DOCUMENTS

NWL TECHNICAL REPO RT TR-2128
26 FEBRUARY 1968

CREEPING-WAVE ANALYSIS
OF ACOUSTIC SCATTERING
BY ELASTIC CYLINDRICAL SHELLS

Peter Ugincius

I

----

ERQSIBOATR

A

"VA

U. S. NAVAL WEAPONS LABORATORY
Dahigren, Virginia

W. A. Hasler, Jr., Capt., USN

Bernard Smith

Commander

Technical Director

NWL Technical Report
TR-2128

CREEPING-WAVE ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC SCATTERING
BY ELASTIC CYLINDRICAL SHELLS
by
Peter Ugincius
Computation and Analysis Laboratory

U. S.

Naval Weapons Laboratory
Dahlgren, Virginia

Distribution of this document is

unlimited

. . . . . . . . B.. . . . * .. I . . . The Differential Scattering Cross Section F.CONTENTS Page . .*. . . .. Distribution Id ii . . a .. . .. The Normal-Mode Solution The Creeping-Wave Solution . . . . . . 62 64 65 V Conclusion Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . ... . . * . The Computer Program . 17 . .. . . .. . . 5 17 . . ... .. D. . The Bessel Functions A.. * .. .. Abstract Introduction . Foreword . . . . . The Sommerfeld-Watson Transformation . .. . . . . .. . . ... .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . E... . III IV . .... . . . . . . . . . . B. .. . C. . . ..*i. .. . The Root-Finding Routine B. . Transformation of the Sommerfeld-Watson Contours. . The Differential Scattering Cross Section . . .. Numerical Results . . C.. # o . . . . Figures 10-19 C. . Bibliograph' ... .. . . . . . . . . * * . .. . . 61 .. a *... . . . . The Zeroes of D(D) .. . . The Geometric Term The Creeping-Wave Series . . . * . .. . . . . *. .. . . . Appendices: Numerical Tables A. . . . . II A. . ..0. . . 47 49 54 54 56 . .. 0 . . .. .. . . 21 o 31 35 41 o.. .

This was done when the author was on the Naval Weapons Laboratory's Full-time Graduate Study Program. D. This study applies the same theory to acoustic scattering from elastic cylindrical shells. committee. They applied it successfully to the scattering of acoustic waves and pulses from hard and soft cylinders. H. A theory for eYplaiiiing this phenomenon was developed by Uberall and his students. professor of physics. It was performed in the Computation and Analysis Laboratory under the U. The experimental evidence for this picture in acoustic scattering was first brought forth by Barnard and McKinney in 1961. Andrews as readers. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: BERNARD SMITH Technical Director ii . who observed multiple echo returns from a single pulse incident on an underwater scatterer. Brennan. as director of the Ph. 1968. S. G.FOREWORD Considerable interest has been shown over the past several years both by the Navy and by the academic scientific communities in sound scattering by underwater objects. The date of completion was 10 January. and Dr. Uberall. The dissertation was approved by Dr. Naval Weapons Laboratory Foundational Research project R360FR103/2101/RO1101001. and by Dr. F. This interest has been spurred in part by the recently discovered creeping-wave phenomenon which ascribes to the scattering mechanism the physical picture of continuously radiating circumferential waves. J. It was also presented as a dissertation to the faculty of the Graduate School of the Catholic University of America in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

The resulting residue series is generated by poles which are the complex zeroes of a six-by-six determinant. group velocities. cylindrical shell immersed in a fluid and containing another fluid. which Numerical phase velocities. critical angles and attenuation factors for the dominant creeping-wave modes. iii . elastic. gives rise to generalized Rayleigh and Stoneley waves. results include scattering cross sections. These zeroes are found numerically by an extension of the Newton-Raphson method for complex functions. It is found that besides the infinity of the well- known rigid zeroes there exists a set of additional zeroes.ABSTRACT The Sommerfeld-Watson transformation is applied on the normal- mode solution of a plane wave being scattered by an infinite.

The main disadvan- and thus unfit for numerical Another disadvantage is that a single term of the normal mode series does not seem to represent any physically recognizable mode of excitation. such a theory. since the of multiple echo returns from a single underwater sound pulse incident on a scatterer." have since been amply demonstrated by other experimental investigators4.INTRODUCTION The scattering of sound from geometrically simple bodies has been a subject of continued interest in theoretical physics for a long time." is due) . These circumferential waves. or "creeping waves. The theory for such a description of scat- tering had not been lacking. Lord Rayleigh' put down the framework for the "classical" solutions of such problems in what "normal-mode theory. In fact.1 3 . In recent years. for large values of ka. the "modern"' view has become more prevalent that the physical mechanism for diffraction consists of a superposition of continuously radiating waves which circumnavigate the scatterer 3 ." is now known as the The normal-mode theory. it only had not been applied in acoustics. discovery by Barnard and McKinney 2. however (being an infinite-series expansion in terms of separable eigenfunctions of the wave equation) suffers from several disadvantages. is very slowly converging. "tKriechwelle. predicting creeping waves. has long been fruit- ful in the study of diffraction of radio waves around the earth1 4 . Later Franz (to whom the term creeping wave. As long ago as 1878. tage is that it calculations.

By using a pulse and imposing simple causality restrictions they could show that the creeping waves are launched at the surface of the cylinder at a critical angle which depends on the elastic parameters of the scatterer. This critical angle had been predicted by simple.and his coworkers 1 5 . elastic cylinders by using the method of Viktorov 26 . Coupled with Laplace-transform methods for pulses this proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the behaviour of these circumferential waves. 2 4 2 Grace and Goodman have found two attenuating circumferential waves '. One again gets an infinite series. which is generated by a set of complex zeroes of a secular determinant. 1. 2 nondissipative fluids. . In acoustics the creeping wave theory has so far been applied by Uberall and his studentS20-13 to study scattering from soft and elastic cylinders. But the creeping-wave series. In this thesis we apply the creeping-wave theory to the scattering of a plane acoustic wave from an infinite. intuitive theories. on large. in contra- distinction to the normal-mode series. converges very rapidly for all values of ka . King 9 and Mechler 1 used the Sommerfeld-Watson transforma- tion to study steady-state creeping waves on thin elastic shells. Inside and outside the shell there are homogeneous. elastic cylindrical shell.19 advanced this theory by applying it to scatter- ing of electromagnetic waves by conducting cylinders and spheres. This theory of creeping waves consists basically in the application of the Sommerfeld-Watson transformation to the normal-mode solution. freely vibrating.

different types: For the outside we find the solution and the The creeping waves consist of two Franz-type waves and Rayleigh-type waves. circumferential creeping waves. breaks up into two parts: the geometrically reflected wave. set up for this problem leading In chapter II we apply the Sommerfeld- Watson transformation and obtain the general creeping-wave solutions both inside and outside the cylinder. The latter again are subdivided into two parts depending on the location of the geometric wave's saddle point. 3 . is 23. The computer program which was used for all of the numerical calculations is described in chapter IV. Chapter III presents numerical results for aluminum shells with various inner and outer radii.In chapter I the normal-mode theory is to a 6 X 6 secular determinant. This follows naturally from the location of the zeroes of the 6 X 6 determinant in the complex plane. An expression for the differential scattering cross section derived at the end of chapter II. That such a division must be made was first pointed out by Uberall and his students in Ref.

ei(k I'/ Ct CCt// x . FIGURE GEOMETRY OF I THE SCATTERER 4 .-w t) 2x CC PI.

recasting the final results in a somewhat different form which is more suitable for subsequent calculations. X disappears. inner radius b. The elastic material of the shell (medium 2) has density p2. The geometry of the problem is shown in Fig. c3 inside.z). and longitudinal and transverse speeds of wave propagation cl and ct. respectively.'~' 2.CHAPTER I: THE NORMAL-MODE SOLUTION. The axis of the cylindrical shell of outer radius a. 0. z-axis of the cylindrical coordinate system (r. 2 °. these speeds are given by: C= V[ +/p • ) From this most general form of the problem we may recover various special cases: 1. For b = 0 and 4 = 0. 1. the special case treated by Doolittle et al. In terms of the Lame elastic constants X. cl outside. We reproduce it here for completeness. The general normal-mode solution for the scattering of a plane acoustic wave which is normally incident on an infinite elastic cylindrical shell has been given by Doolittle and Uberalls°. the transverse mode of propagation 0 and we have a liquid cylinder which was treated by 5 . respectively) are homogeneous fluids with densities and speeds of sound pl. p. The media outside and inside the shell (media 1 and 3. and ps. is taken to be the e. Letting b = 0 we have a solid elastic cylinder.

27

Tamarkin
3.

Letting p

-'

gives us a rigid cylinder,

and we have the mathe-

matical problem of scattering with "hard" boundary conditions.
4.

To obtain the solution for scattering from an air bubble, which
corresponds to "soft" boundary conditions,

we may assign pa and

c3 the values for air, and then let b = a.
The limiting cases 2.

and 4.

are physically identical and should

therefore lead to the same solutions.
In the outside fluid, medium I,

a plane pressure wave with circular

frequency w and wave number k, = W/c,
x-axis.

Expressed in

is

incident from the negative

cylindrical coordinates (x = r cosO) this inci-

28 2 9
,
dent wave can be written in the well-known form:
cc

Pinc = POeiklx = Po

inenJn(k~r)cos(ne)

E

n=o

(1.2)

.

For the scattered pressure we take an outgoing solution of the wave
equation of the same form as (1.2):
Psc =c Pa

An
inenn b n(1)(klr)cos(ne)

(1.3)

.

n=o
iUt

The time dependence e-

is

suppressed.

function of the first kind H(1)
n
ing wave,

in

(1.3)

We must use the Hankel
in order to represent an outgo-

and the angular dependence cos(n9) is

symmetry requirement that it

en =2-

be even in

6no =

6

e.

dictated by the

The factor e is
n

for n

0

defined by

(1.4)

whereas the coefficients bn will be determined by the boundary conditions
below.

The total pressure in medium 1 is

the sum of (1.2) and (1.3):

(1.5)

P, = Pinc + PscThe radial displacement is

obtained directly from the pressure:

1

(u)r

In medium 2,

P

(1.6)

the displacement vector u is

written in terms of scalar

and vector potentials T and A:
u

-VT+

V XA

.

(1.7)

The scalar potential gives rise to longitudinal (compressional)
and is

a solution of the wave equation
_1

a'y
2

cw
whereas,

waves,

= 0

(1.8)

_t

the vector potential, which generates the transverse (shear)

waves satisfies

VA

Since there is

1t- it
ct

0

(1.9)

no z-dependence for an infinite cylinder, we can take

6= Ar = Ae = 0,

which leads to u
Eqs.

(1.8)

= 0.

and (1.9),

(1.10)

The most general separable solutions of
with proper symmetry in

7

e, are:

=

E inen[cnJn(ker) + dnNn(k.r)]cos(ne)

Po

,

(1.11)

,

(1.12)

n=o
Az =PO

inenn[enJn(ktr) + fnNn(ktr)Jsin(nG)
n=o

with

kt

= w/cIt

In the fluid medium 3,

one again can have only a longitudinalwave,

which must be regular at r = 0,

pa = po

with

and therefore can be taken of the form:

E inengnJn(ksr)cos(ne)
n=o

(1.13)

,

ks = W/cs.

The six-fold infinity of expansion coefficients bn,
and gn in Eq.'s (1.3),

(1.11), (1.12) and (1.13)

cn, dn, en,

fn

are determined by the

following boundary conditions at both r = a and r = b:
1.

The normal component of the displacement is

continuous at the

fluid-solid interface.
2.

The pressure in

the fluid equals the normal component of stress

in the solid.
3.

The tangential components of stresses must vanish in

the solid

(since the fluids cannot support shearing stresses).
To express these six boundary conditions mathematically one uses from
the theory of elasticity3 0 the well-known relations between the stress
components Tij and displacement u:

8

+ u) E.gn=n DD•Dnn . and the resulting solution is: enDnn =n Cn where Dn and tn dn 0% =D through enn.G0 -1(u ezz ý3uz//8z (1. by Cramer's rule. D• . (1.Tij P T = ij j(1 .u) r r linear The above boundary conditions now lead to six inhomogeneous equations for the six unknowns bn.'20. X(V-u) + 2p•e coordinates by: where the strains eij are given in cylindrical err B r/br . • • * • gn.14 ) .15) b 38Z =iauz/b G+ b r ezr re aur/az + auzl/r r + '(aur/ae =)•u/ re a . which can be solved This was done in Ref.16) fn are the following 6 X 6 determinants: 9 .

