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Navodaya A period of awakening

Ferdinand Kittel (18321903), Christian missionary and Kannada writer At the dawn of the 20th century, B. M. Srikantaiah ('B. M. Sri'), regarded as the "Father of modern Kannada literature",[138] called for a new era of writing original works in modern Kannada while moving away from archaic Kannada forms. This paradigmatic shift spawned an age of prolificacy in Kannada literature and came to be dubbed the Navodaya (lit. 'A new rise') perioda period of awakening. B. M. Sri led the way with his English Geethagalu ("English Songs")a collection of poems translated from English set the tone for more translations using a standardisation of a modern written idiom.[139] Original and seminal works which drew greatly from native and folk traditions also emerged alongside the translations. Stalwarts like S. G. Narasimhachar, Panje Mangesha Rao and Hattiangadi Narayana Rao also contributed with celebrated efforts.[139] Literary subjects now veered from discussing kings and gods to more humanistic and secular pursuits. Kannada writers experimented with several forms of western literature, the novel and the short story in particular. The novel found an early champion in Shivaram Karanth while another prominent writer, Masti Venkatesh Iyengar ('Masti'), laid the foundation for generations of story tellers to follow with his Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu ("A few Short Stories", 1920) and Sanna Kathegalu ("Short Stories", 1924).[140] The consolidation of modern drama was pioneered by T. P. Kailasam, with his Tollu Gatti ("The Hollow and the Solid", 1918). Kailasam followed this with Tali Kattoke Cooline ("Wages for tying the Mangalsutra"), a critique on the dowry system in marriage.[139] His plays mainly focused on problems affecting middle class Brahmin families: the dowry system, religious persecution, woes in the extended family system and exploitation of women.[129] Novels of the early 20th century promoted a nationalist consciousness in keeping with the political developments of the time. While Venkatachar and Galaganath translated Bankim Chandra and Harinarayana Apte respectively, Gulvadi Venkata Rao, Kerur Vasudevachar and M. S. Puttanna initiated the movement toward realistic novels with their works. Aluru Venkatarao's Karnataka Gatha Vaibhava had a profound influence on the movement for Karnataka's unification.[140] 192550 The Golden harvest While the first quarter of the 20th century was a period of experiment and innovation, the succeeding quarter was one of creative achievement. This period saw the rise of acclaimed lyricists whose works combined native folk songs and the mystic poetry of the medieval vachanas and kirthanas with influences from modern English romantics.[141] D. R. Bendre, with his collection of 27 poems including such masterpieces as Gari ("Wing", 1932), Nadaleele (1938) and Sakhigeetha (1940), was perhaps the most outstanding Kannada lyricist of the period.[142] His poems covered a wide range of themes including patriotism, love of nature, conjugal love, transcendental experiences and sympathy for the poor.[139] Govinda Pai narrated the story of Christ's crucifixion in his work Golgotha (1931). The success of this work encouraged Pai to follow with three panegyrics in 1947; Vaishakhi, Prabhasa and Dehali, narrated the last days of the Buddha, God Krishna and Gandhi respectively.[143] His Hebberalu ("Thumb", 1946) dramatises the story of Drona and Ekalavya, characters from the epic Mahabharata.[144] K.V. Puttappa ('Kuvempu'), who would subsequently become Kannada's first Jnanpith awardee, demonstrated great talent in writing blank verse with his magnum opus Sri Ramayana Darshanam (1949).[145] This work marks the beginning of modern Kannada epic poetry.[128] The work, through the use of metaphors and similes, focuses on the concept that all living creatures will eventually evolve into perfect beings.[146] Other important works of the period are Masti's Navaratri and P. T. Narasimhachar's Hanathe. D. V. Gundappa's Mankuthimmana Kagga ("Dull Thimma's Rigmarole", 1943) harkened back to the wisdom poems of the late medieval poet Sarvajna.[147] A celebrated writer of conjugal love poems, K. S. Narasimhaswamy won critical

