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Wang Yaonan

a

, Yang Yimin

a,

, Yuan Xiaofang

a

, Zuo Yi

a,b

, Zhou Yuanli

a

, Yin Feng

a

, Tan Lei

a

a

College of Electrical and Information Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082, PR China

b

Key Laboratory of Regenerative Energy, Electric-Technology of Hunan Province, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410004,

PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 2 February 2010

Received in revised form 19 March 2011

Accepted 12 May 2011

Available online 20 May 2011

Keywords:

Navigation

Path planning

Mobile robot

Robust tracking control

Transferable belief model

Dynamic environment

a b s t r a c t

This paper investigates the possibility of using transferable belief model (TBM) as a prom-

ising alternative for the problem of path planning of nonholonomic mobile robot equipped

with ultrasonic sensors in an unknown dynamic environment, where the workspace is

cluttered with static obstacles and moving obstacles. The concept of the transferable belief

model is introduced and used to design a fusion of ultrasonic sensor data. A new strategy

for path planning of mobile robot is proposed based on transferable belief model. The

robots path is controlled using proposed navigation strategy that depends on navigation

parameters which is modied by TBM pignistic belief value. These parameters are tuned

in real time to adjust the path of the robot. A major advantage of the proposed method

is that, with detection of the robots trapped state by ultrasonic sensor, the navigation

law can determine which obstacle is dynamic or static without any previous knowledge,

and then select the relevant obstacles for corresponding robot avoidance motion. Simula-

tion is used to illustrate collision detection and path planning.

2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

During the past few years, autonomous navigation of

nonholonomic systems such as nonholonomic mobile

robot has received wide attention and is a topic of great

research interest. The navigation systems including map

building and path planning implies that the robot is

capable of reacting to static obstacles and unpredictable

dynamic object that may impede the successful exaction

of a task. To achieve this level of robustness, many litera-

tures that deals with path planning is rapidly growing.

The work of Rueb and Wong [1], Habib and Yuta [2],

Mataric [3], Rimon and Koditschek [4] and Borenstein

and Koren [5] are among the earliest attempts to solve

the problem of path planning. Various classical approaches

designed originally are extended in order to be applicable

in real applications. Probabilistic roadmap methods are

used in [69]. Potential eld method is suggested in

[1012]. These methods perform well in static environ-

ments. However, this does not automatically imply good

performance in dynamic environment. Additionally, these

methods have limited performance when obstacles are al-

lowed to move in the workspace.

Recently, other kinds of research were proposed [13

21], which extended the various approaches to dynamic

environment. For example, dynamic potential eld method

[1315], kinematics methods to solve the problem of colli-

sion detection [16], sensor-based path-planning methods

[1720]. Sensor-based path-planning methods are widely

used to navigation in dynamic environments. The robot

calculates and estimates the motion of the moving obsta-

cles based on its sensory system. There also exist methods

with other algorithms such as genetic algorithms [21], fuz-

zy system [22], intelligent algorithms [23,24] to solve this

problem. These methods have the ability of wheeled mo-

bile robots to navigate safely and avoid moving obstacle

0263-2241/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2011.05.010

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: Yangyi_min@126.com (Y. Yimin).

Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Measurement

j our nal homepage: www. el sevi er. com/ l ocat e/ measur ement

in dynamic environment. However, most of the proposed

approaches for mobile robots in the literature did not con-

sider autonomous navigation in an environment which in-

cludes both static obstacles and dynamic obstacles.

Furthermore, in the nature of the real world, any prior

knowledge about the environment is, in general, incom-

plete, uncertain, or completely unknown. These methods

assume that, each moving objects velocity and direction

is exactly known, but this prior knowledge is not easy to

gain.

The transferable belief model (TBM) is a model for the

quantied representation of epistemic uncertainty and

which can be an agent, an intelligent sensor, etc., and pro-

vides a highly exible model to manage the uncertainty

encountered in the multi-sensor data fusion problems.

Application of the transferable belief model (TBM) to many

areas has been presented in [2529] including classica-

tion and target identication during recent times. And we

feel it appealing when using navigation of mobile robots.

This work investigates the possibility of using transfer-

able belief model (TBM) as a promising alternative for nav-

igation system of nonholomonic mobile robot. First, a

neural robust tracking controller, comprising adaptive

wavelet neural network controller (AWNN), is used to

achieve the tracking control of the mobile manipulator un-

der some uncertainties without any knowledge of those ro-

bot parameters. Then, based on transferable belief model

(TBM) to design a fusion of ultrasonic sensor data, a new

approach for path planning is proposed. The local map,

represented as an occupancy grid, with the time update

is proven to be suitable for real-time applications. Attrac-

tive and repulsion potential function is modied by TBM

pignistic belief value. Taking the velocity of the obstacles

and static object into account, the suggested method can

determine which obstacle is dynamic or static without

any previous knowledge of moving obstacles, then select-

ing the relevant obstacles for corresponding robot avoid-

ance motion.

The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2

shows the mathematical representation of mobile robot

with two actuated wheels. Section 3 discusses the nonlin-

ear kinematics-WNN back stepping controller as applied to

the tracking problem. Section 4 proposed a new method

for map building based on sonic rangender. A path-plan-

ning approach is discussed in Section 5. Simulation and

experiment are shown in Section 6.

2. Model of a mobile robot with two actuated wheels

The kinematic model of an ideal mobile robot is widely

used in the mobile robot (MR) control [3037]. The MR

with two driven wheels shown in Fig. 1 is a typical exam-

ple of nonholonomic mechanical systems. OXY is the refer-

ence coordinate system; O

r

X

r

Y

r

is the coordinate system

xed to the mobile robot; O

r

the middle between the right

and left driving wheels, is the origin of the mobile robot; d

is the distance from O

r

to P; 2b is the distance between the

two driving wheels and r is the radius of the wheel. In the

2-D Cartesian space, the pose of the robot is represented by

q x; y; h

T

1

where (x, y)

T

is the coordinate of O

r

in the reference coordi-

nate system, and the heading direction h is taken counter-

clockwise from the OX-axis.