2 4 5 Dn (1.19) (primes denote dif- . With the introduction of the dimensionless parameters xi = aki. A.6 C 4.. %94 as' 5 a' 2 1.17) $1 3 4 0 The other numerator determinants 6n through~n are obtained similarly from Dn (Eq.0.17) by replacing the second column for en. Yi = bki' (i = 1. 0. 1. 0). third column by (0. t. the elements of these determinants are given by: ferentiation with respect to the argument) 10 3) (1. foron etc.6 0 us 2 as s as4 asE %. .ali 0 ol 2 0s13 al4 Ul a' 2 a'2 3 a'2 a' 2 5 01 0 as3 2 a'••3 a3 4 QI9 s 0 0 C1 4 a' 4 a4 4 U4'. 0.s 0 016 2 UGs3 o% 4 as' 5 0 al 2 al 3 al al1 6 0 32 Y2 2 a'2 3 024 U 6 0 0 o•3 • ao3 3 934 CY 0 0 Y4 2 CY 43 ao4 4 a' 4 5 Uor 4 0 a'52 a5 3 a5 4 a S a'5 6 0 a6 ac.

21c) ..x'x~ 1 (x.21b) 2n lxfj. P W2Xejn"XY.(Xj) 2x.(xt) (4-2n .tN (xt) + n1 2 )Jn(xt) (4-2n 2 )N.) =- aS= P2)N.t) + .mils 2ýtn[Nn(xt) - xtN'(xt)] - C'2 a 22 a24 = xiHlnxi - Pl'w 2 xjN (xe) P.) + (2p~n - aVP2 )Jn(xe) + (2ýmn - a2 w 2 (X1 4 24~n[Jn(xt) - xtJn"(xt*)] .) 02=Xljn(X1 ) al~~ .(1.= a2 J.'.(xj) - Jn(xj)] 2n ExpN'(xl) - Nn(xd) .(x.(1.s 4 = 2xtj 1(x.w2nJn(xt) ga= P1u~nIn(xt) U2= 013 3 = .ý.(1.20) IC Hi) X n U2= 0 -2[LxlJn'(x) -1 2p.= oi 21a) .(I.

Nn(ye)] g64 = 2ytJn(yt) + (y•2 2n 2 )Jn(yt) asr = 2ytNn(yt) 2n 2 )Nn(Yt) + (y2 - easy to show that in sions of (pressure) 2 . that all (l.21e) . 2n[yJ(y) It ] -YtNn(yt) = IS4 aSS b 2 UPO)Nn(Y) /* n Ytin(Yt)] - 21in[Nn(Yt) C145 b w P.2t 2 2p 2yJn (yg) + (2•n - 2 - 2pypNn(yj) + (2p - 2n (ytyd g44 = 2pn[Nn(Yt) u 46 aS=3 - b 2 Jn (Y) =• - PSiyeJ'(y2) p 3 •y£Jn~(y•) (1.)Jn(y. 21d) P30?nJn(Yt) = Ps2 rnNn(Yt) - Y 3 Jn(y 3 ) - as3 = 2n[yINn(ye) is Jn(y)] .21f) the determinants have dimen- For the subsequent numerical work it the elements be non-dimensional. determinants by the overall factor of 12 Ie To do this is mandatory we divide all by the following procedure: the .) this form all (l.

The Normalized Elements 8•=(PI/P2)xt n(X 02= xlJn(x) (p 1 /p2) =- a (1.22) • H2 ) 1(x + (2n 2 2 - 2xgJn(x) VIs = - 2X Nn(xe) + (2n 2 al - 2)Jn(X2) -_2)Nn(X 2 ) a4 = 2n[Jn(xt) .xH(1) '(xI) 2 n U 22 = - S= - XiJn(Xe) XN (xe) a24 = nJn(xt) S = nNn(xt) . column by p•li.23b) 13 . 1. Divide second row by p. (1. Divide fourth row by p.row by p. Multiply sixth column by Psu. 6.23a) . Divide first 2. Divide fifth row by P3s?.xtJn(xt)] oils = 2n[Nn(xt) - xtNn(xt)] = . 3. 1(1. The resulting non-dimensional elements are given below in Eqs. Multiply first 4. (22) and (23a) through (23f). 5.

tJ"(yYi) .23f) (1.23d) "n(ye) =nJn(yt) nNn(Yt) - as3 2n[ yJn(y2 ) = (1.Jn(xd)] 2n[x 4 N'(xl) a'3 3 - N(X) a%4 = 2xtJn(xt) + ( 2 .12) and (1.N(Y£) ] 064 = 2YtJn(Yt) + (Y2 - 2n2)Jn(yt) '6 5 = 2ytNn(yt) + (yt - 2n 2 )Nn(Yt) Equations (1. coefficients (1.Yt~n(Yt)] U48 = - (Ps/P 2 )YtJn(Ys) 95 z = - YNJ' (YA) a15 3 - y U54 2 + (2n 2y•N•(y.5).23e) YsJn(ys) a5 6 = a'6 3 = 2n y PNn{(ye) - Jn(y£)] .23c) _y2- N y)Nn(yA) t Y.a32 = 2n[xIJ•(xd) .11). (1.13) with the known represent the exact solution to the scattering 14 .2n2)Jn(xt) a + (xt .2n 2 )N = 2xtNnt(xt) 2x n "a" + (2n - - = a'4 4 =2fl[J (Yt) a 4 6 = 2n[Nn(yt) - (I.) 0!4 (xt) t . (1.16) (1.

In principle these equations could be summed by a high-speed As was pointed out in the introduction. computer. recasts these solutions into very rapidly converging series for all values of x.problem. this would be practical for small values of x. such that the round-off error would eventually be larger than the value The Sommerfeld-Watson transformation which is of the series. only. gence. >> 1 the numerical summation of these series could not even be done in principle. in chapter II. it is a straightforward derivation to show that the differential scattering cross section is da _ 2a given by: enbncos(n) n=o 15 2 (1. We must pay a price for this conver- that instead of the relatively simple Bessel functions of integer order.24) TPinc r (1. we shall now have to deal with Bessel functions of complex order.26) . developed however. For x. cross section as __ lir d a = lim r d8 In Eq. because these series will exhibit prohibitively slow convergence for x 1 • 1. however. The formal expression for the differential scattering cross section is found quite easily from the normal mode-solution.3) for Psc we use Hankel's asymptotic form for large argument: 11 P--(n+j) ] S2 •J- 1)(p) e (1.25) 2 2 With lPincl' = PO . Z 1. since before starting to converge the terms would increase so rapidly. which appear in the normal-mode solutions. and that is. Isc jB 12 I • We define the (1.

Eq." Ref. 31." 16 . (26).Comparing this with Faran's "scattering pattern. we see that our coefficients b n can be viewed as suitable generaliza- tions of his "scattering phase-angles.

2a. (Note that the contour C is defined with negative sense).CHAPTER II: THE CREEPING-WAVE SOLUTION In this chapter we first apply the Sommerfeld-Watson transformation to the normal-mode solution of chapter I. Finally we obtain the creeping-wave solution by a transformation of the original contours in the Sommerfeld-Watson integrals. (2. 2A. The Sommerfeld-Watson Transformation The Sommerfeld-Watson transformation consists of the application to the normal-mode solutions of the following identity: n Fn = n=on 1I sin(i d Ti Tu ) e ijF(u) The contour C is shown in Fig. complex zeroes of the determinant Dn.17).1). We then investigate the (1.1) by evaluating the integral by the The only poles are the zeroes of sin(ru) whose residues give us the discrete sum on the left-hand side of (2. verify the validity of Eq.1) With these restrictions it is easy to (2. contour are that it The only requirements on the include all the positive integers and zero. 17 . and exclude all poles of F(v). residue theorem. Eq.

2 FIGURE THE CONTOUR C FOR THE SOMMERFELD-WATSON 18 INTEGRALS .U -PLANE a.PLANE C b. NO POLES OF f(V) INSIDE THE CONTOUR C V.

We are products of Bessel functions and the coefficients Since all Bessel-type functions are known to be entire the complex plane of their order. Eq.) (2.1) without the factor e n if we take only one half of the residue for v = 0. This is equivalent to replacing the contour of Fig. (1.In all of the expressions which we shall use Fn has the form Fn 6n fn' It is convenient to dispose of the factor en by writing E F n=o nfn = fo + 2 = n=o fn (2.'s (1. (1. (1.3). the real axis. 19 . 2a by the one in Fig. 2b (going through the origin) and taking Cauchy's principal value of the integrals at D = 0: i P-n nfn n dl) sin(Ti. (It (1.16).2) n=r Therefore we can rewrite the expression (2. we know that it must be nonvanishing for n=integer.16). in The functions f(u) to which the transformation (2.3) note that they all in may have poles at non-integer values on which case we exclude them as shown schematically applied are those in of Eq. And since Dn is the determinant obtained by solving simultaneously a set of inhomogeneous algebraic equations.3) f(u)e-ihr The requirements on the contour C dictate that the function f(D) shall have no poles at D = n.2).11). 2). (1.12) in will be and (1. Fig. the denominator determinant D n in the only poles are the zeroes of Eq.13).

8) C In the above all pressures have been normalized by setting p. D TOD _ _ where we have introduced the notation (not to be confused with the densities pL and p3) Pi = kir Similarly Eq's.4)-(2. . which encloses all zeroes of sin(rIu).(pj)C(v) e cos(De) + D( ) VpA D (2. The next step is to transform the contour C in Eq's. = 1i A. = 1.D) (2. into a different contour surrounding . 1. 20 (2.7) cos(eD) (2. + NL(Pt).2) and (1.4). (The inside solutions will be taken up by another thesis at a future time). From now on we shall be concerned only with the outside solution (2.6) Vector potential: Az i PS = i TT i1)e-isin d" iTTi sin(ru) e s ('o8) 3J U(P3) •(v) Do.13) yield: In medium 2: Scalar potential: n(1d) S= i dJ. (1.11) through (1.5) (1..4) D() . t. 3) (2. = s _ _n _ ( -iITU TCos (1) pV~) VV (2.Applying the transformation (2.8).3) we find for the Total pressure in medium 1: e l(du p).3) to Eq's.

The Zeroes of D(D) The determinant D(v) in too complicated to its general form is yield any information about its roots by analytical methods. 16. five of these zeroes below (Ref. We investigate that in of these zeroes.qt 21 12q 1-a( + - ) 180) (2. for a rigid. pg 714): H.2 The zeroes of the Hankel function and its derivative are known to be infinite in number and to lie in the first quadrant of the ia-plane on a line which when extrapolated cuts the real axis at D .10) solid cylinder: b lim -• o D(-v) 1 s'.H and for a soft.Before we can do that we must know the locations the zeroes of D(O). solid cylinder it founds°: lim b -. the following section. for example.9) (i) -.11) .xj. o D(W) . and shall return to the transformation of the contour C in 2B. it degenerates into simpler forms for which the asymptotic zeroes are well known. x + (A)3 r/e q "-• )3e 2. cases. however. =. H• (xi) (2.. section 2C. For the sake of convenient reference we give the asymptotic form (large x) of the first "Rigid" Zeroes. (xI) (2. X) = 0 '6 1 D. is For special Thus.

632519 1 2 3 4 5 q qq zeroes of A(q).469354 4.13) cos(t3 .962025 9."Soft" Zeroes. H1 ýx) 0 = -- x ( - (2. Essentially it to the complex plane. q2 : zeroes of A'(q). respectively. p = 2.889027 10. Figure 3 shows the zeroes for an aluminum shell in water = 6. q2 3.10'101 1 dyn/cm2. The details of that program are given in chapter IV.788127 11. We also make use of the "Prin- ciple of the Argument"' 3 2 to make sure that no zeroes are overlooked.457423 1. We have written a computer program to find the zeroes of the general determinant D(D).895843 7. In the first 22 quadrant we find a set .12) eirI8- where the q2 and q) are the zeroes of the Airy integral A(q) = j (2. and are tabulated below.05 and x. = kja = 5.7 gm/cm3 .684712 6.372134 5. if is a Newton-Raphson method generalized which converges quite rapidly to an actual zero the initial estimate is fairly good. pj=p3 =l gm/cm3 ) for b/a = 0.951786 8.5-10 1 1 dyn/cm2 .qt)dt 0 and its derivative. P2 = 2.

