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The Industrial Revolution (1768s) directed toward the relevant and applied use of structures

Reversal of the direction in Sullivans vision. He had hardly any commissions and died in 1924 a lonely and neglected figure. European Developments (1900s) Otto Wagner Viennese architect Began eliminating Renaissance trappings from his buildings and pursued the more essential architecture Adolf Loos Reacted against the excesses of Art Nuveau

The Arts and Crafts Movement (early 19th Century) movement for aesthetic and moral crusade escape from the Industrial World John Ruskin(1819-1900) and William Morris(1834-1896) were the key figures Eclecticism architecture of the borrowing and of free selection Joseph Paxton (1851) designed Palace the Crystal


Elisha Graves Otis (1870, New York) developed the first safe passenger elevator. In addition to this, was the development of techniques for manufacturing rolled steel. The Great Chicago Fire (1870) Montauk Building by Daniel Burnham (1881) Home Insurance Company Building by William Le Baron Jenney (1883) (first skyscraper free of the limitations of masonry) Auditorium Building by Adler and Sullivan (1889) Wainwright Building by Adler and Sullivan (1890) Guarranty Building by Adler and Sullivan (1894) Reliance Building by Burnham and Root (1894) The Chicago School (1880s) concentration on high structures were built in Chicago William Le Baron Jenney Louis Sullivan born in Boston, 1856 studied at Institute of Technology in Massachusetts Worked in the Chicago office of Jenney Studied 6 months at the Ecole des Beaux Arts Returned to Chicago after the great fire Form Follows Function Daniel Burnham Born in New York, 1846 Educated at Chicago and also had his apprentiship at Loring and Jenney office -

Published Ornament and Verbrechen Ornament is a Crime Berlage Dutch Architect Publicized the works of Frank Lloyd Wright in Europe And thus in architecture, decoration and ornament are quite essential while space-creation and the relationships of masses are its true essentials.

Wright vs. Sullivan Frank Lloyd Wright began his architects career as an apprentice at Louis Sullivans office Sullivans architecture was urban, restrained in character, and classic in organization Sullivan wrote, It is the very essence of every problem that it contains and suggests its own solutions. Thus Form follows Function. Wrights architecture developed into the expression of asymmetrically composed masses and subtly interpenetrating spaces more suited to stand alone, preferably in a natural rather than an urban context. Wright wrote, .as a physical raw materialism instead of the spiritual thing it really is: the idea of Life itself, bodily and spiritually, intrinsic organism. Form and Function as one. The Office of Peter Behrens(1910s) office at Berlin was the center of search and expression for new principles Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe (1908) Spent 3 years in this office Less is More

Formulated Cubism and Futurism Walter Gropius Behrens chief designer

The Creation of Space Lao Tze, a Chinese Philosopher, said, The reality of the building does not consist in the roof and walls, but in the space within to be lived in. Space has 3 Stages:

Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir mens blood.

The World Columbian Exposition (1890) Jackson Park, Chicago Burnham was the chief of construction John W. Root was the consulting architect Frederick Law Olmsted was the landscape architect Birth of the Modern American City Planning

Outer space - interplay and visual tension created in the relationship of static volumes Inner Space - emphasis on the hollowed interior volume and the continuity of interior space, where the

exterior form was the result of the defined space within Interpenetration of Space - the to former phases were intermingled when a new period was initiated by the discovery that sight is an organic process, one in which motion initiates a way of seeing and recording phenomena that is more than a passive transfer of images. By motion, time (the 4th dimension) was introduced The BAUHAUS (1920s) Germany was the center of development and study Art and Technology, the New Unity Established by Walter Gropius Functionalism The International Style (1930s) Frank Lloyd Wright (America) Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe (Germany) Walter Gropius (Germany) Le Corbusier (France) Functional, Nontraditional, Nonregional Reassessment Universalism Mies Van Der Rohes work is more classical formal architectural expression Functions are resolved within a minimum of larger elements Function is subject to an external order or discipline. Personalism Wright used the functional complexities of a building as the integral means of form and expression. Brutalism

Derived from beton brut (naked concrete)

Postmodernism A trend away from the functional aesthetic of the International Style and the severity of Brutalism. Favored the return to the historical references Robert Venturi Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture Less is Bore