The motion model including kinematics and dynamics

of the nonholonomic mobile robot system can be described

by Hou et al. [34]. It is assumed that the wheels of the ro-

bot do not slide. This is expressed by the nonholonomic

constraint.

_

x sinh

_

y cos h 0 2

All kinematic equality constraints are assumed to be

independent of time and to be expressed as follows:

Aq

_

q 0 3

By appropriate procedures and denitions, the robot

dynamics can be transformed as [30,34]

M

_

v

w

Vv

w

F s

ed

s 4

where

M

r

2

4b

2

mb

2

I

0

I

w

r

2

4b

2

mb

2

I

0

r

2

4b

2

mb

2

I

0

r

2

4b

2

mb

2

I

0

I

w

_

_

_

_

V

0

r

2

2b

2

m

c

d

_

h

r

2

4b

2

m

c

d

_

h 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

F J

T

F

s

ed

J

T

s

ed

B

1 0

0 1

_ _

where m = m

c

+ 2m

w

, I

0

= m

c

d

2

+ 2m

w

b

2

+ I

c

+ 2I

m

; m

c

and

m

w

are the masses of the robot body and wheel with actu-

ator, respectively; I

c

, I

w

and I

m

are the moments of inertia of

the robot body about the vertical axis through p, the wheel

with a motor about the wheel axis, and the wheel with a

motor about the wheel diameter, respectively.

y

x

r

X

r

Y

r

O

P

d

2r

2b

left wheel

right wheel

O

Fig. 1. Nonholonomic mobile robot.

1390 W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405

Since the wheels of the robot are driven by actuators, it

is necessary to take the dynamics of the wheel actuators

into account. The motor models attained by neglecting

the voltage on the inductances are:

s

r

k

a

v

r

k

b

x

r

=R

a

; s

l

k

a

v

l

k

b

x

l

=R

a

5

where v

r

and v

l

are the input voltages applied to the right

and left motors; k

b

is equal to the voltage constant multi-

plied by the gear ratio; R

a

is the electric resistance con-

stant; s

r

and s

l

are the right and left motor torques

multiplied by the gear ratio; and k

a

is the torque constant

multiplied by the gear ratio. The dynamic equations of the

motor-wheels are:

s

r

k

a

v

r

R

a

k

a

k

b

x

r

R

a

; s

l

k

a

v

l

R

k

a

k

b

x

l

R

a

6

By using (4)(6), the mobile robot model including the

robot kinematics, robot dynamics, and wheel actuator

dynamics can be written as:

M

_

v

w

Vv

w

F s

ed

k

a

v

r

R

a

k

a

k

b

x

r

R

a

7

w

H

XV 8

where V, X is selected as

X

1

r

R

r

1

r

R

r

_ _

9

V

v

w

_ _

10

3. Nonlinear kinematic-WNN backstepping controller

In area of research of trajectory tracking in mobile robot,

based on whether the system is described by a kinematic

model or a dynamic model, the tracking-control problem

is classiedas either a kinematic or a dynamic tracking-con-

trol problem. Using kinematic or dynamic models of non-

holonomic mobile robots, various approaches [21,3237]

consider that wheel torques are control inputs though in

reality wheels are driven by actuators and therefore using

actuator input voltages as control inputs is more realistic.

To this effect, actuator dynamics is combined with the mo-

bile robot dynamics. In this section, a neural robust tracking

controller is discussedbriey to achieve the tracking control

under some uncertainties without any knowledge of those

robot parameters from our recent work [36]. More detail,

proof and simulation can be also found in [36].

Recall the robot dynamics (10)

M

_

v

w

Vv

w

F s

ed

k

a

v

r

R

a

k

a

k

b

x

r

R

a

11

The controller for s is chosen as

s

^

f K

4

e

c

c 12

where K

4

is a positive denite diagonal gain matrix, and

^

f is

an estimation of f(x) that is dened by

f x Mq

_

v

c

V

m

q;

_

qv

c

Fv 13

where x v

T

v

T

c

_ v

T

c

, so error can be dened as

e

c

v

c

v 14

Using (11)(14), the error dynamics stable the input term

is chosen as

M

_

e

c

V

m

e

c

K

4

e

c

~

f

s

d

k

a

k

b

R

a

BXv

c

k

a

R

a

Bu

c 15

The function in braces in (15) can be approximated by

an AWNN, such that

M

_

v

c

V

m

v

c

F

Wwx

i

; c; m 16

where the term

Wwx

i

; c; m represents an adaptive

approximation WNN. The structure for the tracking control

system is presented in Fig. 2. In this gure, no knowledge

Fig. 2. Structure of the wavelet neural network-based robust control system.

W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405 1391

of the dynamics of the cart is assumed. The function of

WANN is to reconstruct the dynamic (16) by learning it

on-line.

Assumption 3.1. The approximation errors and distur-

bances are bounded, i.e., the specied constants D

e

and D

r

satisfy ke

f

k 6 D

e

and k s

d

k 6 D

r

, respectively.

For case of notation, the approximation error

~

f can be

rewritten as

~

f W

T

W

W

T

W e

f

17

where

~

W W

W and

~

w w

^

w. The controller is

designed to achieve good tracking and stability results

with the connecting weights, dilation, and translation

parameters of the WNN tuned on line. To achieve this,

the linearization technique is used to transform the

nonlinear output of WNN into partially linear from so

that the Lyapunov theorem extension can be applied.

The expansion of

~

w in Taylor series is obtained as

follows:

~

w

~

w

11

~

w

12

.

.

.

~

w

pq

_

_

_

@w

11

@m

@w

11

@m

.

.

.

@w

11

@m

_

_

_

_

T

m^ m

m

^ m

@w

11

@m

@w

11

@m

.

.

.