.v-PLANE 8 F4# \ / \ / \ ../ /* / ..7 // / / i// 0 .7/'/ . 0 / / // /u / . 23 ./ // 1 ' / FIGURE ZEROES OF D(u) X 5 FOR b/a =.7..". .05 . 3 ALUMINUM P3 = P. / / / / /.// .7./ 6 F3d \ / \ / \ / / S4 F2# \/ / \ / \ / \ ###BOT_TEXT### / / \ / 0 R3 \ "..a // ti / 7/ . SHELL F . // / ./ .

type" zeroes. The third quadrant therefore left blank. however. These we call "Rayleigh- As one goes far enough along the negative real axis. plays no role in this theory. they tend to coalesce pairwise into the negative integers. constant: This is because we find that the number of R-type zeroes is the line R seems' to be "pulled" into the first increasing x1 . ference exists.05). 24 . With the present numerical program. (See below the discussion about Fig.of zeroes which lie on the line labelled F. A further set of zeroes is as we shall see found in the fourth quadrant which. and that is 6. identical with ours. These coincide almost for a rigid cylinder.11) "Franz-type" zeroes. However. 3 with the correspond- ing results for a solid aluminum cylinder 2 a very small hole (b/a = 0. however. later. it 23. Fortunately. 5. in 'mso Since our shell has but should not differ much from the solid. the third quadrant they have proved to be exceedingly difficult to locate with the Newton-Raphson method.) not not a quadrant with Another dif- that for the solid cylinder we do not have any zeroes in the fourth quadrant. Fig. By an application of the Principle of the Argument we have found that there are zeroes in also. is they also play no role. exactly with the zeroes (2. At this time it is interesting to compare Fig. alarming. the first we find the F zeroes to be quadrant there exist only the two R-type zeroes Rl and R2 as opposed to our four. We call them Another set of zeroes starts out in the first quadrant on the line R which seems to extend to infinity into the second quadrant approaching the real axis. For the solid cylinder. Ref.

This means that as far as they are concerned an aluminum shell with b/a A 0. It is interest- ing to note that the F zeroes are rather insensitive to b/a for b/a ` 0.1.Since the Franz-type zeroes are very nearly identical to the zeroes the rigid case the Rayleigh-type and since in of a rigid scatterer. In Keller's "geometrical theory of of the scatterer's geometry only.75. 4. first-quadrant zeroes close to the real axis contribute in only the theory. 4 we show the same zeroes (first functions of b/a : 0 • b/a • quadrant only) traced as For b/a = I we have physically no 0. The remaining two R-type zeroes clearly approach infinity along the real axis or else cross over into the fourth quadrant. It could also be that the F-type zeroes as well as R4 move into the second quadrant." In Fig. diffraction' one has recently conjectured the existence of two such types of surface waves (which as will be seen later are generated by our two types of zeroes). case their effect will disappear. scatterer at all and should therefore expect the zeroes to vanish in some way.995. The Franz-type zeroes together with the Rayleigh zeroes R3 and R4 appear to approach infinity with an increasing imaginary part in lim (b/a) .75 acts like a rigid scatterer. Keller and Karal 33i4 have called the waves associated with the Franz-type zeroes "diffracted surface waves. 25 . we conclude that all effects of elasticity reside The Franz-type zeroes are functions mainly in the Rayleigh-type zeroes. zeroes do not exist. In either since as will be shown later. This is borne out by Fig.

Z . LL" CY) 0 W: r (U.U) M it 0 0 -J Z 0 Z U. Co OD N o~to CDY Cn. OD 0. (n) w .

w -' z on 0i N aA o D z4 4 0 m~LL~ x U-U0 0ýg 0 4 ~0 w U) z4 0~0 Ln 0 c~c4 0 (a~wI .

however. how the zeroes behave as functions of xi. 4. and 37.75. interest sincc in Now we shall consider This is of considerable lira x. the shell acts like a soft scatterer. . Accordingly the F-type zeroes move smoothly from the "rigid" zeroes Eq. 17. ` 90. therefore._- = I. = k1 a.11): lim•_. since the limiting values of the Franz zeroes are easily inferred from Eq. solid aluminum cylinder (b/a = 0).b/a for an aluminum shell with Figure 5 traces the same zeroes vs.. (2. instead of the D.11) at b/a = 0 to the "soft" zeroes the limit (b/a) . Eq. It remains very close to. Rl and R2. that with increasing x. It seems clear. equal approximately 9. Again we note that they are insensi- tive to b/a for b/a up to approximately 0.12) in Now we have an air bubble (soft (2.5. So far we have looked at the first-quadrant zeroes as a function of b/a for an aluminum shell with fixed x.0012). Hence. along the positive real axis. We find from our numerical results that all zeroes tend to infinity with x1 . air inside the shell (ps = 0. and seems to go out to infinity. zeroes.we should approach the results known from the theory of elasticity for a plane solid-liquid interface. 5 < x. 10. scatterer) for b/a = 1.1. (2. 6 for a We show here only the Rayleigh-type Rl-R7. to show their limiting behaviour we plot them on the "reduced plane" D/x. the number of zeroes in the first 28 . = 5 we find only two of them in the first quadrant: Five additional ones enter the first quadrant successively at x.999.5. The zeroes are traced for For x.plane. For b/a = 0. the same way as in Fig. This is done in Fig.. 23. is not shown. The three R-type zeroes behave The fourth one. R4.

0>LL 0 ' 0 V. 0In N 0. 0 0.0 (Di -W j !4 ~J w z w cr ODO ID w-JZ >- Z w 9 U) - ID ~z C 0 Z 0D cr w-1 N v 0 0.J 0 0.-. j j 0 j 0 0o 0. 06 N~ It0 N( I-4------H-0cc00 .

Also the next zero R2 appears to 6. less than that in the liquid. 23. from it.quadrant increases without limit (more and more of them are being "pulled" in from the second quadrant).523 + 0. for a flat aluminum-water 6 as the Rayleigh and Stoneley numerical values are: Sim (0R/x1) = 0. obtained the same secular determinant as ours2 ones with this method). = 80 it 23 we did not have all Fig. In the lim x. 6 that the trace of the uppermost zero Rl goes into the Rayleigh limit. we have here in (see Ref. They are plotted in and their slightly Using Grace's data we have calculated the zeroes corresponding to these two waves interface. approach the Stoneley limit. - free vibrations of a large (xj flat-plate limit found two zeroes.005 from Fig. 4 . although at x. and starting with the (He could not find any additional well known2 4' is He 5 that for a flat liquid interface there exist two types of surface waves: solid- the Rayleigh wave travelling with a speed approximately equal to the transverse of propagation in the solid. It had considered the >> 1) aluminum cylinder in water. In Ref. is still far away of the data available which There the traces went up to x. and the Stoneley wave whose speed is limits. Fig.018i lim (o/X1) It is quite clear (2. speed Fig.13) = 1. = 25 only 16 and Table II). Grace 2 m we have a flat plate. From that we concluded 30 .

Transformation of the Somnmerfeld-Watson Contour We now return to the task of constructing the creeping-wave solutions where it was left at the end of section 2A6 Referring to Fig. COS. are tabulated in Table 1.)H(l)1)(xl) U - H(1) (pi )J(x)] 1)1)1D The numerator of this expression. so N . together with the phase and group velocities of the circumferential waves which they generate. 3. 2C. Appendix A. of Bessel functions. more likely that RI is 6 this does not seem to be the only zero going into the and that all others approach the Stoneley limit.(erroneously) that both RI and R2 go into the Rayleigh limit.4) taken over that contour vanishes. 7 we plot the closed contour C = (CP W which encloses none of the zeroes of Fig. The numerical values of these seven zeroes. (2. -C. From the extended data of Fig. might coalesce into each other pairwise in such a manner as to cancel each other's contribution. was conjectured. 31 for any e. It is Rayleigh limit. g. goes like exp(N In N) for . The contributions to this integral over the portions of C labelled w also vanish. The denominator. and the rest. This is because the asymptotic behaviour of the integrand for v = Nei@. the case. P) so that the integral in Eq. R3 goes into the Stoneley limit. H H"H()t(x) because of its fortunate combination has been shown1 e to behave like exp(N) on the other hand. can be shown to be given by [Ju(P:.

. / GOD \ / 00 0 FIGURE CONTOURS FOR THE 7 WATSON 32 TRANSFORMATION .-/ -PLANE - -~ .

14) (2." He uses physical arguments to show that such an integral can be neglected.values of e outside the shaded region of Fig. d) + ý)- = 0 dD (2.1)(P 1)(v) D(t) (2.7r PlI= i + p I (2. the refraction of sound pulses from a Mishra 3s.17) The last integral (2. This is the reason for the peculiar choice of the contour C1 in Fig. it represents the "rainbow" terms. obtains a similar "background integral. An integration over C gives: d-=D Applying Eq.4) we get for the total pressure in the outside medium P = P = C sin () tsn(TT) Cos(vD)e'i2 (2.to the integrand of Eq. (2.) + H~. 3. which are missing in our theory (see Ref. numerical results for an aluminum cylinder 2 2'2 show that cross sections computed without this term agree very well with exact cross sections computed by Faran 3 1 using the normal-mode theory. It seems most likely that (internal transmission and reflections). 33 It is planned in the . Also. 7. 23).17) vanishes for either a rigid or soft cylinder.16) D JU(p1 )D(t. For these who studied fluid cylinder by the use of an eigenfunction expansion rather than the Sommerfeld-Watson transformation.G-e)e- .14). reasons we shall assume that p1 1 is negligible.15) II cos.

20) (2. Co and the other contains the S di) PC = i n(m) rest of the creeping-wave solution: e-L'.J(p section 2E. (2. However. 34 . that such a The reason is that (2.16). In 'u(! . (2.(rr-e) . = pg + where the first term has been shown23 to represent a geometrically reflected wave: pg dtoei"(T-)H( 1)(pl)ec t. ) ( P.. (2.19) This gives: P.16) by applying to the cos(De) term the following identity: cos(-D) eei~rIOcos t.future to evaluate this integral numerically for some special cases in order to see how justified we are in neglecting it. since for that term the contour CO can be collapsed into two line integrals which cancel each other.) .21) the term JV(PI) which originally was due to the incident wave has dropped out.)&V D) Eq. cos which will be evaluated in (-e)e JTT P . We separate that wave out of (2.16) also contains a "geometrically reflected" wave.iei-'(1-e)sin(m. Residue Theorem.20) . The first integral p. can be evaluated by Cauchy's it has been shown by Franzi residue series would not converge in general.18) .)/D(v) (2. Eq. (2.

_ D(D) >> 1 (2.17). 6. interested only in observation points far away from the cylinder. The Geometric Term We now evaluate the geometrically reflected wave (2.22) .18) and (1. 4.p for p. (2. Eq.i dveL 4)J d-(2.. D1 j 2. (2. We (Pl/P 2 ) (1. can then use Hankel's asymptotic expansion 28 1 ) With this.(x 1 )D( - xHn"b (x)D ( where the remaining 5 X 5 determinants are given by D= C12j Qe'j asj Q!3 j j= D2 .. 3.20) by the Also we shall be saddle point method which will be good for x.23) Co Now expand the determinantsig (D) and D(D).2D. AL . >> 1. e(PI .(xl)DI (p 1 /P 2 )xiHD'(x - )D. 5.20) p 2) becomes: p respect to their first 2. 1 xJ'. For the Bessel functions which appear explicitly in the 35 . Eq's. consist of five ordered columns.e columns. with This yields JL.25) and D. 4 0!5s j (YS j aBj US j (The notation should be obvious: one for each j).

()42H) 2c) (P1 /p2 )xtH. would yield the delta function 8(8) in Eq. in which case of course the angle a is also complex. cosa) e"2ix1 (sina -a D(i.x '(x )D2 7t (2.(2. But we have shown that they also apply for complex D.1( (x) i sin aH 1) 1 I)(x) (2.27) The first term. (2. J 2(H()V• + H(2)) D (2. Substituting (2.)D 2 (x1 )DI . unity.) cosa') =-R (p.27) one arrives at (i=x. H(1) (. sinc D2 (i) R(U R( =(p/p))x4D 1 (t) 0 - ix j sinD•D 2() 36 . x real and very large.x1••• (x1 )D1 .28) for the Hankel functions in (2. (2.28) . Normally 36 these are used for both V.1[1 + (p • 1/p.26) . For the ensuing saddle point integration we assume xl>> 1. so that we can use Debye's asymptotic expansions: = x Cos 01 12 Xxsina H (2 1+i[x(sin'- e a cos) -a) I. Equation (2. We can thus ignore it.24) we now use the relation numerator of Eq.24) then can be rewritten as . D(u) '8[ 2 H(S) '(x.29) . Ip)xDjD (1) + ix.23). and with x > IDI.

e where J(x 1 . found simply at _e SUs _e =x 1 cos 2 37 (2. Equation (2.e) and Ots is dae (2.23) now becomes: i pg p - 2ix [(-••)cos o - sinct] R(xlcosso)e =d. e) is (2. In the integration we may assume that the factor sinaR (a) is varying in the vicinity of the saddle point.esin4 .33) .34) .32) the saddle point of (2. . This is so that it (2. outside of the integral. tion (2. -xei'f"(as) where the saddle point is given by the solution of fl(as) The saddle point of (2.31) the integral to be evaluated by the saddle point method: J(x 1.With the transformation v = x3cosa' the integral (2.32) is = 0.30) is Pg =e ix ix.32) is in the standard form 29 J(x) = da eexff + 21T (2.30) slowly can be taken so because we know21 that R(t) ranges from -1 to +1 as the scatterer goes from rigid to soft.32).e) Equa- then approximated by ")sints R(x• cosas )mx.

