Diamond Chip


Dept. of Computer Applications


KVM CE&IT, Cherthala

Diamond Chip

Electronics without silicon is unbelievable, but it will come true with the evolution of Diamond or Carbon chip. Now a day we are using silicon for the manufacturing of Electronic Chip's. It has many disadvantages when it is used in power electronic applications, such as bulk in size, slow operating speed etc. Carbon, Silicon and Germanium are belonging to the same group in the periodic table. They have four valance electrons in their outer shell. Pure Silicon and Germanium are semiconductors in normal temperature. So in the earlier days they are used widely for the manufacturing of electronic components. But later it is found that Germanium has many disadvantages compared to silicon, such as large reverse current, less stability towards temperature etc. so in the industry focused in developing electronic components using silicon wafers. Now research people found that Carbon is more advantages than Silicon. By using carbon as the manufacturing material, we can achieve smaller, faster and stronger chips. They are succeeded in making smaller prototypes of Carbon chip. They invented a major component using carbon that is "CARBON NANOTUBE", which is widely used in most modern microprocessors and it will be a major component in the coming era. Crystalline diamond film that could produce more resilient semiconductor chips than those made from silicon. Until now, synthetic diamonds have proved a poor semiconducting material. Their microscopic crystals are a disorderly hodgepodge, and their edges are not evenly aligned, impeding the flow of current. Now, Schreck and his colleagues have discovered that by growing the diamond film on a surface of iridium, instead of on silicon, they can keep its grain boundaries aligned. Adding atoms of boron or nitrogen enables the diamond film to conduct electricity. Manufacturers plan to build a diamond chip that can withstand temperatures of 500 C, compared to only about 150 C for silicon chips. The chips would be most useful in devices located near hot-burning engines, such as those used in automobiles or airplanes. A diamond semiconductor that operates on the 81 GHz frequency, which is more than twice the speed of earlier devices, has been developed by the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (NTT). According to NTT, this latest development will allow amplification in the millimetre-wave band from 30 to 300 GHz possible for the first time. Diamond chips can work at a much Dept. of Computer Applications 2 KVM CE&IT, Cherthala

Diamond Chip higher frequency or faster speed and be placed in a high-temperature environment, such as a vehicle's engine. Diamond can also resist voltages up to around 200 volts, compared to around 20 volts for a silicon chip. This means power electronics, such as an inverter, can become much smaller in size. At present, a large number of silicon chips are used together to handle high voltages which makes devices large. However, diamond chips are not expected to completely replace silicon chips for another 20 years because of two major bottlenecks, artificial diamond for chips is still much more expensive than silicon. A four-millimetre-square diamond substrate costs several tens of thousands of yen compared to virtually nothing for silicon, another problem is that electricity cannot travel smoothly through diamond. Thus, researches are seeking impurities that can be added to aid electricity flow. 1.1 WHAT IS DIAMOND CHIP? In single definition, Diamond Chip or carbon Chip is an electronic chip manufactured on a Diamond structural Carbon wafer. OR it can be also defined as the electronic component manufactured using carbon as the wafer. The major component using carbon is Carbon Nanotube. Carbon Nanotube is a Nano-dimensional made by using carbon. It has many unique properties. HOW IS IT POSSIBLE? Pure Diamond structural carbon is non-conducting in nature. In order to make it conducting we have to perform doping process. We are using Boron as the p-type doping Agent and the Nitrogen as the n-type doping agent. The doping process is similar to that in the case of Silicon chip manufacturing. But this process will take more time compared with that of silicon because it is very difficult to diffuse through strongly bonded diamond structure. CNT (Carbon Nanotube) is already a semiconductor. A crystalline diamond film that could produce more resilient semiconductor chips than those made from silicon, commonly synthetic diamonds have proved a poor semi conducting material. Their microscopic crystals are a disorderly hodgepodge, and their edges are not evenly aligned, impeding the flow of current. Now but by growing the diamond film on a surface of iridium, instead of on silicon, they can keep its grain boundaries aligned. Adding atoms of boron or nitrogen enables the diamond film to conduct electricity. Manufacturers Dept. of Computer Applications 3 KVM CE&IT, Cherthala

Diamond Chip plan to build a diamond chip that can withstand temperatures of 500 C, compared to only about 150 C for silicon chips. The chips would be most useful in devices located near hotburning engines, such as those used in automobiles or airplanes. Diamond has an extremely high thermal conductivity, can withstand high electric fields, and can be made into a semiconductor -- ideal for power devices. A diamond semiconductor that operates on the 81 GHz frequency, which is more than twice the speed of earlier devices, has been developed by the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. (NTT).According to NTT, this latest development will allow amplification in the millimetre-wave band from 30 to 300 GHz possible for the first time. Diamond chips can work at a much higher frequency or faster speed and be placed in a hightemperature environment, such as a vehicle's engine. Diamond can also resist voltages up to around 200 volts, compared to around 20 volts for a silicon chip. This means power electronics, such as an inverter, can become much smaller in size. At present, a large number of silicon chips are used together to handle high voltages which makes devices large However, diamond chips are not expected to completely replace silicon chips for another 20 years because of two major bottlenecks. Artificial diamond for chips is still much more expensive than silicon. A four-millimetre-square diamond substrate costs several tens of thousands of yen compared to virtually nothing for silicon, another problem is that electricity cannot travel smoothly through diamond. Thus, researches are seeking impurities that can be added to aid electricity flow. 1.2 CARBON NANOTUBE Carbon nanotubes (CNTs):- are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 28,000,000:1, which is significantly larger than any other material. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural fields. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient thermal conductors. Their final usage, however, may be limited by their potential toxicity and controlling their property changes in response to chemical treatment.