@w

11

@m

_

_

_

_

T

c^c

c

^c H

18

H is a vector of higher-order terms and assume to be

bounded by a positive constant. Substituting (18) into

(17), it is revealed that

~

f

s

d

W

T

~

w

~

W

T

~

w

~

W

T

^

w e

f

s

d

W

T

^

w A

T

^

mB

T

^

c

W

T

A

T

~

mB

T

~

c r 19

where r W

T

A

T

m

B

T

c

H

W

T

A

T

m

B

T

c

e

f

s

d

By substituting (19) into (15), the closed-loop system

dynamics can be rewritten as

M

_

e

c

K

4

V

m

_ _

e

c

k

a

k

b

R

a

BXv

c

k

a

R

a

Bu

~

W

T

^

w A

T

^

mB

T

^

c

_ _

W

T

A

T

~

mB

T

~

c

_ _

r c

20

Moreover, assume the following inequality:

krk

@X

2

m

4

W

T

A

T

m

B

T

c

H

_ _

W

T

A

T

m

B

T

c

_ _ _

_

_

e

f

s

d

_

_

@X

2

m

4

6

@X

2

m

4

W

T

A

T

m

B

T

c

H

_ _ _

_

_

e

f

s

d

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_ A

T

m

B

T

c

_

_

_

_

_

_ 6 k

p

p

where @ is a positive constant; p

T

1k

Wk; k

p

k

p1

k

p2

; k

p1

P kW

T

A

T

m

B

T

c

; H e

f

s

d

k; k

p2

P

kA

T

m

B

T

c

k, i.e., k

p

is an uncertainty bound.

The robust term c is designed as

c

^

k

p

p sgne

c

21

Denition 1. considering (21) for nonholonomic mobile

robot, if using controller (12), the closed loop error

dynamics given by (20) is locally asymptotically stable

with the approximation network parameter tuning laws

given by.

_

W g

1

^

w A

T

^

mB

T

^

ce

c

g

1

@ke

c

k

W 22

_

^

m g

2

WAe

c

g

2

@ke

c

k

^

m 23

_

^

c g

3

WBe

c

g

3

@k@k

^

c 24

_

K g

4

ke

c

kp 25

where g

1

, g

2

, g

3

, g

4

are positive constants;

^

k

p

is an on line

estimated value of the uncertain bound k

p

.

4. Map building

An occupancy grid is essentially a data structure that

indicates the certainty that a specic part of space is occu-

pied by an obstacle, which is widely used in map building

in mobile robot [1721]. It represents an environment as a

two-dimensional array. Each element of the array corre-

sponds to a specic square on the surface of the actual

world, and its value shows the certainty that there is some

obstacle there. When new information about the world is

received, the array is adjusted on the basis of the nature

of the information.

Here, the proposed map-building process utilizes Trans-

ferable Belief Model (TBM). The sonar sensor readings are

interpreted by this theory and used to modify the map

using transferable belief model rule. Whenever the robot

moves, it catches new information about the environment

and updates the old map. Because of using this uncertain

theory to build an occupancy map of the whole environ-

ment, it represent important point of view what we must

to consider: any position in the updated map of the whole

environment do not exist absolute exactness for the reason

that any obstacle can not be measured absolutely right-

ness. So every discrete region of the path position may be

in two states: belief degree E, O and uncertain degree H.

For this purpose, the map building system to process the

readings in order to assess, as accurately as possible, which

cells are occupied by obstacles (partially certain) and

which cells are (partially) empty and thus suitable for ro-

bot navigation.

4.1. Review theory of transferable belief model

In this section, we briey regroup some basic of the be-

lief function theory as explained in the transferable belief

model ( TBM). More details can be found in [2529].

A.1 (Frame of discernment). The frame of discernment is

a nite set of mutually exclusive elements, denoted

X hereafter. Beware that the frame of discernment

is not necessarily exhaustive.

1392 W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405

A.2 (Basic belief assignment). A basic belief assignment

(bba) is a mapping m

X

from 2

X

to [0, 1] that satises

A#X

m

X

A 1. The basic belief mass (bbm) m(A),

A # X, is the value taken by the bba at A.

A.3 (Categorical belief function). A categorical belief

function on Xfocused on A

# X, is a belief function

which related bba m

X

satises:

m

X

1 if A A

0 otherwise

_

26

When all bbas are categorical, the TBM becomes equivalent

to classical propositional logic. Two limiting cases of cate-

gorical bbas have received special names.

A.4 (Normalizing or nonnormalizing) The basic belief

mass m(A) represents the part of belief exactly com-

mitted to the subset A of Xgiven a piece of evidence,

or equivalently to the fact that all we know is that A

holds. Normalizing a bba means requiring that

E(H) = 0 and that the sum of all bbms givens to

the non-empty subsets is 1. This means closing the

world. When a bba means requiring that m(H) > 0

and we call this open world. In TBM, we do not

require m(H) = 0 as in Shafers work.

A.5 ( Related function) the degree of belief bel(A) is

dened as: bel(A): 2

X

?[0, 1] with, for all A # X

belA

hB#A

mB 27

The degree of plausibility pl(A) is dened as: pl: 2

X

?[0, 1]

with, for all A # X

plA

B#H;B\Ah

mB belH belA 28

The commonality function q is dened as: q: 2

X

?[0, 1]

with, for all A # X

qA

A#B;B#X

mB 29

The function q,bel,pl are always in one to one correspon-

dence. More details and proofs of the relationship among

functions above can be found in [26,27].

A.6 (The conjunctive rule). Given two bbas m

X

1

; m

X

2

from

different sensor respectively, the bba that results

from their conjunctive combination dened by

mE

1

\ mE

2

A

B;C #H;B\CA

mE

1

B mE

2

C;

8A#H 30

A.7 (The pignistic transformation for decision). The

pignistic transformation maps bbas to so called pig-

nistic probability functions. The pignistic transfor-

mation of m

X

is given by

BetP

X

A

B#X

jA \ Bjm

X

B

jBj1 m

X

h

; 8A 2 X 31

where jAj is the number of elements of Xin A. This solution

is a classical probability measure from which expected

utilities can be computed in order to take optimal deci-

sions. Some of its detail and justications can be found in

[25,29]

4.2. sensor modeling and measurements interpretation

The Polaroid Ultrasonic Rangender is used for map

building. This is a very common device that can detect dis-

tances in the range of 0.475 m with 1% accuracy. In [21],

the sensor model converts the range information into

probability values. The model in Figs. 3 and 4 is given by

Eqs. (32)(37).

