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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The general purpose of this study is to understand the basic requirements of different companies for domestic movement of cargo i.e. the mode of transport they use for movement of cargo, the type of service they require, their major destination lanes and the shipment volumes and the various problems they currently face to manage the entire process of transportation. India is being touted as the land of opportunity for logistics service providers all over the world. Logistics management in India has become complex, with about ten million retail outlets to cater to the needs of one billion people. The study will also help us build a network of routes in and around Kolkata for DOMESTIC CARGO SERVICES in Expeditors. Basically Covering seven sisters i.e. the north eastern states. The study will help in approximation of cost and time of each shipment and thus improving the services. A network would be developed and various factors would be considered while selecting an office location for DCS in KOLKATA.

The sample size for this research is 90. A set of questions would be developed and administered to the sample population. The question would be administered through telephonic conversation.

Sr.n o

Contents

Pg.N o.
6 9 9 10 12 13 14 14

1 Introduction a. Logistics outlook in India b. Investments in Logistics sector c. Pitfalls and Challenges d. Need for Integration e. Outsourcing Logistics services-A growing Trend 2 Third Party Logistics a. Overview

14 b. Advent and Growth of 3PL market in India c. Factors that are driving Indian Logistics towards 15 3PL 3 Objectives 4 Research Methodology 5 Conceptual Framework 6 About Expeditors 7 SWOT Analysis of Expeditors 8 Kolkata Network 9 Data Analysis 10 Findings 11 Conclusion 12 Suggestion 13 Limitation 14 Bibliography 15 Annexure 16 18 20 23 29 31 37 53 61 64 67 69 71

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The Logistics Industry


Globally, the logistics industry is valued at US$ 3.5 trillion. The U.S., which contributes to over 25% of the global industry value, spends close to 9% of its GDP on logistic services. The Indian Logistics Industry is presently estimated at US$ 90 billion. (CII) The industry has generated employment for 45 million people in the country in comparison with the IT and ITES sector which employs approximately 4.3 million People. It is forecast to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of Approximately 8% over the next three to five years. (CII) Third Party Logistics (3PL) Solutions, is slated to grow at a compound Annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 16% from 2007-10. Consequently, 3PL service providers are expected to corner an increased share of the Indian Logistics pie, from 6% in FY06 to 13% in FY11, at a CAGR of 25% (CII). The primary growth drivers of this industry are as under: Investments in the infrastructure sector amounting to US$ 350 billion: o Increased efficiency and productivity of the transport system would result in lower transit times. Streamlining of the indirect tax structure: o The introduction of Value Added Tax (VAT) and the proposed introduction of a singular Goods and Services Tax (GST) are

expected to significantly reduce the number of warehouses manufacturers are required to maintain in different states, thereby resulting in a substantial increase in demand for integrated logistics solutions. Robust trade growth o Strong economic growth and liberalization have led to considerable increase in domestic and international trade volumes over the past five years. Consequently, the requirement for transportation, handling and warehousing is growing at a robust pace and is driving the demand for integrated logistics solutions. Globalization of manufacturing systems o Globalization advancements companies of in manufacturing technology verticals to are systems concentrate coupled on their with core increasingly compelling

across

competencies and avail the cost saving potential of outsourcing. This is expected to contribute to an increase in the need for integrated logistic solutions, which is the niche of every Third Party Logistics Service (3PL Services) provider. The industry has been valued at US$ 125 billion in 2010. (CII) A snapshot of the FDI regulations governing the industry is as under: i. 100% FDI under the automatic route is permitted for all logistic services except services mentioned in points ii and iii below. ii. FDI up to 100% subject to FIPB approval is permitted for courier services. iii. FDI up to 49% under the automatic route is permitted for air transport services, including air cargo services. It is pertinent to mention in this context, that Press Note 1 (2007) that is expected to be imminently

notified by the DIPP proposes to increase the limit of FDI on air cargo services in 74%. The industry has been at the receiving end of increasing interest from the private equity sector. The year 2007 witnessed just under US$ 1 billion in private equity investments in this industry, representing approximately 7% of total private equity investments during the year, against 3% in the previous year. Logistics outlook in India India spends about 13.0 percent of its total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on logistics, as per 2005 estimates. The major logistics functions for the Indian industries include Transportation Warehousing Freight Forwarding, and other Value Added Operations including Management of Information Systems (MIS). Nevertheless, the logistics industry, providing services to fulfill these major logistics needs of the Indian industries is highly fragmented. The transportation service provider segment is completely dominated by small trucking companies and individual truckers. The freight forwarding service provider segment is also represented by thousands of small customs brokers and clearing & forwarding agents. Similarly, there are a huge number of participants in the warehousing service segment and MIS service segment also. Few service providers have the capability to provide more than one service and it is very rare that a single service provider has the capability to provide all the logistics services. Such fragmentation had lead Indian industries to outsource packets of individual logistics functions to different service providers while retaining the overall control of logistics in-house, despite incurring heavy administrative and infrastructural costs.

Huge Investments in Logistics Sector Indias logistics sector attracted investments worth Rs. 23,200 crore in It outclassed some of the major sectors including aviation (Rs 20,890

first half of 2008. crore), metals and mining (Rs 8500 crore) and consumer durables (Rs 6000 crore) among others. Delhi has emerged as the preferred location for the development of A large number of upcoming SEZs have necessitated the development Indian logistics industry is expected to grow annually at the rate of 15Market share of organized logistics players is also expected to double About 110 logistics parks spread over approximately 3,500 acres at an logistics parks with an investment of approximately $ 200 million. of logistics for the domestic market as well as for global trade. 20 percent, reaching revenues of approximately $ 385 bn by 2015. to approximately 12 percent during the same period. estimated cost of $1 bn are expected to be operational and an estimated 45 mn ft2 of warehousing space with an investment of $ 500 mn is expected to be developed by various logistics companies by 2012.

