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This is to certify that Chetan Chauhan, student of Class XII A, Kendriya Vidyalaya No. 02 Ambala Cantt. has completed the project titled 'DYES' during the academic year 2011-2012 towards partial fulfillment of credit for the Chemistry practical evaluation of AISSCE 2012, under my supervision.
Mr Rakesh Kumar PGT(Chemistry) Kendriya Vidyalaya No. 02, Ambala Cantt.
I would like to express my greatest gratitude to the people who have helped & supported me throughout my project. I am grateful to my teacher for his continuous support for the project, from initial advice & contacts in the early stages of conceptual inception & through ongoing advice & encouragement to this day. I wish to thank my parents for their undivided support and interest who inspired me and encouraged me to go my own way, without whom I would be unable to complete my project. At last but not the least I want to thank my friends who appreciated me for my work and motivated me and finally to God who made all the things possible...
Some dyes can .Dye A dye can generally be described as a coloured substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied. and has no affinity for the substrate. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution. and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fibre. In contrast with a dye. Both dyes and pigments appear to be coloured because they absorb some wavelengths of light preferentially. a pigment generally is insoluble.
The Colour Index uses this as a classification and naming system.beprecipitated with an inert salt to produce a lake pigment. dry cleaning solvents. aromatic compounds that can ionise. water. there are exceptions. they offered a vast range of new colours. and based on the salt used they could be aluminium lake. 2) It must be capable of being fixed to the material. soaps. light and dilute acids. Some dyes require the presence of a metal to properly develop their colour or staining selectivity. Although this definition infers that ionic interaction with oppositely charged tissue constituents is the norm. CHARACTERISTICS OF A DYE 1) It must have a suitable colour. calcium lake or barium lake pigments. and they imparted better properties upon the dyed materials. Dyes are now classified according to how they are used in the dyeing process. These are termed mordant dyes. . Dyes are generally defined along the lines of being coloured. Synthetic dyes quickly replaced the traditional natural dyes. They cost less. 3) When fixed it must be fast to detergents. Each dye is named according to the pattern: mordant + base colour + number.
disperse dyes. direct dyes. ACID DYES Acid dyes are water-soluble anionic dyes that are applied to fibres such as silk. Acid dyes are not substantive . namely acid dyes. basic dyes.Classification of dyes Dyes are basically classified into seven broad categories. sulphur dyes and vat dyes. nylon and modified acrylicfibres using neutral to acid dyebaths. wool. reactive dyes.
Acid dyes are thought to fix to fibres by hydrogen bonding. In textiles. acid dyes are effective on protein fibres. The strength (fastness) of this bond is related to the desire/ chemistry of the dye to remain dissolved in water over fixation to the fibre. Structures Acid dyes usually have a sulfo or carboxy group on the molecule making them soluble in water. i. Most synthetic food colours fall in this category. animal hair fibres like wool. Most acid dyes are related in basic structure to the following: Anthraquinone . They are normally sold as the Sodium salt therefore they are in solution anionic. Van der Waals forces and ionic bonding.to cellulosic fibres. Animal protein fibres and synthetic Nylonfibres contain many cationic sites therefore there is an attraction of anionic dye molecule to a cationic site on thefibre. Water is the medium in which dyeing takes place. They are also effective on silk. They are effective in dyeing the synthetic fibre nylon but of minimal interest in dyeing any othersynthetic fibres. alpaca and mohair.e.
duller shades. but find some use . however. These dyes are very economical. They produce. BASIC DYES Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are mainly applied to acrylic fibres.Triphenylmethane .
silk and nylon. Usually acetic acid is added to the dyebath to help the uptake of the dye onto the fibre. paper. leather. silk and nylon. Direct dyes are a class of hot water dyes for use on cellulose fibres. wool. such as cotton. The colours of most direct dyes tend to be duller than those provided by fibre reactive dyes. DIRECT DYES Direct or substantive dyeing is normally carried out in a neutral or slightly alkaline dyebath. They are very bright dyes. at or near boiling point. especially after fading in the laundry. Direct dyes are used on cotton. They are usually applied in weakly acidic dye-baths. They are also used as pH indicators and as biological stains. These contain organic compounds such as NH or NR They are used for dyeing wool. Basic dyes are also used in the colouration of paper.for wool and silk. 2 2. with the addition of either sodium chloride (NaCl) or sodium sulphate (Na SO ). The washfastness of direct dyes 2 4 .
so direct dyes are generally much less bright in colour than fibre reactive dyes. Small dye molecules tend to be bright. Direct dyes are applied in hot water. which is the tendency of the dye to associate with the dye without strong bonds. typically between 175°F and 200°F. while large dye molecules tend to be duller . BEZIDINEdirect red 28. They can be applied in the same boiling-water dyebath with acid dyes Direct dyes are only loosely associated with the fibre molecule through the property called substantivity.is poor. The main reason why direct dyes are used is because of cost. Substantivity is said to result from a combination of the relatively weak Van der Waals forces and some hydrogen bonding. This substantivity is increased by increasing the size of the dye molecule. . Most direct dyes are safe to use. The specific dyes to avoid are direct black 1. so direct dyes tend to be large.