Dept. of Computer Applications


KVM CE&IT, Cherthala

with a tube length that can be many millions of times longer. of Computer Applications 5 KVM CE&IT. Single-walled Most single-walled nanotubes (SWNT) have a diameter of close to 1 nanometre.000th of the width of a human hair). The ends of a nanotube might be capped with a hemisphere of the buckyball structure. The nature of the bonding of a nanotube is described by applied quantum chemistry. Types of carbon nanotubes and related structures I. since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometres (approximately 1/50. The structure of a SWNT can Dept. Their name is derived from their size. which is stronger than the sp3 bonds found in diamonds. which also includes the spherical Buckyballs. Nanotubes naturally align themselves into "ropes" held together by Van der Waals forces. similar to those of graphite. provides the molecules with their unique strength. orbital hybridization. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled nanotubes (MWNTs).Diamond Chip Nanotubes are members of the fullerene structural family. while they can be up to several millimetres in length (as of 2008). Cherthala . specifically. This bonding structure. The chemical bonding of nanotubes is composed entirely of sp2 bonds.

it is possible to Dept. of Computer Applications 6 KVM CE&IT. The way the graphene sheet is wrapped is represented by a pair of indices (n. and SWNTs can be excellent conductors. One useful application of SWNTs is in the development of the first intramolecular field effect transistors (FET). they are called "chiral". Single-walled nanotubes are the most likely candidate for miniaturizing electronics beyond the micro electromechanical scale currently used in electronics. m) called the chiral vector. Single-walled nanotubes are an important variety of carbon nanotube because they exhibit electric properties that are not shared by the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) variants. If m = 0. The most basic building block of these systems is the electric wire. Because SWNTs are p-FETs when exposed to oxygen and n-FETs otherwise. Otherwise. Cherthala .Diamond Chip be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder. the nanotubes are called "armchair". If n = m. The integers n and m denote the number of unit vectors along two directions in the honeycomb crystal lattice of graphene. the nanotubes are called "zigzag". Production of the first intramolecular logic gate using SWNT FETs has recently become possible as well. To create a logic gate you must have both a p-FET and an n-FET.

Several suppliers offer as-produced arc discharge SWNTs for $50-100 per gram as of 2007. a (0.10) single-walled nanotube.Diamond Chip protect half of an SWNT from oxygen exposure. Cherthala .8) single-walled nanotube (SWNT) within a larger (0. sheets of graphite are arranged in concentric cylinders. Dept. it would make it financially impossible to apply this technology to commercial-scale applications. resembling a scroll of parchment or a rolled newspaper. In the Russian Doll model.4 Å The special place of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWNT) must be emphasized here because their morphology and properties are similar to SWNT but their resistance to chemicals is significantly improved.Multi-walled Multi-walled nanotubes (MWNT) consist of multiple rolled layers (concentric tubes) of graphite. II. In the Parchment model. approximately 3. a single sheet of graphite is rolled in around itself. around $1500 per gram as of 2000. This result in a single SWNT that acts as a NOT logic gate with both p and ntype FETs within the same molecule. of Computer Applications 7 KVM CE&IT.g. and the development of more affordable synthesis techniques is vital to the future of carbon nanotechnology. If cheaper means of synthesis cannot be discovered. while exposing the other half to oxygen. There are two models which can be used to describe the structures of multi-walled nanotubes. e. The interlayer distance in multi-walled nanotubes is close to the distance between graphene layers in graphite. Single-walled nanotubes are still very expensive to produce.

DWNT synthesis on the gram-scale was first proposed in 2003 by the CCVD technique. III. covalent functionalization will break some C=C double bonds. only the outer wall is modified. Nanotorus are predicted to have many unique properties. of Computer Applications 8 KVM CE&IT.Diamond Chip This is especially important when functionalization is required (this means grafting of chemical functions at the surface of the nanotubes) to add new properties to the CNT. thermal stability etc. leaving "holes" in the structure on the nanotube and thus modifying both its mechanical and electrical properties. varies widely depending on radius of the torus and radius of the tube. In the case of DWNT. In the case of SWNT. from the selective reduction of oxide solutions in methane and hydrogen. Properties such as magnetic moment. Dept. such as magnetic moments 1000 times larger than previously expected for certain specific radii. Cherthala . Torus A nanotorus is theoretically described as carbon nanotube bent into a torus (doughnut shape).

In particular. of Computer Applications 9 KVM CE&IT.Diamond Chip IV. Cup stacked carbon nanotubes Cup-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) differ from other quasi-1D carbon structures that normally behave as a metallic conductor of electrons. the attached fullerene molecules may function as molecular anchors preventing slipping of the nanotubes. In this new material. thus improving the composite mechanical properties. Cherthala . Nanobud Carbon nanobuds are a newly created material combining two previously discovered allotropes of carbon: carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. CSCNTs exhibit semiconducting behaviours due to the stacking microstructure of graphene layers Dept. In composite materials. This hybrid material has useful properties of both fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. fullerenelike "buds" are covalently bonded to the outer sidewalls of the underlying carbon nanotube. V. they have been found to be exceptionally good field emitters.

which means the deformation is permanent. they tend to undergo buckling when placed under compressive. Cherthala . This strength results from the covalent sp² bonds formed between the individual carbon atoms. torsional or bending stress. Because of their hollow structure and high aspect ratio. the Dept.Diamond Chip 1. and it is well known that graphite transforms into diamond under conditions of high temperature and high pressure. compared to highcarbon steel's 154 kg.2. exhibit a striking telescoping property whereby an inner nanotube core may slide. In 2000. multiple concentric nanotubes precisely nested within one another.000 kg is the best of known materials. The hardness of this material was measured with a Nano indenter as 62 GPa. respectively.1 Properties:1) Strength Carbon nanotubes are the strongest and stiffest materials yet discovered in terms of tensile strength and elastic modulus respectively. translates into the ability to endure tension of a weight equivalent to 6300 kg on a cable with cross-section of 1 mm2. the tubes will undergo plastic deformation. The hardness of reference diamond and boron nitride samples was 150 and 62 GPa. of Computer Applications 10 KVM CE&IT. surpassing the value of 420 GPa for diamond. The bulk modulus of compressed SWNTs was 462.3 to 1. for illustration. almost without friction.4 gm.) Since carbon nanotubes have a low density for a solid of 1. This deformation begins at strains of approximately 5% and can increase the maximum strain the tubes undergo before fracture by releasing strain energy. (This. 2) Hardness Diamond is considered to be the hardest material. CNTs are not nearly as strong under compression. One study succeeded in the synthesis of a super-hard material by compressing SWNTs to above 24 GPa room temperature. This is one of the first true examples of molecular nanotechnology. within its outer nanotube shell thus creating an atomically perfect linear or rotational bearing.546 GPa. 3) Kinetic Multi-walled nanotubes. a multi-walled carbon nanotube was tested to have a tensile strength of 63 giga-pascals (GPa). Under excessive tensile strain. its specific strength of up to 48.