C1 encircles only those Rayleigh zeroes which lie to the left of the saddle point. 7 into the two contours C1 and C2 shown in Fig. g sin . the formulation indicated quite clearly in the numerical results of chapter III. (2. The above suggests that we break up the original contour Co of Fig._ R(xlcos (2. 3 and Eq. The integral over the contour C1 will remain 38 . e moves however.33). 8. = x. to For those angles for which the saddle point is directly under one of the Rayleigh zeroes. point vs as a function of .3l)-(2.34). Also the angle that this path makes with the real axis at the saddle point is 450.35). (2. while C2 contains the rest of the elastic zeroes plus all of Franz's zeroes. will be C. (2. Originally the geometric term was given by a valid approximation only if Eq.5) )e We must go back now to the beginning of this section and reexamine the validity of Eq.35).18) only on the contour C2 . along the real axis from D.Consideration of the original contour Co and the path in the saddle point integration shows that we must use the negative sign in (2. (2.34) without passing too close to any of the poles. From (2. Referring to Fig. can be deformed to go through the saddle point (2. Then we separate out the geometric term according to (2.s = 0 for 0 < eS . therefore.34) we finally get for the geometrically reflected pressure: "p x.35) will break down. the integral (2.20) over the contour Co. we see that the saddle This is therefore.

u-PLANE C2 e Cs /l Us(180°1 t FIGURE CONTOURS FOR ) v~ Us(e) SPLITTING REFLECTED 39 X 8 OFF WAVE GEOMETRICALLY .

but all Franz zeroes do contribute. 40 . since we found that R3 approaches the real axis very rapidly with increasing x1 . This seems to be since one would expect the geometric contribution to be mainly determined by the geometry of the scatterer.in its "unseparated part (2. which can be made to go through the saddle point so that Eq. the case only for small values of x. that the same separation is It based is "forced" upon us when we try to isolate the geometric term by following the path of a pulse around the cylinder.007. its imaginary part is For example. (2. In that case we are able to distort C2 into Cs. = 15 only 0. at x. and the elastic properties should affect it only slightly. 23 for a delta incident on a solid elastic cylinder. interesting to note. but is by no means rigorous. is This. The separation of Co into C1 and C 2 which we here proposed is on strong intuitive arguments. it 3) has a relatively large becomes ambiguous whether one should take its contribution in the separated or unseparated form. remains valid (except of course for e for those values of zeroes). imaginary part at x = 5. function pulse. This was done in Ref. Since the Rayleigh zero R3 (see Fig. physically realistic. however. however.35) which the saddle point lies close to one of the With this prescription we see that not all of the elastic zeroes contribute to the geometrically reflected waves (only the ones with Re(D) > vs). which together with the separated can be evaluated by the residue method.16).21) form!' (2.

was not taken into account by us since we consider only the scattered wave. (2. and which is Fig. which yields co p p 2 / H(1)+ (P1. has dropped out of Eq. (2°38) (2.36) + PC + PC = p p (2.38) given by Eq. is the unseparated form (2.21): V1 c = C dv lT/ Jj_(pj )D (i)) p2 D sin(TD) Cos i(T-9)e iJC The geometrical part pg is The integrals (2. are easily evaluated by the residue theorem.35). The Creeping-Wave Series 2E.37).37) D(i) and pC comes from C2 in the separated form (2.19): C the contribution from the contour C1 in where p.(2. cos(mkG)e-'DkT/'e cos ukr 8. still (2.)B(vk) sin(nmk)d(mo) k=1. Following the procedure outlined at the end of the last section we get for the total pressure pI of Eq. .r/2 . He has shown that this restores the contribution of the incident wave which The contribution of this saddle point (2.20).3C where the uk are the zeroes of D(v) in the first 41 ( ' quadrant only. 8.16): c p = iJ = C d• sin(ri) cos(())e JU(pi)D(v) + H(1)()( -iD.Franz 1 7 $1 9 has found another saddle point which lies on the real axis indicated schematically in to the right of x1 .

22). far-distant observation points.42) =. We shall be interested only in P.sk) ostOk )e-TT> cos Dk(Te) At this point it is creeping waves. Eq.39). Note that the incident wave J (pi) (2.m~=o which is (2. For the unseparated formcT in J Z.43) .39) can then be rewritten: pC - JleT/4) 8pT -sn(Thk) x f k(. By the use of the Hankel expansion (2.and the forms T or @ are used in accordance with the conditions below: Re(uDk) < x 1 cos(0/2) : i Unseparated Form. . Inserting the time dependence e~iWt we see that the residue series (2.41) we rewrite the trigonometric terms esino + TT+ 2m-7) (2. Re(ik) > xlcos(0/2) : G Separated Form . so that its effect must reside solely in the second saddle point which we have neglected. possible to demonstrate explicitly the circumferential (2. (2. (2.ut (2.40) again has disappeared from Eq.41) is made up of terms which represent waves having the form ei(±')kout) = e-Im(1k)(±) ei [±Re (ik) 42 9.41) uniformly convergent for Im(D) > 0.

This has been clearly violated in Refs. It assuming from the start that no second-quadrant seems very unlikely that this could be so.These are clearly circumferential waves. linear propagation constant for these waves is their phase velocities.41) 43 is theory.45) ddx1 cx d Re(k)c1 The additional summation over m in Eq. have deformed the original Sommerfeld-Watson contour into one enclosing the whole upper half-plane. Since the with increasing k. elastic shells. which are physically inadmissible. Therefore the contour C in Fig. For . King9 and who studied scattering from thin. poles exist. The and are ) =___c = Re3(1 " (2.43) we see that zeroes Dk in the second or fourth quadrants would lead to exponentially increasing waves. even though they did not deal with our 6 X 6 determinant but used an approximate formulation for thin shells derived from Junger's 42 Franz-type zeroes have a rapidly increasing Im(I•k) it is evident that the series (2. From Eq. very strongly convergent. p~h k _ Re • given by Re(LDk)/a. 23): (2. k (2. therefore. (2.44) For pulses we can also define an associated group velocity (see Ref.42) represents waves which have circumnavigated the cylinder m times. which are damped with an attenuation factor proportional to Im(tk). 7 must be chosen in such a way as to exclude them. travelling in the ±9 directions. Mechleril. Also. 17 and 18.

W. All of the Franz zeroes. a superposi- which as they travel around the scatterer are being damped.41) is then the following: tion of continuously radiating circumferential waves. 23. which is Ref. cos-(i/ar) (2. tangentially to proceed to the For an elastic cylinder.2 these creeping waves always enter the cylinder tangentially at the shadow boundary (9 = f) and leave it 2 observation point at the angle we find2 3 e.46b) They are complex as derived by the causality arguments in Their real parts. that they are launched at a critical angle a (measured from the shadow boundary) and proceed to the observer P. 6 however.the separated form one can use an expansion analogous to (2. however. The physical picture for the scattering mechanism which we get from the creeping-wave solution (2. 9. that for a rigid cylinder It is knowne2. and have cph < cl k a) (2. Im(ok ) is zeroes. These critical angles are given by ph = cos-1 (vk/x) gr=fo gk= cos-l(dik/dxl) cos-1(CI/C/h) for C.42) and obtain similar results. This is shown in Fig. and therefore radiate energy off to the observer. elastic R-type exhibit anomalous dispersion so that for them this interpretation of real critical 44 . give a meaningful physical picture if the case for the important. small. leaving the cylinder at the same critical angle a (measured from the normal N to the observation direction). however.4 for pulses.

%a FIGURE GEOMETRY OF a. FOR < 2a b. FOR 0 > 2a -~-CREEPING --- THE 9 CIRCUMFERENTIAL CORRESPONDING TO P CORRESPONDING TO P2 WAVE GEOMETRICALLY REFLECTED WAVE WAVE .45 j-p a.a P I p S/r b.

For these the real-angle interpretation fails even for some of the Rayleigh zeroes. time Eq. The angular distance that the creeping wave travels on the bottom of the cylinder in Fig. In terms of the contours of Fig. In Ref. which are related to the pure longitudinal and trans- verse modes of propagation. 9b that this is also the place where the geometric wave and the creeping wave cross. (2. (2.35) It was also noted that at that for the reflected wave breaks down.42)). We note from Fig. (2. (0 < 2o!). Ref. dis- continuously changing the representation of its residue from the separated to the unseparated form. 23 it has also been shown that for the interior solution there arise two additional critical angles cl and it.46) can be made in In Fig. This is shown exactly the same as that in c where the change from the unseparated form Pa to the c separated form p2 has to be made.(See Table II. as angles a formal sense only. and the geometrical reflection by the dashed line. 9 the paths of the creeping waves are shown by the solid lines. 0 = 2c 9a is 2o! + e. For and the upper creeping wave has to make a full revolution around the cylinder before proceeding to Po (This means m has increased by one in in Fig. while on the top it is this latter distance shrinks to zero. 46 Undoubtedly the . In those cases one must work with the full complex quantities and the interpretation of (2.40) The condition 0 = 2u is Eq. 2oe - e. 9b. Eq. angles fails. 8 all of this happens when the saddle point moving to the left passes below one of the Rayleigh poles. 23).

47) and remembering that p1 = k 1 r. in Ref. It is planned to investigate this further (in another thesis) by using Brekhovskikh's extension of the saddle point method37 to evaluate Eq. (2. Eq.20) more accurately when the saddle point is close to one of the poles. because we have neglected the background integral (2. I [sin a +4 ]7T 7_ (2.reason for this breakdown is the complex interference phenomenon which occurs when the reflected and creeping waves cross each other and which our crude saddle-point integration cannot resolve.17)) d___ d.35) I lim r o and (2. . easy to show that R(xicos 9) + 2 2 C e ei(2xsisI) 0 - o~k~e'~ ~ 1T i sin(r1)7-8) k= i Lk 47 (k {cs(ikO)e'ik 2 . The critical angles (2. 2F.48) . * " (2. 1pg C CJ + Pi + p "1 (2. 23 by following the path of a pulse around the cylinder and correlating its travel time with causality requirements. however.46) can be "derived" intuitively by noting that at these angles there exists a resonance effect: the incident wave velocity is equal to the velocity component of the creeping wave in the direction of incidence. x. The Differential Scattering Cross Section As in chapter I.pi r- dO By adding Eq's.24).41). They have been established rigorously. the differential scattering cross section is now given by (approximately. = kja it is 2 do. (1.

to the summation in evaluation on the STRETCH. pg. in (2.48) are given gratis in on the All of the Franz-type zeroes contribute the "separated" The right-hand side of Eq. would start . necessary to go beyond the second Franz zero.The forms . in a similar problem. We found that for four-digit accuracy it was sufficient to take only five or six terms in the summation.48) has been programmed for numerical IEM-7030 computer. in no cases was it e. finds that a normal-mode series like that 282) of Eq. formD.26) would require more than 1000 terms before it to converge.and C are again determined by the conditions elastic Rayleigh-type zeroes. i. 48 28.40) which are needed the process of finding the roots k". (2. As a fortunate byproduct of the Newton-Raphson routine the derivatives D(Dk).. (2. On the other hand Sommerfeld (Ref. (1.

25. in some of the first-quadrant zeroes and the together with their velocities and critical angles.44)- The group velocities (2. and in some cases 0. the range 5 : x. and then taking the average of these two results. appendix A. (2. Table 1.45) were hand-calculated by evaluat- ing the derivative dxj/dRe(. lists the numerical values of the seven elastic zeroes RI-P7 for a solid aluminum scatterer discussed in tion 2B with reference to Fig. and x. Most of the numerical values were calculated to at least six-digit accuracy.50. = 90) five columns give x1 . group velocities. : 90. Figures 10-19.05. Ref. At the same time he also produced a large body of experimental data which 49 .k) numerically with the first-order difference formula between x.48). In Tables 2-4 we list corresponding D(Dk). Dk and for 5 : x. respectively.CHAPTER III: NUMERICAL RESULTS In this chapter we present some of the results of our numerical calculations. : 25 for b/a = . It is sec- an extension (up to x. ± Ax. (See the discussion in and the group velocities. Faran3 l has calculated several angular scattering patterns for various elastic cylinders by the use of a normal-mode series. and the critical angles as given by Eqs. show various differential scattering cross sections computed by the use of Eq. of Table II. (2.5 most of the time. except those for D(•k).25 and . The last four columns show the phase velocities. chapter IV). Appendix B. (2. The value of Ax was 0. 23.46). . The first 6.

