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MATERIAL TESTING OVERVIEW OF FOUR NDE METHODS
Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Radiography Testing (RT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT)
APPLICATION OF NDE
Material testing is the technology of assessing the soundness and acceptability of an actual component with or without affecting the functional properties of either test specimen or actual job.
Tensile testing Compression testing Impact testing
Radiography testing Ultrasonic testing Magnetic particle testing
Liquid penetrant testing
Eddy current testing
Micro/Macro testing Chemical testing etc…
Acoustic emission testing
Neutron radiography testing Thermography etc…
..Material Testing MATERIAL TESTING Destructive Non-destructive Measure accurate or specific Monitoring and maintaining characteristics of materials by material quality. UTS Proof stress % Elongation % Reduction area Young’s modulus Surface & Subsurface flaws Coating & plating thickness Sorting Velocity & thickness monitor Structure and assembly evaluation Fatigue strength Creep strength Fatigue properties etc… Reliable life assessment etc. components destroying the specimen reliability & systems safety without destroying actual job.
E.D.Material Testing DEFINITION OF N.: NDE is a tool. without causing harm to them. which uses inspection technology to determine soundness & measurement of characteristics of the raw material. . components. structure & equipments etc.
. i. which has no relation to the discontinuity.e. Code has given various sizes of indications which are not be considered as relevant indication. that occurs due to incorrect processing or incorrect procedure.Material Testing TYPE OF INDICATION: False Indication: Indication. Non-relevant Indication: It is an indication. Relevant Indication: It is the indication that needs to be evaluated for serviceability and can either be determined as discontinuity or defect. A indication that may or may not be acceptable by reference code section. i.e.
Defect: When any discontinuity. cavities or inclusions. single or multiple. is known as DEFECT. E. is of such size.g. . Remember: Every discontinuity is not a defect.Material Testing DISCONTINUITY & DEFECT: Discontinuity: It is any local variation in material continuity which may not interfere to its intended service life. Every defect is a discontinuity. presence of holes. type and location. that it can create a substantial failure of material in its intended service. Change in geometry. shape.
Methods of N. Visual Inspection (VT) Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Radiographic Testing (RT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Eddy Current Testing (ET) Leak Testing (LT) Acoustic Emission Testing (AET) Infrared Thermal Testing (IRT) Remote Field Testing (RFT) Nuclear Radiographic Testing (NRT) .E.D.
D.E.Common Methods used in N. Visual Testing (VT) Liquid Penetrant Testing (PT) Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) Radiographic Testing (RT) Ultrasonic Testing (UT) .
INTRODUCTION TO LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING .
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) OUTLINE Introduction & Working principle Basic operation procedure of PT Materials used in PT Classification of PT Application of PT Types of defects detected by PT Advantages & Limitations of PT Code Acceptance criteria PT in Boiler .
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) INTRODUCTION: PT is a common method used to detect surface breaking flaws. . After a period of time called the dwell. Visible color contrast penetrants require day-light or hand bulb. Fluorescent penetrants need to be used in darkened area with an ultraviolet "black light". This acts as a blotter. excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer applied. Flaws are detected by bleed-out of a colored or fluorescent dye from it. The technique is based on ability of a liquid to be drawn into a clean surface breaking flaw by capillary action.
PT produces a flaw indication with a high level of contrast between the indication and the background also helping to make the indication more easily seen.LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) INTRODUCTION (CONT.): PT produces a flaw indication that is much larger and easier than flaw for the eye to detect. .
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) WORKING PRINCIPLE: VISIBLE PT FLUORESCENT PT .
Sometimes. grease. SOLVENT CLEANING . rust and other contaminants that may prevent penetrant from entering flaws. buffing etc.LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT: Surface preparation (Pre-cleaning): The surface must be free of oil. sand or grit blasting. dust. test surface may also require machining. grinding.
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT (CONT.) Penetrant application: Penetrant can be applied by spraying. DYE APPLICATION BY BRUSHING DYE APPLICATION BY SPRAYING . wiping. or dipping the part in a penetrant bath. brushing.
rinsing with water. EXCESS PENETRANT REMOVAL BY SOLVENT EXCESS PENETRANT REMOVED . PDT are as recommended by manufacturers or as per written procedure being followed. step may involve cleaning by emulsifier. Depending upon type of penetrant used.) Penetrant dwell time (PDT): The penetrant is left on the surface for a sufficient time to allow penetrant to be drawn into a defect. solvent remover. Excess penetrant removal: This step is most delicate.LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT (CONT.
DEVELOPER APPLICATION BY SPRAYING Slide 17 . dusting. or dipping.) Developer application: A thin & uniform layer of developer is applied to drag out penetrant trapped in the flaw. Developer may be applied by Spraying.LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT(CONT.
It is usually 10 mins as recommended by the manufacturer or written procedure.) Developer dwell time (DDT): The developer is left on the surface for a sufficient time to allow it to extract the penetrant out from the discontinuity. EVALUATION Post-cleaning: Last step of the inspection process is to clean the residual penetrant material from the test surface. Interpretation/Evaluation: After passing developing dwell time inspection is performed under required lighting conditions.LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF PT (CONT. .