the Tc value is an order of magnitude lower for ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes or for MWNTs with usual. (9. In theory. if n . otherwise the nanotube is a moderate semiconductor.m is a multiple of 3. In contrast.000 times greater than metals such as copper. and nanotubes (5. are semiconducting.4). if n = m. then the nanotube is semiconducting with a very small band gap. (6. the structure of a nanotube strongly affects its electrical properties. Thus all armchair (n = m) nanotubes are metallic. 4) Electrical Because of the symmetry and unique electronic structure of graphene.Diamond Chip precise positioning of atoms to create useful machines. For a given (n. Future applications such as a gigahertz mechanical oscillator are also envisaged. etc.0). of Computer Applications 11 KVM CE&IT. Already this property has been utilized to create the world's smallest rotational motor.1). noninterconnected shells *** Dept. metallic nanotubes can carry an electrical current density of 4 × 109 A/cm2 which is more than 1. Multi walled carbon nanotubes with interconnected inner shells show superconductivity with a relatively high transition temperature Tc = 12 K.m) nanotube. Cherthala . the nanotube is metallic.

Diamond Chip 2. of Computer Applications 12 KVM CE&IT. Cherthala . CARBON CHIP TECHNOLOGY Dept.

According to researchers. Meanwhile. Texas). (Woburn. zero-dimensional carbon 60 atom. of Computer Applications 13 KVM CE&IT. for interconnecting devices. But how quickly the industry embraces the carbon-based materials. diamond is probably the closest to commercialization at this time.) and SVTC Technologies (Austin. Mass. various structures based on the element that sits just above silicon on the Periodic Table can surpass silicon's abilities in thermal performance." said Dean Freeman. one-dimensional carbon--1-nm-diameter nanotubes could solve digital silicon's speed woes. remains to be seen. Over the next few years. Likewise. Cherthala .Diamond Chip Carbon--the basis of all organic compounds--appears destined to supplant silicon as the material of choice for future semiconductors." Three-dimensional carbon--diamond--offers 10 times the heat dissipation of silicon. "Of the carbon technologies. semiconductors. as work in diamond has been taking place for 15 years or longer. senior analyst at Gartner Inc. which partnered to offer the first nanotube thin-film development foundry service for fabless silicon chip makers wishing to add carbon nanotube films as highDept. for isolating devices. according to suppliers currently hawking 40-nanometer to 15-micron diamond films on silicon wafers. Two-dimensional carbon--3-angstrom-thick monolayers called graphene could dismantle silicon's roadblock to terahertz performance by attaining 10 times the electron mobility of silicon. Tightly packed fullerenes intercalated with alkali-metal atoms super conduct at 38 K. Freeman related the experience of Nantero Inc. Cyclotron orbit of graphene electrons: NIST probe scans and maps the atomic contours of graphene by applying a magnetic field that causes its electrons to organize into cyclotron orbits. hollow spheres of carbon called fullerenes could answer silicon's inability to attain high-temperature superconductivity. Nanotubes will appear first as printable "inks" that are 10 times faster than competing organic transistors. and insulators. "Most of the others still have a ways to go. especially during uncertain economic times. carbon process technologies will become available to replace nearly every circuit material in use today: conductors. frequency range and perhaps even superconductivity.

). Texas) for inexpensive low-temperature deposition systems using noncontact aerosol jet printers. Carbon nanotube films are being developed by mass.) are embedding nanotubes into carbon sheets that can sense cracks or other structural defects. Cherthala . "Carbon nanotubes are also being looked at closely for interconnect materials in CMOS devices below 22 nm. such as those offered by Optomec (Albuquerque. of Computer Applications 14 KVM CE&IT.H.Diamond Chip performance interconnects on commercial CMOS chips. N. for both the military and civilian uses. which would mean at least five years before commercialization. instead.production experts such as DuPont and have appeared on electronics cast on flexible plastic substrates by industrial giants such as NEC. Companies like Nanocomp Technologies Inc. "There are already many applications being developed in flexible electronics. they are looking to create a whole new lineage of electronic capabilities." he said. (Austin. initially for nanotubes and more recently for graphene. Printable nanotube inks are being developed by suppliers such as Applied Nanotech Inc. N. The systems target cost-sensitive applications such as plastic solar cells and RFID tags on flexible polymer substrates." said IBM fellow Phaedon Avouris. who manages the company's carbon transistor efforts. beginning with micron-sized devices reminiscent of the larger. Dept. but building thin-film transistors with micronsized channels on flexible substrates will be the first commercial applications of nanotubes. "Of course. either electrically or thermally.M. "Nantero has developed several devices using carbon nanotubes. but it can't find any customers who want to commercialize the devices. early silicon transistors. (Concord." Freeman said. there are already many applications of nanotubes' being used to make materials more conductive." Carbon electronics developers are not aiming to go head-to-head with silicon semiconductors' mature process technology for perhaps a decade. as well as developing nanotube wires and cables that are comparable to copper in terms of electrical conductivity but are 80 percent lighter.

Diamond Chip 3. Cherthala .DIAMONDS ON FILM Dept. of Computer Applications 15 KVM CE&IT.

high-cost. but NTT and others have demonstrated highpower. then annealed to heal the damage to the lattice. The scaling problem refers to the inability to grow single-crystal diamond across wafers much bigger than an inch and a half." said John Carlisle. the doped regions will just turn into graphite [amorphous carbon]. "Diamond today is used for high-temperature. Pure diamond transistors are still experimental. Diamond transistors have also being proposed for next-generation collision-avoidance automotive radar systems that would operate well in adverse weather/temperature conditions. can afford the extra cost of diamond substrates. today such materials often cannot perform at their peak. "Silicon has whole families of dopants. niche applications where someone. The two hurdles to the commercialization of single-crystal diamond semiconductors are doping and scaling.Diamond Chip Wafers with polycrystalline films of diamond are on the market and are being investigated for use with high-performance materials like gallium nitride." said Freeman. Silicon naturally recrystallizes around the dopant atoms. Diamond RF MEMS switch (left) operates at higher frequencies than silicon but can be fabricated alongside the CMOS circuitry (right) driving it. whereas diamond doesn't. that can be implanted into silicon to achieve certain semiconducting properties. If you try to implant dopants and anneal diamond. Diamond is no match for silicon. as well as for applications that are projected further into the future. Ill. high-frequency. Wafers with polycrystalline films of diamond are also being proposed as higherperformance replacements for silicon-on-insulator wafers.). such as the military. enabling a single chip to handle both functions. Romeoville. of Computer Applications 16 KVM CE&IT. which can be grown at Dept. high-frequency versions for communications. Cherthala . because even silicon carbide substrates cannot dissipate the heat fast enough. like boron and phosphorus. (ADT. Very few dopants have been found than can introduce the lattice defects needed to change the material from an insulator to a semiconductor. chief technology officer at Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc. such as qubit storage in quantum computers.