acclaim for Mysore Mallige ("Mysore Jasmine", 1942), a description of the bliss of everyday marital life.[144] Growth in poetic drama was inspired by B.M. Sri's Gadayuddha Natakam (1925), an adaptation of Ranna's medieval epic. While Kuvempu and B.M. Sri were inspired by old Kannada, Masti and later P. T. Narasimhachar ('Pu. Ti. Na') explored modern sensibilities in their Yashodhara (1938) and Ahalye (1940). The 1930s saw the emergence of Sriranga, who joined forces with Samsa and Kailasam to pen some of the most successful plays in Kannada.[148] Samsa completed his trilogy about Ranadhira Kantirava, a Mysore king of yore, with his Vijayanarasimha (1936) and Mantrashakti (1938). Kailasam's mastery over wit and stage rhetoric come to the fore in his Home Rule (1930) and Vaidyana Vyadi ("A Doctors Ailment", 1940) while he explores his serious side in Bhahishkara (1929); with Soole ("Prostitute", 1945), he unleashed his contempt for outdated quasireligious mores.[148] Societal ills were also examined in Bendre's Nageya Hoge ("Fumes of Laughter", 1936), and in Karanth's Garbhagudi ("Sanctum", 1932), which decried the exploitation of society in the name of religion.[149] The novel came of age during this period, with Karanth (Chomana Dudi, 1933), Masti (Subbanna, 1928) and Kuvempu ("Subbamma Heggadathi of Kanur", 1936) leading the charge.[150] Significantly, writers chose to carry on from where Puttanna, Gulvadi and Kerur had left off at the turn of the century rather than continue with popular translations in the style of Venkatachar and Galaganath. Aesthetic concerns replaced the didactic and a sense of form developed.[149] Devudu Narasimha Shastri distinguished himself with his Antaranga (1931) and Mayura (1928); the former was a much acclaimed work which delved into the psychology of the protagonist, while the latter was a historical novel tracing the emergence of the Kadamba dynasty. Another high point of this period is Karanth's Marali Mannige (1942), the saga of three generations of a family, reflecting the social, cultural and economic developments of over a hundred years.[151] Literary criticism, which had its beginnings in the first quarter-century, also made significant progress. B.M. Sri's Kannada Sahitya Charitre (1947), Gundappa's Sahitya Shakti (1950), Masti's Adikavi Valmiki (1935), Bendre's Sahitya Hagu Vimarshe ("Literature and Criticism", 1932) and Krishna Shastry's Samskrita Nataka (1937) are particularly notable. The essay, another form adopted from western literature, was richly served by A N Murthy Rao (Hagaluganasugalu, 1937), Gorur Ramaswamy Iyengar's ('Gorur') humorous Halliya Chitragalu (1930) and Karanth's Hucchu manassina Hattu mukhagalu (1948).[152]

[edit] Late Navodaya and the rise of the progressives

As the Navodaya period waxed, the Pragatishila (progressives) movement led by novelist A. N. Krishna Rao ('Anakru') gained momentum in the early 1940s.[153] This left-leaning school contended that literature must be an instrument of social revolution and considered the Navodaya to be the product of aesthetes, too puritanical to be of any social relevance. This movement drew both established and young writers into its fold and, while it produced no poetry or drama of special merit, its contributions to short story and novel forms were appreciable. Pragatishila was credited with broadening readers' horizons; works produced during this period dealt extensively with subjects of everyday life, rural themes and the common man. The language was less inhibited and made generous use of colloquialism and slang. Anakru himself was a prolific writer of novels but the best works of this school are attributed to T. R. Subba Rao ('Ta Ra Su'), Basavaraju Kattimani and Niranjana.[154] T. R. Subba Rao initially wrote short stories, although he later turned his talents to novels, which were popular. His early novels, Purushavatara and Munjavininda Munjavu, told the stories of the underprivileged, the downtrodden and the outcast.[155] Best known among his novelssome of whose plots are centred on his native Chitradurgaare Masanada Hoovu ("Flower from a cemetery"), a story about the plight of prostitutes, and historical novel Hamsa Gite ("Swan Song"), a story about a dedicated musician of the late 18th century during annexation of Chitradurga by Tipu sultan.[153]