05.0 (dashed curve) for an aluminum cylinder in water. The curves which Faran calculated and plotted were "scattering patterns. is directly under one of the Rayleigh First of all we note that in the vicinity of 50 e = 130'. 11 we compare our calculated cross section for x . In order the back-scattering and then for the experimental data used that frequency which would do the same. where .34) poles. = 4. Faran's experimental data. = 5 which yields a minimum back-scattering cross section. for an aluminum cylinder with x.78. The four asterisks mark the critical angles at which our saddle point (2. Figure 10 shows this to be at x. = 5.78 (solid curve) with Faran's theoretical result at x. were especially in scattering patterns.compared reasonably well with his theoretical calculations. In Fig. that the one set of com- he carefully selected those parameters which would give him a minimum in direction. around x. In order to have a meaningful comparison we had to find the value of x. = 4. = 5. To convert them to cross sections we had to square his results and multiply by the factor 16/rMx. very sensitive to the elastic parameters. In in fact." which are essentially (within a factor) the absolute values of the scattered pressure. shell with b/a = 0. This amplifies strongly any differences between the curves to be compared. the back-scattering direction. to check out our numerical program it was desirable to reproduce some of his results for an aluminum cylinder. however. He found. It The encircled points are Our curve was calculated for an aluminum is expected that a shell with such a small hole should not differ from a solid scatterer. parisons.

m ý 0). there is and 179016' 158048/ 150032/. all the succeeding the forward scattering so because we found that the series (2.48) e- 200 . main lobes. series (2.48) Thus. be damped out sufficiently.close to Rl. is but that is This is an indication that we were justi- fied in neglecting the background integral (2.17).0 they spend no or little time on the cylinder's surface (except the ones which have already circumnavigated the cylinder m times. This can be understood in the section 2E about the paths of the creeping Since all Franz waves enter the cylinder's surface tangentially at the shadow boundary (c = 0) and leave it the observer. The the angular positions of the three especially in quite good. our solution breaks down completely the saddle point is At the other three angles as anticipated in the last chapter. even though they have they do not have the chance to and more and more of them are needed in as one approaches 8 = 0. large attenuation coefficients Im(Vk). 11 as well as in polar plots a portion of the cross section in direction is missing. is This is poorly convergent for 0' : light of the discussion in waves. It will be noted that in Fig. e = no such effect. it is clear that for e tangentially to proceed to . 51 the . A refinement of the saddle-point evaluation of pg would hopefully remove our deficiencies at e= 1300. small. It is also interesting to note that for the lobe centered at 6 • 70° our results agree much better than Faran's with the experimental data. presumably because the cross section in that region is overall agreement.

Con- spicuous features again are the discontinuities at the critical angles. = 5. especially in the back-scattering direction. For these figures the elastic zero R3 was not included since Fig. 4 shows its imaginary part to be already quite large.95. e 1 1520.Figures 12 and 13 show the differential scattering cross sections for the same shell b/a = 0. sections at x 0.25.0 and 5. as well as on the fact that at these points we change one term of the residue series discontinuously from its unseparated to the separated form. 52 They all suffer from the . negligible the vicinity of the critical angles. Unfortunately there exist no experimental or theoretical data with which to compare these results. The discontinuity arising from the latter source should presumably be compensated exactly by the background integral which we have neglected.50 and 0. 14 through 16 we show the differential scattering cross = 5 for shells of different thicknesses: b/a = 0. to assume that this background integral is everywhere except in In Figs. 12 and 13 there are These discontinuities are clearly unphysical and must be blamed on the breakdown of the saddlepoint integration.2 respectively. Com- 11 shows that they are very sensitive to x. therefore. It seems reasonable. e discontinuities at • 1600 and In both Figs.05 at x parison with Fig. Here we also see more dramatically the breakdown of our theory at those angles where the saddle-point passes under the Rayleigh poles. So far we have been concerned with scattering cross sections as functions of the angle for a fixed k1 a.

nonrealistic discontinuities inherent in the present formulation. x. 53 quadrant. = k1 a. 11-16 the theory breaks down for large For cross sections as functions of x. : 25.5 : x. is The cross section of course. 90' and 600 for an aluminum cylinder They all show a very complicated behaviour similar to what Hickling 3 8 found for elastic spheres. e= 1800. angular regions.5 another Rayleigh zero R5 enters the first This was included for 10. as shown in Figs. Therefore. This is the case for the last three figures shown. a smooth continuous function as shown in Pig.5 9 x. however. where the oscillations are not quite as violent we have connected some of the points with a reasonably smooth curve. At x. for (b/a = 0. where we plot the differential scattering cross sections vs. 10.3. which is In portions of Figs. Up to x 1 = 10. Figs. 3 were used. of Fig. angles. One can pick an angle far away from the critical angles so that the discontinuities will not appear.25 did not seem to be sharp enough to bring out all of the fine structure. 17 these points are connected by straight line segments. = kla for fixed this need not be the case. 17 in the region 4. because the resolution with Axj= 0.25 apart. ! 25. 17-19. . ' 10. 9 5. For these figures the cross sections were calculated at points Ax1 = 0. In Fig. 4 r x.05) in water.25 two Franz zeroes plus the four Rayleigh zeroes shown in Fig. a blow-up 18 and 19.

5.CHAPTER IV: THE COMPUTER PROGRAM All major numerical calculations were done on the IFM-7030 STRETCH Naval Weapons Laboratory. pg. (uik) r(. no program existed for calculating Bessel functions of complex order u. . IIm(U) 256.. Equation (4.. The Bessel Functions To our knowledge. The Bessel Below we discuss each one separately. divided into three main parts: 1. Va. -51. It language.2) was used only for IRe(v)I 54 : 1 and 39. 4A. S.1) x T k=o For the reciprocal of the ganma function we used the series Un ) (4.) (4. digital computer at the U. The whole program is functions. its internal library a complex arith- This computer has available in metic package as well as all standard elementary functions. operates the FORTRAN IV All programs were written in with 14-digit accuracy. and 3. The differential scat- tering cross section.. For relatively small arguments x we therefore used the series expansion ) kx2 J-V(x) k klu(u+l). Dahlgren. 2.2) n=1 The first 23 coefficients cn were taken from Ref. The root-finding routine.

5) was further restricted by the following condition 55 .5) with cosa =D _.5 the argument was reduced by use of Gauss's multi- plication formula 3 9 0= SiR½n-i nV• 2f n( ( n-1 /vk 1 -n k=o n = The gamma functions appearing in high accuracy by Eq.2).1) was terminated when the kth term was less than 10-14.4) could then be evaluated with Several comparisons of Eq. (4.acrcosa) - ¶7/4] (4. therefore. (4.4) (4. (4.1) with tabulated Bessel functions showed that we had at least ten-digit accuracy for x •< 20. The summation in (4. it uniformly convergent for all becomes increasingly time-consuming to use and inaccu- rate (because of round-off errors) for x k 25. x The use of Eq.3) . For x > 20. ] INT[211m I i- .For Re(D) outside of this range we used the recursion formula r and for + i) = Dr(o) (4. jIm(o)vl > 1. we made use of the Debye asymptotic expansion J/x) 1 T x2 cos[x(sinoi .1) is values of x. (4. Even though the series (4.

4B. The other Bessel functions needed for evaluating the determinant D(u) were calculated by using the standard relations J (x)cos(Th. pg. Eq. 139): (x/IvI) 2 > I + 6.11) since gave us a very good approximation which could be used as the initial estimate for the iterations in described below.6). (2. any one of the four functions J. is (4.9) W] N or H(D)o (4. fortunately. (x) 2 (4.25/1v12/3 Condition (4.8) . =I V where £ is [• and for their derivatives (x) XV+. no such . of the program.on the relative magnitudes of D and x (see Ref. The Root-Finding Routine The Franz-type zeroes were relatively easy to find.7) J_ (x)]/sin(¶•) (4.1) constituted the most time-consuming part We estimate that on the average we were able to cal- culate 500 Bessel functions per second.6) satisfied by all first-quadrant Rayleigh zeroes. 36. The use of Eq. 56 however.) W N(x) H(2)(x) - ± iN (x) J(x) for the Neumann and Hankel functions. the Newton-Raphson routine For the Rayleigh-type zeroes. (4.

respectively. and we have Z =_A 2n Arg D((D) (4. To make sure that we would not miss any of them. Since D(D) as a function of D is entire. this net increment divided by 2TT gave us the number of zeroes inside C.11) C where Ac means the net change in the argument of D(D) after a full traversal of the closed contour C. (usually AD = 0. of D(u) inside the closed contour C.P) (4. P = 0.11) was programmed by evaluating D(D) at closely spaced intervals either rectangular or circular contours. Equation (4. If between any two points in the program JA Arg D(D)j exceeded rr/4 we went back to the previous point and decreased the step AD by a factor of ten. increment A Arg D(D) was also recorded. Once the number of zeroes in any we proceeded to locate them with the Newton-Raphson routine. This was done to make sure that A Arg would not be mistaken for A Arg + 2rr.estimate existed. 57 .1) on At every point the net Upon the completion of the contour C.10) Here Z and P are the number of zeroes and poles. region of interest was known. with multiple zeroes or poles being counted accordingly." which is based on the "Principle of the Argument" 3 2 du = D(D)10 2Tr(Z . we first employed the "Winding-Number Routine.

14) (4.(x + iy) (4. we have for small llo .vR)/(u2 + v) 58 (4.16) .13) Similarly for the (i + 1)th iteration we obtain •D(1i) = Ui -i+l ( ID (Ii) Equation (4.12) a better estimate L. (4. If a zero D of D(u) is known to lie approximately at uO.12) obtained: D(uo~) o= . is i) .The Newton-Raphson routine in the complex D-plane is an exten- sion of the same method for finding real roots of a function of one variable. " 0 (4.V1 : D(uo) ="D(uo)(Do From (4.15) where: x = (uR + vI)/(u 2 + va) y = (uI .14) expressed in terms of its real and imaginary parts becomes Vi+2 = Di .

) we were certain that no zeroes of D(u) exist with multiplicity greater than one.. We therefore approximated it needed in numerically by using the dif- ference formula D(vi) - D(Di + Av) where Au was usually taken to be (1 + i) - D(vi)]/Av 10"s.14) were itopped when Jui+1 . of D(u).18) however..1 )]/(0i . From the non-vanishing of D(. then instead of (4. however. In most cases we found that if the initial (within two significant digits). (4.uil usually equal to 10-8.and: D(i) = R+i D(di) = u + iv It (4. When.Ui-1d - (4. In some depending on the topography of the "analytical landscape" instead of approaching a close-by root this iteration scheme would tend to diverge to infinity.17) . out D(ui). The program stopped automatically 59 . (4. it estimate uo is fairly good took but five or six iterations to approach the actual root to within eight significant digits.14) had taken us close enough to the actual zero such that ui ui.19) e with e For each iteration step i the computer printed and Arg D(Oi).18) we used D(i) The iterations D(i) D(ui. (4. cases. [D(ui) . would be a horrendous task to differentiate the determinant D(v) in order to obtain an analytical expression for D(v) which is Eq. I < Au.14). the iteration procedure (4.

ference formulas Indeed. one can derive alternatively by starting with this observation. we found that the constancy of Arg D(D) The reason is most probably that we were using an approximate expression for D(D). Starting with a known zero for a given value of the parameter x1 or b/a the program would automatically increment that parameter by a prescribed value and find the corresponding new root by using the old one as the initial estimate. or equivalently along a path on which Arg D(D) = const. In this routine we had also incorporated a scheme for tracing a given zero as a function of x. with the first-order dif- (4. however. They either approached a root very rapidly or diverged completely. In no case did we find that the iterations oscillated which would be indicative of a zero derivative or a multiple root.2 seconds.(4. This was most useful for tracing the 60 . Eq. D(D) is the most inaccurate. The rate of decrease of D(ui) was usually a good indication of the efficiency of this program. Also.1s (4. After the first two such iterations the initial estimate would be improved by extrapolation of the preceding two roots. or b/a. The average time required for one iteration was 0.19) we were not able to obtain D(i.15) .17) In our calculations. was not a good test. of all our numerical results. Thus.when no root was found within 75 iterations.18) and (4. Arg D(vi). It Another good monitoring device is the is easy to show that the Newton-Raphson method always converges towards a root along the gradient of JD(D) .) with D(oi) at the end of the iterations.) with more than four-digit accuracy. This was established by comparing (Oi+.