Called microcrystalline diamond by sp3 and ultra nanocrystalline diamond by ADT. but at a much lower price point. president of sp3. Calif. of Computer Applications 17 KVM CE&IT. Dept. the electrical conductivity of UNCD films can be changed by more than eight orders of magnitude (100 million to 1). and in apps that require the thermal dissipation performance of silicon carbide wafers." said Carlisle." said Carlisle. For instance. "Tremendous engineering challenges remain to making single-crystal diamond films that cover an entire 200-millimeter [8-inch] wafer.) are mostly used in micro electromechanical system (MEMS) applications. Cherthala . but by and large we have captured the best properties of single-crystal diamond but without its drawbacks." said Carlisle. the foreign atoms do not tempt the crystalline carbon into reforming into graphite. where the material can extend frequency performance into the gigahertz range (silicon MEMS devices are limited to megahertz) and offer long-term durability. The diamond wafers being sold today by ADT and sp3 Inc. The company is also developing diamond under a Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) contract for MEMS applications. "It's not perfect. (Santa Clara. these films use grains of carbon as small as 5 nm in diameter (about 10 carbon atoms wide) and consisting of just 20 to 30 atoms each. now we can make layered structures that interleave our diamond films anywhere in a CMOS semiconductor stack. we have successfully deposited our nano-crystalline diamond onto 300-mm (12inch) wafers in our lab. By situating themselves between the nanoparticle grains rather than intruding on the carbon lattice itself. "As a result. "Nano-crystalline diamond allows us to solve both the doping and scaling problems [seen] with single-crystalline diamond. "We are pricing our diamond-coated wafers at about 25 percent of the cost of silicon carbide wafers." ADT's ultra-nano-crystalline diamond (UNCD) is naturally insulating but can be made highly conductive by doping it with nitrogen. By adding dopants and altering the deposition process itself.Diamond Chip the wafer scale in atomically perfect single-crystalline monolayers as wide as 8 inches or more." said Dwain Aidala. ADT and sp3 have sidestepped the doping and scaling problems facing single-crystal carbon films by instead growing wafer-scale polycrystalline diamond films. for which their ultra-hardness is valued.

which designed the RF switch. Cherthala . MEMtronics. which was perfected at Argonne National Lab. filters and switches into a singlechip solution for portable wireless devices like smart phones and smartbooks. Next month. Darpa program manager Amit Lal enlisted the help of Innovative Micro Technology (IMT). which is to use 30 different suppliers. Darpa will evaluate its Harsh Environment Robust Micromechanical Technology (Hermit) program to fabricate diamond films using ADT's ultra-nano-crystalline process." Dept. which formed ADT's diamond into a MEMS device. of Computer Applications 18 KVM CE&IT." said Carlisle. and it has a very stable surface that is immune to oxidation. contrasting the approach with "what's done today. contractors are now embarking on their own development efforts to repackage diamond MEMS devices on CMOS into RF modules for consumer devices. it’s very high stiffness enables it to resonate at very high frequencies. For Hermit. which fabricated the CMOS drivers atop a silicon-on-sapphire wafer." said ADT's Carlisle. and Peregrine Semiconductor. Emboldened by the successful implementation of an RF phase shifter for Darpa.Diamond Chip "Diamond has all the properties that you want for MEMS. "Our vision is to combine several different RF oscillators.

of Computer Applications 19 KVM CE&IT.Diamond Chip 4.CARBON ENDGAME Dept. Cherthala .

" said Walter de Heer. CERA aims to demonstrate a 94-GHz power amplifier using graphene transistors by 2012. top). a professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology. bilayer graphene is sandwiched between silicon dioxide glass (bottom) and a transparent layer of aluminium oxide (sapphire." Tomas Palacios. of Computer Applications 20 KVM CE&IT. Cherthala . a silicon gate lies below the silicon dioxide. The gold source and drain electrodes are separated by a distance equivalent to the width of a human hair. and the next step will be a lot higher several hundred gigahertzes." said Palacios. ones whose performance would be better than conventional technology can achieve. 2-D semiconductor processes. Dept. graphene is the furthest away from commercialization but might hold the most promise for integration with silicon semiconductor processes. "For this application.Diamond Chip Among the carbon technologies being pursued for electronics. Graphene's lack of a band gap makes it difficult to use for digital devices but not for analog transistors. fabricated some of the first analog circuits using graphene for another application in which a bandgap isn't needed: frequency multipliers. The latter are the aim of Darpa's Carbon Electronics for RF Applications program. Since diamond is inherently three-dimensional and nanotubes are inherently one-dimensional. most of the basic science issues have been solved. a wide-bandgap-semiconductor specialist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "We were looking for new devices we could make with graphene today. A platinum top gate is deposited on the aluminium oxide. 2-D graphene transistors are simply a better fit with mainstream. Now our problems are the same as with any new semiconductor process: finding a compatible dielectric and learning how to lay it down reliably. "We have already demonstrated graphene transistors in our lab at 50 GHz. IBM leads the CERA research effort. "We will have graphene-based very high-frequency transistors within a year in the lab. In a UC-Berkeley process. Other labs are also rushing to fabricate high-frequency transistors with graphene." said Avouris.

The Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) is working with the Air Force and the Navy. The Air Force aims to grow high-quality. With the Office of Naval Research. researchers are hoping to significantly increase the speed of computers. uniform. The technology could even have implications for how long Moore's Law which has so far accurately predicted the doubling of the number of transistors on microchips every two years will continue to apply. even flexible plastic substrates. Upping the frequency Dept. and identify potential chemical. Cherthala .Diamond Chip The second problem that needs to be solved before graphene can enter the semiconductor mainstream is scaling. who grows centimetre-sized graphene films on silicon wafers coated with nickel. "We can put graphene circuitry on any substrate you want--silicon carbide. The technique allows a wide variety of substrates to be tested. said Palacios. New graphene chips much faster than silicon With the use of a unique carbon material. of Computer Applications 21 KVM CE&IT. The material. called graphene. Its unusual properties make it a promising material for future microchips that could transmit data much faster than existing silicon chips. Chemical vapour deposition techniques have been limited to wafers of about 1 inch. consists of sheets of carbon just one atom thick. diamond. gallium nitride. defect-free epitaxial graphene.100°C and thereby burning away the silicon). The MIT researchers transfer the graphene film from the original wafers onto other substrates by etching away the nickel." MIT has kicked off a five-year effort to enable graphene's use as a commercial chip material. MURI plans to characterize the electronic properties and tailor innovative device functionalities and circuits using nanostructured graphene at the sub-10-nm scale. pressure and biological sensing applications. mobile phones and other communication systems. characterize the material. Palacios' group uses a CVD method developed by fellow MIT professor Jing Kong. prompting researchers to turn to molecular-beam epitaxy and silicon carbide thermalization (which creates graphene-coated wafers by heating silicon carbide wafers to 1.

storage devices for electrical energy (see." Palacios and his team have used graphene to build a chip known as a frequency multiplier. With current technology. showing the system is a viable way of generating high frequency signals. the researchers said. The next generation of graphene chips will be able to build upon this concept to achieve much higher frequencies.Diamond Chip "Graphene will play a key role in future electronics. This quality is important to electronics. USA. Surpasses existing technology Graphene holds such promise for increasing communication speed because of its unique electrical properties. The new graphene system has only a single transistor. it has been used to create prototype transistors. Already. it is hard to create signals with frequencies above five gigahertz. Graphene could eventually lead to frequencies in the 500 to 1. an electrical engineer with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston. Frequency multipliers take an incoming electrical signal of a certain frequency and produce an output signal that is a multiple of that frequency. In short. very high mobility “ the speed at which electrons start moving in the presence of an electric field." Palacios said graphene will play an important role in the future. as well as ultra-capacitors. of Computer Applications 22 KVM CE&IT. The MIT graphene chips can double the frequency of an electromagnetic signal. the graphene chip surpasses existing frequency multipliers in several key ways. he said. Reaching higher frequencies is critical to faster computer systems. works more efficiently and produces clean signals that don't need filtering. for example. Palacios said. consume large amounts of power and produce signals that require filtering. As a result. Dept. and graphene's mobility is 100 times that of silicon. "We just need to identify the right devices to take full advantage of its outstanding properties. Palacios said. the graphene system can multiply frequencies "with unprecedented levels of spectral purity and efficiency. Cherthala .000 gigahertz range. It has. Current systems require multiple components." said Tom Palacios. Super-thin material has massive energy storage potential). because it allows data to be transmitted faster.

" Stride added that graphene could extend Moore's Law if the material is used to improve transistors." he said. he said." Palacios said. this predicts that the number of transistors able to be placed inexpensively on a microchip will double every two years. a chemist with the University of New South Wales. but they proved the principles." Stride said. It’s specifications are included in APPENDIX II. which can damage today's silicon-based chips when transistors are packed together tightly. in New South Wales. "There are small things to iron out. "the MIT project looks to be significant scientifically and with good prospects commercially as well. a member of the Nano-mechanics Group at the University of Wollongong. Stanford chemists have developed a new way to make transistors out of carbon nanoribbons. but they proved you can get higher frequencies with a simple graphene device." Barry Cox. "New semi conductivity technology based on graphene may extend Moore's Law further in the future. in Sydney. who studies graphene. Carbon Nano-ribbons Could Make Smaller. said improved frequency multipliers would have many practical benefits. of Computer Applications 23 KVM CE&IT.Diamond Chip "Researchers have been trying to find a use for this material since its discovery in 2004. but cautioned that certain problems still need to be addressed. First mooted in 1965 by Intel's Gordon Moore. Australia. Speedier Computer Chips. but scientists debate how long it can last with current technology." 4. "They need to perfect it so it can be suitable for devices. Cherthala . The devices could someday be integrated into high-performance computer chips to increase their speed and generate less heat. Dept. said he was impressed by the work and its potential applications.1 More Moore's Law John Stride. The law still stands. "I believe this application will have tremendous implications in high-frequency communications and electronics. Still.

which is 4 Kelvin [-452 Fahrenheit]. Using a chemical process developed by his group and described in a paper in the Feb.000-times thinner than a human hair. His group's work is described in a paper published online in the May 23 issue of the journal Physical Review Letters. proposed that graphene could supplement but not replace silicon. that are smoother and narrower than nanoribbons made through other techniques. This allows the electric current to either pass through or be blocked. which predicts that the number of transistors on a chip will double every two years. helping meet the demand for ever-smaller Dept. Field-effect transistors are the key elements of computer chips. which allows them to operate at higher temperatures.Diamond Chip For the first time. Researchers predict that silicon chips will reach their maximum shrinking point within the next decade. Cherthala . the J. Wood Professor of Chemistry. require much lower temperatures. Graphene is one of the materials being considered. Other graphene transistors." Dai said. G. "People had not been able to make graphene nanoribbons narrow enough to allow the transistors to work at higher temperatures until now. previous demonstrations of field-effect transistors were all done at liquid helium temperature. J. Graphene is a form of carbon derived from graphite. They are composed of a semiconductor channel sandwiched between two metal electrodes. an assistant professor of physics at Stanford. The Dai group succeeded in making graphene nanoribbons less than 10 nanometres wide. Jackson and C. of Computer Applications 24 KVM CE&IT. which in turn controls how the devices can be switched on and off. a charged metal plate can draw positive and negative charges in and out of the semiconductor. the lead investigator. "For graphene transistors. thereby regulating the flow of data. David Goldhaber-Gordon. a research team led by Hongjie Dai. made with wider nano-ribbons or thin films." said Dai. This has prompted a search for materials to replace silicon as transistors continue to shrink in accordance with Moore's Law. acting as data carriers from one place to another. 29 issue of Science. has made transistors called "field-effect transistors" a critical component of computer chips with graphene that can operate at room temperature. In the presence of an electric field. strips of carbon 50. the researchers have made nanoribbons.