Pitfalls and challenges The Indian logistics industry suffers from inadequate infrastructure, complex tax laws and insufficient technological aids. In India, around 65% of goods are transported by road. In respect of the road transport sector, vehicle ownership is firmly in the hands of individual truck owners, 67% of whom have fleets of less than five vehicles. A fragmented market increases paperwork costs and efforts required to channel resources. The poor condition of roads translates directly to higher vehicle turnover, which increases operating costs and reduces efficiency. 8

These

inefficiencies

are

passed

on

to

the

logistics

industry,

with

transportation costs accounting for nearly 40% of logistics costs. As the average fleet size is small, individual truck owners are unable to contract their vehicles directly to companies, and thus freight consolidators and brokers take a commission to provide truck owners with consignments. Truck owners lack the bargaining power necessary for negotiating prices, and provide transportation services at minimum profit. Increasing costs and dwindling profits affect truck owners ability to upgrade and expand their fleets. In India, logistics costs are still higher than those in developed markets it is estimated to be around 13% of the GDP, compared with 8% in the US. Transportation costs account for nearly 40% of production costs. Inventory carrying costs account for approximately 24% of logistics costs, and order processing and administrative costs account for a significant 10%. Stock filing and warehouse management is, in many cases, done manually, which increases administrative costs and adds an element of inefficiency. The three major hurdles faced by Indias logistics industry are insufficient knowledge and under-exposure of logistics solution providers, inadequate infrastructure, and ineffective usage of information technology. Lack of an integrated transport policy has hampered growth of the logistics sector in India. The major problem is the road transport sector, which, despite being a major link in the system, does not enjoy industry status. Consequently, road transport operators do not have access to low-interest funds. India needs to invest in railways, which are environmentally friendly and the most cost effective system. Inland waterways, neglected over the years, are to be developed as well, pointed out MP M Menon, former Indian ambassador to Brazil. A characteristic feature of the industry structure in India, particularly in the express and logistics segments, is the many players offering homogenous 9

services. Consequently, there is near-commoditization of services, especially in the express document business where demand is price-sensitive. The top end of the market is controlled by a handful of multi-nationals and large domestic players. Industry consolidation is, however, starting to occur. DHL has acquired local express major Blue Dart Express and, in the port terminal business, Maersk and P&O Ports have consolidated their position by acquiring controlling stakes in private container terminals in Gujarat. The pace of mergers and acquisitions will most certainly develop in the years to come as the market is progressively liberalized. Need for integration There is a vital need for integration so that our customers can achieve their transportation requirements while maximizing the value of money spent in getting their goods to market. This requires better use of existing assets and industry cooperation, and greater competition. Companies aiming to be an integrated solutions provider have to tackle this by extending their supply chain capabilities. Every point of service along the chain must have the capacity for cargoes to flow through efficientlyat the lowest cost and greatest velocityor it will become a bottleneck and has a cost or time impact on customers. Having bigger ships may ease the shortage of space at sea, but shift the pressure on to the next point in the chain. The global transportation companies of tomorrow must be able to offer highly integrated and flexible solutions that take into account the increasing cyclicality and volatility in operations across industries. This is making companies vulnerable to interruptions in their supply lines. New technologies such as RFID, standardized data processing formats and new supply chain tools and e-commerce capabilities will, undoubtedly, open up new ways to mange movement and storage of goods 10

Outsourcing logistics services a growing trend Usage of 3PL services

The TCI-MDI survey showed that the benefits of outsourcing logistics activities range from improved delivery schedules and reduced operating costs to expanded geographic reach and improved operational flexibility. The study also showed that less than 55% of Indian companies subscribe to 3PL services, compared to more than 75% globally, which implies potentially brisk market growth. Logistics service providers face the same set of external challenges as companies. However, logistics service providers have an inherent flexibility to overcome external challenges such as managing multi-modal transportation and compliance with regulatory requirements and agencies. Internal factors that need to be addressed are those likely to have a high impact on the level of outsourcing, such as the customers costs in relation to the benefits, and the control that needs to be exercised on the logistics service provider. With Indian companies increasing focus on exports, superior logistics planning is crucial in order to remain competitive.

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THIRD PARTY LOGISTICS Overview Third Party Logistics (3PL), the concept of a single professional logistics service provider managing the entire logistics functions of a company, had originated in the developed economies of Europe and America, to relieve industries from huge logistics costs apart from the hassles of dealing with multiple in-coherent logistics service providers. It proved to be immensely successful in improving logistics efficiency of majority of industries and quickly gained popularity, spreading across the globe. In the initial stages, 3PL providers offered only basic logistics services such as warehousing and transportation. But with growing logistics needs of organizations to remain competitive in globalized economies, 3PL providers have evolved to offer several other value added services ranging from packaging to supply chain planning. 3PL Market in India Poised for a Remarkable Growth The 3PL market in India is still in a relatively nascent stage, with multinational companies in all industries being the predominant users of these services. However, domestic major companies in leading industry sectors have also begun to follow the footsteps of their multinational counterparts, starting with outsourcing their basic logistics functions. Nevertheless, considering that the most important logistics functions for Indian industries still are transportation and warehousing, which are likely to be outsourced to 3PL in increasing share, a high level of growth is estimated 12

for the Indian 3PL market in the next 5-7 years. The Indian 3PL market, estimated at about US$890.3 billion in 2005, is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 21.9 percent to reach US$3,556.7 million in 2012. A Few Challenges to be addressed for maintaining the Momentum Geographic diversity of India needing varied logistics expertise for each region is a major challenge to be addressed by 3PL service providers. India has a diverse geographic scenario coupled with a diverse consumer habit scenario in each of its 25 states. Logistics operation in each state requires a suitable model that facilitates the effective storage and transportation of goods mostly sold in that state, making it very difficult for adopting a uniform logistics model. 3PL service companies interested in serving a particular company would have to offer multiple solutions to fulfill the nationwide logistics needs of that company. Infrastructure limitations in India, which limit the scope of logistics services package are another concern for 3PL service providers. The complicated tax structure, deep-rooted corruption and high bureaucratic control are some other hassles faced by 3PL service providers in providing the best of logistics solutions for their clients. However, despite the existence of challenges, several factors are driving the growth of Indian 3PL market. Some Factors that are Driving Indian Logistics towards 3PL Value Added Tax (VAT), the Indian Governments proposed uniform tax regime, is expected to drive Indian industries towards using more 3PL services. Introduced partially in 2005, a full implementation of this regime is expected to necessitate having centralized large warehouses in regional hub cities, to achieve best efficiency in logistics. 13

The Indian 3PL market is set to grow tremendously in the next 5-7 years, spearheading the growth of logistics market. Several factors including governments support are instrumental in this growth.

