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L-26150!2006 DEBAPRASAD BANDOPADHYAY ANEKANTA 23;1, JOYNARYAN BANERJI LANE BARANAGAR, KOLKATA - 700036 INDIAN OWNER LITERARY TECHNOLOGY WITHOUT MACHINE GAUGING NORMAL INTONATION BY DEVELOPING THE CONVENTIONAL MUSICAL ALGORITHMS ENGLISH DEBAPRASAD BANDOPADHYAY ANEKANTA 23;1, JOYNARYAN BANERJI LANE BARANAGAR, KOLKAT A - 700036 INDIAN UNPUBLISHED NIL NIL

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..
TECHNOLOGY WITHOUT MACHINE: GAUGING NORMAL INTONATION BY DEPLOYING THE CONVENTIONAL MUSICAL ALGORITHMS: A PROPOSAL ..

THE PROBLEM:

How to gauge the intonation pattern of normal speech by utilizing the
-

convention of musical notation by calculating proportionate range in between an octave?

different notes in

PREVIOUS WORK:

WORKSILITERA

TURE SURVEY AND THE GOAL OF THE CURRENT

Existing literature (cf. Bibliography) generally in determined measurement

011

gauging intonation pattern, specially in Phonetics and three parameters ( High, Mid, Low) to be Phoneticians.· Mechanical acoustic

Linguistics, mainly depends on the by the trained ears of the

professional

of fundamental

frequency (fo) or amplitude

has little to do with the actual

perception of speech by the hearer of a particular speech community and there is no general formulation regarding the proportionate literature is concerned range of fundamental frequencies. As far as existing

there are no comments on the definite universal proportionate range of

such naive parameters like "high, mid and low". This work tries to formulate a scale with definite parameters (with definite proportionate ranges) taking cue from musicology.

In music the notations of musical pieces are traditionally

made by the professionally

trained

musicians by using auditory perception. In cricket also, cricket-community eyes of the umpires rather than using mechanical

still depends on the

devices like Hawk eye for deciding the take a

trajectory of a ball in the context of Leg Before Wicket-decision. In this work, authorshall cue from the musicians'

domain to understand the intonation pattern of the normal speech by

calculating the proportionate range in between different notes in an octave. It must be mentioned that the notational tool for music or notes as reference points for attesting notational pattern of normal speech has never been used in the domain of the Intonation studies.

Secondly, the normal intonation pattern is conventionally considered as supra-segmental

features

(as agai nst segmental features, wh ich can be cut off), wh ieh cannot be d isti nctly cut off. However, in the musical tradition, these so-called supra-segmental features are perceptually

enumerated as weJI as can also be cut off. In this work, this perceptual enumeration of melodies
cor iriS.-iT NE ' DE ,;:1_0/ REG N'i0.-;/'[J DA B-

'["0- 106 Ij.! v._~~.••• . 9. !.]./.O.~i. ..
u

OFF]en

by the trained musicologists

will be utilized as a tool for cutting off so-called supra-segmental

features of normal speech of different communities.

Thirdly, traditionally,

in Phonetics as well as in Linguistics, stress of words is to be attested

before going to analyze sentential intonation. In this work, the status of word in a sentence or discourse is to be contested .. What is "word" really, especially in this type of pre-lexical studies? To me, "word' is a culture-specific concept, which has only visual representation-there is no

such representation

in the game of speaking. A literate speaking subject, in his/her printing

culture, has only a visual sensation of word. If word is to be defined as a something (visual black or any other colored figure) in between two (white or any other colors) spaces (grounds), the boundaries of word depend on the particular literate community's spaces in their printing/writing. The boundaries/spaces way of manipulating blank

as defined by traditional morphology, do

not exist when a speaking subject is engaged in a discourse. At that moment of speaking, from the subject's position. it is not word -stress, but it is rather a harmonic intonation of a discourse, which s/he is expressing grammarians' as a continuum without ontologically being conscious about the

order of things (Different levels of language, viz. phoneme, morpheme, word,

phrase, sentence ... ). As word does not exist, the word-stress is also an absentee at the moment of speaking. It is meaningless to account stress by isolating a 'word' from the speech continuum at least in the domain of Phonetics and Phonology. Of course, one can talk about syllable-stress. but not without being aware of the speech continuum.

Fourthly, when ill Linguistics,

stress or intonation pattern is attested by surveying a sample

population, a crucial variable of that particular community is totally ignored. That is their cultural exposure to the unintended sounds or non-discursive sonority (that is, the noises, music, rhythm of the habitat or the non-discursive sounds in which the particular population is habituated to). 1t term, "Accent") of non-discursive

is not possible to gauge the intonation pattern (or so called, in nonprofessional's of particular speech community without noticing this context-specificity

sonority. This work considers this non-discursive sonority as one of the variables (other variables are age and gender) for attesting intonation.

Fifthly, the speed of speaking is to be calculated along with the duration of (something called) syllables (syllable is also defined culturally, cf. Lass, 1981; the measuring unit for duration of syllable is traditionally called 'mora').

Sixthly, the particular speech act (traditionally what is called as 'mood') is to be attested along with the above-mentioned speech acts. variables. A similar sentence may be uttered differently in different

If all these possible variables are observed, keeping in mind the identity and one can attest the performance of intonation of

difference between the normal speech and music, normal speech wholly.