In region I, where R e < r < R + e

x

b@

b

_ _

2

ejRrj

e

_ _

2

2

32

EOjx

0 1 < x < 0

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0 6 x 6 1

_

33

EEjx 0:8 EOjx 34

In region II, where R

min

< r < R e

x

b@

b

_ _

2

Rer

Re

_ _

2

2

35

EOjx

0 1 < x < 0

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0 6 x 6 1

_

36

EEjx 0:8 EOjx 37

R is the range response form the ultrasonic sensor, and

(r, @) is the coordinate of a point inside the sonar cone. e is

the range error, and it distributes the evidence in Region I.

b is the half open beam angle of the sonar cone.

4.3. The fusion of data from sonar

The sonar data interpreted by Transferable Belief Model

of evidence are collected and updated into a map using the

same theory of evidence. In our approach, the basic

30

o

270

300

330

0

30

60

90

Fig. 3. Typical beam pattern of Polaroid ultrasonic sensor.

W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405 1393

probability assignment corresponding to a range reading r

is obtained directly using Eqs. (32)(37). The next example

illustrates the usage of transferable belief model for map-

building process.

Example 1. Let the robot be located in cell (15, 10) in the

beginning of the navigation process. The condition is

shown in Table 1 and Figs. 5 and 6. The new basic

probability assignments for cells in the map become (the

rst lies in region I and the second lies in region II):

(Static obstacles)

x

S

0

0

153

15

2

1027

102

2

2

0:1878 x

S

1

0

153

15

2

1027

102

2

2

0:1878

E

S

0

0

x

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1 0:5341 E

S

0

0

x

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:5341

E

S

0

0

O 0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:2659 E

S

0

0

O 0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:2659

EH 0:2 EH 0:2

and

x

S

0

1

156

15

2

2j109j

2

2

2

0:3050 x

S

1

1

150

15

2

2j109j

2

2

2

0:6250

E

S

0

1

x

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:5851 E

S

1

1

x

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:7809

E

S

0

1

O 0:8 Ex

S

1

1

0:2149 E

S

1

1

O 0:8 Ex

S

1

1

0:0191

EH 0:2 EH 0:2

(Dynamic obstacles)

x

S

2

4

153

15

2

1025

102

2

2

0:3903 x

S

2

5

153

15

2

2j1011j

2

2

2

0:4450

E

S

2

4

x

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:6322 E

S

2

4

x

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:6625

E

S

0

1

O 0:8 Ex

S

1

1

0:1678 E

S

0

1

O 0:8 Ex

S

1

1

0:1375

EH 0:2 EH 0:2

In the next moment, the robot is moving in a direction de-

picted by the broken line and sonars scan the environment

again. This situation is given in Fig. 6. S

0

, S

1

and S

2

detect

some possible obstacles on @

S

1

0

6; r

S

0

0

4; r

S

1

0

5;

r

S

0

1

6; r

S

1

1

6; r

S

2

1

7; r

S

1

2

9; r

S

2

2

9; @

S

0

0

3; @

S

0

1

6; @

S

1

1

0; @

S

2

1

3; @

S

1

2

3; @

S

2

2

6; r

S

2

6

3; @

S

2

6

6:

x

S

0

0

153

15

2

1024

102

2

2

0:3100 x

S

1

0

156

15

2

1025

102

2

2

0:2503

Ex

S

0

0

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:5877 Ex

S

1

0

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:5590

EO

S

0

0

0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:2123 EO

S

1

0

0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:2410

EH 0:2 EH 0:2

x

S

0

1

156

15

2

1026

102

2

2

0:2112 x

S

1

1

150

15

2

1026

102

2

2

0:6250

Ex

S

0

1

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:5427 Ex

S

1

1

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:7809

EO

S

0

1

0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:2573 EO

S

1

1

0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:0191

EH 0:2 EH 0:2

y

l

15

15

Pr ofile for the range

l

R R

R +

min

R

Fig. 4. The prole of the ultrasonic sensor model.

Table 1

Condition of this example.

Robot position x

r

= 15, y

r

= 10

Dynamic

obstacles

position

and its

moving

direction

X

4x

= 14, X

4y

= 10 moving direction

in a positive X-axis direction.

X

5x

= 15, X

5y

= 7 moving direction

in a positive X-axis direction.

Static

obstacles

position

X

0x

8; X

0y

8

X

1x

10; X

1y

5

Distances r

and angles

@ detected

by different

sonar

X

0

: r

S

0

0

7; @

S

0

0

3; r

S

1

0

7; @

S

1

0

3

X

1

: r

S

0

1

9; @

S

0

1

6; r

S1

1

9; @

S

1

1

0

X

4

: r

S

2

4

5; @

S

2

4

3

X

5

: r

S

2

5

11; @

S

2

5

3

1394 W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405

x

S

2

1

153

15

2

1027

102

2

2

0:3278 x

S

1

2

153

15

2

2 109 j j

102

2

2

0:3278

Ex

S

2

1

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:5970 Ex

S

2

1

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:5970

EO

S

2

1

0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:2030 EO

S

2

1

0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:2030

EH 0:2 EH 0:2

(Dynamic obstacle)

x

S

2

2

156

15

2

2j109j

102

2

2

0:1878 x

S

2

6

156

15

2

1023

102

2

2

0:3753

Ex

S

2

2

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:5341 Ex

S

2

6

1

2

2x

2

1x

2

_ _

1

_ _

0:6235

EO

S

2

2

0:8 Ex

S

0

0

0:2659 EO

S

2

6

0:8 Ex

S

2

6

0:1765

EH 0:2 EH 0:2

Fig. 5. Initial position.

Fig. 6. Occupancy determination based on sonar measurements in t = 2 s.