Marked as its influence had been, the Pragatishila wave was already in decline by the close of the 1950s. Legendary writers of the previous era continued to produce notable works in the Navodaya style. In poetry, Bendre's Naku Tanti ("Four Strings", 1964) and Kuvempu's Aniketana (1964) stand out. V.K. Gokak brought out the innate insufficiencies of the more advanced western cultures in Indilla Nale (1965).[156] Navodaya-style novels continued to be successful with such noteworthy works as Karanth's Mookajjiya Kanasugalu ("Mookajji's visions", 1968), where Karanth explored the origins of man's faith in the mother goddess and the stages of evolution of civilisation. Kuvempu's Malegallali Madumagalu ("The Bride of the Hills", 1967) is about loving relationships that exist in every level of society.[157] Masti's two classic novels of this era were Channabasavanayaka (1950), which describe the defeat of Bidanur's chief Channabasava Nayaka (on Karnataka's coast) by Haider Ali in the late 18th century, and Chickavirarajendra (1950), which describes the fall of the tiny kingdom of Coorg (ruled by Chikka Virarajendra) to the British East India Company.[158] The common theme in both works is the despotism and tyranny of the incumbent native rulers resulting in the intervention of a foreign power appearing on the scene to restore order, but with its own imperialistic intentions. [159] S. L. Bhyrappa, a charismatic young writer, first came to attention in the 1960s with his first novel Dharmasri, although it was his Vamsavriksha ("Family Tree", 1966) that put him in the spotlight as one of Kannada's most popular novelists. It is a story of a respected scholar, Srinivasa Srotri, his family and their long-held values. The protagonist's young and widowed daughter-in-law wishes to re-marry, putting his family tradition at risk.[160] Bhyrappa's best novel of the period was Grihabhanga ("Breaking of a Home", 1970), a story of a woman surviving under tragic circumstances. The characters in the story are rustic and often use vulgar language.[161] His other important novel is Parva, a major work in Kannada fiction acclaimed as an admirable attempt at recreating life on the sub-continent during the time of the epic Mahabharata.[162]

Seated L to R: Masti Venkatesh Iyengar, D. V. Gundappa, Kuvempu, M. V. Seetharamiah, K. Shivaram Karanth, A.N. Krishna Rao (Anakru) and G.P. Rajarathnam In the 1950s, even as the Pragatishila merged back into the Navodaya mainstream, a new modernist school of writing called Navya emerged. Though formally inaugurated by V. K. Gokak with his Navya Kavitegalu ("Modern Poems", 1950), it was Gopalakrishna Adiga who best exemplified the ethos of the movement. Poetry and, later, the short story became the most effective vehicles of the movement. With the passing of the Gandhian era and its influences, a new era in which to express modern sensibilities had arrived. The Navya writers questioned the time-honoured standards of plot of the Navodaya; life was seen not as a pursuit of already existing values, but as an introspective search for them, occasionally narrated in stream of consciousness technique. Events and details were increasingly treated metaphorically and the short story grew closer to poetry.[163][164] Gopalakrishna Adiga is considered the father of this form of expression with his Nadedu Banda Dari ("The Path Traversed", 1952) where he sought inspiration from T. S. Eliot and W. H. Auden. His other well-known poems include Gondalapura ("Pandemonium", 1954) and Bhoota (1959). [165] G. S. Shivarudrappa made his mark in the Navya period with Mumbai Jataka ("A Horoscope of Bombay", 1966), which takes a closer look at urbanised society in Mumbai.[166] A protg of Kuvempu, Shivarudrappa's fame came the peak of popularity of romantic poems with his Samagma ("Songs of Equanimity", 1951), poems distinguished by an idealistic bent. He continued to write poems in the same vein, although in his later poems there is a gradual shift to social issues with a streak of admiration for god's creation.[167] His critical essay, Anuranana (1980), is about the Vachana poets of the 12th century, their tradition, style and influence on later poets.[167]