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) MATERIALS & EQUIPMENTS USED IN PT: Cleaner (Solvent remover) Penetrant (Dye) Developer Lint free cotton cloth Emulsifier (Lipophilic or Hydrophilic)* Black light (UV light) Lux meter & UV meter Thermometer *Use of Emulsifier depends upon the type of method chosen for PT .
Based on type of Penetrant removal process a) b) c) d) Solvent removable technique Water washable technique Post emulsifiable technique (Lipophilic) Post emulsifiable technique (Hydrophilic) . CLASSIFICATION OF PT: Based on type of examination technique Visible color contrast method b) Fluorescent method a) B.LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) A.
e. Plastic. Ceramics etc.LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) APPLICATION OF PT: Materials that can be examined with PT: PT can be applied on all non-porous materials. Glass. TYPES OF DEFETCS CAN BE DETECTED WITH PT: Flaws that can be detected by PT: Only surface flaws can be detected. Cracks Porosity Laps Seams Lamination Cold shuts . Metal.g.
The visible ambient light shall not be more than 20 lux in the darkened area. Temperature: The temperature of surface to be examined & penetrant material should be within 5° to 52° C inclusive. dirt. rust. Lighting requirement: The visible day light shall be 1000 lux minimum at the surface to be examined. If there is a insufficient light condition to perform examination. In case. .LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) Good PT performance practice!!! Pre-cleaning: The surface to be examined along with adjacent areas of 25mm (1 inch. scale etc. lint. welding flux.) must be free of oil. grease. If required. where fluorescent PT is applied. grinding or buffing needs to be done other than solvent remover. The UV light used shall have 1000 µW/cm2 intensity. than use 60W bulb from 9 inch distance or 100W bulb from 12 inch distance as a thumb rule. spatter.
Can be applied to all metallic and nonmetallic. Complex geometric parts are routinely inspected. Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively less costlier. Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. . magnetic and nonmagnetic. Aerosol spray cans make penetrant materials very portable. and conductive and nonconductive materials can be inspected.LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) ADVANTAGES: Highly sensitive to small surface discontinuities. Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost.
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)
LIMITATIONS: Only surface breaking defects can be detected. Only materials with a relatively nonporous surface can be inspected. Pre cleaning is critical since contaminants can mask defects. Metal smearing from machining, grinding, and grit or vapor blasting must be removed prior to PT. The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected. Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. Multiple process operations must be performed and controlled. Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials is required. Chemical handling and proper disposal is required.
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)
CODE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME SECTION-I, A-270) Evaluation of indications
Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1.5 mm shall be considered as relevant. Any doubtful indication shall be re-examined to confirm whether they are relevant or not. Linear indication = l>3w Rounded indication = l≤3w Where, l = Length of indication and w = width of indication
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT)
CODE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME SECTION-I, A-270) (CONT.) Acceptance criteria
All surfaces to be examined shall be free of: Any relevant linear indication Rounded indication more than 5mm dia. Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1.5mm or less distance (edge to edge)
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) PT IN BOILER: HEADER Gas cutting/Machining of nozzle hole Fit up lug removal Circumferential welds Nozzle edge preparation Nozzle welding End plate welding Attachment welding Orifice welding Stub to tube welding All welding after PWHT .
LIQUID PENETRANT TESTING (PT) PT IN BOILER: COIL Tube bending areas for Squeezing. Swaging (20%) [FOI] Tube to tube welding (25%) Attachment welding PANEL Tube to tube welding 10% on MPM welding .
INTRODUCTION TO MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING .
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) OUTLINE Introduction & Working principle Basic operation procedure Equipments used in MT Direction of Magnetic field Application of MT Types of defect detected with MT Pros & Cons of MT Code Acceptance criteria MT in Boiler .
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) INTRODUCTION: MT is relatively fast & easy to apply. This cluster of particles is much easier to see than the actual crack and this is the basis for magnetic particle inspection. the iron particles will be attracted to end of poles as well as at the edges of the crack and form a cluster to make the flaw visible. If iron particles are sprinkled on a cracked magnet. MT uses magnetic fields & finely milled iron particles to detect flaws only in ferromagnetic test specimen. MT helps determining the flaws lying near surface also. part surface preparation is also not essential parameter for this method. .