. or for intensifying stains in cell or tissue preparations. The resulting coordination complex of dye and ion is colloidal and can be either acidic or alkaline. direct brown 2. MORDANT DYES A mordant is a substance used to set dyes on fabrics or tissue sections by forming a coordination complex with the dye which then attaches to the fabric or tissue. direct green 6. It may be used for dyeing fabrics. direct brown 95. and direct black 4.direct black 38. • Post-mordanting (afterchrome): The dyed material is treated with a mordant. The three methods used for mordanting are: • Pre-mordanting (onchrome): The substrate is treated with the mordant and then dyed. direct blue 6. • Meta-mordanting (metachrome): The mordant is added in the dye bath itself. A mordant is always a polyvalent metal ion. direct blue 2.
The dye lake is formed when the complex of dye and mordant are combined. which then attaches to the substrate.The type of mordant used changes the shade obtained after dyeing and also affects the fastness property of the dye. .
The colour i pale.Mordants are substances of organic or inorganic origin which co with the colouring matter and are used to fix the same in the production of the colou most commonly used mordant dyes have hydroxyl and carboxyl groups and are neg charged. i. Despite thi must still have hydroxyl or carboxyl groups. Mordant dy usually stain by ionic interaction in the same way as other ionisable dyes. It is convenient to view these as a specialised subgroup of acid Some other mordant dyes may possess amino groups. and are cationic overall. since lake formation requires it. anionic. sometimes so pale that the results have no value.e. VAT DYES .
in this leuco form. The opposite of vat dyeing is direct dye application. Most vat dyes are less suitable than fibre reactive dyes for the home dyers. direct dye. with a wide variety of possible effects. which are chemically similar to vat dyes. they require a reducing agent to solubilize them. such as. Subsequent oxidation reforms the original insoluble dye. These dyes. including fibre reactive dye. the same colour over the entire garment. The colour of denim is due to indigo. using almost any dye. as they are difficult to work with. "Vat . etc. the original vat dye. tie dyeing. has an affinity for the textile fibre.Vat dyes are essentially insoluble in water and incapable of dyeing fibres directly. are developed by light instead of being applied in an oxygen-free bath and being developed in the fabric by exposure to oxygen. It can be done whenever a solid even shade. acid dye. reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water soluble alkali metal salt of the dye. However. The dye is soluble only in its reduced (oxygen-free) form. Ink-o-dye is a type of vat dye which uses light rather than oxygen to 'fix' the dye. is wanted. for example. Not all vat dyeing is done with vat dyes! "Vat dyeing" means dyeing in a bucket or vat. which.
dyes" are a special class of dyes that work with a special chemistry. back to the insoluble form. The solution to this problem is for the manufacturer to convert the soluble leuco acid form of the dye to the leuco ester. However. not all individual vat dyes are equally resistant to light. which is available from the Society of Dyers and Colourists for £9. It's inconvenient to have to reduce your vat dyes in order to dissolve them. The drawbacks of solubilized leuco esters are their greater expense and their poorer uptake into the fibre. Colour for Textiles: A User's Handbook . the most light-fast of all dyes. such as by reacting the leuco acid with sulfuric acid. which results in paler shades. it is impractical to sell the reduced form of the dye. because it will oxidize in the air. The following are lightfastness ratings for the unmixed vat dyes sold by one popular supplier: lightfastne Colour Colour ss Index Name rating (out name of 8) VD01 vat 5 Yellow yellow 2 . as a class.) Vat dyes are. The leuco form of this solubilized dye can be regenerated by removing the ester group chemically (with sodium nitrite in dilute sulfuric acid) or by the action of light. (This is explained in Wilfred Ingamells' book. However.
Cibacron F. Reactive dyes are by far the best choice for dyeing cotton and other cellulose fibres at home or in the art studio. The covalent bonds that attach reactive dye to natural fibres make them among the most permanent of dyes. and Drimarene K. "Cold" reactive dyes. DISPERSE DYES .VD02 Orange VD03 Red vat 5 orange 2 vat red 7 13 REACTIVE DYES Reactive dyes utilize a chromophore attached to a substituent that is capable of directly reacting with the fibre substrate. are very easy to use because the dye can be applied at room temperature. such as Procion MX.
Ph-N=N-Ph (see right showing cis/ trans isomers) Although Azo dyes are a separate class of dyesuff . This is achieved by treating a fibre with both diazoic and coupling components.Disperse dyes were originally developed for the dyeing of cellulose acetate. With suitable adjustment of dyebath conditions the two components react to produce the required insoluble azo dye. The dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and then sold as a paste. Disperse dyes are not watersoluble. Their main use is to dye polyester but they can also be used to dye nylon. and acrylic fibres. The very fine particle size gives a large surface area that aids dissolution to allow uptake by the fibre. This technique of dyeing is unique. or spray-dried and sold as a powder. The structure of azo dyes is based on azobenzene. cellulose triacetate. In some cases. The dyeing rate can be significantly influenced by the choice of dispersing agent used during the grinding. and a pressurised dyebath is used. AZO DYES Azo dyeing is a technique in which an insoluble azoic dye is produced directly onto or within the fibre. a dyeing temperature of 130 °C is required. in that the final colour is controlled by the choice of the diazoic and coupling components. and are substantially water insoluble.