K. S. Narasimhaswamy remained prominent through this era, writing such landmark poems as Silalate ("The Sculptured Creeper", 1958) and Gadiyaradangadiya Munde ("Before the Clock Shop").[168] Chandrashekhara Kambar, Chandrashekar Patil, P. Lankesh, and K. S. Nissar Ahmed are among the best-known later generation Navya poets.[166] Outstanding playwrights from this period are Girish Karnad, P. Lankesh, Chandrashekhara Kambara and Chandrashekar Patil. Karnad's Tughlaq (1964) portrays violence caused by idealism gone astray.[166] Considered an important creation in Kannada theatre, the play depicts the 14thcentury Sultan of Delhi, Mohammad Tughlaq in contrasting styles, a tyrannical and whimsical ruler and at the same time, an idealist who sought the best for his subjects.[169] Most plays written by Karnad have either history or mythology as their theme, with a focus on their relevance to modern society. The most acclaimed novel of the era was Samaskara by U.R.Anantha Murthy (1965). The novel details the search for new values and identity by the protagonist, a Brahmin, who had sexual intercourse with the untouchable mistress of his heretic adversary.[170] Another notable work is the Swarupa (1966) by Poornachandra Tejaswi. Anantha Murthy's Prasne (1963) contains his best collection of short stories including Ghatashraddha, which describes the tragedy that befell a young pregnant widow, from the point of view of a boy. His collection Mouni (1973) includes the stories Navilugulu ("Peacocks") and Clip Joint.[171] The Navya movement was not without its critics. The doubt, dilemmas and indecision in every turn of the plot resulted in increasingly sophisticated and complex narrations, which some readers found uninteresting. It was derided as an intellectual exercise of the middle class intelligentsia; in its extreme sophistication, it was thought to have lost its touch with realities of life. This led to a gradual waning of the Navya school as it was supplanted by emerging waves of Navyottara, Bandaya (protest) and Dalit schools.[163] B M Srikanthaiah (or B M Shri) (Kannada: ) (18841946) was one of the most influential authors, writers and translators of Kannada literature.

Early life and education

He was born in Sampige village, Tumkur District Gubbi taluk. He studied at Srirangapatanam and Mysore, before graduating with a Bachelor of Arts from a Bangalore College and a Master of Arts degree in Madras. He joined Maharaja College of Mysore in Mysore as a Lecturer. After completing 25 years of service there he moved to Central College in Bangalore, later Vidyaranya College under the K. E. Board in Dharwad. He was also an honorary professor at the Kannada Department of the University of Mysore when it was founded in 1927. One of this most famous works is the translation of the hymn Lead, Kindly Light as Karunaalu Baa Belake. Known as the Kannada Kanva for his guardianship of Kannada Literature, he was instrumental in encouraging and promoting Kannada and inspiring writers such as Kuvempu and G. P. Rajarathnam to write in Kannada, at a time when English was becoming the common medium. He championed the cause of Kannada and encouraged a generation of writers to express in their mother-tongue. His book of translations, English Geethegalu is one of the famous books. English Geethegalu inspired several budding poets, thus laying the foundation of a new pattern of lyrical poetry in kannada. In his poems, Sri experimented with new forms of metre and diction. The three poems of his own composition in the collection of poems Honganasugalu (Golden Dreans, 1943) affords examples of his vision of life and his deep love for the motherland. These poems

were composed three decades prior to their publication. His Shukrageete sums up his vision of life thus: "Truth alone shall triumph and not untruth, Knowledge, and not ignorance, is nectar. Bow to VishwabhArati - mother India of Universal Vision, and not to anything less" Sri Gave impetus to the genre of poetic drama by writing three plays- Gadayuddha nataka (1925), Ashwathaman(1929), and Parasikaru(1935)- all Tragedies, on the Greek pattern. For the first time, tragedy appeared on the kannada stage, Gadayuddha modelled on poet Ranna's epic of the same name. He was awarded the 'RAja SEvAsakta' award by the Maharaja of Mysore and was the president of the Kannada Sahithya Sammelana in 1938 at Gulburga. A circle in Bangalore where 100 feet road and CMH road meet, has been named after him: B M Sri Circle.

[edit] Works
Gadayuddha Natakam (play) Aswatthaaman (Play) Honganasugalu (Poetry)

[edit] Translations
English Geetagalu (English Songs, 1921). Literary Criticism Kannadigarige olleya saahitya (Good literature for Kannada People) Kannada Kaipidi (History of Kannada Literature) Kota Shivaram Karanth (Kannada: ) (October 10, 1902 December 9, 1997) was a major Kannada writer, social activist, environmentalist, Yakshagana artist, film maker and thinker. He was described as the "Rabindranath Tagore of Modern India who has been finest novelist-activist since independence"[1] by Ramachandra Guha. He was the third person among eight recipients[2] of Jnanpith Award for Kannada the highest literary honour conferred by the Govt. of India.[3] He is also been adjudged as one of the ten makers of India in last 60 years by CNN-IBN. He was conferred Padma Bhushan by Government of India which later he returned in protest against the Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi.