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) WORKING PRINCIPLE: .
rust etc. Coil and conductive cables or Stationary MT machine. Application of Iron particles: After magnetizing the component. Yokes. Checking field adequacy: Pie shaped field indicator. . flaw shims or tangential field probe (Gauss meter) shall be used to check proper set up of the equipment. the iron particles are spread on the surface to be examined. Magnetizing the component: First step is to magnetize the component to be inspected. The part’s surface should be clean and dry before inspection. dirt. MT can be done with various currents like AC. Demagnetization: Demagnetize the specimen after completing the inspection.MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF MT: Pre-cleaning: It is essential for the particles to have an unimpeded path for migration to both strong and weak leakage fields alike. Interpretation/Evaluation: Evaluation of indication as per applicable code. This can be accomplished by Prods. or standard. The particle will attracted and form a cluster at the flux leakage areas to make a visible indication. DC or HWDC. if required. This can be accomplished either by Dry particle application or in Wet suspended form. Test surface shall be free of external particles like oil. grease.
dirt. Checking field adequacy: Pie shaped field indicator. if required.MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) BASIC OPERATION PROCEDURE OF MT: Pre-cleaning: It is essential for the particles to have an unimpeded path for migration to both strong and weak leakage fields alike. . rust etc. Demagnetization: Demagnetize the specimen after completing the inspection. The part’s surface should be clean and dry before inspection. DC or HWDC. Yokes. or standard. the iron particles are spread on the surface to be examined. Coil and conductive cables or Stationary MT machine. MT can be done with various currents like AC. Application of Iron particles: After magnetizing the component. This can be accomplished either by Dry particle application or in Wet suspended form. flaw shims or tangential field probe (Gauss meter) shall be used to check proper set up of the equipment. grease. Interpretation/Evaluation: Evaluation of indication as per applicable code. This can be accomplished by Prods. The particle will attracted and form a cluster at the flux leakage areas to make a visible indication. Test surface shall be free of external particles like oil. Magnetizing the component: First step is to magnetize the component to be inspected.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) EQUIPMENTS USED IN MT: Prods Yoke Magnetizing coil & conductive cables Power source Stationary MT unit Black light Lux meter UV light meter Dry magnetic particles Wet magnetic particles Field indicator (Pie gage) Flaw shims Gauss meter (Tangential field probe) .
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Equipments used in MT: Portable Equipments Stationary Equipment .
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Magnetizing current used in MT: FOR SKIN EFFECT & PARTICLE AGITATION TO DETECT DEFECTS LYING NEAR SURFACE .
It is also available in different colors to enhance visibility. Classification based on visibility. Visible (Non-Fluorescent) particles Fluorescent particles Classification based on carrier Dry particle Wet particle .MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Magnetic particles: Magnetic particles are mixture of rounded & slandered particles with the size of 10 to 200 µ. depending upon metallic background or the applied contrast.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Magnetic particles: Dry Magnetic particles Air as Carrier Bath concentration checking Liquid as Carrier Wet Magnetic particles (Visible) Wet Magnetic particles (Fluorescent) .
to verify adequacy of light.MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Light Meters: Intensity of the light to be checked before start of examination. Lux meter (White light) UV Light meter (Black light) .
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) Field adequacy in MT: Pie shaped magnetic field indicator Tangential field probe Artificial flaw shims .
it is important to become familiar with the different types of magnetic field. One of the primary requirements for detecting a defect in a ferromagnetic material is that the magnetic field induced in the part must intercept the defect at a 45° to 90° angle. . Flaws that are at 90° to the magnetic field will produce the strongest indications because they disrupt more of the magnet flux.MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD & ORIENTATION OF DEFECTS: To properly inspect a part for defects. Therefore. for proper inspection of a component. it is important to be able to establish a magnetic field in at least two directions.
FIELD . HEAD SHOT FOR CIRCULAR MAG. Also can be produced by passing current through central conductor in hollow pipe. Accomplished by passing the current through the solid bar/component.MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD: Two types of magnetic field A) Circular Magnetic field A circular magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run circumferentially around the perimeter of a part.
This produces magnetic lines of force that are parallel to the long axis of the test part. LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD (COIL SHOT) Portable coil Conductive cable .) B) Longitudinal Magnetic field Usually established by placing the part near the inside or a coil’s annulus.MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD: Two types of magnetic field (Cont.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD: Longitudinal Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment (YOKE) An electromagnetic yoke is a very common piece of equipment that is used to establish a magnetic field. This type of magnet generates a very strong magnetic field in a local area where the poles of the magnet touch the part being inspected. They can be powered with alternating current (AC) from a wall socket or by direct current (DC) from a battery pack. . It is basically made by wrapping an electrical coil around a piece of soft ferromagnetic steel.
. electrical arcing can occur and cause damage to the component. Prods are typically made from copper and have an insulated handle. If proper contact is not maintained between the prods and the component surface.MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) DIRECTION OF MAGNETIC FIELD: Circular Magnetic Particle Testing Equipment (PROD) The current passing between the prods creates a circular magnetic field around the prods that can be used in magnetic particle inspection.
g. Ferrite. Nickel. Steel. e. Cobalt alloys etc. TYPES OF DEFETCS CAN BE DETECTED WITH MT: Flaws that can be detected by MT: Surface & near surface flaws can be detected only in ferromagnetic material. Surface & near surface cracks Undercuts Lap Seam Lamination .MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) APPLICATION OF PT: Materials that can be examined with MT: MT can be applied on all ferromagnetic materials.