Contributions from the higher Franz poles were completely negligible. for it required about 3 seconds. whereas for e = const. 61 . For the first option x. This program had two main options: e to calculate (2/a)(do/dG) vs for constant x1 .48) is entirely due to the trigonometric terms. x..48) for the differential scattering cross section was coded as a separate program. = const. for constant G. 4 through 6 and in compiling the numerical tables.zeroes in Figs. had to be found beforehand and read in as an In all of the numerical results shown we included all Rayleigh- type poles (except R3 for Figs. 4C. 14-16) and the first two Franz poles. so that the convergence of (2. 2 each term in the summation as well as the accumulative sum for each Dk. or vs. took approximately 0. This indicated that IB(uk)/D(Dk) approaches unity for the higher order Franz poles. apart from the root-finding routine. it one evaluation of (2. The Differential Scattering Cross Section Equation (2. In either option the zeroes Dk and derivatives D(m) input.3 sec.48). Besides (2/a)(da/d8) the computer also printed out R(x 1 cos B(Dk)/D(Dk).

as opposed to the normal-mode series. phase velocities. is This interpretation. The resulting series is by the complex zeroes of a 6 X 6 secular determinant. This was done by transforming the normal-mode solution via the Sommerfeld-Watson transformation. it shows that the scattering mechanism consists of a superposition of continuously radiating circumferential waves which are launched at the surface of the cylinder at definite critical angles. and Rayleigh-type zeroes which are determined exclusively by the elastic properties of the scatterer. general: generated We found two which for a thick shell do not differ substantially from the zeroes for a rigid scatterer. types of zeroes exist in Franz-type zeroes. The creeping-wave series. which not derivable from the normal-mode theory. Furthermore. In order that the creeping-wave series converge a geometric term had to be separated from it. has recently been cor- roborated by ample experimental evidence. group velocities. These zeroes were found numerically and are tabulated for an aluminum shell in water for various values of kia and b/a. This geometrically reflected wave was 62 . converges very rapidly for kja Z 1. We have tabulated the and critical angles of some of these waves for a wide range of k~a.CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION We have presented the general theory of acoustic scattering from an elastic cylindrical shell in terms of the creeping-wave formalism.

45 Junger 4 3 '44 applied the Sommerfeld- Watson transformation to geophysical problems. approach has also been used recently in used it in radiation problems. It was seen that the Sommerfeld-Watson transformation on the normal-mode solution leads naturally to the physical picture of circumferential waves. and Hong41 approach has been attempted most recently by Ludwig who have presented an asymptotic theory in Such an terms of generalized circumferential waves for the scattered field from an arbitrary smooth convex surface at high frequencies. Unfortunately. and have been published in 63 the open literature 4 7 ' 48 9 . Comparison of our numerical results with those of Faran based on the normal-mode theory shows that this approximation is justified. Portions of this work have been presented previously at several professional meetings 3 ' 46 . It would be desirable to obtain this formulation without explicit knowledge of the normal-mode solution. It is proposed that the above discontinuities can be removed by evaluating the background integral and the geometric wave more accurately at the critical angles. this can be done only for scattering problems with very simple geometry where the normal-mode solution is known. and Tanyi The creeping-wave other fields. in a discontinuous cross section at these angles. Another approxi- mation was to neglect a "background integral" which most likely represents the contribution from internal transmissions and reflections. At those critical angles where the saddle point lies close to one of the This manifests itself Rayleigh-type zeroes the theory breaks down.then evaluated approximately by the saddle-point method.

ACKNOWLEDGF4ENTS
It

is my most pleasant duty to acknowledge the continuous aid

and advice which I received from my major professor Dr.
during the whole course of this work.
tion to Mr.

I express particular apprecia-

A. L. Jones, Assistant Director, Dr. C. J.

Associate Director, and Mr.
and Analysis Laboratory,

H. Uberall

R. A. Niemann,

Cohen,

Director of the Computation

for their continued interest in the progress

of this work.
I also wish to thank Mr.

Robert C. Belsky for doing most of

the programming and Mr. Thomas B. Yancey for drawing all of the
figures.

64

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APPENDIX A Numerical Tables .

015 2.7226 4. 35 40 45 11.8 572.82 4.0073 -.80 -9.403 23 10.5826 7.149 2.5713 .3854 .5771 .823 +4.228 2.167 1.1 -866.3547 1.6 6.869 2.5935 40.214 2.7407 1.9033 -7.8"10-4 3.525 -3.750 5.41 2.0415 .897 590551 590491 58053' 580121 5 7 9 11 .035 1.6 -42.618 3.024 2.7786 19.2 -500.4990 5.79 16.4.0 670.3742 34.6750 .083 1.5 -319.061 65054' 65034' 650011 640281 650421 63020' 61053' 600581 2. derivatives D(O).698 3.299 3.6781 6. 8598 -40.008 2.5819 9.0041 .10 13.265 3.296 -3.1574 .0143 -.5586 .3"10 -4 -.117 3. 1738 1.4621 .4950 .8586 3.6334 14. 0553 -.TABLE 1 Rayleigh Zeroes u.0904 .244 2.0145 298.167 4..0052 -.3014 .40 -.893 60034" 58006' 27.112 2.44 -2.317 13.989 1.3576 .784 3.942 1.376 -2.7806 32.000 630581 63032' 600231 600001 13. 0192 .320 15 17 6.2535 .323 75056/ 72029' 15 17 19 21 23 3.895 60024" 600141 600081 60000' 59008/ 58007/ 590011 58009' 75 80 37.1219 2.8468 .3755 21.4062 1.985 3.11 16.3422 .351 .049 1.10-4 .5717 1.418 2.6450 5.1620 29.954 1.893 75028' 750031 74040Q 74019/ 73057' 72010/ 71042" 710081 70029' 69047" Re(tD) Im(1)) Im(D) Re(D) cPh/cl cgr Zero xj=k1 a Ri 5 2.935 1.2190 1.2401 1.0024 -1.266 3.ph .300 .093 2.890 19 21 8.392 7 9 11 13 2.6"10-s -1.330 3.5354 25 30 .983 1.11 11.430 2.4243 17.9061 2. 0528 2. velocity ratios cPh/cl. 13 3.7320 .6027 .5041 3.2030 16.64 -63.8"10-6 1.186 3.829 6.189 1.74 53.958 620161 61045' 610211 61002' 60047' 59013" 580231 59029' 58009' 590171 24.55 -69.122 2.350 81029/ 780511 77025' 76033' 720171 720101 72031" 72038.0905 259.065 2.9.835 650171 690211 2. 5705 . 0011 -7.279 2.9972 1.6115 .1791 1.086 2.590 4. 3.7 382.025 2.893 1.949 1.82 -957.0061 .3 -20.961 620311 590211 .0014 3.9610 50 55 60 65 70 R2 68 / cl .803 -9.449 2.545 2.3841 5. cgr/cl. 3100 8.0575 .0269 .0158 .970 630091 62049' 59043" 59030' -6.970 1. critical angles Ciph and 0gr for a solid aluminum cylinder in water.0725 1.10-4 2.960 -13.878 3.368 2.000 1.907 1.995 1.7642 4.8 -1090.89 -170.0741 .9607 2.6"10-' 7.895 1.287 3.220 -1.3128 -.gr 2. .5939 .994 2.1374 -2.0210 5.439 -.1989 .3448 -5.

1970 -2.0 -15.1532 .5563 21. -1764.1712 1476.9233 10.608 9 -.0422 .0099 .953 89029/ 88040/ 86011.1 15 17 19 1. -1270.659 2.703 2.1100 -9108.8659 .6083 .8"10-" .453 2.0770 -1679. 5541.4 7514.308 730351 72042" 71050/ 71003/ 70019/ 69002' 670171 65057/ 640591 64019' 2.4824 26.2"10-5 -2675.3 3. 21 23 3.436 2.796 2. 5.195 69042/ 69010" 68042" 68017" 67054/ 63052/ 63033/ 63015/ 63004" 62054" 2. 634.133 2.8 -145.2508 .7951 24.5574 2.1059 .2291 22. 3728.030 2.1644 .169 67017' 62032` --- 7.0 1770.969 50 55 60 65 70 17.1347 6.352 2. -2541.0068 .051 3.1719 -1852.1553 .0144 -11.781 2.01 6.72 420.779 84003/ 82020/ 80058/ 69026/ 69004' 68055/ -1861.589 2.2669 2. 6699.0518 26.1848 . -2358.86 76.1877 .5 -92.079 2.0 -792.365 2.1618 .38 78.9907 15.3410 .540 3. 9.28 25 30 5.3247 .4113 45 50 R3 cgr/cl --- 82028/ 81035' 78032' 70012/ -157.6389 10. 5526.222 2.83 43.2000 -17.1695 .9846 .213 3. -870.782 75043/ 740551 69029/ 68056/ 12.57 -57. -213.TABLE 1 (Continued) Im(D) Im(D) Re(D) aph cgr 2.812 2.0594 .7 471.9103 12.7044 4. 929.831 5.1236 18.9 77.8932 6.362 3.669 5.11 80 30.622 cPh/c Zero x 1=k 1 a Re(O) R2 25 30 35 40 45 7.1928 -188.847 2.208 2.1536 20.0014 5.3 . -3898.1343 5674.0614 8.869 4.496 2.2552 .1752 .246 2. 261.4 10 11 13 +.1528 .4219 .1 110.7 -801. 944.63 1232.622 2.499 6. 3.298 70057/ 70033' 640311 64012/ 69 776.853 2. -2460.1 -2387.271 2. 440.1 3.818 2.99 -7.0138 35 40 8.589 2.3397 19.386 2.58 -742.71 75 28.411 3.579 730341 67011' 55 60 65 70 16.063 3.10 -87.533 2.631 7.864 78009/ 76043" 69013/ 69034/ .366 2.6467 .842 2.191 40.4 1388.208 3.1583 .324 2. -2305.305 3.25 15. -7294.1363 .0038 737.92 236.002 2.753 2.349 7205772023' 71052f 71023/ 66023t 65046/ 65013/ 64048/ 75 80 24.183 670351 62044/ 2. -5600.1 3.201 2. 4. 3. -6658. 04746 . 3097.0578 -156.673 2.1492 .7 717.09044 .9036 .680 74012" 68'06' 14.795 79050' 78055/ 68055' 69002/ 3841.0 -401.2 -121.798 2. 93.1673 1484.0 -104.9 -22. 4.1796 .0614 .884 2.

5917 6.61 -41.861 2.00083 3778.294 87043' 80051/ -1323.6 15 17 19 .1553 -4766.0367 1.0168 .01"10-6 1.506 2. 6.5184 .770 890081 740371 25.730"104 1. 3.745"104 -2.4247 . 2.328 86046' 85059/ 85018t 80021" 79048/ 79011l -179.1457 .851.0621 .083-104 -6.1 2348.80 9.0266 1.74 3.0514 3838.841 2.682 65 17.3622 13.253 2.0544 . 1843. 12.753 76016" 68042/ 55 13.0137 .541 4.560 75035/ 740591 740271 73057' 75 80 21.962 5. 25 2.410"10" 4.198"104 -1.2121 15.10' 3.394 83019' 72052" 30 35 40 45 4. 79028" 780081 77005' 69008/ 68037' 68035' 680421 50 11.863 4.1648 .0753 .1311 -1.0677 .2425 4.0012 4.23 5.881"104 5458.729. 62.516 3. -716.706 2.1895 1.1100 2.476 2. -2374.9116 .0723 -3860.281 3. 17.977-104 3.3 3425. 1.672 3.575-104 8.7444.691-104 8.0761 .742 2.6401 5.729 68030/ 60 15.427 2.889"10' 4.702 2.87 --- 72015/ 71045/ 77040Q 76022/ 50 9.730 2.448"104 1.4196 3.808 2. 1226 .247.122-104 -1.528"104 -5. 68007r 67035/ 67000" --- 3.29 12.010.0832 -2.6924 .10-6 .418 ----- 740121 72059/ 66.0035 3.8698 .TABLE 1 (Continued) Zero x1 =kla R4 9 10 11 13 R5 Re(v) Im (v) Re(D) IMr() -.0042 .33 3.104 1.5395 .9194 4.33 8.0635 16.469 4.243 3.9436 2.104 -4182.5536 .3 21 23 1.5190 .7037 . 5.0078 -3846.104 45 7.2263 10.48"10-7 1452. 19 21 .4000 8.392"104 -1.543 6.0027 2.0509 -4858.5 -155.0 4190.7 144.0854 .662 4. -1.181.gr 3.739 2.104 -2.4 cPh/c 1 ----- g •ph . 0230 -1719.3542 .7 3751. 23 1. 3.578"104 5.753 81012.488.104 10.650 5.104 -1. 31.617 2.104 1.698 2.859"104 -5.47 42. 18 +.142"104 6744.315 4. -.687 78005/ 68019" 680171 68015/ 68009/ 70 77017.725 79001/ 68028/ 55 60 65 70 11.881"104 3.7"10-' 70.08 6.5338 4. 76036/ 76001/ .0320 .193 89005/ 175.150.525-104 1.461 730291 66029/ 73002/ 660011 17 -. 8.137 2.586 3.28 +.903 4.2863 3. -531.3284 23.399.801 800091 71043' 69005/ -1560.0051 -81.132 88011 86036/ 71026/ 71023/ 3256.3 170.0727 409. 4072 -.019"104 4.76 14.672 3.0159 -4.4.212 2.342 850211 72035/ -755.43-10-s .682 4. 25 30 35 40 2.489 7.8448 1.0544 -475.00817 -2367.3805 .188 840271 83014/ 82023' 81023/ 75023/ 5.005"104 -5. 602.28 .807"104 2.017 2.3436 .90 3.212 840411 84004/ 78014' 76016' -2489.964 4.0537 2714.841 4.6024 1.141 3.9 -4179. 10. 1.8660 .9955 .104 2963.622 70 19.534 5.54 16.1"10-4 .403 .