OBJECTIVES

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I.

Primary Objective:SectorWise Analysis for Domestic Movement of Cargo

II.

Secondary Objectives:1.

Comparative analysis on the basis of select factors. Comparative Evaluation of Expeditors performance with its competitors

2.

3.SWOT Analysis of Expeditors.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

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Research Methodology
(EXPLORATORY AND SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS) Exploratory research is a type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined. Exploratory research helps determine the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects. It should draw definitive conclusions only with extreme caution. Given its fundamental nature, exploratory research often concludes that a perceived problem does not actually exist. Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies. The Internet allows for research methods that are more interactive in nature. The main data analysis tools used will be: 1. Editing: The process includes the review of the data to ensure maximum accuracy and unambiguity. Careful editing early in collection process will often catch misunderstanding of instructions, errors in recording and other problems at a stage when it is still possible to eliminate them from the later stages of the study. 2. Coding: The process includes careful interpretation and good judgment of the data to ensure that the meaning of the response and the meaning of the category are consistently and uniformly matched.

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The main data analysis tools used will be: Software: Excel TABULATION: The data will be tabulated using excel spread sheet. Analysis will also be done using the same.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

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I.

Domestic Cargo Services Time Definite Solutions

International Logistics is the designing and managing of a system that controls the flow of materials into, through, and out of the international corporation. Domestic logistics is designing and managing of a system within a country for control of flow of materials. Globally, the logistics industry is valued at US$ 3.5 trillion. The Indian Logistics Industry is presently estimated at US$ 90 billion (CII) which gives employment to 45 million people. Difference between Domestic & International Logistics can be said to arise mainly on account of the three major factors: Logistic costs is International Business is much more higher than the domestic business, The Logistic Mechanics are much more complex in the context of international logistics than the domestic logistics, The political, cultural and institutional factors connected with international logistics are of considerable importance whereas these are usually not of much consequence in the context of domestic logistics. As a leader in global supply chain solutions, Expeditors provides domestic and transcontinental freight services via air or ground, throughout the Americas, the European Continent, and Asia. Whether your needs are urgent or specialized - Expeditors will provide a cost effective, flexible set of logistics options to keep your cargo visible and moving in the supply chain. 19

Shippers expect delivery methods that are flexible yet guaranteed. Our service options are designed to give our customers earlier arrivals and later cut times to increase velocity within your logistics network. Tap into our integrated network with state of art technology and a highly trained and incentified work force. 1. Strategy and Services

Our strategy is simple - by leveraging our global network, systems and established portfolio of products, we can provide a seamless transition for customers within land continent areas of their supply chain. Expeditors has developed a powerful network of key cargo air and surface carriers that offer the most consistent transit and largest lift options giving us flexibility in both space allocation and pricing. 2. Shipment Visibility

Information is a key component of successful partnering, so we give you direct access to your purchase orders, your vendors' inventory and pipeline visibility with the click of a button. Expeditors' proprietary track and trace tool available online to all customers. In addition, customers can use edoc to convert hard copies of documents into digital format, where they can be easily shared and archived for retrieval later. With these applications, customers can analyze their supply chain with a host of reporting

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COMPANY

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EXPEDITORS
Expeditors International is an American global logistics and freight forwarding company. Expeditors has 255 locations worldwide as of November 11, 2008 providing staff of over 12,000 who satisfy the needs of international trade using integrated information systems. Core Assets 1. People By recruiting, motivating and retaining the best personnel in the business, we feel we will keep our leadership position in the marketplace. Our business is quality customer service and our people are what make that happen. We hire individuals based on attitude, and we train the skills it takes to make a successful career here. Expeditors' employees, as part of their overall job evaluation, are required to take a minimum of 52 hours per year, of in-house training. Multiple on-going training classes are available at any one time within each Expeditors office location. 2. Systems Expeditors takes control of our destiny by taking control of our systems direction. Moving information in a timely and accurate method is just as important as moving the goods and our systems support our operations teams and our customers in providing them the data they need to

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successfully manage the movement of their goods. All of our global offices are linked via high-speed lines using the same hardware and running off of the same transportation software. This drives global standardization with timely and accurate communication. We are the leader in the systems arena, and we are continuing to invest in this critical area. 3. Culture We believe that successful companies have a unique culture, and they work hard to protect that culture. At Expeditors our culture is about exceeding our customers expectations and providing a place for our employees to make a career and do well for themselves. Our environment breeds success, and you will notice that our people move faster, work harder and are better rewarded than our competition. Our offices are neat, organized and set up in accordance with our quality policies. We are a process driven organization that focuses on continual improvement. It's a simple philosophy that works. We will do all we can to protect our culture. 4. Customers Our financial success is directly related to our client retention. We have the smallest sales staff in the industry and put more emphasis on taking care of our existing clients than going out and getting new business. We feel that if we partner with the right clients our business will grow with these customers, and our reputation will support our sales staff in obtainment of new partners. We have initiated some very successful programs to support our existing clients including:

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Services Offered

1. Air As a global leader in air consolidation and forwarding, Expeditors provide customer-specific airfreight programs to shippers of all sizes. As an IATA agent for all major airlines, Expeditors provide a complete package of air logistics services through their global network of experienced professionals and state of the art tracking technology.