Early life
Shivaram Karanth was born in Kota near Udupi in the Udupi district of Karnataka to a native Kannada family. Being the fifth child of his parents Shesha Karantha and Lakshmamma, he completed his primary education in Kundapura and Mangalore. Shivaram Karanth was the younger brother of politician K. R. Karanth who served as minister in the Madras Presidency in the 1940s. Shivaram Karanth was influenced by Gandhi's principles and took part in Indian Independence movement while he was in college. He left his degree half way to participate in the Noncooperation movement. He worked for khadi and swadeshi for five years, till about 1927. By that time Karanth had already started writing fiction-detective novels, to begin with as well as plays. [4] He married Leela Karanth when he was well past 30. Karanth was an intellectual and environmentalist who tremendously contributed to art and culture of Karnataka. He is considered one of the greatest novelist in Kannada. Some of his novels like Marali Mannige, Bettada Jeeva, Alida Mele, Mookajjiya Kanasugalu, Mai Managala Suliyalli, Ade OOru Ade Mara, Shaneeshwarana Neralinalli, Kudiyara Koosu, Svapnada Hole, Sarsammana Samadhi and Chomana Dudi are widely read and continue to be discussed even today. He wrote 47 novels in all and is said to have tried to write at least one novel per year! His contribution to revival

of Yakshagana will forever be remembered. Yakshagana-Bayalata (1957) in Kannada, and Yakshagana(1975) are two of his books on Yakshagana. He is the first person to do some serious research in Yakshagana, collecting old Prasangas, searching the roots of yakshagana, its musical heritage etc. He tried to revive this medieval semi-folk art and made some experiments in Yakshagana using Ballet and other modern form of dances. He took Yakshagana troops to European countries, a unique effort in those days. He also made experiments in printing during 1930 - 40s and printed his own novels, but incurred serious financial losses. Interestingly, his earlier novels have cover pages of art work made by himself and this fact, that the novelist drawing the cover page of his own books may be a unique record in modern literature! At the age of 95, he wrote a book on birds (published during 2002 by Manohara Grantha Mala, Dharwad) Karanth was a prolific writer. Apart from the 47 novels, he also wrote 31 plays, four short stories, six books of essays and sketches, thirteen books on art, including a history of world art in Kannada and a work on Chalukyan sculpture and architecture, a standard treatise on the Yakshagana (with which dramatic form, his name is identified), a three volume book of knowledge for children, a four volume encyclopedia on science for grown ups, 240 children's books, six books on travel, two books on birds, three Travelogues, an autobiography. The list is incomplete. Dr. Karanth has 417 books to his credit.

[edit] Effect of his works

He was awarded Jnanapith for his book Mookajjiya Kanasugalu (literally "the dreams of a mute grandmother") which tries to unveil the secrets of nature. The story revolves around a Granny and her visions on various aspects of life, from religion to social relationships. Its all about the conversations between granny and Subbaraya aliase Subbanna that runs throughout the book on various issues that he encounters in his life. Subbanna being skeptical about blind beliefs that people are having on several religious customs, poses several questions regarding it to his Granny. Granny being a great visionary answers to all of his questions with true substance. Subbanna, to fulfill his desire to know the truth about existence of an old civilization in that village, goes into the surrounding woods in search of any evidence. There he collects bones as part of his evidence from the caves and shows that to his granny. He also explains her, what he had seen in those caves and narrates his horrifying dreams about the same caves. Again his granny reveals the secret behind those bones and caves after looking at them - with shocking facts about the civilization. He has brilliantly carved the story to address many issues like evolution of human life, the origin and after effects of blind beliefs that are being followed in the society, values of human relationships in ones life. The granny is given a supernatural power to see the past and future, through which she answers to all complex questions about life. Being himself a non science student he has written a series of science related books which are very useful for children of 20th Century, as there were no such books in Kannada during those days. His main literary works are Mookajjiya Kanasugalu, Marali Mannige, Chomana Dudi[Chomana Dudi was made into a movie],Alida Mele, Bettada Jeeva etc. He has written an autobiography, Hucchu Manasina Hatthu Mukhagaluin earlier days and he wrote second part of his autobiography also which is called "Smrathipataladinda"! He attempted to improve the lives of common people by entering into politics of his day, by contesting in an election, unsuccessfully, in Karnataka on the issues of environmentalism. His symbol was elephant and although he got substantial chunk of votes, he could not win, as he abstained from canvassing for the election. He led a movement to oppose an Atomic energy plant at Kaiga near Karwar as the plant may pose danger to the lives of people and as it leads to destruction of forest. But the movement failed miserably and ironically, the dome of Kaiga Atomic energy plant collapsed at the time of construction itself! He is also known for strong and sharp tongue and he being a good orator, earned a nickname "Kadala Theerada Bhargava". (Bhargava means Parashurama). He used to raise his voice on several issues ranging from conservation work at