METHOD:

The presupposition is that any normal speech falls within the octave that has a definite range. Basing on this presupposition, let us try to explore the proportionate gaps in an octave keeping in mind traditional chart for music. If the lower Sa (in the Western notation, it is DO) is x, upper Sa (D02) must be 2x and this x to 2x octave range is considered as y, the intermediate notable frequency-points, as per Indian musical system. are 20 (excluding DOl and D02). For the time being, our point of concentration is not y 122. but y/12 as we have avoided subtle srutis tsruti is the weight of the notes) or tones for the reason that in the normal perception of the normal speech. the just noticeable differences among notes are broad and not all speakers, if Weber-Fechner Law is to be believed, bother to perceive or utter such subtle differences. Not all the 22 notes or svaras are required in the normal utterances. Therefore, keeping in mind the identity and

difference between normal speech and music, these 22 svarasl tones are to be reduced in the context of normal speech, as there is no scope for using all the 22 notes in any particular language. In case of normal speech, the proposal here is to follow the conventional pattern of

musical/totes as reference-points.

Let us elaborate first what are these frequency-points of reference in a scale y that has a range of x to 2x (i.e., any points on y is x> and <2x). The 22 points are shown in the following table with their consecutive frequencies. Please note that. for convenience, we are, considering convenience. x as 240 hz., though anyone can select any frequency for their

If we consider lower Sa is 1 or 240 hz and upper Sa is 2 or 480 hz, then the chart will be as follows:

1. Sa (DO) 2. atiKamal re
'l

.:l.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. II. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Kamal re Re Tibra Re Kamal Ga Tibro Kamal Ga Ga(MI) Tibro Ga Ma(FA) extended Ma tibro ma tibrotOro rna pa (SOL) Otikomal dha (LA) Komal dha Dha Tibro dha Kamal ni (TI) Tibra kamal
111

(RE)

1* 1.04167 1.067 1.111125 1.125 1.185167 1.2 1.25 1.316854167 1.33 1.388875 1.40625 1.44 1.:"l -* 1.5625 1.6 1.67 1.6875 1.77779167 1.8 1.875 1.9753083 2*

240 bz 250 hz 256 hz 266.67 hz 270 hz 284.45 hz. 288 hz 300 hz 316.049 hz. 320 hz 333.33 hz, 337.5 hz. 345.6 hz. 360 hz. 375 hz. 384 hz. 400 hz. 405 hz. 426.67 hz. 432 hz. 450 hz. 474.074 hz. 480 hz.
..

..

20. I 22. tibrotOmo ni 23. Sa (002)

OBSERV ATIONS/ A PILOT

SURVEY

When I was asked to simulate Bangia intonation pattern in monotonous speech as recognized and pronounced by the machine by some enthusiast computer scientists, I did not have any significant previous work or sophisticated machines for gauging the rules of Bangia intonation, therefore I decided to transcribe Bangia pronunciation with a goal to make notation of it with the help of 'some jrai ned musician s. To begin with, I have selected a particu lar dam ain an d surveyed on Iy the news-readings in the electronic media, keeping aside other registers for the time being. After

making transcriptions and notations of news readings, had converted those traditional frequencypoints (known as musical notes or svara as perceived by trained ears as native hearer's

perception is importanti into physical frequencies
~ frequency chart of musical notes. sentence pattern ofthe news-readers

following

Roychoudhuri

(1965)'s

proportional

The: generalized 2.

in reference

to our notation

is:

I. Ga rna pa rna re ga ma ga
Ga pa ga dha pa sa pattern of Please note that each note corresponds to a single syllable of a word and the intonation sentence may be graphically represented as:

1,:8..----------------"""------,
1•• , 1.4 +-----:::_..L=---=..,,,,,,

1.2 J

o.st-- O.6t---Q.~

11

0.2 sa

APPLICA nONS
This approach for gauging the drifts and contours Only two of them are cited here: of speech has many possibilities of application.

(ITS) simulation, one can deploy the y and utilize the different frequencies of the octave as reference points to get mechanical tonal speech instead of monotonous speech. The existing TTSs, available in the market do not provide exhaustive tonal variations. (b) For rehabilitation the Hearing Impaired (HI) children, tactical sensation of intonation of particular language, after surveying that particular language with the help of this method. can be stimulated so that the HI -children can feel the tangible intelligibility of the speech and can produce the intonated speech. (a) In case of Text-to-Speech

Bibliography Cruttenden, A. 1997. Intonation. Cambridge: Cambridge Un iversity Press. Grabe, E., Post, B., Nolan, F. 2001. The li/ie Corpus. Department of Linguistics, Cambridge University.

Jun Sun-Ah. 2005. Prosodic Typology' The Phonology oj intonation and Phrasing. London: Oxford University Press. Lass, R. 1981. Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lehiste, 1. 1970. Suprasegmentals. Cambridge, M.A.: M. I. T. Press. Ladefoged, P. ' 50 years of Phonetics and Phonology." UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics. 103:I-ll. UCLA: Department of Linguistics. Roychoudhuri, B. 1965/1984. Bharatiya Samgitkos. Kolkata: lmdadkhani School of Sitar. Grabe, E., Post, B., Nolan, F. 2001. The iVie CO/pus. Department of Linguistics. Cambridge University. Stevens, K. N. 1998. Acoustic Phonetics. Cambridge, M.A.: M. I. T. Press.

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