2. Customs With the current emphasis on free trade agreements and global sourcing, Customs issues have assumed an increasingly important role in the supply chain. Expeditors global Customs services focus on the compliance, release, and reporting needs of the marketplace, which they refer to as the "Customs value stream." Supported by advanced technology, streamlined processes, and the best people in the industry, they continue to introduce new services and products, assisting clients in managing their global customs "value stream." While many companies offer international customs services, Expeditors has a global vision of our clients' logistics and customs needs. Whether your needs are transaction clearance services or professional services, Expeditors and its subsidiary Tradewin, LLC can deliver.

Compliance Driven Processes: Expeditors network operates under standardized pro.

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cesses which are continually validated, measured, analyzed and reviewed. They strive for the most efficient processes, aligned with customer requirements, and using the best combination of human effort and intelligence, and advanced technology.

Their goal is that processes optimize the entire customs value stream. Compliance information is a key input to the release process, and we're focused on it flowing smoothly and accurately.

They emphasize minimizing the time involved in the release process, so their customer's overall supply chain processes are not obstructed. In a supply chain process, any "waiting" time is a waste, and they are focused on eliminating waste.

3. Distribution Expeditors provide a comprehensive, flexible spectrum of distribution and warehousing services that are available throughout their global network. Leading-edge information technology and connectivity offers real-time visibility to inventory. This combination of coverage and technology offers seamless control over a global supply chain. 4. Insurance Transportation Risk Analysis Center at Expeditors - TRACE The Transportation Risk Analysis Center at Expeditors (TRACE) provides users with tools to manage transit related risks. Cargo Insurance is a critical part of the International transportation process. Most insurance providers do not have access to logistics data and more importantly, do not understand global transportation, which makes it difficult to assess the risk and make accurate recommendations. Expeditors goal is to identify the hidden risks in

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transportation, and to structure an insurance program addressing those risks while providing financial security. Expeditors goes beyond basic business insurance and treats cargo insurance as part of the complete logistics process. Expeditors employs a full staff of trained, professional claims adjustors who will handle all claims anywhere in the world. The claims team is one of the largest cargo only claims departments in North America, and is here specifically to address our insured customers needs. They conduct comprehensive analysis and investigation, assemble all formal documentation and accurately process claims at both origin and destination. Additionally, Expeditors handles all recoveries from the responsible transportation carriers. More money recovered means more bottom-line insurance savings for our customers. When claims do arise, Expeditors has developed specific logistics claims software to manage them. This allows them to use numerous measurement tools and reporting mechanisms, designed to assist in efficient and accurate resolution for their customers. 5. Ocean Expeditors is a licensed Ocean Transportation Intermediary (OTI) and NVOCC and is uniquely positioned to handle all aspects of shipment from launch to catch. They offer a full array of ocean related services including Ocean Forwarding, NVOCC Consolidation or FCL container management as well as customer-in-house services. Expeditors can offer a single-source solution to and from any point worldwide keeping their customers informed of their shipment status at every step.

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6. Order Management Through Order Management exp.o, Expeditors Web based tracking application, any attribute of an order can be tracked, completely visible on the Web. Item quantities, required ship dates, commodity description and estimated vs. actual ex-factory dates along with the complete process are managed in e.tms, our operational system, and made available via Order Management exp.o from the time the order is placed. SWOT Analysis of Expeditors Strengths: Good user-friendly systems that enables their employees to provide real time information to the customers. Expertise in services like freight forwarding, order processing and other related services. Presence of SOP in the process that provides personalized service for individual customers. A large customer base that is already aware of the companys image. Well-informed and motivated employees.

Weaknesses: Lack of experience in the domestic market. Lack of knowledge about the wants of the companies in different industries for domestic movement of cargo. Opportunities: 3PL service in India is still at its nascent stage and there is a huge demand for good 3PL service providers owing to

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remarkable

growth

of

the

Indian

economy

especially

in

manufacturing and retail sector. India is one of the country which has a huge domestic consumption owing to the population of more than one billion people which further puts pressure on logistics company to provide efficient service and wide geographic reach.

Threats: The aids. Dominance of unorganized sector in domestic movement of cargo. A fragmented market increases paperwork costs and efforts required to channel resources. The poor condition of roads translates directly to higher vehicle turnover, efficiency. which increases operating costs and reduces Indian logistics industry suffers from inadequate infrastructure, complex tax laws and insufficient technological

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WEST BENGAL

KOLKATA NETWORK

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PRIMARY TRANSIT
West Bengal S.No

Destination

Destination

Distance

in

Transit

time

Rail

Air

Remarks

30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

A Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata

B Asansol Jhargram Durgapur Purulia Bankura Hirapur Nanoor Siuri Maldah English Bazaar Balurghat Raiganj Jalpaiguri Darjeeling Bagdogra Cooch Behar Panagarh Siliguri

kms 228 170 187 250 180 235 200 230 351 350 460 420 700 731 670 805 200 678

road 4hrs 3hrs 4hrs 5hrs 4hrs 5hrs 4hrs 4hrs 7hrs 7hrs 9hrs 8hrs 12hrs 13hrs 11hrs 13hrs 4hrs 11hrs

Link N\A N\A N\A Yes Yes Yes N\A N\A Yes N\A N\A Yes Yes Yes N\A N\A Yes Yes

link N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A Yes N\A Yes N\A N\A N\A Yes Yes Yes N\A Rail link not direct Rail link not direct Rail link not direct Rail link not direct

SECONDARY TRANSIT (WITHIN 130 KMS)