Pre-cleaning of components is not as critical as it is for some other inspection methods. Can inspect parts with irregular shapes easily. Is a very portable inspection method especially when used with battery powered equipment. .MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) ADVANTAGES Can detect both surface and near surface defects. Fast method of inspection and indications are visible directly on the specimen surface. Considered low cost compared to many other NDT methods. Most contaminants within a flaw will not hinder flaw detectability.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) LIMITATIONS Cannot inspect non-ferrous materials such as aluminum. Maximum depth sensitivity is approximately 0. . Limited near surface discontinuity detection capabilities. magnesium or most stainless steels. and post demagnetization is often necessary. Some parts may require removal of coating or plating to achieve desired inspection sensitivity. Inspection of large parts may require use of equipment with special power requirements. Alignment between magnetic flux and defect is important.6” (under ideal conditions). Post cleaning.
5 mm shall be considered as relevant.MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) CODE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME SECTION-I. Any doubtful indication shall be re-examined to confirm whether they are relevant or not. Linear indication = l > 3w Rounded indication = l ≤ 3w Where. l = Length of indication and w = width of indication . A-260) Evaluation of indications Only indications with major dimensions greater than 1.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) CODE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA (ASME SECTION-I. Four or more rounded indications in a line separated by 1.) Acceptance criteria All surfaces to be examined shall be free of: Any relevant linear indication Rounded indication more than 5mm dia.5mm or less distance (edge to edge) . A-260) (CONT.
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) MT IN BOILER: HEADER Gas cutting/Machining of nozzle hole Fit up lug removal Circumferential welds Nozzle edge preparation Nozzle welding End plate welding Attachment welding Orifice welding Stub to tube welding All welding after PWHT .
MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING (MT) MT IN BOILER: COIL Attachment welding PANEL 10% on MPM welding. (Being implemented) .
INTRODUCTION TO RADIOGRAPHY TESTING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) OUTLINE Working principle Radiation sources Nature of X-rays & Gamma rays Gamma radiography X-ray radiography Film radiography Radiographic sensitivity Image Quality Indicators (IQI) or Penetrameters Examples of welding discontinuities in RT Radiographic acceptance standards Safety in radiation Application of RT Defects can be detected in RT Advantages & Limitations of RT .
Thicker and more dense area will absorb more of the radiation.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) WORKING PRINCIPLE The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. The film darkness (density) will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the test object. . The part will absorb some of the radiation.
. depending on the source of radiation used.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIATION SOURCES Two of the most commonly used sources of radiation in industrial radiography are x-ray generators and gamma ray sources. Industrial radiography is often subdivided into “X-ray Radiography” or “Gamma Radiography”.
or even less.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) NATURE OF X-RAYS & GAMMA RAYS.000 of light. X-rays are emitted from X-ray generator and Gamma rays are emitted from activated radioisotope. This feature makes rays able to penetrate in material that absorb or reflect ordinary light. The only difference in X-ray & Gamma-ray is that. . about 1/10. They are form of Electromagnetic radiation They are extremely short in wavelength.
) .RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) NATURE OF X-RAYS & GAMMA RAYS (CONT.
. The spontaneous breakdown of an atomic nucleus resulting in the release of energy and matter is known as radioactive decay.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY Gamma rays are produced by a radioisotope. A radioisotope has an unstable nuclei that does not have enough binding energy to hold the nucleus together.
.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) Most of the radioactive material used in industrial radiography is artificially produced. This process is called activation. This is done by subjecting stable material to a source of neutrons in a special nuclear reactor.
Radioisotopes used for gamma radiography are encapsulated to prevent leakage of the material. gamma rays cannot be turned off.” The pigtail has a special connector at the other end that attaches to a drive cable. The radioactive “capsule” is attached to a cable to form what is often called a “pigtail.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT. . which are produced by a machine.) Unlike X-rays.
) A device called a “camera” is used to store. transport and expose the pigtail containing the radioactive material.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT. The camera contains shielding material which reduces the radiographer’s exposure to radiation during use. .
.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.) A hose-like device called a guide tube is connected to a threaded hole called an “exit port” in the camera. The radioactive material will leave and return to the camera through this opening when performing an exposure.
. controlled by the radiographer. is used to force the radioactive material out into the guide tube where the gamma rays will pass through the specimen and expose the recording device.) A “drive cable” is connected to the other end of the camera. This cable.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.
x-rays are produced by an X-ray generator system.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY Unlike gamma rays. . These systems typically include an X-ray tube head. and a control console. a high voltage generator.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY (CONT. .) X-rays are produced by establishing a very high voltage between two electrodes. called the anode and cathode. To prevent arcing. the anode and cathode are located inside a vacuum tube. which is protected by a metal housing.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) X-RAY RADIOGRAPHY (CONT. The heat causes electrons to be stripped off. The electrons impact against the target. This impact causes an energy exchange which causes x-rays to be created. Current is passed through the filament which heats it. High Electrical Potential Electrons + - X-ray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation Radiation Penetrate the Sample Exposure Recording Device .) The cathode contains a small filament much the same as in a light bulb. The high voltage causes these “free” electrons to be pulled toward a target material (usually made of tungsten) located in the anode.