W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405 1395

Evidence about occupancies of cells including dynamic ob-

ject are combination using transferable belief model,

which is shown in Table 2.

From the new results it can be concluded that the evi-

dence about the occupancy of cells is increased. This pro-

cess continues until the target is reached.

5. Path planning

In this section, we adopt a new path planning strategy,

in which the robot replans the path as new observations

are acquired. Whats more, the navigation recognition

law that can determine which obstacle is dynamic or static

without any previous knowledge is discussed in this

section.

5.1. dynamic object recognition law

Condition 1. Consider the pignistic value and basic prob-

ability assignments given by transferable belief model

based on update information. At ttime, suppose the

number of the sensor is i; interval time is 1, Event A is

moving obstacle if satisfying that:

(1) m

S

1

S

i

12t

AE m

S

1

S

i

12t

AH ! 1

(2) m

S

1

S

i

12t

AH P0:5

Proof. Let H = {h

1

, h

2

, . . . , h

n

} denote a set of n hypothesis.

Given the likelihoods l(h

i

jx) for every h

i

2 H Let X denote

the set of possible values this observation can take.

mxA

h

i

2A

lh

i

jx

h

i

2

A

1 lh

i

jx 38

plxA 1

h

i

2

A

1 lh

i

jx 39

BetPA

A#X

m

X

A

A1 m

X

H

; 8A 2 X 40

Suppose the sensor measurement is A 2 Xandits likelihoods

are m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AO a; m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AE b, with (38)

m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH 1 a1 b 41

From (40),

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

Ah

1

a1 b

n1

i1

C

i

ni

1 b

ni1

=i 1

1 1 a1 b

n1

i0

C

i

ni

b

i

1 b

ni1

=i 1

1 1 a1 b

42

The sum can be simplied to from Delmotte [28]:

n1

i0

C

i

ni

b

i

1 b

ni1

=i 1

1 1 b

n

nb

43

Thus:

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

Ah

1

a

nb

1 1 b

n

1 1 a1 b

n1

44

Let n = 2 for the reason these are two hypothesis including

occupancy (O) and empty (E):

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AO

a

2b

1 1 b

2

1 1 a1 b

a

2b

1 1 2b b

2

1 1 b a ab

a

2b

2b b

2

b a ab

a

2b

2b b

2

b a ab

a2 b

21 mH

45

If Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AO ( Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH, it means event A of

occupancy is unbelievable, thus if "e and e is a small con-

stant, and

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AO

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

Ah

< e we can belief that event A is

occupancy is unlikelihood.

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AO

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH

a2b

21m

X

x

1

; . . . ; x

i

H

_

m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH

1m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH

a2b

2m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH

46

If

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AO

Bet

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH

< e, we get:

m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AO ! 0 and m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AE

! 1 and m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH P0:5

Table 2

Probabilitic result from transferable belief model.

H H

(unknown)

Occupancy Empty

m

S0

1

T

0

m

S1

1

T

0

m

S0S1

1

T

0

m

S0

1

T

1

m

S0

2

T

1

m

S0S1

1

T

1

m

S2

1

T

4

m

S2

1

T

5

m

S0

2

T

0

m

S1

2

T

0

m

S0S1

2

T

0

m

S0S1

12

T

0

m

S0

2

T

1

m

S1

2

T

1

m

S2

2

T

1

m

S0S1S2

2

T

1

m

S0S1S2

12

T

1

m

S1

2

T

2

m

S2

2

T

2

m

S1S2

2

T

2

m

S2

2

T

6

m

S2

12

T

6

m EH

S2

6

_ _

1

(dyanmic obstacle)

0.8444 0.1203 0.0309

mT

S2

4

1

m EH

S2

4

_ _

2

(dynamic obstacle)

0.8442 0.1222 0.0292

mT

S2

5

1

m EH

S2

5

_ _

2

(dyanmic obstacle)

0.8436 0.1289 0.0239

1396 W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405

Because m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AH m

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

AE m

S

1

S

2

12t

S

i

AO 1, we get the condition:

(1) m

S

1

S

i

12t

AE m

S

1

S

i

12t

AH ! 1

(2) m

S

1

S

i

12t

AH P0:5If satisfying the condition, we

believe this obstacle is dynamic. And the velocity

of this dynamic obstacle is dened:

v

obs

t

x

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

t

O

x

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

tT

O

2

y

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

t

O

y

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

tT

O

2

_ _

T

47

where T is interval.

5.2. potential eld method based on TBM

The potential eld method has been studied extensively

for autonomous mobile robot path planning in the past

decade. An attractive potential which drives the mobile ro-

bot to its destination can be described by Ge and Cui

[10,13]. In this paper, we proposed a new method to

modify this potential eld method based on TBM in com-

plex dynamic environment under static and dynamic

obstacle.

Let x; y

BetP

X

Tt O

and [x

r

,y

r

] is the position both from

dynamic obstacle and robot. v

obs

t

x

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

t

O

x

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

tT

O

2

y

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

t

O

y

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

tT

O

2

_ _

T,

v

RO

(t) = [v(t) v

obs

(t)]

T

n

RO

, at t time,

Fatt q; v

BetP

S1S2S

i

12t

Om@qkq

tar

t qtk

2

nRT if not satisfy condition:1

BetP

S1S2S

i

t

Om@

q

kq

tar

t qtk

2

n

RT

BetP

S1S2S

i

t

On@

v

kv

tar

t vtk

2

n

VRT

if satisfy condition:1

_

_

48

where q(t) and q

tar

(t) denote the positions of the robot and

the target at time t, respectively; q = [xyz]

T

in a 3-dimen-

sional space or q = [xy]

T

in a 2-dimensional space; v(t)

and v

tar

(t) denote the velocities of the robot and the target

at time t, respectively; kq

tar

(t) q(t)k is the Euclidean dis-

tance between the robot and the target at time t;

kv

tar

(t) v(t)k is the magnitude of the relative velocity be-

tween the target and the robot at time t; @

q

and @

v

are sca-

lar positive parameters; nand mare positive constants;

BetP

X

(O) is pignsitic decision value that sensor detect the

occupancy belief value both for static and dynamic respec-

tively; n

RT

being the unit vector pointing from the robot to

the target and n

VRT

being the unit vector denoting the rela-

tive velocity direction of the target with respect to the

robot.