800.33 13.995 80050/ 75030/ 5.0231 .0042 .9104 3.670"104 -1.064 3.775-104 21.31 6.150 84034' 83040/ 83012/ 82048/ 82016/ 70048/ 75040/ 77033/ 76021/ 71030/ Im(D) .406 6.1d4 6.1146 .6824 7.982 6.8345 12.817 2.677"104 -1.0597 .0078 .7717 .425*104 1.077 8. 3.359"104 -1.0943 .420"104 -1.9 4.0544 .3436 4.7878 20.286-104 35 40 45 50 55 1.607"10 4 4. -1010.040 4.035"104 3.652 5.0050 2.609 6.104 9918.0553 .4 95.1609 8.104 6814.540"10s 2.636 4.407-10' 1.538"10' -3. 1342.0.0613 .24 28.64 6.387"10s -1.635 86052/ 85013' 83033" 82"141 810211 78044' 70011i 69052" 70052/ 74002/ .755"104 1.5588 10.2913 9.484.277 3.828 6.6773 R6 22 23 24 25 30 R7 cgr cph/cl cgr/cl Re(D) Zero Im(1)) 71 .1 -1. -4.951 2.905 3.012.206!105 2.7995 35 40 45 x 1 =k a Re(v) R5 75 80 18.104 7.106 -2.10 -s .TABLE 1 (Continued) Oph 3.8 3677.999 5.169-105 4.7 -1.4877 1.0069 1. --82.716 80024/ 79054/ 790151 78037' 74032/ 71028/ 69012' 68024' -. -518.10' 2.602"104 18. -166.919 6.900 7. 2579 .586"104 --209.123104 -3.218.2625 1.105 6.0556 .428"104 1.0512 60 65 70 75 80 9.0540 0573 :0602 4084.741.0564 6.671"104 1.0067 -1.772.628 750303 75001/ 670561 67038" 3647.7516 8.0772 . 1788 -.104 -.363 5. 8.104 2.086.910°104 -7.01 35.0865 -492.0034 .74 3.869 2.817*104 -8.748 3.0500 .119 2.528 6.697 5.32 11.0793 .0613 1247.979 7.220"104 -6.134 --89044/ 89024" 88000' 810461 810351 81029/ 81018' 800371 -186.2875 13.992 3.373.106 -2.98 8.852.749 6.135"106 1.10" -7.718"10' -3.2680 . -1.0892 .3993 10.0617 .9854 15.20610' -5294.0474 .0562 .144 2.1074 4.970 87019/ 85050/ 71027/ 70*19/ 60 65 70 75 80 5.3396 5.897.161 --89018/ 88023" 81042' 810111 80040' 50 55 2.443 7.661 2.055-10' 10.0295 5.2743 .7. 0343 +. -1370.942"10s 7.145 2.427 3.050 3.679.237 3.040 4.56 9.

4763 1 E+0 1 .05. 951 E* -. Cgr for the first two Rayleigh zeroes RI.60 570E+01 .38353E*01 #3 9 488E201 .3093 2.6O54E*D3 0 .0271 2.68 65.32 63.4336 2.36025E-00 -. 1709E+09 .09 64.2987 2. and critical angles Oph. 8 5 OIE+05 . -.55 65.3871 2.45 74E+01 .35513E-00 . -.65 60.1772E*13 *.0554 2.7829E#10 6726E21 1046E411 6.TABLE 2 Positions of the zeroes -D.00 9.3808 2.4118 2.4473 2. -.3862E206 .24710E-00 -. -.2T8 1 7E-00 .40 69.1342E+ 4 2. ps=p 1 =l.13039E-00 . -.0) Re(b) Im(b) cph/c.3203 2.1031 2.17 65. -.75 *60904E+01 .08 63.75 .36534E-00 .30674E+01 .0610 2.27 61.57241E+01 .00 7.25 11.C9 # 2 6567E+01 11087E.67 68. -.4 8 81 7 E+01 . -.259842-00 .3260 2.64 65. F2 for aluminum shell: b/a=.3514E+04 0 4 .1032E+13 72 s2 0 7 12E 05 0.75 -4 . 4035E+07 7 8 066E+07 0 8 15 3E* 0 8 8 2 24E+ 2 70 1E*07 7 .75 .7806 2.1798 65.95 64.4012E*0 0 7 .6505E#08 2.3035E+13 .3115 2.6 8 8 6 E* 2:4177 2.4058 2.36108E+01 .25353E-00 .37039E-00 .74 64.3992 2.4370 2.00 6.46450E+01 .3148 2.51 2 04E+01 .5808E+12 '.74 65.3496 2.50 .15 64.4864E+03 .02 11.33 65. 5222E*08 08 5 -.75 .5176 65.4 1 78 2 E+0 1 .3996 2.67 8.25 5.17 4 88E200 .5 7.19841E-00 0 .4294E4+01 *44 1 04E+0 1 .25 7.6978 65. Im(. cgr/cl.3318 2.4188E*09 0.7966E*03 .4419 2.24 6.88 64.3776 2.3864E205 8 05 .69 .00 11.4158 2.77 67.62131E+01 .16654E:00 .63 64.59680E201 .0360 2.3744 2. 3 0 21E+05 -.68 70.75 6.4729 65.88 66.00 12.2101 2.23681E+01 .8788 2.81 63.2885F411 2. R2 and the first two Franz zeroes Fl.60 64.75 #28589E+01 .25 4 1C.4380 2.40631E+01 .02 64.213882-00 :22016E-00 .50 7.50 5.31738E+01 .9245E* 0 9 Oo1 9 4 5 E•10 2.63360E+01 .266@5E-00 .0404 2.40 64. 2064E+06 4627E+06 9853E+06 7 2 0 22E*0 .23 62.52 60.733 2.50 11.1925E*04 .3981 2.50 8.3619 2.1421 . 2245E+11 *. 3028E209 0.25 9.84 67.9 69F+11 3 4 16E411 0. -.50 S1C.1538 2.1943 2. -.00 8.2 7 216OO -.5402E*11 9 2 9 72E+11 2.4333 2.52404E+01 .1763E209 0.21 64.25 .56 9.4281 p.25 8.54815E+01 .56027E201 .49 12.50 14.3376 2.30140E-00 .3557 2.6535E.34 64.50 13.p657 2.30 62. velocity ratios cPh//c.0801 2.3663 2.4286 2.23 3 90F-00 .4483 2.86 65.37 65. Cph ogr .5688 65.18 2 96E-00 ±19 07 9 E-00 2.1313 65.00 64.C7 13.37 63.09 62.4450 2.89 62.89 65.9818 2.1815E*12 .21029E+01 .4233 2. cgr/c. 2 743E*04 .1517E211 1971E#11 0.50 12.45 Zero X.98 60.50 65.1270E*04 .92 68.16 62.83 65973 65. 2 5583E+01 2.57 65.2456 65.p876 p.78 65.28994E-00 -. 2 592E+03 .3436 2.p 1C.0278 64. 1267E*i2 2701E+11 2.58459E+01 .10202E13 ".2769FE04 o5565E+04 6.50 . -.2885 2.00 13.75 -32813E+01 #33901E+01 #34999E+0 1 .32352E-00 :32890E-00 '33424E-00 .556 9 E* 0 7 .1663 2.0452 64.0501 2.11 ne723E+08 2o3934 2.05 2. 4206E+10 0.20583E-0 .44 65. 7206E+04 -.35 8 3E* .29571E-00 -.4 0 64E+12 .37 2 2 6E*0 1 .3682 2.35 65.30782E-00 .n873 2.31258E-00 .64592E+01 .73 14.33952E-00 -.n7 64.7O6 E+ 1126 9 E+ 0 6 5 06 223 E+ 2.1258E+12 . -.25 12. -.37542E-00 .13 65.54 61.0670 64.1955E2÷0 0 0.3039 2. 1 080E207 7 8 4 0 7 q1 3 2 2.4466 2.0318 2. RI 5.28 60.00 14.0949 65.87 61.51 65.4485 2.1119 2.47 64.1289E+04 -.1196E+11 .16 61.24056E-00 .15791E'00 .25 14. -. -.31898E-00 -. derivatives D(D).4430 2.22710E-00 . 5289E*09 9j03E+09 1 5 43E+10 25 7 2E#1 0 o.34476E-00 .3376 65.65522*07 0 7 0 6 E# .2 9 625E+01 .9 60.61 61.34996F-00 .6290 2.81 60.1498 E-00 .13980E-00 0 .9372E#02 .00 SIC.1213 2.67 64.2859E*03 .88 65.50008E+01 .25 13.89 66.74 61.58 60.28410-00 .53608E+01 .10 62.24621E+01 . 2 1883E+01 0 o22767E+ 1 .75 Re(D) -2 7 2 .38041E-00 2.06 .2836 2.37 61.03 60.00 5.2936 2.75 o N S9.81 61..

50 17.53541E+00 '.50 24.Q71.78275E+01 .33 63.45269E-00 .4855E*15 .38538E-00 .9948 1.9904 1.50 16.2209 2. 19.2543E+18 2.1751 2.50 18.1 3 E+1 .69 63.10 59.93404E÷01 .45738E-00 .85 60.1675 2.75 .27 59.10612E+02 .9996 j.85 59.74 20.72028E+01 .17 60.24 62.00 23.0581 62.75771E+01 .9 6 E*1 2.24 63.08 60.9561 l.10c29E+02 .3529E+18 .1411E+14 ".25 6 7 60.87080E+01 .51728E+00 .78 62.19 .1066E+1 9 .36 59.98 59.1889 2.00 19.47690E-00 . -.5.9020E+21 9 6 .842 E11 21.9745 1.25 16.0642 1.3177E+18 .0076 2.2319 1.9677 1.30 59.75 .1805 1.18 62.49983E-00 .1650 2.88343E+01 .9792 1.91 63.3 1 E*22 4 9 .10102E+02 .94 59.82 62.1490 1.763 E+1 5 0 .9620 62.55 62.00 1.75 .t0783E+01 .1978 2.9572 1.5822E+1 8 .2787 2.18 .2 44E+1 0.n204 2.9463E+1 0 .%235E*2 2.51273E100 .1948 2.68300E+01 .27 62.58 17.46 59.63 59.74 62.48 59.14 2.57131F÷00 -.1860 2.5051E+13 4 0 7 .0106 2.9665 62.2140 2.85819E+01 .56684E400 .48984E-00 9 *4 444E-00 .1 3 E+1 *. -.2436 2.557 0F÷00 .25 62.1590E*15 -.7065F+22 2.57 62.62 S 2C.89606E÷01 .30 59.44328F-00 °448E00-00 .1832 2.11633E+02 .83299E+01 .43 59.73274E÷01 .29 .121 E+15 2.00 21.02 59.15 59.2518 2.42428F-00 :42906E-00 .67 59. -.869 E*17 8 .21T4 1.00 24.1020E*22 .52636F+00 .46671E-00 .2292E.78 2 6E+16 .9690 1.4 5 E*22 .00 15.1700 1.9760 62.00 e2.6093E1+ 9 .T5 .91 60.49 62.2253E~1 .7631E+18 8 9 .0048 2.71 63.81 59.25 17.1828F+1 2.2561 2.10739E÷0 2 .38 59.2051E+14 -.2009 1.00 73 59.50 59.50817F+00 .2357 2.2396 2.2604 2.00 17.n169 2.65 63.10867E+02 .48062E-00 .65826E+01 .9609 1.1778 2.90871E+01 . 1887E+23 .2073 2.13 60.80 60. ph •gr _L5.-25 24.6 .43856E-00 .25 e2.2277EF15 5 9 7 *.74 63.75 .921371E01 .75 .25 23.5144Ee13 -.67062E+01 .2649 2.52 62.9883 1.9844 63.36 23.48 59. -.1650E+18 91911E*17 .9590 1.60 . -.55341E+00 9 .34 59.79529E+01 .1918 1.29 63.4385E+1 8 -.75 .74522E101 .68 63.0021 63.2694 2.43 59.8577E*13 1.54892E÷00 -.4024E114 4 7 .11378E102 . 1999E+20 9 7683E+1 1992E+20 6108E+20 2740E*20 0 5252E+2 8366E420 t393E÷21 2.97209F+01 .39 63.46285E-00 .39 62.99750E+01 .50 22.40500E-00 .47136E-00 .50 23.1811÷E16 . 3744E'1 .6 62. 1943E+22 4863E+22 4365E+22 1262E*23 -.99 63.11250E+02 .1302E+1 .95 63.5 4 6 8 p*1 *.9599 1.32 59.7809E+18 9 .50 19.56237E+00 .75 .22 16.77022E101 .1511 2.39 59.142 E+1 5 6 .1527TF1 2. -.2282 2.11122E10 2 .9546 1.9925 63.0240 2.846TE*E5 6 .25 19.q553 1.40013E-00 .00 .23 62.75 .9653 1.9826 1.9808 1.52 R1 0 S N SC.4146 E-00 0 0 9 E.25 21.10994E102 .46 62.50 15.94671E+01 .04 59.53 59.48524E-00 .84558F+01 .86 9 -.21 ".9775 63.25 15.0535 62.59 59.06 59.2041 1.39032E-00 9 .TABLE 2 (Continued) Zero x1 Re(u) Im(•) Re(1) Imn(D) cPh/c.1725 2.4569E*17 9 .25 16.1626 2.1563E*1 . -.9863 1.9971 1. -.00 16.11505E102 .33 63.16 7 0 6 .103571E02 .33 59.98479E÷01 .4194 .2106 2.2740 2.53089F+00 -.50 21.40985E-00 8 .97 60.4780E+i5 .3 524F-00 .64 63.70 22.50 ?C-75 .1533 2.95939E+01 .1602 1.5615E.41 62.A4 59.1556 2.88 18.3673E*19 9 .89 59.6084E413 2.28 63.1318E+17 7 .23468E13 .43382E-00 . 8357E+20 2318E+21 4 8 65E+21 8 123 E+22 2795E+21 14372E+21 9 77 E*21 .52182E+00 .10484E+0 2 .53992E÷00 t54442E+00 . egr/c.77 59.n137 63.9730 1.2463E.9703 1.1579 2.3650E1÷4 4 7 32E+1 ".9631 1.452 E+1 .42 24. -.69541E+01 .3455E+17 7 .50360F+00 .2477 2.80784E+01 -82041E+01 .2780E+16 6.56 59.1180E119 9 .2245 2.1052E÷22 2.