Compton scattering Photoelectric absorption .RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIATION INTERACTION WITH MATTER: Radiation absorption or scattering occurs depending upon energy of beam.
Once exposed to radiation and developed in a darkroom. . Film contains microscopic material called silver bromide. silver bromide turns to black metallic silver which forms the image.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) FILM RADIOGRAPHY One of the most widely used and oldest imaging mediums in industrial radiography is radiographic film.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) FILM RADIOGRAPHY (CONT. Film is often placed between screens to intensify radiation.) Film must be protected from visible light. Light. This cassette is then placed on the specimen opposite the source of radiation. . just like x-rays and gamma rays. Film is loaded in a “light proof” cassette in a darkroom. can expose film.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) FILM RADIOGRAPHY (CONT. . Film processing can either be performed manually in open tanks or in an automatic processor.) In order for the image to be viewed. The process is very similar to photographic film development. the film must be “developed” in a darkroom.
) Once developed. the film is typically referred to as a “radiograph.” RADIOGRAPH SHOWING POROSITIES IN WELDING .RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) FILM RADIOGRAPHY (CONT.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIOGRAPHY IMAGING TECHNIQUES: Single wall single image (SWSI) .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIOGRAPHY IMAGING TECHNIQUES: Double wall single image (DWSI) .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)
RADIOGRAPHY IMAGING TECHNIQUES: Double wall double image (DWDI)
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)
RADIOGRAPHIC SENSITIVITY It is the ability of a technique to determine smallest discontinuity. It is a combination of Radiographic contrast & Radiographic definition.
Radiographic contrast is the density difference between two adjacent areas of the radiograph and is the net effect due to
Film contrast & Subject contrast
Radiographic definition refers to the sharpness of the radiographic image. The causes of radiographic un-sharpness:
Geometric un-sharpness (Ug) Movement un-sharpness (Um) Inherent or film un-sharpness (Ui) Scatter and screen un-sharpness (Us)
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)
IMAGE QUALITY INDICATORS (IQI) OR PENETRAMETERS It is used to judge quality of a radiograph and is measured in terms of radiographic sensitivity. The penetrameter is available in various designs.
e.g. Step type penetrameter Hole-step penetrameter Plate type penetrameter Wire type penetrameter Hole type penetrameter
IQIs should be placed on the source side of radiation, if in case, it is not possible to put it at source side it should be placed film side of radiation, in such case, letter ‘F’ should be placed on the film. Wire type IQI should be placed across the weld. Hole type IQI should be placed parallel to the weld & 3mm apart from the weld edge.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) HOLE TYPE PENETRAMETERS WIRE TYPE PENETRAMETERS FILM IDENTIFICATION LEAD LETTERS .
Location marker shall always be put on job permanently and shall be visible on radiograph.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) LOCATION MARKER: Location markers are put to ensure total coverage of weld volume and for future traceability. .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) EXAMPLES OF WELDING DISCONTINUITIES IN RT RADIOGRAPH SHOWING LACK OF PENETRATION IN WELDING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS RADIOGRAPH SHOWING LACK OF FUSION IN WELDING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS RADIOGRAPH SHOWING UNDER CUT IN WELDING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS RADIOGRAPH SHOWING MIS-MATCH IN WELDING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS RADIOGRAPH SHOWING CRACKS IN WELDING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS RADIOGRAPH SHOWING TUNGSTEN INCLUSION IN WELDING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS RADIOGRAPH SHOWING SLAG INCLUSION IN WELDING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)
SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS
RADIOGRAPH SHOWING CLUSTER POROSITY IN WELDING
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)
SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS
RADIOGRAPH SHOWING SUCK BACK IN WELDING
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT)
SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS
RADIOGRAPH SHOWING BURN THROUGH IN WELDING
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS RADIOGRAPH SHOWING UNDERFILL IN WELDING .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) SOME EXAMPLES OF RADIOGRAPHIC FILMS RADIOGRAPH SHOWING EXCESS REINFORCEMENT IN WELDING .
1/3 t for thickness (t) 19mm to 57mm is acceptable. 19mm for thickness (t) over 57mm is acceptable.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIOGRAPHY ACCEPTANCE STANDARD (ASME SECTION-I. Lack of Fusion & Lack of Penetration are not acceptable. L is the length of longest discontinuity in the group. in a length of radiograph. distance between successive indication exceeds 6L is acceptable. Rounded indication acceptance standard as per A-250. Any other elongated indication on the radiograph 6mm for thickness (t) up to 19mm is acceptable. If. . PW-51) Crack. of weld. which is 12 times in length of thickness of weld is not acceptable. Total length of aligned indication greater than thk. Where.
2 .3. PW-51) APPENDIX A-250 / TABLE A 250.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIOGRAPHY ACCEPTANCE STANDARD (ASME SECTION-I.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIATION SAFETY Use of radiation sources in industrial radiography is heavily regulated by state and federal organizations due to potential public and personal risks. .
. a person receives roughly 100 mrem/year from natural sources and roughly 100 mrem/year from manmade sources.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIATION SAFETY There are many sources of radiation. In general.
