ABSTRACT The term "electronic nose" was first used in a jocular sense during our early work with

sensor arrays in the 1980's. An electronic nose (e-nose) is a device that identifies thespecific components of an odor and analyzes its chemical makeup to identify it. Of all thefive senses, olfaction uses the largest part of the brain and is an essential part of our dailylives.Our human nose is elegant, sensit ive, and self-repairing, but the E-nose sensors do notf a t ig u e o r g e t t he " f l u " . F u r t he r , t he E - no s e c a n b e s e nt t o d e t e c t t o x i c a nd o t h e r w i s e hazardous situations that humans may wish to avoid. An electronic nose can be regardeda s a m o d u l a r s y s t e m c o m p r i s i n g a s e t o f a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h d e t e c t t h e o d o u r , associated sensors which transduce the chemical quantity into electrical signals, followed by appropriate signal condit ioning and processing to classify known odours or ident ifyu n k n o w n o d o u r s . T h e s i g n a l s g e n e r a t e d b y a n a r r a y o f o d o u r s e n s o r s n e e d t o b e processed in a sophist icated manner. An odor is composed of mo lecules, each of whichhas a specific size and shape. Each of these molecules has a correspondingly sized andshaped receptor in the human nose. When a specific receptor receives a molecule, it sendsa s i g n a l t o t he br a i n a n d t h e br a i n i d e nt i f i e s t h e s m e l l a s s o c i a t e d w it h t ha t p a r t ic u l a r mo l e c u l e . E l e c t r o n i c no s e s ba s e d o n t h e b io lo g i c a l mo d e l w o r k i n a s i m i l a r m a n n e r , albeit subst ituting sensors for the receptors, and transmitt ing the signal to a program for processing, rather than to the brain.Electronic noses are useful in various fields. Current ly, the biggest market for electronicno s e s i s t h e fo o d i n d u s t r y. E n v i r o n m e nt a l a p p l i c a t io n s o f e l e c t r o n i c n o s e s i n c l u d e a n a l ys i s o f f u e l m i xt u r e s , d e t e c t io n o f o i l l e a k s , t e s t i n g g r o u nd w a t e r fo r o do r s , a nd ident ificat ion of household odors. Potential applicat ions include ident ificat ion of toxicwastes, air quality monitoring, and monitoring factory emissions. Sensors can detect toxicCO, which is odorless to humans. An electronic nose has applicabilit y as a diagnost ictool. The tragic bombings in London on the 7 July 2005 have caused many to call for bag searching at the ticket barriers on the Underground. This would cause huge delays, apartfrom finding the manpower to do it. A possible alternat ive is using an ³electronic nose´to sniff out possible explosives so that only selected bags need to be searched by staff. 1.0 INTRODUCTION : Scientists have endowed computers withe ye s t o s e e , t ha nk s t o d i g it a l c a m e r a s , a n d e a r s t o he a r , v i a m i c r o p ho n e s a n d sophist icated recognit ion software. Nowthey're taking computers further into ther e a l m o f t h e s e n s e s w i t h t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a n a r t i f i c i a l no s e . T he term "electronic nose" was first used in a jocular sense during our early work withs e n s o r a r r a y s i n t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s . A s t h e t e c h n o l o g y d e v e l o p e d , i t b e c a m e a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e a n i m a l a n d h u m a n ol f a c t o r y s ys t e m s o p e r a t e o n t h e s a m e principle: A relat ively small number

a l l o w t h e discriminat ion of thousands of differento d o r s . E l e c t r o n i c / a r t i f i c i a l n o s e s a r e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d a s s y s t e m s f o r t h e automated detection and classification of odors, vapors, and gases. An electronicnose (e-nose) is a device that ident ifiesthe specific components of an odor andanalyzes its chemical makeup to identifyit. 2 . 0 W H A T I S A N EL ECTRONIC NOSE? An electronic nose can be regarded as am o d u l a r s y s t e m c o m p r i s i n g a s e t o f active materials which detect the odour,associated sensors which transduce thechemical quantity into electrical signals,f o l l o w e d b y a p p r o p r i a t e s i g n a l condit ioning and processing to classifyk n o w n o d o u r s o r i d e n t i f y u n k n o w n o d o u r s . T h e " e l e c t r o n i c n o s e " i s a relat ively new tool that may be used for s a f e t y, q u a l it y, o r p r o c e s s mo n it o r i ng , a c c o m p l i s h i n g i n a f e w m i n u t e s p r o c e d u r e s t h a t ma y p r e s e nt l y r e q u i r e d a y s t o c o m p l e t e . T h e t w o m a i n components of an electronic nose are thes e n s i n g s y s t e m w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f c h e m i c a l s e n s o r s a n d t h e a u t o m a t e d pattern recognit ion syst em. The sensings y s t e m c a n b e a n a r r a y o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t s e n s i n g e l e m e n t s ( e . g . , chemical sensors), where each element m e a s u r e s a d i f f e r e n t p r o p e r t y o f t h e s e n s e d c h e m i c a l , o r i t c a n b e a s i n g l e sensing device (e.g., spectrometer) that produces an array o f measurements for e a c h c h e m i c a l , o r i t c a n b e a c o m b i n a t i o n . T h e q u a n t i t y a n d c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d b y sensors arra y can make co n v e n t i o n a l c h e m i c a l a n a l y s i s o f d a t a i n a n automated fashi on difficult. Gas sensorst e n d t o h a v e v e r y b r o a d s e l e c t i v i t y , responding to many different substances.T h i s i s a d i s a d v a n t a g e i n m o s t applications, but in the electronic nose, itis a definite advantage.ENose can detecta n e l e c t r o n i c c h a n g e o f 1 p a r t p e r million.A l t h o u g h e v e r y s e n s o r i n a n array may respond to a given chemical,these responses will usually be different.F i g u r e 1 s h o w s s e t s o f r e s p o n s e s o f a t y p i c a l s e n s o r a r r a y t o d i f f e r e n t p u r e chemicals: 3 . 0 E L E C T R O N I C N O S E SCHEME: An electronic nose can ber e g a r d e d a s a m o d u l a r s y s t e m c o m p r i s i n g a s e t o f a c t i v e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h d e t e c t t h e o d o u r , a s s o c i a t e d sensors wh i c h t r a n s d u c e t h e c h e m i c a l quant it y into electrical signals, followed by appropriate signal condit ioning and processing to classify known odours or identify unknown odours, see Figure 4 FIGURE-2 ELECTRONIC NOSE SCHEME

of n o n s e l e c t i v e

receptors

U s i n g v a r i a n t s o f m o l e c u l e s f o u n d i n b io lo g y it i s p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e ' s e n s e s ' f r o m e l e c t r i c a l c h a r g e s c a u s e d b y t he b i n d in g o f t h e mo l e c u l e s t o mimic t he h u m a n n o s e . W i t h t h i s a p p r o a c h , t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h e d e v i c e c a n b e a thousand times better than the currentlyavailable electronic nose.T h e r e c e p t o r s , w h i c h w i l l b e ho u s e d w it h i n a n a r t i f i c i a l m e m b r a ne,r e m a i n i n a c lo s e d s t e a d y s t a t e u n t i l