Hampi to Art forms of Karnataka to environmental issues. His Novel "Sarasammana Samadhi" deals with the "sati" system, and the cunningness and hypocrisy of the Indian society. "Marali Mannige" is a novel dealing with three generations and at the end the product of third generation comes back to native place. "Mai Managala Suliyalli" is a fine novel dealing with the lady singer/dance community of Basrur, and though it is wonderfully written, may be due to the delicate nature of the subject, it could not get due importance. "Bettada Jeeva" is one of the finest novels of 20th Century covering the life of old couple living in an arecanut garden surrounded by forest, eternally expecting their son to return from Bombay or some other urban place.

[edit] Conservation work

He rescued 2 tiger-cubs from starvation when their mother was killed by poachers. He experimentally built the first children's toy-train in Asia which was later copied in Cubbon Park, Bangalore. His son, Ullas Karanth continues his work in the field of environmentalism with an internationally acclaimed body of research into the ecology, biology and future of the tiger in India.

[edit] Foray into Politics

Shivram Karanth plunged into Politics once but was defeated in the Parliament election from Canara Constituency

[edit] Further reading

Malini Mallya, Hattiradinda Kanda Hattu Mukhagalu Malini Mallya, Naanu Kanda Karantaru

[edit] Awards and honors

Shivram Karanth has to his credit around 87 books written by renowned authors on him. He is the only person in Asia on whom so many books have been written. Jnanpith Award - 1978 Padma Bhushan - He returned his Padma Bhushan honor in protest against the Emergency, imposed by Indira Gandhi. Sahitya Academy award - 1958 Pampa Award Tulsi Samman Swedish Academy award An institution, "Center of Advanced Studies", was established in his name at Mangalore University in 1990. And many more.

[edit] Books written

Mookajjiya Kanasugalu - dreams of a silent granny (Jnanpith award winning novel) "Marali Mannige" - back to the soil "Chomana Dudi" - drum of choma "Apoorva Paschima" - Incomparable West - A Travelogue "Abuvinda Baramakke" - A Travelogue

"Arasikaralla" - A Travelogue "Mai Managala Suliyalli" - in the whirlpool of body and soul "Bettada Jeeva" - life on the hills "Sarasammana Samadhi" - grave of sarasamma "Dharmayana Samsara" - family of Dharmayana "Alida Mele" - after death "Kudiyara Kusu" - infant of kudiya "jnana" - ( Knowledge ) "mailikallinodane matukate" - Talks with the milestone ( small stories) "adbhuta jagattu" - wonderful world ( science) "vijnana prapancha" - The World Of Science ( science) "Kaladarshana" - Book on Art with hundreds of photo/pictures. Yaksagana, English transln., Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (1997) Yakshagana Bayalata Pub by Mysore University Bharatheya chitrakale "Hucchu Manasina Hatthu Mukhagalu", autobiography, English translation: "Ten Faces of a Crazy Mind", by H Y Sharada Prasad), Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan1993, "Chiguridha Kanasu" "Mugida Yudda" - Completed war "Moojanma" "Dharmarayana samsara" "Kevala Manushyaru" "Illeyamba" "Iddaru chinthe" "Navu kattida swarga" "Nashta diggajagalu" "Kanniddu kurudaru" "Gedda doddasthike" "Kannadiyalli kandatha" "Antida aparanji" "Halliya hattu samastharu" "Sameekshe" "Moga Padeda Mana" "Shaneeshwarana Neralinalli" "Sameekshe" "Nambidavara Naka Naraka" "Kambaniya Kuyilu"

Maasthi Venkatesha Iyengar (Kannada: ) (June 6, 1891 - June 6, 1986) was a popular writer in Kannada language. He was the fourth person among eight recipients[1] of Jnanpith Award for Kannada the highest literary honour conferred in India.[2] He was popularly referred to as Maasti Kannadada Aasti which means Maasti is Kannada's Treasure. He is most renowned for his short stories. He wrote under the pen name Srinivasa. He was honored with the title Rajasevasakta by then Maharaja of Mysore Nalvadi Krishnaraja Wadeyar.