RADIATION SAFETY X-rays and gamma rays are forms of ionizing radiation. x-ray food pasteurization. This can cause radiation burns or cancer. which means that they have the ability to form ions in the material that is penetrated.) RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) X-rays and gamma rays have enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms and damage the molecular structure of cells. etc. . All living organisms are sensitive to the effects of ionizing radiation (radiation burns.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIATION SAFETY Technicians who work with radiation must wear monitoring devices that keep track of their total absorption. and alert them when they are in a high radiation area. Survey Meter Pocket Dosimeter Radiation Alarm Radiation Badge .
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RADIATION SAFETY There are three means of protection to help reduce exposure to radiation: .
. or real-time radioscopy. In most instances. is a nondestructive examination (NDE) method whereby an image is produced electronically rather than on film so that very little lag time occurs between the item being exposed to radiation and the resulting image.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) Advance Technology in RT: Real Time Radiography Real-time radiography (RTR). results from the radiation passing through the object being inspected and interacting with a screen of material that fluoresces or gives off light when the interaction occurs. the electronic image that is viewed.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) Advance Technology in RT: Weld images from Real Time Radiography RTR image showing Crack in welding RTR image showing Voids in welding .
APPLICATION OF RT Can be applied to all materials. metallic & non-metallic and all composites. DEFECTS CAN BE DETECTED BY RT: All type of cracks Lack of fusion (LoF) Lack of Penetration (LoP) Mismatch Inclusions (Tungsten. Sensitive for all volumetric type of defects. E. Slag & Oxides) Excess reinforcement Excess penetration (EP) Underfill Undercut Oxide Suck back Burn through RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) .g. Ferrous & Non-ferrous.
and material density changes. Provides a permanent record of the inspection. Technique is not limited by material type or density. . cracks.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) ADVANTAGES Permanent record & track of each and every welding is possible through film storage and joint identification. Detects both surface and subsurface defects. voids. Minimum surface preparation required. Sensitive to changes in thickness. corrosion. Can inspect assembled components.
Access to both sides of sample required. . Determining flaw depth is impossible without additional angled exposures.RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) LIMITATIONS Many safety precautions for the use of high intensity radiation. Orientation of equipment and flaw can be critical. Many hours of technician training prior to use. Expensive initial equipment cost.
RADIOGRAPHY TESTING (RT) RT IN BOILER: HEADER Circumferential welds Orifice welds Tube to tube welding COIL PANEL Tube to tube welding .
INTRODUCTION TO ULTRASONIC TESTING .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) OUTLINE Working principle Types of sound waves & their propagation Type waves & particle motion Wavelength & frequency Attenuation of sound wave Acoustic impedance & it’s important Reflection & transmission Refraction UT equipments Data Presentation Calibration block DAC Curve UT of welding Advance technologies in UT Advantages & Limitations of UT Code acceptance criteria .
. The sound waves travel through the material and the waves are reflected at interfaces. The probe picks up the reflected wave and an analysis of this signal is done.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) WORKING PRINCIPLE: In Ultrasonic Testing the High frequency sound waves (Ultrasonic Energy) are sent into the object.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) SOUND WAVE PROPAGATION: At atomic level when vibration takes place in particle. It generates sound wave. Sound wave propagation depends on particle vibration direction. .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) WAVE TYPES IN SOLIDS PARTICLE VIBRATIONS Longitudinal Parallel to wave direction Transverse (Shear) Perpendicular to wave direction Surface .Rayleigh Elliptical orbit symmetrical mode .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) WAVELENGTH AND FREQUENCY: .
UT is always sensitive for planer defects. So. assessing absorption of sound in a medium. Reflection is directly proportional to impedance ratio of two material. . the excess pressure results in a wave propagating through the solid. Air to any solid material impedance ratio is highest. The acoustic impedance (Z) of a material is defined as the product of its density (p) and acoustic velocity (V).ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) ACOUSTIC IMPEDANCE Sound travels through materials under the influence of sound pressure. It is resistance of material to passage of the sound beam through material. Z = pV Acoustic impedance is important in the determination of acoustic transmission and reflection at the boundary of two materials having different acoustic impedances. Because molecules or atoms of a solid are bound elastically to one another.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION: .
both reflected and refracted waves are produced. . and the materials have different indices of refraction.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) REFRACTION When an ultrasonic wave passes through an interface between two materials at an oblique angle.
The combined effect of scattering and absorption is called attenuation. Scattering is the reflection of the sound in directions other than its original direction of propagation. When sound travels through a medium. Absorption is the conversion of the sound energy to other forms of energy. . its intensity diminishes with distance due to Scattering and Absorption.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) ATTENUATION OF SOUND WAVE: Ultrasonic attenuation is the decay rate of the wave as it propagates through material.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) BASIC SET UP OF UT: Transducer (1) Cable (2) Ultrasonic Flaw Detector (3) Couplant (4) 3 2 1 4 .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) TRANSDUCERS (PROBE) Principle : Converts Electrical Energy into Mechanical Energy and vice-versa(Pie) .