of Computer Applications 25 KVM CE&IT. "Metallic nanotubes can never switch off and act like electrical shorts for the device. Although researchers.Diamond Chip transistors for faster processing." he said. "This is why structure at the atomic scale in this case. consists of a planar single sheet of carbon arranged in a honeycombed lattice. "Depending on their structure. Dai said graphene could be a useful material for future electronics but does not think it will replace silicon anytime soon." he said. Dai's team demonstrated that all of their narrow graphene nanoribbons made from their novel chemical technique are semiconductors. "People need to realize this is not a promise. Cherthala ." he said. Image depicts carbon-based semiconductor chips with its dual-gate bi-layer graphene fieldeffect transistors." he said. and we'll have a high payoff if this is successful. some carbon nanotubes are born metallic. "I would rather say this is motivation at the moment rather than proven fact. one of the thinnest known materials. However there are a few problems that need to be overcome before carbon-based transistors can be useful. which is a problem. and some are born semiconducting. Semiconductors have a band gap between their conductive and insulating state. width and edge matters. which can have 1-nanometer diameters. this is exploration. Carbon Based Chips May One Day Replace Silicon Transistors Graphene. are semiconducting. With a missing band gap. which allows them to be easily turned on and off. Dept. Dai said. the problem is that not all of the tubes. graphene FETs (field-effect transistors) have terrible on-to-off current ratios which is hundreds of times smaller than silicon. including those in his own group. Single layers of graphene sheets act more like a conductor than a semiconductor due to fact they have no band gap." On the other hand. Graphene sheets also have higher carrier mobilities (the speed at which electrons travel at a given voltage) which translate to carrier mobilities that are hundreds of times larger than silicon chips used today. This makes graphene ideal for faster chip speeds. have shown that carbon nanotubes outperform silicon in speed by a factor of two.

Cherthala . Heat transfer from biased graphene into an underlying substrate can be much higher than that found in conventional silicon transistors. The research has shown that substrate interactions become much more important in graphene electronics than in traditional MOSFETs and heterostructures.Diamond Chip Graphene also heats up considerably when operated at saturated currents. Dept. This becomes a big concern because high-performance graphene devices preferably need to operate at the saturation current limits. The IBM research team has obtained heat flow results by determining the temperature distribution in active graphene transistors using optical microscopy combined with electrical transport measurements. This leaves engineers to focus on non-polar substrates and substrates that do not trap charges. of Computer Applications 26 KVM CE&IT. They also used heat-flow modeling to calculate how heat travels along and across a graphene flake.

Diamond Chip 5. Cherthala . of Computer Applications 27 KVM CE&IT. ADVANTAGES OF DIAMOND CHIP Dept.

3) FASTER THAN SILICON CHIP Carbon chip works faster than silicon chip. the chance of collision of electrons with larger silicon atoms increases. Now days in all power electronic circuits. slow operating speed. we are using certain circuits like relays. But the carbon atom size is small. As the size of the silicon is higher than that of carbon. or MOSFET inter connection circuits (inverter circuits) for the purpose of interconnecting a low power control circuit with a high power circuit . at very high voltages silicon structure will collapse. We can realize a transistor whose size is one in hundredth of silicon transistor. lower band gap etc. 2) IT WORKS AT HIGHER TEMPERATURE Diamond is very strongly bonded material. So the mobility of the charge carriers is higher in doped diamond structural carbon compared with that of silicon. But diamond chip can function well in these elevated temperatures. 4) LARGER POWER HANDLING CAPACITY For power electronics application silicon is used. Diamond is very good conductor of heat.If we are using carbon chip this inter phase is not needed.Diamond Chip 1) SMALLER COMPONENTS ARE POSSIBLE As the size of the carbon atom is small compared with that of silicon atom. of Computer Applications 28 KVM CE&IT. crystal structure of the silicon will collapse. Cherthala . Dept. less efficiency. Mobility of the electrons inside the doped diamond structural carbon is higher than that of in the silicon structure. So if there is any heat dissipation inside the chip. It is assumed that a carbon transistor will deliver one watt of power at rate of 100 GHZ. it is possible to etch very smaller lines through diamond structural carbon. At very high temperature. so the chance of collision decreases. We can connect high power circuit direct to the diamond chip. heat will very quickly transferred to the heat sink or other cooling mechanics. but it has many disadvantages such as bulk in size. Diamond has a strongly bonded crystal structure. So carbon chip can work under high power environment. It can withstand higher temperatures compared with that of silicon.

In 2001 IBM researchers demonstrated how metallic nanotubes can be destroyed. The highest tensile strength of an individual multi-walled carbon nanotube has been tested to be is 63 GPa.Diamond Chip Potential applications The joining of two carbon nanotubes with different electrical properties to form a diode has been proposed . only gives control over the electrical properties on a statistical scale. however. Structural Because of the carbon nanotube's superior mechanical properties. This process. one major obstacle to realization of nanotubes has been the lack of technology for mass production. The potential of carbon nanotubes was demonstrated in 2003 when room-temperature ballistic transistors with ohmic metal contacts and high-k gate dielectric were reported. L Chico et al. Phys Rev Lett 76. of Computer Applications 29 KVM CE&IT. the space elevator will require further efforts in refining carbon nanotube technology. However. For perspective. In electrical circuits Nanotube based transistors have been made that operate at room temperature and that are capable of digital switching using a single electron. This presented an Dept. which suggests they will have an important role in nanotechnology engineering. outstanding breakthroughs have already been made. leaving semiconducting ones behind for use as transistors. possibly helping to account for the legendary strength of the swords made of it. However. 971 (1996) The strength and flexibility of carbon nanotubes makes them of potential use in controlling other nanoscale structures. Baughman at the Nano-Tech Institute has shown that single and multi-walled nanotubes can produce materials with toughness unmatched in the man-made and natural worlds. Pioneering work led by Ray H. showing 20–30x higher ON current than state-of-the-art Si MOSFETs. Carbon nanotubes were found in Damascus steel from the 17th century. Cherthala . Their process is called "constructive destruction" which includes the automatic destruction of defective nanotubes on the wafer. many structures have been proposed ranging from everyday items like clothes and sports gear to combat jackets and space elevators. as the practical tensile strength of carbon nanotubes can still be greatly improved.