Also a repulsive potential can be written as:

F

rep

q; v

0; if q

s

q; q

obs

q

m

v

RO

Pq

0

orv

RO

60

or satisfy condition:1

F

rep1

F

rep2

; if 0 <q

s

q; q

obs

q

m

v

RO

<q

0

and v

RO

>0

or satisfy condition:1

not defined; if v

RO

>0 and q

s

q; q

obs

<q

m

v

RO

or satisfy condition:1

1

2

BetP

S

1

S

2

S

i

12t

Og

S

1

qq;q

obs

1

q

0

_ _

2

if not satisfy condition:1

_

_

49

where

F

repv1

gBetP

X

O

v

q

s

q; q

obs

q

m

v

RO

2

1

v

RO

a

max

_ _

n

RO

F

repv2

BetP

X

O

v

gv

RO

v

RO?

q

s

q; q

obs

a

max

q

s

q; q

obs

q

m

v

RO

2

n

RO?

q

m

v

RO

v

2

RO

t

2a

max

BetP

X

O

v

O#X

m

X

O

v

jO

v

j1 m

X

H

; 8A#X

With q

0

is a positive constant describing the inuence

range of the obstacle; q

s

(q(t), q

obs

(t)) is denoted the short-

est distance between the robot and the body of the obsta-

cle; v

RO

(t) is the relative velocity between the robot and the

obstacle in the direction from the robot to the obstacle; n

RO

is a unit vector pointing from the robot to the obstacle; a

and g is a positive constant; BetP

X

(O) and BetP

X

(O

v

) are

pignsitic decision value that sensor detect the occupancy

belief value both for static and dynamic respectively;

m

X

(H) is unknown value from pignistic transformation.

From Eqs. (48) and (49), we obtain the potential total

virtual force which drives the reference point of the mobile

robot to the destination, described by:

F

total

F

att

F

rep

50

Assuming that the target moves outward or synchronously

with the obstacle, the robot is obstructed by the obstacle

and cannot reach the target. Refs. [1317] indicate in highly

dynamic environment, waiting method is often adopted

where both the target and the obstacle are moving.

5.3. Local minimum problems

Like other local path planning approaches, the proposed

navigation algorithm has a local minimum problem. To de-

tect the outbreak of local minimum, we adopt the method

in [5] (see Fig. 7), which compares the robot-to-target

direction, h

t

, with the actual instantaneous direction of tra-

vel, h

0

. If the robots direction of travel is more than a cer-

tain angle (90 in most cases) off the target point, that is,

when

jh

t

h

0

j > h

s

51

where h

s

is a trap warning angle, and typically 90. We re-

gard it is very likely about to get trapped.

Fig. 7. Incorporating a virtual target on local-minimum alert.

W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405 1397

Consider a common situation as shown in Fig. 8, in

which the robot needs to detour around a long wall to

reach the goal. At position A, the robot is heading to the

goal position and hence h

s

= 0.

But at position B, the robot changes its direction by

repulsive force from detected wall and h

s

P90. In such

a situation, the original target point is replaced with the

virtual target point. The virtual target point is placed by

following equations:

x

v

x

i

m cosh

i

b

vt

y

v

y

i

m sinh

i

b

vt

52

h

v

h

0

b

vt

where m is the distance that the robot needs to travel to

reach the virtual goal. Also

v L BetP

X

O R 53

where L is the distance between the robot and the obstacle

near the virtual target detected by the longest-range sen-

sor in the corresponding direction. BetP

X

(O) is a pignsitic

decision value that sensor detect the occupancy belief va-

lue in h

v

that direction. R is an offset which depends on

the size of the robot. b

vt

is a certain angler, and typically

45.

Based on (51)(53), the robot escapes from this trap-

ping point and moves to point C. When the robot escapes

from the condition above or when no obstacle is detected,

the original target point is restores, and the robot contin-

ues to proceed to the target point.

6. Simulation and experiment results

To show the usefulness of the proposed approach, a ser-

ies of simulations have been conducted using an arbitrarily

constructed environment including obstacles.

6.1. Simulation results

In these simulations, the positions of all the obstacles

including moving obstacles in the workspace are unknown

to the robot. The robot is aware of its start and nish posi-

tions only. Simulation results obtained in three working

scenarios are presented in Figs. 913. The robot has been

modeled as a small circle, and imaginary sensors (sixteen

in number) are placed in the form of the arc along the cir-

cumference of the robot. The minimum distance obtained

within the cone of each sensor is considered as the dis-

tance of the obstacle from the sensor which detects any

obstacle. And any distance information detected from so-

nar is adding Gaussian White Noise. The rst to fourth

experiments are conducted to verify the proposed method

in the MATLAB environment, and the fth experiment is

carried out from Mobilesim environment.

Experiment 1: Fig. 9 represents the obstacle avoidance

path of the mobile robot in static case. Table 3 shows the

condition settings of this experiment. As seen from the vir-

tual plane shown in Fig. 9a, with the decrease of distance

between Obs6 and robot, BetP

X

(O) became much large

which lead the repulsive force much large. Ultimately, ro-

bot changes its path by deviating to the right. The complete

process is shown in Fig. 9.

Experiment 2: This example illustrates the collision

avoidance process in dynamic environment. The scenario

Fig. 8. Anti-deadlock mechanism.

Fig. 9. Collision avoidance (static case).

1398 W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405

shown in Fig. 10 has some similarity with the scenarios of

example 1 but adding two moving obstacles. Fig. 10 thor-

oughly plots the obstacle avoidance path of the mobile ro-

bot in discrete time while it is maneuvered in a complex

environment (including dynamic and static obstacle)

where two rectangular shapes of obstacles are moving in

Fig. 10. Collision avoidance (dynamic case).