Mechanical Energy converts into Electrical energy Case-2 .ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL Case-1 .Electrical Energy converts into Mechanical Energy .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)
PROBE (TRANSDUCER) TYPES: Contact Transducers Used for direct contact inspections. Coupling materials of water, grease, oils, or commercial materials are used to remove the air gap between the transducer and the component being inspected. Immersion Transducers Do not contact the component. Specially designed to operate in a liquid environment.
Transducers are available with a planer, cylindrically focused or spherically focused lens.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) PROBE (TRANSDUCER) TYPES (CONT.):
0° (Normal) beam Transducers Single Crystal Probe: Single crystal element is used both for transmitting and receiving. Dual Crystal Probe: Contain two independently operated elements in a single housing. One of the elements transmits and the other receives the ultrasonic signal. Applicable for the inspection of course grained material. Well suited for making measurements in applications where reflectors are very near the transducer. Angle beam probe Used to introduce a refracted shear wave into the test material. Available in a variety of fixed angles or in adjustable versions where the user determines the angles of incidence and refraction. Probe angles 45°, 60° and 70° are being used widely.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT)
The sound that emanates from an ultrasonic transducer does not originate from a single point, but instead originates from many points along the surface of the piezoelectric element This results in a sound field with many waves interacting or interfering with each other. When waves interact, they superimpose on each other, and the amplitude of the sound pressure or particle displacement at any point of interaction is the sum of the amplitudes of the two individual waves.
Single Point Dual Point Multi Point
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) NEAR FIELD AND FAR FIELD: Near Field: Wave interference leads to extensive fluctuations in the sound intensity near the source and is known as the near field. Far Field: The area just beyond the near field is where the sound wave is well behaved and at its maximum strength. . Therefore. optimal detection results will be obtained when flaws occur in this area.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) DEAD ZONE: It is the interval following the surface of a test object to the nearest inspectable depth. Any interval following a reflected signal where no direct echoes from discontinuities cannot be detected. . due to characteristics of the equipment.
are amplified. In the receiver section the voltage signals produced by the transducer.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) PULSER /RECEIVER OR ULTRASONIC FLAW DETECTOR (UFD): The pulser section of the instrument generates short. Analog Digital . The amplified radio frequency (RF) signal is available as an output for display or capture for signal processing. large amplitude electric pulses of controlled energy. which are converted into short ultrasonic pulses when applied to an ultrasonic transducer. which represent the received ultrasonic pulses.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) COAXIAL CABLE A: outer plastic sheath B: woven copper shield C: inner dielectric insulator D: copper-plated core .
Couplant medias are Water Oil Grease Cellulose paste .ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) COUPLANT: Couplant is used to nullify air gap between probe and specimen surface.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) DATA REPRESENTATION: A-Scan B-Scan C-Scan .
The relative amount of received energy is plotted along the vertical axis and the elapsed time (which may be related to the sound energy travel time within the material) is displayed along the horizontal axis. .ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) A-SCAN The A-scan presentation displays the amount of received ultrasonic energy as a function of time.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) A-SCAN UT VISUALIZATION (NORMAL PROBE) .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) A-SCAN UT VISUALIZATION (ANGLE PROBE) .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) B-SCAN The B-scan presentations is a profile (cross-sectional) view of the test specimen. the depth of the reflector and its approximate linear dimensions in the scan direction can be determined. the time-of-flight (travel time) of the sound energy is displayed along the vertical axis and the linear position of the transducer is displayed along the horizontal axis. In the B-scan. . In the B-scan.
.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) C-SCAN The C-scan presentation provides a plan-type view of the location and size of test specimen features. such as a computer controlled immersion scanning system. C-scan presentations are produced with an automated data acquisition system. The plane of the image is parallel to the scan pattern of the transducer.
To validate that the equipment and the setup provide similar results from one day to the next and that similar results are produced by different systems. REFERENCE STANDARDS : To establish a general level of consistency in measurements and to help interpret and quantify the information contained in the received signal.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) CALIBRATION Calibration refers to the act of evaluating and adjusting the precision and accuracy of measurement equipment. The inspector can use a reference standard with an artificially induced flaw of known size and at approximately the same distance away for the transducer to produce a signal By comparing the signal from the reference standard to that received from the actual flaw. the inspector can estimate the flaw size. Help the inspector to estimate the size of flaws. Signal strength depends on both the size of the flaw and the distance between the flaw and the transducer. .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) Calibration Blocks .
.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) DISTANCE AMPLITUDE CORRECTION (DAC): Acoustic signals from the same reflecting surface will have different amplitudes at different distances from the transducer. Acoustic signals from the same reflecting surface will have different amplitudes at different distances from the transducer.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) UFD .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) UT OF WELDED JOINTS: .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) SCANNING PATTERN AND DIRECTION: Maximum reflection can be achieved when flaw is lying perpendicular to beam direction. Probe angle selection should be such that beam shall hit perpendicular to the side wall of weld groove. The best practice is to scan from two different direction and with two different angle beam probes. Longitudinal scanning Transverse scanning Orbital scanning . Mainly three types of scanning patterns are used to get reflection from defects lying at any orientation.