S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Destination A Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Destination B Kharagpur Haora Alipur Jagatballabhpur sonarpur Bishnupur Barasat Maheshtala Rajarhat Gopalpur Howrah Botanical Garden Dum Dum Sukantapally Barrackpore Chandannagar HooghlyChinsurah Distance kms 127 21 8 36 25 27 23 23 19 16 16 8 15 27 44 61 in Transit road 2hrs 21 mins 15 mins 52 mins 35 mins 35 mins 35 mins 40 mins 30 mins 30 mins 30 mins 15 mins 30 mins 40 mins 1hr 1hr time Rail Link N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A Air link N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Remarks

31

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata

Kanchrapara Bantala Raipur Kulgachia Magrahat Medni pur Narajole Haldia Gaighata Jirat Chakdaha Chapra Nabadwip Debra Kakdwip Bardhaman Chunchura

47 15 37 50 56 126 116 120 120 71 75 128 118 96 88 124 62

1hr 30 mins 1hr 1hr 1hr 2hrs 2hrs 14 mins 2hrs 14 mins 2hrs 14 mins 1hr 30 mins 1hr 30 mins 2hrs 28 mins 2hrs 14 mins 1hr 30 mins 1hr 40 mins 2hrs 1hr 10 mins

N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

KOLKATA TO JHARKHAND
JHARKHAND S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Destination A Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata JHARKHAND Destination B Ranchi Jamshedpur Tamar Lohardaga Bokaro Dhanbad Hazaribagh Dumka Pakur Godda Sahibganj Giridih Koderma Chatra Garwah Distance kms 420 300 358 480 300 300 408 300 322 370 420 332 440 470 622 in Transit road 7hrs 5hrs 6hrs 8hrs 6hrs 5hrs 6hrs 5hrs 5hrs 6hrs 7hrs 6hrs 7hrs 8hrs 10hrs time Rail Link Yes Yes Yes Yes N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A Yes Yes Yes N\A N\A Yes Air link Yes N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A Remarks

BIHAR
BIHAR S.No Destination A BIHAR Destination B Distance kms in Transit road time Rail Link Air link

Remarks

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata

Patna Banka Bhagalpur Jamui Katihar Purnia Luckeesarai Begusarai Sheikhpura Nawada Gaya Aurangabad Sasaram Bihar Sharif Jahanabad Madhepura Saharsa Samastipur Hajipur Chhapra Buxar Madhubani Darbhanga Muzaffarpur Siwan Shivhar Sitamarhi Gopalganj Bettiah Motihari

622 380 410 475 453 500 500 536 524 478 528 580 620 514 580 510 544 610 600 658 711 662 652 652 722 715 724 740 763 735

10hrs 6hrs 7hrs 8hrs 8hrs 8hrs 8hrs 9hrs 9hrs 8hrs 8hrs 9hrs 9hrs 8hrs 9hrs 8hrs 9hrs 10hrs 10hrs 11hrs 11hrs 11hrs 10hrs 10hrs 12hrs 11hrs 12hrs 12hrs 12hrs 12hrs

Yes N\A N\A Yes Yes Yes N\A N\A N\A N\A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N\A Yes N\A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N\A N\A Yes N\A N\A N\A

Yes N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A Yes N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A

SIKKIM
SIKKIM S.No 1 2 3 Destination A Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata SIKKIM Destination B Gangtok Namchi Mangan Distance kms 786 761 820 in Transit road 13hrs 13hrs 14hrs time Rail Link N\A N\A N\A Air link N\A N\A N\A

Remarks

ASSAM
ASSAM S.No Destination ASSAM Destination B Distance in Transit time Rail Air Remarks

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

A Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata

Kokrajhar Goalpara Bongaigaon Barpeta Nalbari Dispur Guwahati Tezpur Silchar Dimapur Jorhat North Lakhimpur Dibrugarh Tinsukia

kms 900 978 922 985 1030 1110 1110 1200 N\A 1400 1400 1400 1400 1527

road 15hrs 16hrs 15hrs 16hrs 17hrs 18hrs 18hrs 20hrs 22hrs 23hrs 22hrs 22hrs 24hrs 24hrs

Link Yes Yes Yes N\A Yes Yes Yes Yes N\A Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

link N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A Yes Yes N\A Yes N\A Yes Yes N\A

ARUNACHAL PRADESH
Arunachal Pradesh S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Destination A Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Arunachal Pradesh Destination B Itanagar Tawang Bomdila Seppa Pasighat Roing Tezu Distance in kms 1400 1433 1264 1355 1828 1753 1685 Transit road 14hrs 24hrs 21hrs 23hrs 29hrs 27hrs 26hrs time Rail Link N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A Air link N\A N\A N\A N\A Yes N\A Yes Remarks

NAGALAND
Nagaland S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Destination A Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Nagaland Destination B Tuensang Mokochung Dimapur Kohima Phek Distance kms 1724 1475 1383 1445 1509 in Transit road 29hrs 24hrs 23hrs 24hrs 26hrs time Rail Link N\A N\A Yes N\A N\A Air link N\A N\A N\A N\A N\A

Remarks

MANIPUR
Manipur Manipur

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S.No 1

Destination A Kolkata

Destination B Imphal

Distance kms 1580

in

Transit road 26hrs

time

Rail Link N\A

Air link Yes

Remarks

MIZORAM
Mizoram S.No 1 2 Destination A Kolkata Kolkata Mizoram Destination B Aizwal Lunglei Distance in kms 1800 1800 Transit time road 29hrs 29hrs Rail Link N\A N\A Air link Yes N\A

Remarks Distances approximates Distances approximates

are are

TRIPURA
Tripura S.No 1 2 Destination A Kolkata Kolkata Tripura Destination B Agartala Kailashahar Distance kms 1674 1600 in Transit road 27hrs 27hrs time Rail Link Yes N\A Air link Yes N\A

Remarks

MEGHALAYA
Meghalaya S.No 1 2 3 Destination A Kolkata Kolkata Kolkata Meghalaya Destination B Shillong Tura Jowai

Distance kms 1196 1077 1258

in

Transit road 20hrs 18hrs 21hrs

time

Rail Link N\A N\A N\A

Air link Yes N\A N\A

Remarks

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DATA ANALYSIS

SURVEY

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Before doing the sector-wise analysis of the survey, we will study the major findings of the overall survey in brief. Total number of companies surveyed- 90 The break-up of the industries covered are as follows:

Monthly Expenses of all Companies Surveyed :

Modes of Transport used by the companies are as follows:

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The major destination lanes from Delhi are as follows:

Type of services required by the companies are as follows:

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Major problems faced by the companies with their current set of transporters are as follows:

In case of imports, almost 80% of the time the decision on transportation is taken by CHA.