W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405 1399

different directions and different velocity, meanwhile, ve

static obstacles also set in this environment. Table 4 shows

the condition settings of this experiment.

Fig. 10 represents the scenario and the virtual plane in

different time intervals: (a and b) 0 6 t 6 5s; (c and d)

0 6 t 6 10s; (e and f) 0 6 t 6 15s; (g and h) 0 6 t 6 37s. As

seen from Fig. 10(c and d), the robot is in a collision course

with both ObsD1, Obs1 and Obs2. However, it is more ur-

gent to avoid collision with ObsD1, and the robot slows

down to accomplish this. The robot avoids collision with

Obs2 as shown in Fig. 10e and f. Fig. 10e and f show the ro-

bot neglect this moving obstacle and can not change its

path for the reason there is no collision risk with ObsD2.

The complete process is shown in Fig. 10g and h.

Experiment 3: For local minimum problem avoidance, a

rigorous testing is carried out in cluttered maze consisting

of concave obstacles and dynamic obstacles (Fig. 11). In the

following Figs. 11 and 12, h represents the static obstacle

and represents the dynamic obstacle. Point a, b, c, . . . rep-

resent several trapping points. represents the real goal

Fig. 11. Collision avoidance (local minimum case).

1400 W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405

Fig. 11 (continued)

Fig. 12. Collision avoidance (mazes case).

W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405 1401

and represents the current virtual goal. ?represents the

potential total virtual force which drives the reference

point of the mobile robot to the current position. Table 5

shows the dynamic obstacles sets of this experiment.

Fig. 11 represents the scenario and the virtual plane in

different time intervals: (b and c) 0 6 t 6 10s; (d and e)

0 6 t 6 30s; (f and g) 0 6 t 6 40s. As seen from Fig. 11b

and c, the robot does not detect the obsD1 until it reaches

point A at which time it turns to the right-the side with the

lowest collision possibility. Since the obsD1 is now to

change its moving direction and move away from the ro-

bot, the robot continues to track the virtual goal in a coun-

terclockwise direction until it reaches the virtual goal at

point B. Since the goal is now to the left of the robot, it con-

tinues to track the current virtual goal (point C) at which

time the robot detects obsD2. But in Fig. 11b, it shows

the robot neglects this moving obstacle and can not change

its path for the reason that there is no collision risk with

ObsD2. In Fig. 11d and e, there are several local minimum

points including point D, E, F. At these points where the ro-

bots direction of travel is more than a certain angle

(jh

t

h

0

j > 90) off the target point, the robot turns its

direction and tracks current virtual goal. Then the robot

continues to see the wall on its left until it arrives at point

H and I after which it goes towards a real target point. The

complete process is shown in Fig. 11f and g and the robot

moves counterclockwise around obstacles through point J

and K to the nal goal.

Fig. 13. Collision avoidance based on Mobilesim environment (dynamic case).

Table 3

Experimental conditions of obstacle avoidance (static case).

Initial robot position x

r

= 0[m], y

r

= 0[m]

Goal position Goal

x

= 30[m], Goal

y

= 20.5[m],

Obstacle position Obs1

x

= 8[m], Obs1

y

= 10[m]

Obs2

x

= 13[m], Obs2

y

= 10[m]

Obs3

x

= 18[m], Obs3

y

= 20[m]

Obs4

x

= 20[m], Obs4

y

= 15[m]

Obs5

x

= 24[m], Obs5

y

= 20[m]

Obs6

x

= 9[m] ?12[m], Obs6

y

= 10[m]

Processing time 30 s

1402 W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405

Experiment 4: In this experiment, the more complex

test is performed to present the effectiveness of the pro-

posed approach in cluttered environment with obstacle

loops and mazes. Similar as experiment 3, h represents

the static obstacle and represents the dynamic obstacle.

Fig. 12a, c and e thoroughly plot the obstacle avoidance

path of the mobile robot in discrete time while it is maneu-

vered in a dynamic environment where many dynamic

obstacles are moving in different direction. Whereas,

Fig. 12b, d and f give some detail information about how

the robot navigation system behaves at each discrete time.

The proposed algorithm performs well in a cluttered dy-

namic environment, as shown in Fig. 12a and b. The pro-

cesses for wall following, passing through a narrow door

and escaping from local minimum point using our algo-

rithm are shown in Fig. 12cf.

Experiment 5: This example is shown in Fig. 13. This

illustrates the collision avoidance process by change both

seed and orientation when facing with multi-moving

obstacle. Fig. 13a represents the scenario, while Fig. 13b

e indicate the virtual plane in different time intervals: (b)

0 6 t 6 1.2; (c) 0 6 t 6 5.1; (d) 0 6 t 6 6.3; (e) 0 6 t 6 8.1.

As seen from the virtual plane shown in Fig. 13b, there is

a collision risk with D

1

in the time 0 6 t 6 1.2. The robot

changes its path by deviating to the right, as shown in

Fig. 13b. In Fig. 13c and d, robot changes its orientation

by avoiding collision with D

1

and D

2

using proposed

method.

6.2. Experiment with a pioneer robot

The method presented in this paper has been tested on

a Pioneer robot. The robot and the experiment setup are

shown in Fig. 14. The laptop on top on the robot is in

charge of all computation: motion control, planning, SLAM

and so on. The navigation is carried out in real-time and we

only use sonar to detect obstacle.

In order to simulate dynamic obstacle, two football mo-

bile robots (MT-Robot) are used based on remote control.

The orientation of the two MT-Robot is shown in Fig. 15.

The track line of Pioneer robot is indicated approximately

with blue color in this gure. The room is a clean environ-

ment with long wall obstacles and measures approxi-

mately 8.6 m by 6.5 m. The objects were placed in the

room and their positions are point out as shown in

Fig. 15. The position of the robot is recorded at regular time

intervals. During the test executions, all programs were

run under the Windows NT operating system, directly on

the main processor of the robot, a Pentium 2.3G. A test case

is presented in Fig. 15.