These elements can be a linear array. a circular array or some more complex form. a 2D matrix array. all individually wired.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) ADVANCED UT (PHASED ARRAY) Phased arrays use an array of elements. pulsed and time-shifted. .
Ultrasonic phased arrays use a multiple element probe whereby the output pulse from each element is time delayed in such a way so as produce constructive interference at a specific angle and a specific depth. Focused Normal beam Focused Shear wave . These time delays can be incremented over a range of angles to sweep the beam over the desired angular range. It will give us various types of wave configuration.WORKING PRINCIPLE: ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) All arrays are operated individually.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) DATA PRESENTATION: .
stored on hard disk and displayed on the screen. Usually TOFD technique uses a pair of probes. which cause reflected and diffracted signals. slag inclusions and cracks can be detected independent of defect orientation with very accurate sizing of the defects (±0. instead of geometrical reflection on the interface of the discontinuities When ultrasound is incident at linear discontinuity such as crack. the other as a receiver.0 mm).5-1. Using this advanced technique gas and binding defects. The longitudinal sound beam can encounter obstacles on its path. . When the probes are moved parallel along the weld. diffraction takes place at its extremities.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) TIME OF FLIGHT DEFRACTION: The TOFD technique is based on diffraction of ultrasonic waves on tips of discontinuities. the resultant waveforms are digitized. One Acts as an emitter of ultrasound.
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) TOFD SIGNALS: Transmitter Lateral wave Receiver Upper tip Lower tip Back-wall reflection .
ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) DATA PRESENTATION: 1 2 1 2 The crack blocks the Lateral Wave And the lower tip appears on the A-scan .
Ferrous & Non-ferrous. Slag & Oxides) Excess penetration (EP) Undercut .ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) APPLICATION OF UT: Can be applied to all materials. E. metallic & non-metallic and all composites. DEFECTS CAN BE DETECTED BY UT: All type of cracks Lack of fusion (LoF) Lack of Penetration (LoP) Inclusions (Tungsten.g. Practically there is no any thickness limitation to perform UT.
The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other NDT methods. Detailed images can be produced with automated systems. . It has other uses. Only single-sided access is needed when the pulse-echo technique is used. It is highly accurate in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape. Minimal part preparation is required. in addition to flaw detection.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) ADVANTAGES OF UT: It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities. such as thickness measurement. Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results.
Materials that are rough. very small. Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to low sound transmission and high signal noise. It normally requires a coupling medium to promote the transfer of sound energy into the test specimen. Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods. Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected. exceptionally thin or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect. irregular in shape. Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration and the characterization of flaws. .ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) LIMITATIONS OF UT: Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound.
2. and location. and evaluate them in terms of PW-52.where t is the thickness of the weld being examined.1 and PW-52. or incomplete penetration are not acceptable regardless of length. If the weld joins two members having different thicknesses at the weld.3. lack of fusion. .3. t is the thinner of these two thickness. Article 4 & 5.ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA AS PER ASME SECTION-1 PW -52: Technique and standards for ultrasonic examination are given in ASME Section V. identity. Cracks. Imperfections that cause an indication greater than 20% of the reference level shall be investigated to the extent that the ultrasonic examination personnel can determine their shape. Other imperfections are unacceptable if the indication exceeds the reference level and their length exceeds the following: 6 mm for t up to 19 mm 1⁄3t for t from 19 mm to 57 mm 19 mm for t over 57 mm Notes :.
Seams) Above 48mm thk .ULTRASONIC TESTING (UT) UT IN BOILER: Header T-piece branch connection Manifold support bolts Depth confirmation (If repair found in Cir.
T. M.T. E.T. U. --Inclusions e. U. M. M. P. U. U. U.T.T.T.T. M.T. Material quality ----------U.T. U. slag.T.T.T.T. M. U.T.T. U.T.T.T.T. U.T. R. U. E.T.T. R.T. FLAW TYPE MATERIAL Ferrous forgings Ferrous raw material Ferrous tube & pipe Ferrous welds Steel castings Iron castings Non-Fe materials Fe finished materials Non-Fe finished materials Surface flaw M.T.T.T. ----U.T. U. U.T. ------Lamination & thickness measurement U. U. U. E.T. E. U.T.T. U. P.T.T. --U.T. U. M. U.T.T. Sub-surface flaw M. M.T.T.T. U.T.D.T.T. .T. T.T.APPLICATION OF N. R.E.T. U. M. M. U.T.T.T.T.T. U. M.T.T.T. R.T. U.T. E.T. U.T. Lack of fusion ----U.T. E.T. U. U. M.T.g. R.T. P. R.T. R.T.T.T. U.T. U. U. R. U. Internal flaw R. R.T.T. U.T. U. U. U. U.T.T. E.T.T.I.T.T. U.T. R. M.
N.D. IN BOILER INDUSTRY: Boiler testing for welding defects both during manufacturing and in service.E. .E.D.APPLICATION OF N. Boiler piping thickness measurement and turbine component testing.
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