr. Equipment: ‡ DC compound motor (To rotate the rotor or armature shaft of the alternator) ‡ 3 phase alternator ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ AC voltmeter & ammeter ‡ Supply leads Circuit Diagram: . # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Load (lbs or kg) Speed (rpm) IL (amp) IA (amp) IF (amp) Experiment # 11 Record the magnetization characteristics of a 3 phase alternator.

Theory: Alternators are also known as synchronous generators. The word synchronous means that the electrical frequency produced is locked in or synchronized with the mechanical rate of rotation of generator. Dc current is supplied to the field winding of alternator whereas ac voltage is generated on the armature winding. Rate of rotation of magnetic field in the machine is related to the stator electrical frequency by the equation Where. Synchronous generators or alternators are synchronous machines used to convert mechanical energy to ac electrical energy. = Electrical frequency in Hz .

amp) . record the magnetization characteristic by measuring the voltage delivered by the alternator at constant rated speed in correspondence of the values of field current. # 1 VT (Volts) V (Volts) IF (m. ‡ Connect alternator field winding to the field excitation on the control panel.N = Mechanical speed of magnetic field in r/min P = Number of poles As the stator or the armature of synchronous generator is 3 phase. ‡ Connect the alternator terminals R Y B to A B C phase terminals on the panel. ‡ Record the speed of generator by using stroboscope. ‡ Now draw the graph between field current & terminal voltage. ‡ Switch on the main ac supply ‡ Start the compound motor with the help of 4 point starter. Observations & Calculations: Speed =-------------------(rpm) Sr. ‡ Set the field regulator knob to zero position. For delta connected armature winding: Terminal voltage is related to the internally generated phase voltage as VT = V For star connected armature winding: Terminal voltage is related to the internally generated phase voltage as VT = V Procedure: ‡ Connect the dc compound motor to 4 point starter on the control panel to operate as a prime mover for alternator. these 3 phases are delta connected or star connected. ‡ Finally.

connected).2 3 4 5 6 Experiment # 12 To record voltage variation at the alternator terminal. for balanced resistive loads(Y. Equipment: ‡ DC compound motor (To rotate the rotor or armature shaft of the alternator) ‡ 3 phase synchronous motor/generator set ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter ‡ Resistive load & Supply leads Circuit Diagram: .

They operate on the same fundamental principles of electromagnetic induction as dc generator. Thus. an alternating emf is induced in the stator conductors and its direction is given by Fleming¶s Right Hand Rule. Because the magnetic poles are alternately N & S. the stator conductors are cut by the magnetic flux. hence inducing emf. When the rotor rotates. they induce an emf and hence the current in the armature conductor. Dc current is supplied to the field winding of alternator whereas ac voltage is generated on the armature winding. but the arrangement in alternator is just the reverse. In dc generators the armature rotates& the field system is stationary. . They also consist of an armature winding and a magnetic field winding. But there is one important difference.Theory: Alternators are also known as synchronous generators. which first flows in one direction and then in the other.

= Electrical frequency in Hz N = Mechanical speed of magnetic field in r/min P = Number of poles As the stator or the armature of synchronous generator is 3 phase. ‡ Finally. For delta connected armature winding: Terminal voltage is related to the internally generated phase voltage as VT = V For star connected armature winding: Terminal voltage is related to the internally generated phase voltage as VT = V Procedure: ‡ Connect the dc compound motor to 4 point starter on the control panel to operate as a prime mover for alternator. ‡ Record the speed of generator by using stroboscope also note the no load terminal voltage available at the terminals of alternator. ‡ Connect alternator field winding to the field excitation on the control panel. ‡ Switch on the main ac supply ‡ Start the compound motor with the help of 4 point starter.Rate of rotation of magnetic field in the machine is related to the stator electrical frequency by the equation Where. record the phase & line voltages & current flowing through load and note the readings in the table. ‡ Connect the alternator terminals R Y B to A B C phase terminals on the panel. ‡ Set the field regulator knob such that the field current is maximum. . ‡ Connect the output terminals of the alternator to 3 phase resistive load & load should be balanced in all the three phases. ‡ Set the field regulator knob to zero position. these 3 phases are delta connected or star connected.

Equipment: ‡ DC compound motor (To rotate the rotor or armature shaft of the alternator) ‡ 3 phase synchronous motor/generator set ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter & ammeter ‡ Resistive load & Supply leads Circuit Diagram: . Resistance/phase VT=V .amp No load terminal voltage = ----------------------Volts Sr.Observations & Calculations: Speed = -------------------rpm Field Current = ----------------.m.load # (Ÿ) (Volts) 1 2 3 4 Load Vline (Volts) ILoad Line ILoad phase Pout (Watts) (amp) (amp) Experiment # 13 To find out voltage regulation of an alternator for a delta connected capacitive load.