this materials has very low density. can provide a long. the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure. Dept. It was first published in the academic literature by the United States Naval Research Laboratory in 2003 through independent research work. Depending on subtle surface features a nanotube may act as a plain conductor or as a semiconductor. palladium. By doing so one averages all of their electrical differences and one can produce devices in large scale at the wafer level. In this regard. This approach was first patented by Nanomix Inc. of Computer Applications 30 KVM CE&IT. allowing the storage devices to conduct electricity. This approach also enabled Nanomix to make the first transistor on a flexible and transparent substrate. An approximately 1 mm–thick carbon nanotube layer was used as a special material to fabricate coolers. among other things) infused with aligned carbon nanotubes. The first nanotube integrated memory circuit was made in 2004. a major challenge was ohmic metal contact formation.7 nm. As paper batteries A paper battery is a battery engineered to use a paper-thin sheet of cellulose (which is the major constituent of regular paper. Overall. which functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor. making it more energy efficient. while the cooling properties are similar for the two materials. Cherthala . Large structures of carbon nanotubes can be used for thermal management of electronic circuits. as well as a supercapacitor’s quick burst of high energy—and while a conventional battery contains a number of separate components. Another way to make carbon nanotube transistors has been to use random networks of them.Diamond Chip important advance in the field as CNT was shown to potentially outperform Si. which is a high work function metal was shown to exhibit Schottky barrier-free contacts to semiconducting nanotubes with diameters >1. ~20 times lower weight than a similar copper structure. The nanotubes act as electrodes. A fully automated method has however been developed to remove non-semiconductor tubes. steady power output comparable to a conventional battery. incorporating carbon nanotubes as transistors into logic-gate circuits with densities comparable to modern CMOS technology has not yet been demonstrated. At the time. The battery. One of the main challenges has been regulating the conductivity of nanotubes. (date of original application June 2002).

although they can't make electrons flow. The activated charcoal used in conventional ultracapacitors has many small hollow spaces of various size. have been in partnership with Zyvex Performance Materials. of Computer Applications 31 KVM CE&IT. but such composites may nevertheless yield strengths sufficient for many applications. Buckyballs trap electrons. Inc. a significant fraction of the electrode surface is not available Dept. Bulk carbon nanotubes have already been used as composite fibers in polymers to improve the mechanical. Nanotubes.e. i. Add sunlight to excite the polymers. which create together a large surface to store electric charge. behaving like copper wires. the Piranha Unmanned Surface Vessel. and each such elementary charge needs a minimum space. and the buckyballs will grab the electrons. (June 2009) Current use and application of nanotubes has mostly been limited to the use of bulk nanotubes. stems and aero bars. Easton-Bell Sports. electrons. as a technology demonstrator for what is possible using CNT technology. resulting in a lightweight 8. But as charge is quantized into elementary charges. thermal and electrical properties of the bulk product. seatposts. Bulk nanotube materials may never achieve a tensile strength similar to that of individual tubes. Solar cells Solar cells developed at the New Jersey Institute of Technology use a carbon nanotube complex. Ultracapacitors MIT Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems uses nanotubes to improve ultracapacitors. Zyvex Performance Materials has also built a 54' maritime vessel. which is a mass of rather unorganized fragments of nanotubes.Diamond Chip Current applications Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. cranks.000lb boat. forks. using CNT technology in a number of their bicycle components—including flat and riser handlebars. CNTs help improve the structural performance of the vessel. Cherthala . will then be able to make the electrons or current flow. formed by a mixture of carbon nanotubes and carbon buckyballs (known as fullerenes) to form snake-like structures.

*** Dept. With a nanotube electrode the spaces may be tailored to size—few too large or too small— and consequently the capacity should be increased considerably.Diamond Chip for storage because the hollow spaces are not compatible with the charge's requirements. Cherthala . of Computer Applications 32 KVM CE&IT.

DIAMOND AND FLIP CHIPS Dept. Cherthala . of Computer Applications 33 KVM CE&IT.Diamond Chip 6.

Two possible topologies with diamond: Diamond is of great interest as it can be used either as a carrier or as a RF circuit. Cherthala . In the second case. Thermal Simulations: Thermal simulations show that a face-up assembly on a diamond carrier is more thermally effective than a flip chip assembly. In the first method discussed here components are soldered on a diamond carrier.1 Introduction There are some passive thermal management ideas with very dissipative substrates such as diamond. Dept. of Computer Applications 34 KVM CE&IT. via hole implementation in diamond could help increase this maximum operating frequency. With a flip chip assembly. The TRT GaN/SiC components we used have RF and thermal bumps. dice are flip chip bonded on a diamond circuit. 6. Else they can be flip chip mounted and then. Therefore active face-up mounting seems more interesting than flip chip assembly for thermal considerations. Diamond and pyrolitic graphite are highly interesting for their very good thermal conductivity Thermal dissipation: A compromise must be found between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties such as the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) in the case of passive thermal management Diamond has high thermal conductivity but their CTE is low. But thermal management is vital. Some packaging solutions dedicated to those power transistors are presented in this paper.Diamond Chip Diamond and flip chips Wide-band gap (WBG) transistors give a real breakthrough for power devices compared to Silicon (Si) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) components. Then diamond is a simple thermal carrier. diamond is an RF circuit. which will make assembly delicate.

Lukyanovich published clear images of 50 nanometer diameter tubes made of carbon in the Soviet Journal of Physical Chemistry. A paper by Oberlin. Later. but the invention of the transmission electron microscope (TEM) allowed direct visualization of these structures. Cherthala .Diamond Chip 6. A large percentage of academic and popular literature attributes the discovery of hollow. Endo. V. This discovery was largely unnoticed. as the article was published in the Russian language. sides are very regular. Dept. M. Discovery A 2006 editorial written by Marc Monthioux and Vladimir Kuznetsov in the journal Carbon described the interesting and often misstated origin of the carbon nanotube. A characterization of these fibers was given as well as hypotheses for their growth in a nitrogen atmosphere at low pressures. Radushkevich and V. and Koyama published in 1976 clearly showed hollow carbon fibers with nanometer-scale diameters using a vapor-growth technique. Endo has referred to this image as a single-walled nanotube. the authors show a TEM image of a nanotube consisting of a single wall of graphene.2 Higher frequencies: Diamond circuit fabrication: Metallized holes associated to thin film technology is not an easy task with substrates such as diamond. and Western scientists' access to Soviet press was limited during the Cold War. Carbon nanotubes have been produced and observed under a variety of conditions prior to 1991. In 1952 L. It is likely that carbon nanotubes were produced before this date. clean and smooth and film metallization on diamond and in those holes could be done easily. of Computer Applications 35 KVM CE&IT. nanometersize tubes composed of graphitic carbon to Sumio Iijima of NEC in 1991. Additionally. Thin film has been performed on diamond with success. The whole process has been recently performed with excellent results on a 300 m thick diamond substrate. In 1979 John Abrahamson presented evidence of carbon nanotubes at the 14th Biennial Conference of Carbon at Pennsylvania State University. Thus thin film technology with metallized holes was almost ready. The conference paper described carbon nanotubes as carbon fibers which were produced on carbon anodes during arc discharge.