In this experiment, the goal position is aligned to the

front of the mobile robot which is obstructed by obstacles

wall and two MT-Robots. The mobile robot starts to move

towards according to the real goal. As it moves, it detects

obstacles in front and in the left from its ultrasonic sensors.

The navigation law makes a correct decision by indicating

the right direction to the mobile robot until it reaches the

virtual goal. Then the mobile robot keeps moving and de-

tects dynamic obstacles in right direction. The robot makes

the correct decision and turns to the left avoiding the de-

tected obstacles successfully and then reaches the goal.

Although feature detectors using sonar is not very

accurate especially in complex environment and real

Table 4

Experimental conditions of obstacle avoidance (dynamic case).

Initial robot position x

r

= 0[m], y

r

= 0[m]

Goal position Goal

x

= 29[m], Goal

y

= 25[m],

Initial dynamic obstacle

position and its moving

direction and velocity

ObsD1

x

= 10[m], ObsD1

y

= 0[m]

moving direction and velocity

moving in a positive Y-axis

direction at 0.88(m/s)

ObsD2

x

= 12[m], ObsD1

y

= 15[m]

moving direction and velocity

moving in a positive X-axis

direction at 0.19(m/s).

Static obstacle position

Obs1

x

8m; Obs1

y

10m

Obs2

x

12m; Obs2

y

10m

Obs3

x

18m; Obs3

y

20m

Obs4

x

20m; Obs4

y

15m

Obs5

x

24m; Obs5

y

20m

Processing time 37 s

Fig. 14. Pioneer robot.

Table 5

Experimental conditions of dynamic obstacles.

Initial robot position x

r

= 0[m], y

r

= 0[m]

Goal position Goal

x

= 29[m], Goal

y

= 25[m],

Dynamic obstacle position and

its moving direction and

velocity

ObsD 1

x

= 0[m] M6[m],

ObsD1

y

= 5[m], moving back and

forth along X-axis and its velocity

at 1.20(m/s)

ObsD2

x

= 10[m],

ObsD1

y

= 5[m] M10[m], moving

back and forth along Y-axis and its

velocity at 1.00(m/s)

ObsD3

x

= 15[m] M22[m],

ObsD3

y

= 10[m], moving back and

forth along X-axis and its velocity

at 0.70(m/s)

ObsD4 = (0, 20) M(5, 25), moving

back and forth and its velocity at

0.71(m/s)

Processing time 40 s

W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405 1403

performance, in this experiment, it is not very robust as

compared with simulation experiment in Matlab or

Mobilesim (Process time became long, waiting motion

happened frequently), it also can achieve the goal based

on this navigation method. Furthermore, the performance

of the simulation and the real robot is different. The simu-

lation has a faster cycle time for the iterations of the pro-

posed method. This allows the robot to follow the

smoother path. The reactions of the robot in the simulation

are also different from the real robot. For instance, once a

speed command is given to the real robot, the set point is

obtained over a period of time. In the simulation, the speed

set point is almost immediately achieved.

From these results, it shows that based on our collision

avoidance algorithm, the mobile robot can nd a safe and

smooth path for attaining the target position autono-

mously whether in a static or dynamic environment when

adding highly noise to the sensor.

7. Conclusion

In this paper, a new mobile robot navigation strategy

for nonholomonic mobile robot in dynamic environment

was designed and fully tested in this work based on trans-

ferable belief model. The aim was to let the robot nd a

collision-free trajectory between the starting conguration

and the goal conguration in a dynamic environment con-

taining some obstacle (including static and moving object).

For this purpose, a navigation strategy which consists of

sonar data interpretation and fusion, map building, and

path planning is designed. The sonar data fusion and dy-

namic object distinguish law were discussed using trans-

ferable belief model. Based on proposed judging law, a

path planning algorithm is modied based on potential

eld method. Simulation and experiment results validate

the effectiveness of the proposed method. Though mobile

robot is discussed, the method is generally applicable to

other type of problem, as well as to pattern recognition,

objective classication.

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the anonymous editor and reviewer

for their invaluable suggestions, which has been incorpo-

rated to improve the quality of this paper dramatically.

This work was supported by National Natural Science

Foundation of China (60775047, 60673084), National High

Technology Research and Development Program of China

(863 Program: 2008AA04Z214), National Technology Sup-

port Project (2008BAF36B01) and Research Foundation of

Hunan Provincial Education Department (10C0356).

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Wang Yaonan received the B.S. degree in

computer engineering from East China Sci-

ence and Technology University (ECSTU),

Shanghai, China, in 1982 and the M.S., and

Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from

Hunan University, Changsha, China, in 1990

and 1994, respectively.

From 1994 to 1995, he was a Postdoctoral

Research Fellow with the Normal University

of Defence Technology. From 1981 to 1994, he

worked with ECSTU. From 1998 to 2000, he

was a senior Humboldt Fellow in Germany,

and from 2001 to 2004, he was a visiting professor with the University of

Bremen, Bremen, Germany. He has been a Professor at Hunan University

since 1995. His research interests are intelligent control and information

processing, robot control and navigation, image processing, and industrial

process control.

Yang Yimin received the B.E.E., and M.S.E.E.

degrees in 2005 and 2009, respectively, from

Xiangtan University and Hunan University,

Hunan, China. Now, He is currently working

toward the Ph.D. degree in Hunan University.

His research interests include robot control

and navigation, intelligent information pro-

cessing, and articial neural networks.

Yuan Xiaofang received the B.S., M.S., and

Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from

Hunan University, Changsha, China, in 2001,

2006 and 2008, respectively.

He is currently a lecturer with the College of

Electrical and Information engineering, Hunan

University. His research interests include

intelligent control theory and applications,

kernel methods, and articial neural networks.

Zuo Yi received the Ph.D. degree in Control

Science and Engineering from Hunan Univer-

sity, Changsha, China, in 2009. He is a visiting

scholar in University of Waterloo from 2008

to 2009. His scientic interests include neural

networks and robotic robust control.

W. Yaonan et al. / Measurement 44 (2011) 13891405 1405

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