Food dyes One other class which describes the role of dyes. The initial bath imparts a yellow or pale chartreuse colour. Sulfur Black 1 is the largest selling dye by volume.mainly used in the dyeing of cotton (cellulose) fibres. is the food dye. rather than their mode of use. Because food dyes are classed as food additives. many acid dyes have a similar structure. This is aftertreated with a sulfur compound in place to produce the dark black we are familiar with in socks for instance. Methyl orange SULFUR DYES Sulfur dyes are two part "developed" dyes used to dye cotton with dark colours. they are manufactured to a higher . and most are red in colour.
. Some naturally-occurring dyes are also used. Food dyes can be direct. including: • Oxidation bases. for mainly hair and fur • Laser dyes • Leather dyes. • Carbene dyes. althoughanthraquinone and triphenylmethane com pounds are used for colours such as green and blue. mordant and vat dyes. and their use is strictly controlled by legislation. waxes. a recently developed method for colouring multiple substrates. for leather • Fluorescent brighteners. colouring oils. for wood staining and producing coloured lacquers. Many are azoic dyes. solvent inks.standard than some industrial dyes. Other important dyes A number of other classes have also been established. for textile fibres and paper • Solvent dyes.
benzidine etc. Thus many intermediate chemicals used in dye manufacture have been identified as toxic and their use retricted. one of its chemical intermediates. Whereby the dye itself is normally non toxic. Many intermediates used in dye manufacture such as otoluidine. were found to be carcinogenic. The greatest risk of disease or injury due to dyes is by ingestion or exposure to dye dust. These scenarios are normally confined to textile workers. We wear fabrics every day exposing our skin to dyes. the molecules are metabolised (usually in the liver) where they may be broken back down to the original intermediates used in manufacture. Some acid dyes are used to colour food. . This is extremely rare nowadays as we have a much greater understanding through experience and knowledge of dyestuffs themselves. For example: the dye CI Acid red 128 was found to metabolise in the body back to ortho-toluidine.Health and safety Any dyes including acid dyes have the ability to induce senstisation in humans due to their complex molecular structure and the way in which they are metabolised in the body.
spatula. tartaremetic and malachite green dye.5g of solid sodium carbonate and dissolve it in 250ml of water 2) Preparation of tartaremetic solution. Take about 0.2g of tartaremetic and dissolve it in 100ml of water by stirring with the help of glass rod.EXPERIMENT AIM: To dye wool and cotton clothes with malachite green REQUIREMENTS: 500ml beakers. glass rod. 3) Preparation of tannic acid solution. wire gauze. Sodium carbonate. Take about 0. Take 100ml of water in a beaker and add about 1.0g of . wool cloth and cotton cloth. tannic acid. tripod stand. PROCEDURE: 1) Preparation of sodium carbonate solution.
Heat the solution. Cotton does not absorb malachite green readily. Now take out the cloth from tannic acid solution and keep it in tartaremetic solution for about 5 minutes. Take about 200ml of dye solution and dip in it the woollen cloth to be dyed. Dyeing of cotton. Preparation of dye solution. Then put the cloth in hot tannic acid solution for about 5 minutes. Boil the solution for about 2 minutes.4) 5) 6) 7) tannic acid to it. squeeze and keep it for drying. squeeze and keep it for drying. On warming a clear solution of the dye results. Dyeing of cotton directly: Take another piece of cotton cloth and put it directly into boiling solution of the dye. Remove and wash the dyed cloth thoroughly with water. therefore it requires the use of a mordant.For dyeing a cotton cloth dip it in sodium carbonate solution for about 10 minutes and then rinse with water.1g of malachite green dye and add to it 400ml of water. Remove the cloth and squeeze it with spatula to remove most of the solution. On heating a clear solution of tannic acid is obtained. Dyeing of wool. Now place the cloth in boiling solution of the dye for about 2 minutes. After that remove the cloth and wash it with hot water 3-4 times. Keep it dipped for about 2 .Take about 0.
OBSERVATIONS: 1. squeeze and keep it for drying. . 2. 3. wash with water. Remove the cloth. The colour of cotton cloth dyed directly by dipping in hot solution of malachite green is not fast to washing and is of low intensity. Compare the colour of this cloth with that of dyed by using mordant. The colour of cotton cloth dyed indirectly by using mordant and then by dipping in hot solution of malachite green is fast to washing and is of high intensity.minutes. The colour of wool cloth dyed directly by dipping in hot solution of malachite green dye is fast.
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