Using TEM images and XRD patterns.5 and about 70 nanometers. length 102 times the diameter. Nanotube research accelerated greatly following the independent discoveries by Bethune at IBM and Iijima at NEC of single-walled carbon nanotubes and methods to specifically produce them by adding transition-metal catalysts to the carbon in an arc discharge. helical arrangement (chiral tube). and the first mass-production technique by Kratschmer and Huffman was used for several years before realizing that it produced fullerenes.. Howard G... and an outer region of multiple essentially continuous layers of ordered carbon atoms and a distinct inner core. The original observation of fullerenes in mass spectrometry was not anticipated. Tennett of Hyperion Catalysis was issued a U. The arc discharge technique was well-known to produce the famed Buckminster fullerene on a preparative scale.. They speculated that by rolling graphene layers into a cylinder.. then they would exhibit remarkable conducting properties helped create the initial buzz that is now associated with carbon nanotubes. patent for the production of "cylindrical discrete carbon fibrils" with a "constant diameter between about 3. Dept.Diamond Chip In 1981 a group of Soviet scientists published the results of chemical and structural characterization of carbon nanoparticles produced by a thermocatalytical disproportionation of carbon monoxide. The discovery of nanotubes remains a contentious issue.S. They suggested two possibilities of such arrangements: circular arrangement (armchair nanotube) and a spiral.. In 1987." Iijima's discovery of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the insoluble material of arc-burned graphite rods in 1991 and Mintmire. many different arrangements of graphene hexagonal nets are possible. Many believe that Iijima's report in 1991 is of particular importance because it brought carbon nanotubes into the awareness of the scientific community as a whole. and these results appeared to extend the run of accidental discoveries relating to fullerenes. Cherthala . and White's independent prediction that if single-walled carbon nanotubes could be made. the authors suggested that their “carbon multi-layer tubular crystals” were formed by rolling graphene layers into cylinders. of Computer Applications 36 KVM CE&IT. Dunlap.

Diamond Chip 7.CONCLUSION Dept. of Computer Applications 37 KVM CE&IT. Cherthala .

Diamond Chip The chips would be most useful in devices located near hot-burning engines. such as those used in future aspects. Cherthala . of Computer Applications 38 KVM CE&IT. Thus Diamond Chip replaces the need of silicon chip in every aspect in future generation Dept.

Cherthala .Diamond Chip APPENDIX Dept. of Computer Applications 39 KVM CE&IT.

Diamond Chip APPENDIX I "The regular pattern of energy gaps in the graphene surface creates regions where electron transport is not allowed. Cherthala . of Computer Applications 40 KVM CE&IT. and may be important for other lattice-matched substrates used to support graphene and graphene devices.but until now. First said." In a magnetic field.corresponding to the bowl -. requiring new patterns of electron wave interference.known as a cyclotron orbit -whose radius depends on the size of the magnetic field and the energy of electron. while for lower energies. that's a little like rolling a marble around in a large bowl. the orbit size is smaller and lower in the bowl. the marble orbits high in the bowl. the orbits hadn't been imaged directly. Understanding such interference will be important for bi-layer graphene devices that have been proposed." he explained." Dept. For a constant magnetic field. "Electron waves would have to go around these regions. First. "The cyclotron orbits in graphene also depend on the electron energy and the local electron potential -. a professor in the Georgia Tech School of Physics and one of the paper's co-authors." said Phillip N. an electron moves in a circular trajectory -. "At high energy.

Diamond Chip Dept. of Computer Applications 41 KVM CE&IT. Cherthala .

D) on a 10 nm thick insulating silicon dioxide surface (purple). Cherthala .   A schematic of graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistor with palladium contacts (S.Diamond Chip APPENDIX II Stanford chemists have developed a new way to make transistors out of carbon nanoribbons. which can damage today's silicon-based chips when transistors are packed together tightly. Dept. of Computer Applications 42 KVM CE&IT. Beneath the Si02 layer is a highly conductive silicon layer (G). The devices could someday be integrated into high-performance computer chips to increase their speed and generate less heat.

Cherthala . of Computer Applications 43 KVM CE&IT.Diamond Chip Dept.

Diamond Chip REFRENCESS Dept. of Computer Applications 44 KVM CE&IT. Cherthala .

 Carbon nanosheets promise super-fast chips Graphene has the highest electronic quality among all known materials. Volume 2 . has been proven the strongest known material".  N M R Peres and R M Ribeiro (2009). Cherthala .1088/1367-2630/11/9/095002. New Journal of Physics 11: 095002. Hoheisel . Volume 3 Science – 1957  "Experiment finds graphene's missing pi".  Katherine Bourzac (17 July 2008). doi:10.org Dept.Page 1068 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers . "Strongest Material Ever Tested: Graphene. physicsworld.2002  Electro-technology. New Scientist.Diamond Chip  Diamond Science and Technology. Technology Review magazine. Retrieved 2009-08-15.Technology & Engineering .  Antonio H. "Pauling’s dreams for graphene". praised for its electrical properties.Technology & Engineering .  http://ieeexplore.1998)  Plastics technology. 2007-09-14. Castro Neto (12 May 2009). 8 January 2008  Researchers leap a nano hurdle . Retrieved 2009-08-15.1948  IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium digest. of Computer Applications 45 KVM CE&IT. D. Volume 41 Computers . "Focus on Graphene".ABC Online (Australia) Development of a simpler method of graphene production. 2008  "Band structure of graphene" (PDF).2002  FRONTIERS in SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY FRONTIER SCIENCE RESEARCH FSRC PREPARATION OF CHIP BREAKER ONTO DIAMOND Chip technology J.com. March 27.ieee. Volume 1. Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov Technology & Engineering .  Is Graphene the New Silicon? National Science Foundation.