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About 75% of the companies go for mutual consent while dealing with the change in fuel prices.

The major locations for warehousing service other than Delhi are Hyderabad, Mumbai and Bangalore. SECTOR-WISE ANALYSIS 1. Engineering Goods

Total number of companies surveyed 22 The break-up of the size of the companies visited based on their monthly expenditure on transportation can be shown as follows:

Modes of Transport used by the companies are as follows:

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Salient Features of the companies in this Industry are as follows: Dominance of Local Transporters for bulk cargo. For low weight consignments i.e. less than 100 Kgs, express cargo services are prominent. Shipment Tracking is one of the major problems faced by them. However, most of the companies are satisfied without proper coordination and tracking as they do not wish to pay a premium amount for the extra service. In case of heavy machinery that are used in industries, production is mostly based on orders; therefore they do not require warehousing services. The major destination lanes from Delhi are as follows:

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Type of services required are as follows:

Conclusion The industry looks moderately well in terms of volume. However, the major challenge would come from the low cost Local Transporters who are dominant from several years and have also started improving their service and offering certain added services like providing warehousing

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service for few days without extra cost after sensing competition from the organized players. But, manufacturer of spare parts that are used in various industries for e.g. manufacturer of fasteners used in automotive industry can be targeted.

2. Retail
Total number of companies visited 15 The break-up of the size of the companies visited based on their monthly expenditure on transportation can be shown as follows:

Modes of Transport used by the companies are as follows:

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Salient Features of the companies in this Industry are as follows: Transportation requirements are complex, as they require wide geographic reach and other value-added services. Dominance of organized players as they require integrated and customized services like order processing, proper tracking, proper packaging, specific work schedules for loading/unloading, etc. Most of the shipments are time-bound, therefore on-time delivery is very important. Type of services required are as follows:

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Shipment Tracking and proper co-ordination are the areas of concern for most of the companies.

Conclusion The industry looks very attractive in terms of volume. Also, the companies are ready to pay a premium as their needs are complex and require customized and integrated service.

3. Garments

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Total number of companies visited 17 The break-up of the size of the companies visited based on their monthly expenditure on transportation can be shown as follows:

Modes of Transport used by the companies are as follows:

Salient Features of the companies in this Industry are as follows:

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Dominance of Local Transporters. In some areas loading and unloading may result in extra cost if the carrier is not the member of truckers association. In most of the cases the shipment is not time-bound and also the danger of damage is minimal. Due to this, companies go for costeffective transportation.

Almost 80% of the companies in this industry go for spot rates while deciding on the rates.

The major destination lanes from Delhi are as follows:

Type of services required are as follows:

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Conclusion The industry looks unattractive in terms of volume and also because of dominance of local transporters who are serving the industry for several years. Also, the companies are not ready to pay any premium as their requirements are well served by local transporters.

4. Pharmaceuticals and Chemicals


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Total number of companies visited 15 The break-up of the size of the companies visited based on their monthly expenditure on transportation can be shown as follows:

Modes of Transport used by the companies are as follows:

Salient Features of the companies in this Industry are as follows: 49

Transportation requirements are complex as proper handling of the materials is very important. Major problem faced by the companies in this sector is of damage/loss due to Improper Loading/Unloading and bad vehicle condition. Shipment tracking is another area of concern.

Companies in this sector have different requirements owing to the volume, form and fragility of different chemicals and pharmaceutical products. So it is important to offer personalized services to individual customers.

Major destination lanes from Delhi are as follows:

Type of services required are as follows:

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Conclusion The industry looks very attractive in terms of volume. Also, because of its complex transportation needs, they require customized solutions. Companies are ready to pay a premium of 2-5% if the service levels are met as it increases their efficiency to serve their customers better.

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FINDINGS

Findings
1. What are your organizations Monthly expenses on transportation?

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The comparitive data suggests that irrespective of sectors monthly expenses are greater than 1lakh which means that Expeditors has great opportunities in these sectors and it must tap the market potential.

2. What type of Modes of Transport does your organization prefer?

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Road being one of the cheapest modes of transportation is preferred the most. Roads are best suited for short distance transportation needs.

Engineering being one of the capital intensive industries having bulk and volume transportation needs. Roads and Rails are preferred. Air mode is preferred for quick and safe delivery, particularly for areas which cannot be catered through other modes of transport. High Quality Garment producers and retailer prefer air.

Rail is preferred for bulk and distant transportation. As in the case of Retail and Engineering.

Modes of Transport vs. Monthly expenses on transportation The data suggest that expenses are high for quick and high quality services like air. As in the case of Retail and pharmaceuticals. 3. What are the major destinations for movement of your cargo from Delhi?

Major destinations include all the major states in India. Sectors like Garments are concentrated more in the southern parts of India which is a major producer of garments.

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Sectors like engineering are concentrated in industrial areas like Andhra and Maharashtra.

4. Which types of services are required by your organization?

Sectors like engineering and retail need Full truck loads services because of their nature of their products. Part loads are preferred in case of low volumes of business which generally happens in case of pharmaceuticals and garments.

5. What are the major problems faced by your organization with your current set of transporters?

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Irrespective of sectors companies find shipment delivery, damage\loss, and proof of delivery confirmation as majors problems which they face with their current transporters.