To conveniently compare alternator in this respect we define a quantity known as Voltage Regulation. Ideally VR = 0% . = Terminal voltage at no load = Terminal voltage at full load Usually it is a good practice to have as low voltage Regulation as possible. Full Load Voltage Regulation is a quantity that compares the output voltage of alternator at no load with the output voltage at full load.Theory: Phase voltage of an alternator varies with the load even if the input voltage to the field circuit remains constant (IF remains same). * 100 Where.

m. Procedure: ‡ Connect the dc compound motor to 4 point starter on the control panel to operate as a prime mover for alternator.Voltage regulation also varies depending upon the type of load connected to the transformer.load ILoad Line ILoad phase ( F) (Volts) (amp) (amp) . ‡ Switch on the main ac supply ‡ Start the compound motor with the help of 4 point starter. Observations & Calculations: Speed = -------------------rpm Field Current = ----------------. ‡ Connect the output terminals of the alternator to 3 phase capacitive load & load should be balanced in all the three phases. ‡ Calculate voltage regulation by using given formula. ‡ Set the field regulator knob to zero position. VR is highly positive for resistive & inductive loads and VR is negative for capacitive loads.amp No load terminal voltage = ----------------------Volts Sr. ‡ Connect alternator field winding to the field excitation on the control panel. # 1 Cap/phase VT=V . record the phase & line voltages & current flowing through load and note the readings in the table. ‡ Set the field regulator knob such that the field current is maximum. ‡ Connect the alternator terminals R Y B to A B C phase terminals on the panel. ‡ Finally. ‡ Record the speed of generator by using stroboscope also note the no load terminal voltage available at the terminals of alternator.

Equipment: ‡ 1.induction motor/generator set ‡ 1.2 3 4 Experiment # 14 Load test of a single phase induction motor.ac supply for separate excitation ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Voltmeter ammeter & wattmeter ‡ Supply leads Block Diagram: .

There are two different types of induction motor rotors which can be placed inside the induction motor stator. Two terms are commonly used to define the relative motion of the rotor and the magnetic fields. which is the relative speed expressed on a per unit or percentage basis. The field circuits of most synchronous and induction machines are located on rotor.Theory: Induction machines are motors & generators whose field current is supplied by magnetic induction into their field windings. Induction motor has same physical stator as synchronous motor but a different rotor construction. That is.nm nslip = Slip speed of the machine nsynch = Speed of magnetic field nm = mechanical shaft speed of the motor The other term used to describe the relative motion is slip. slip is defined as . ‡ Cage rotor ‡ Wound rotor The voltage induced in the in the rotor bar of an induction motor depends on the speed of the rotor relative to the magnetic field. One is slip speed. nslip = nsynch . defined as the difference between synchronous speed and rotor speed.

‡ Switch on the main ac supply ‡ Vary the single phase line voltage VL & for each different value measure the value of line current IL true power W. Voltage is induced in the rotor due to the magnetic induction but here the frequency of induced voltage is not exactly the same as that of the frequency of the voltage applied to the stator winding.* 100 * 100 If the rotor runs at synchronous speed. ‡ Measure the rotor speed for each value of line voltage & calculate the value of slip. All normal motor speeds fall somewhere between these two limits. ‡ Connect a wattmeter on the input of the single phase induction motor to measure the input power. ‡ Calculate reactive power & power factor. Observations & Calculations: Synchronous Speed = 1500 rpm Sr. Rotor frequency is related to the stator frequency as r=s e r = Frequency of induced voltage on stator s = Slip e = Electrical frequency applied on stator Procedure: ‡ Connect the phase & neutral terminal of the induction motor to single phase supply & dc generator on the control panel. slip = 1. slip = 0 If the rotor is stationary. VL IL W # (Volts) (ampere) (Watts) Q (var) cos Nr %Slip . ‡ Set the regulator knob to zero position.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Experiment # 15 Torque speed relationship of a single phase induction motor.induction motor/generator set ‡ 1.ac supply for separate excitation ‡ Stroboscope or optical tachometer ‡ Dc machine ‡ Supply leads Block Diagram: . Equipment: ‡ 1.

nm nslip = Slip speed of the machine nsynch = Speed of magnetic field nm = mechanical shaft speed of the motor The other term used to describe the relative motion is slip. slip is defined as * 100 * 100 If the rotor runs at synchronous speed. nslip = nsynch . Induction motor has same physical stator as synchronous motor but a different rotor construction. slip = 0 . defined as the difference between synchronous speed and rotor speed. That is.Theory: Induction machines are motors & generators whose field current is supplied by magnetic induction into their field windings. Two terms are commonly used to define the relative motion of the rotor and the magnetic fields. which is the relative speed expressed on a per unit or percentage basis. The voltage induced in the in the rotor bar of an induction motor depends on the speed of the rotor relative to the magnetic field. One is slip speed. The field circuits of most synchronous and induction machines are located on rotor.

‡ Switch on the main ac supply & set the regulator knob to any suitable position. ‡ Draw graph between torque & speed.m) . ind = PAG/ synch Procedure: ‡ Connect the phase & neutral terminal of the induction motor to single phase supply & dc generator on the control panel. ‡ Vary the speed of induction motor by varying its input voltage. Measure the corresponding speed & torque from BCU. Observations & Calculations: Synchronous Speed = 1500 rpm SR. slip = 1. All normal motor speeds fall somewhere between these two limits. Torque induced in the motor is related to the synchronous speed by following formula.If the rotor is stationary.# 1 2 3 4 5 6 Speed (rpm) Torque (N.

7 .

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