Early life and education

Maasti was born in 1891, at Hongenahalli in Kolar district of Karnataka in a Tamil speaking Sri Vaishnavaite family. He spent his early childhood in Maasti village. Due to poverty, he moved from place to place until he obtained a master's degree in English literature (Arts) in 1914 from Madras

University. After joining the Indian Civil Service (Known as the Mysore Civil Service in the days of the Maharaja of Mysore), he held various positions of responsibility in different parts of Karnataka, rising to the rank of District Commissioner. He retired in 1943. His Kelavu Sanna Kategalu (Some Short Stories) was the first noted work in the modern Kannada literature. Maasti also crafted a number poems on various philosophic, aesthetic and social themes. He composed and translated several important plays. Finally, he edited the monthly journal Jivana (Life) from 1944 to 1965. A prolific writer, he wrote more than 120 books in Kannada and 17 in English, for over seventy years. He won the Jnanpith Award in 1983 for his novel Chikkavira Rajendra. The story was about the last Kodava king. Kodava community was displeased with the negative portrayal of their last king. He died in 1986 at the age of 95.

[edit] Bibliography
He was a close friend of D.V.Gundappa, Nittor Srinivasa Rao, Prof V.T.Srinivasan and V.T.Kumar Epics Shri Rama Pattabisheka (Coronation of Shri Ram) Novels Chikkaveera Rajendra Historical Novel about the last king of Kodagu Channabasava Nayaka Historical Novel about the last king among Nayakas of Shimoga District. Subbana Stories and Anthologies Plays Kakanakote Kalidasa Yashodhara Autobiography Bhaava Other Subbanna (1928) Sheshamma (1976) Shanta (1923) Kelavu Sanna Kathegalu (Some Short Stories) Dombara Chenni Kaagegalu (Crows) Rangana Maduve (Ranga's Marriage)

Talikoti (1929) Yashodhara(1933) Kannadad Seve(1930) Arun (1924) Tavare(1930) Sankranti (1969)

Thyagaraja Paramasiva Kailasam (Kannada: ) (18841946), was a playwright and prominent writer of Kannada literature. His contribution to Kannada theatrical comedy earned him the title Prahasana Prapitamaha, "the father of humorous plays".Early life Kailasam was born in a Tamil family in southern Karnataka, India, and educated in England. On his return to Karnataka he worked to improve the literary scene there. His life was dedicated to local theater and his contributions revolutionised it. His application of humor to his plays left an everlasting impression on Kannadigas. He opposed the company theatre's obsession with mythology and stories of royalty and shied away from overloading his plays with music. Instead, he introduced simple, realistic sets. Kailasam chaired the Kannada Sahitya Sammelana held at Chennai, then called Madras, in 1945. His speech was short but effective. Kailasam came from a family of scholars and professionals. His father was the eminent Justice Paramasiva Iyer. Kailasam had benefited from a good education in his youth and was sponsored by the Maharaja of Mysore to move on to higher studies in geology at London. Kailasam was enchanted with life in the United Kingdom and took the time to repeat several classes, one at a time, in order to have an excuse to extend his stay there. He spent a total of six years in school there, participating in theatre whenever possible, and then returned to India. Soon after his return, he joined the government geology service. He took his work seriously and did well, but became unimpressed with life in a government job and quit. His father had had ambitious plans for Kailasam, hoping that he would become the Director General of the Geology Department. He was disappointed in his son and stopped talking to him. Kailasam barely noticed, as he had shed his former lifestyle and began living as a nocturnal bohemian, writing plays. Kailasam was initially criticised for modern use of the Kannada language in his plays, but his work became popular and are considered among the best in Kannada theatre, legendary for their wit and satirical commentary on society, much of which is still relevant today. So they say that kannadakke obbane kailasam, Hasyakke obbane Beechi;