Others include problems like that of insurance claims, speed of delivery etc.

6. Who takes the decision on transportation for your organization? In case of imports, almost 80% of the time the decision on transportation is taken by CHA. In other cases the Product Manager takes the final call on transportation decisions. 7. Is there mutual consent while dealing with price changes in fuel prices? About 75% of the companies go for mutual consent while dealing with the change in fuel prices.

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8. What are the major locations for your warehousing services? The major locations for warehousing service other than Delhi are Hyderabad, Mumbai and Bangalore.

II.

Expeditors Performance

Expeditors International of Washington Inc. (EXPD - Analyst Report), a third-party logistics provider, has reported second quarter 2011 adjusted earnings of 44 cents per share, missing Consensus Estimate of 46 cents. Earnings per share increased 5% from 42 cents in the year-ago quarter. On a year-over-year basis, revenues in the United States, Other North America, Latin America, Europe and Africa, Middle East, and India increased 16.7%, 14.9%, 15.3%, 31.5% and 0.3%, respectively. Revenue from Asia Pacific declined 6.5%. Gross profit (net revenue) climbed 13% year over year to $472.6 million. Operating income rose 10% year over year to $152.3 million and operating expenses grew 3.7% year over year to $1,429.1 million in the reported quarter. The whopping growth in the operating income signifies operating efficiency and strict cost control measures undertaken by the company. Revenue Segments Airfreight Services revenue grew 2.3% year over year to $749.1 million in the second quarter. Ocean Freight and Ocean Services revenue inched up 1.4% year over year to $486.8 million.

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Customs Brokerage and Other Services revenues increased 18.7% year over year to $344.7 million. Liquidity Expeditors balance sheet remained solid with no debt and $1.2 billion in cash and cash equivalents at the end of the second quarter, reflecting an increase from $0.96 billion in the year-ago quarter.

Criteria 3PL Revenue Parent Revenue Coverage

Expeditors
2.6bn 2.6bn Asia, Americas, Europe 8,000 employees; 149 warehouses Good; TMS Tradeflow, SNEP, Exp.0 Airfreight forwarding, customs brokerage, transportation management, warehousing and distribution, supplychain consulting

DHL
5.7bn 49.7bn Global (Service to 99% of World GDP) 13,000 employees

UPS
4.1bn 33.5bn Global (Service to 99% of World GDP) 22,000 employees; 550 warehouses; 1100 tractors, 2425 trailers Excellent; TMS i2, Roadnet; WMS operates all major systems Air and ocean freight forwarding, customs brokerage, transportation management, warehousing and distribution, supplychain consulting, dedicated contract carriage, trade finance and

FedEx
603m 22.5bn Global (Service to 99% of World GDP) 2,000 employees; 35 warehouses; 298 tractors, 1094 trailers Excellent; TMS Optum: SCE Transportation i2; WMS EXCEED 4000 Domestic and international transportation management, customs brokerage and freight forwarding, supplychain consulting, warehousing and distribution services

3PL assets

Information System

Good; TMS LOGIS, proprietary; WMS ELIS Air and ocean freight forwarding, customs brokerage, transportation management, warehousing and distribution, supplychain consulting

Services

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insurance, equipment leasing, mail services

Industry Focus

Automotive, electronics, retail, chemicals, healthcare

Electronics, automotive, consumer products, chemicals, industrial Logistics activities account for 15% of the revenues of Deutsche Post World Net. DHL does two billion dollars in revenue from contract logistics, primarily in Europe. Operations in the U.S. are mainly in freight forwarding but are expanding with the acquisition of Airborne Logistics. Asian presence is the result of decades of experience and positioning by DHL, Danzas and AEI before acquisition. DHL Danzas is a strong brand in Asia and number one in several markets.

Evaluation

Expeditors is a very profitable freight forwarder with a strong base in China and Asia. The Expeditors management is candid and satirical. The management never lost sight as a freight forwarder on turning good margins on purchased transportation. Operational quality is highly valued and company has surrounded itself with a good team. Expeditors is tied into an organic growth strategy that may not be sustainable over the long haul, but works well now.

Computers and electronics, telecommunications, healthcare, automotive, retail, consumer goods UPS SCS has become the largest North American-based 3PL. It had its first profitable year in 2003 and is now an integral part of the total UPS global offering. Having a financial and operational powerhouse as a parent is a tremendous plus. UPS has generated over $2 billion in free cash flow each of the last two years. UPS SCS is likely to make a significant purchase if it can make the right deal. UPS SCS, like its parent, has important mid-market strength.

Apparel, automotive, healthcare, computers and electronics, industrial, retail FedEx Supply Chain Services follows its parents emphasis on transportation and supply-chain solutions. Preference in transportation is given to other FedEx companies (FedEx Express, Ground, Custom Critical and LTL carriers). Sister company FedEx Trade Networks is a quality international transportation manager. The 3PL revenue shown above is for FedEx SCS and related non-expenses, nonpackage businesses.

Our Analysis Expeditors is focused on gaining market share, expanding gross profits, easing capacity constraints as well as increasing operational efficiency. Expeditors debt-free balance sheet, superior execution, and ability to return

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cash to shareholders in the form of dividends make it attractive for investment. However, competitive threats from companies like United Parcel Service Inc. (UPS - Analyst Report), as well as the companys dependence on assetbased transportation providers to move its shipments make us cautious on the stock for the long term. The company currently maintains our long-term Neutral recommendation on Expeditors International. Total revenue upped 4% year over year to $1.58 billion but this was below the estimate.

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CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION
International Logistics is the designing and managing of a system that controls the flow of materials into, through, and out of the international corporation. Domestic logistics is designing and managing of a system within a country for control of flow of materials. Globally, the logistics industry is valued at US$ 3.5 trillion. The Indian Logistics Industry is presently estimated at US$ 90 billion (CII) which gives employment to 45 million people. Difference between Domestic & International Logistics can be said to arise mainly on account of the three major factors:

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Logistic costs is International Business is much more higher than the domestic business, The Logistic Mechanics are much more complex in the context of international logistics than the domestic logistics, The political, cultural and institutional factors connected with international logistics are of considerable importance whereas these are usually not of much consequence in the context of domestic logistics.

India is being touted as the land of opportunity for logistics service providers all over the world. Expeditors can use its greater flexibility in services to its advantage to counter its major competitors through the following differentiated services which are as follows: Expeditors' proprietary track and trace tool available online to all customers. In addition, customers can use edoc to convert hard copies of documents into digital format, where they can be easily shared and archived for retrieval later. With these applications, customers can analyze their supply chain with a host of reporting. Depending on needs urgent or specialized - Expeditors provides a cost effective, flexible set of logistics options to keep the cargo visible and moving in the supply chain. Shippers expect delivery methods that are flexible yet guaranteed. The service options are designed to give the customers earlier arrivals and later cut times to increase velocity within the logistics network. Information is a key component of successful partnering, so Expeditors provides direct access to customers purchase orders, vendors' inventory and pipeline visibility with the click of a button.

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Expeditors by leveraging global network, systems and established portfolio of products, can provide a seamless transition for customers within land continent areas of their supply chain.

Sector-wise analysis of the survey and the companys internal strengths and weaknesses shows that Expeditors should target sectors like Retail, Pharmaceuticals and other Hazardous and Non-Hazardous chemicals as the transportation needs of the companies in these sectors are complex and their requirements of integrated and quality service can be well met by Expeditors. The company must also keep on innovating so as to remain ahead and to exceed customers expectations. Expeditors can leverage on their strong and modern IT infrastructure and wide reach to cater to these sectors and gain a strong foothold in domestic movement of cargo in India.

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SUGGESTIONS

SUGGESTIONS
1. Expeditors should target sectors like Retail, Pharmaceuticals and other Hazardous and Non-Hazardous chemicals as the transportation needs of the companies in these sectors are complex and their requirements of integrated and quality service can be well met by Expeditors. 2. Problems of damage\loss can be solved by expeditors by providing its own insurance services. So that customers do not need to go elsewhere for insurance of transportation.

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3. Since Expeditors main competitors are DHL, FedEx which have their services all over India. Expeditors should leverage on their strong and modern IT infrastructure and wide reach to cater to these sectors and gain a strong foothold in domestic movement of cargo in India. 4. Companies like DHL own the fleet which they use for transportation. 3PL service which Expeditors uses must be consistent and certain supervision mechanism must be developed to maintain quality of the service. 5. Another problem area is proof of delivery (POD). Expeditors must use electronic systems as POD instead of manual slips which it uses at present. It would help monitor Proof of Delivery on real time basis. 6. While dealing with change in fuel prices. Expeditors must adequately sensitize its clients about reasons for the change transportation costs. 7. The company could think of turning itself into asset based company from non asset based company to thwart increasing competition from other asset based companies like UPS, DHL, Fed Ex.

8. India is one of the countries which have a huge domestic consumption owing to the population of more than one billion people which further puts pressure on Logistics Company to provide efficient service and wide geographic reach. Expeditors must increase its presence in India.

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LIMITATIONS

LIMITATIONS

1. Research work was carried in Delhi only. The findings may

not be applicable to other parts of the country.


2. Responses could be biased and may not give true picture of

the requirements of movement of cargo.

various

companies

for

domestic

3. Lack of personal touch since Data was collected through

telephonic means so may be inaccurate.

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4. Shortage of time was a major constraint

BIBLIOGRAPHY
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Googlemaps.com Indianrailways.com Mapofindia.com


Jimmy Olsson / EFT Research available via http://logisticsmanagementandsupplychainmanagement.wordpress.com/200 7/04/22/india-the-logistics-boom-continues/ Pack Pluss report on Indian Logistics http://www.indialogisticsshow.com/Industry.htm Frost and Sullivan Report on 3PL Logistics (2006) show 2009;

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Business Logistics and SCM (2007) http://logisticsmanagementandsupplychainmanagement.wordpress.com/200 7/03/22/asias-next-major-logistics-hotspot-india/ http://www.expeditors.com/

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ANNEXURE

Questionnaire
1. Type of sector?

Engineering chemicals

Retail

Garments

Pharmaceuticals and

2. What are your organizations Monthly expenses on transportation? Less than and 25000 Equal to 10000 50000 Greater than 10000 and less than equal to 25000 Greater than less than equal to

Greater than 50000 Less than equal to 1 lakh

Greater than 100000

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3. What type of Modes of Transport does your organization prefer? Rail Road Air

4. What are the major destinations for movement of your cargo from Delhi? Gujrat Maharashtra 5. Which types of services are required by your organization? Part Load By Rail Full Load Express Cargo Container By Air Tamil Nadu West Bengal Andhra Pradesh

6. What are the major problems faced by your organization with your current set of transporters? Shipment Tracking Others 7. Is there mutual consent while dealing with the change in fuel prices? Yes No Cant Say Damage\Loss POD confirmation

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8. What are the major locations for your warehousing services?

9. Who takes the decision on transportation for your organization?

DELHI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES


EVALUATION SHEET FOR PROJECT REPORT

STUDENTSS NAME ROLL NO. EVALUATORS FEEDBACK

:______________________________ :______________________________ :______________________________

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_______________________________ _______________________________ DID THE STUDENT CONTACT YOU REGULARLY FOR DISCUSSION?

: YES/NO (Please tick)

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SIGNATURE OF EVALUATOR NAME: DATE: *In case report is disapproved, student has to resubmit the report after incorporating the suggestions given on the feedback form. Revised report should be submitted along with the feedback form.

DELHI INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES


ATTENDANCE FOR SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT
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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

*Minimum (8 out of 10) 80% attendance required. Co-ordinator

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