12989E÷01 .94'93E+00 ýph 5.P981 3.00 11.1904E+03 . 7 367E+ 0 1 .P311E106 .3056 75.11064E+01 .5008E+03 .50 11.0306 4.99932E-05 7.00 5.67 12.5778 3.3311E+04 @12152+03 t44532*03 t1 0 45 E+ 0 4 2100E#04 4.4744 3.6264 77.9487 2.7273 3.94 13.28581E+01 .85491*02 5.99 .5006E*06 sp1941407 0.5777E+08 4.1561 4.9724E107 -.1082E+08 2554E+08 ".00 12.13740E+l1 '25835E-02 .90853E+00 .17702E-02 .66 77.20742-UO .27248E-00 .4500E01 .39 14. 1380.20521E+01 .82373E-02 -.11 73.34701*08 4062E+08 *.11812E-01 .8919 R2 5. Zero 9 Im(u) cph/c.92 72.0 4 .37 78.75 .5337E.E08 .2694 4.4228 5.9560 13.29328E+01 .4213 3.36115E+01 .6553E+06 4.00 8.23 .80 72.17327E-01 .70 86.8 39(E+00 .4051 3.3815 3.1391 3.6792 4.8229E+04 .4665 76.25 7.22674E+01 .22962E-02 .99 73.3513 3.47 78. Re(D) Im(O) .75 .C1 72.30076E+01 -30826E+01 .96953F-03 .32329E+01 .0150 3.31 72.25 8.52 72.30 72.50 13.TABLE 2 (Continued) Re(v) x.10562E-01 .21232E+01 .89 76.18438E+01 -19123E+01 .64 72.14394E-04 .2211 3.71 .50 S9.4893 6.7J51 3o6343 3.13116E-01 -.25 11.43895E-02 .3254E.50 8.0468 4.3725 3.47115E-03 . -.203602-01 .00 14. -.42612+06 4.12610E-03 .08 76.00 7.29076E-02 :36031E-02 .38815E-04 :74293F.7786 16.94 75.93067E-04 .5566E104 -.14472E-01 .25610E+01 .19972*08 33002*08 ".38 74.6595E+06 .51 86.1078E+03 ".43 72.61 72.16437E+01 e.3263 3.19 . 1991E*05 3070F405 e4815E+05 7384E*05 .69 75.03 74.6776 3. 04 0 S9.75 72.50 5.85 11.37501*01 . -.9822 3.0985 4.17763E201 .1927E+02 .1714E+02 .25 10.26350E+01 .33 80.r 79.00 u 74 1 9 12E+ 0 .01 72.1985 4.50 74.75 S10.7692E+03 N.8289E+04 5 4.9734 5.46576E-03 .248122÷01 .14561800 .44 74.25 14.21950E+01 .25 S9.219382-01 .93310E-01 .7410 3.8470 4. 6684E407 ".1090E+03 0.61 74.20248E-03 .31576E+01 .00 13. -.6444 4.7686 3.42 73. -.5345 3.1362 3.57 77.32080E-00 .06 m.1J70 4.21 c .31368F-03 .5 8 3 0 E*0 4 .62 85.18 73.75 .70 71.52362E-02 .3222 3.22 76.0 67.1769 4.23555E-01 .07 4.75 . 5450E+05 1177E+06 2273E*06 4102E+06 .9997 3.9125 1.2383E+04 .25 59.22 73.61 75. -.7228E+04 3891E*04 6 8 4?E*04 v1161E*05 4. -.1149E+04 .54 76.72112+06 .03 80. 7057E+06 1170E+07 188iE+07 2941E+0 7 .15 76.76 74.2952 4.3797 4.0807 4.75 cgr/c.6099 4.28 73. -.35354E+01 .4405 3.75 72.1737E*02 .2447 4.35 72.3153E*03 .606 8 E*02 .00 F.1107+*06 4.1475 5.4419 3.0635 3.71 72.63 75.97 77.79641E-06 .75 9.58 75.77 77.2737 75.93698S-02 .27092E+01 .4454 79.3327 76.25 12.345952-01 .86 77.71 76.7960 4.13 .1674E+04 .75 .23403E+01 -24136E+01 .25 13.45 76.5930 17.3201E106 .50 10.7927 78.26 72.31P7 3.7882 3.50 72.47 72. 2327E104 -.09 73.19817E+01 .2903 3.62 73.3451 3.3504 4.37 76.5478E*06 .57 72.50 6.33083E+01 *33838E+01 .50 12.13290E-02 .09 77. -.75 . 1 7097E+01 .50 7.113 5 E+02 p.5415 4.0658 5.4473E+04 .15876E-01 .2806E+02 *.252092-01 -.70 80.3578 76.3921 76.36878E÷01 .5756 5.25 5.3196 3.88 75.68633E-03 .4974 77.7533 4.1193E*03 op1 0 47E* 0 3 Ot38612402 4.92344E+00 .00 6.25 6.80 78.5077 4.69 74.61669E-02 .l 9 7 6 E+02 .0042 4.75 .23 10.3762E*02 . 4488E+07 -.14442E+01 .9390E+01 6.15779E+01 .47 77.90 14. 1906E+08 ".1620E+06 .27836E+01 .1648 3.75 80..57 77.3389 3.6355 3.15117E+01 .71684E-02 '.3759 5.12142E÷01 .581 8 E+02 0.4103 4.80 76.18822E-01 -.

36 70.76186E-01 0 7 8 255E.62114E+01 .47799E+01 :51380E-01 .00 . Im(D) Re(D) IM(v) Re(v) cph/c.75 .8676 2.49 21.55947E+01 :69943E-01 '72026E-01 .25 16.51833E÷01 .j8 S 3 4 7 2 7 5 7 9 0 7 71.67064E+0 .50 15.0567 74.38409E+01 .8296 3.92473E-01 . 1 69.7254E-13 .96 69.41 24.23 74.70614E+01 .05 22.25 17.64 73.25 23. 2917E+13 .1523 74.1408 74.74188E-01 .1063E+12 .41498E+01 .I888E.070 75.04 74.9502E+09 5.09 70.66186E+01 .00 .00 .8533 3.6375 3.1545E212 *1516E*12 t25672+12 3.1119F*15 3.57495E-01 .61000F+01 .37687E-01 .65312E+01 .6984 2.2058E*13 .37642E+01 .00 43.9704 3. 4T91E+08 w.68 71.1241F+12 .60149E+01 .45395E-01 .41 72.72 71.7841 3.75 25.43841E+01 . -.47 72.11 t5342E'11 t9145E.6475 2.90 8 .14 22.4393E+14 '.25 ?4.17 75.212 E+10 ".10 3.50 21.50210E+01 .2273 3.9179 2.96373E-01 -.31 70.82 74.5835E+11 .P372 75.75 .0443 3.98285E-01 -.22 0 19.47373E-01 .11 69.1 2 E+1 E+12 4066F÷12 .36 75.9297F+08 9 -.64 74.25 .75 .5787 2.33976F-01 .1552F+14 .75 .54 S S 2C.00 .50 24.55118E+01 .59 74.45 70.74 2C.n318 74.43(.2558E+1O 3.90 22. 1695E÷13 .68 73.30 69.8053E+09 3.5 302E+01 .1 .49 70.28621E-01 -.77 17.59 1 1426E+14 2567E+14 2725E+14 7247E÷14 5 1313E÷1 1946E+15 2253E+15 5047E÷15 75 .25 .1455E+11 ".95 71.69721E+01 .48600E+01 '5 96E-01 .6881 3.57 17.57617E+01 .06 71.7193 3.57E+01 .90481E-01 .36 18.8654 3.10588E-00 -.96 71.2467 3. -.1184F414 .10 3.6177 3.53468E+01 .9053 74.80325E-01 .50 19.83 16.10 71.7731 3.7983 73. 4670E+0R F.7405 3.5884 2. 8042E+14 301E+14 3. 3787E*0 -.8623E*13 3.78 73.12 3.58458E+01 9 .14 N S 19.5635E+ 3.00 23.01 16.31 72.8046E211 .82 71.3301E*09 3.50 24.68 73.5404 2.00 20.0066 74.4485E+11 .00 .2456E+10 .2122E+12 -.1288E+i0 8 18.4191E+09 -.50 23. -.P560 75.1461E+11 3.9660E+10 ". -.06 .2739F.19 69.1747 3.5149E÷13 3.66 74.73 73.82386F-01 -.43436F-01 .65776E'01 .47002E+01 .50 .39580F-01 .1055 74.11 3. 10052E13 1436E+13 .51020F+01 .29 71.25 .39949E÷0 1 ..40722E+01 .63697E-01 .56781E+01 .A294 2.00 .C6 72.00 15.P555 73.10385E-00 .5595 3.94435E-01 .TABLE 2 (Continued) Zero R2 x. 1017E+14 .4794E+09 OP6832E+09 ".71 17.49368E-01 .61622E-01 .57 21.j454E+0 3. -.98 70.5498 3.28272+13 3.13 70.3974E+10 m.9158 3.20 75.1174 74.8414 3.1 .8146 2.r6 70.2.86 69.2173 3.2650 3.8432 73.6276 2.0813 3.49403E+01 :55445E-01 .75 .6079 3.8927 2.91 71.39178E+01 .9813 2.26898F-01 .75 .01 71.77 S 18.54291E+01 .32161E-01 -.5691 3.41497E-01 .9559 74.5688E+08 .52649E+01 .1964 75.10204E-00 .82 69.35818E-01 .15 71.25 21.88477E-01 -.50 .3146E211 .9432 74.5528E+13 3.5981 3.27 70.87 69.50 20.46207E+01 .7621 3.8066 3.-9 73.25 .67945E+01 . -.9306 74.95 69.77 69.75 .9849 3.10018EO00 .63576F÷01 -64443E+01 .5157E+10 3.8902 3.9029 3.75 .1636 75.7513 3.9686 2.1692E*10 5.25 19.75 .6038E.68831E+01 . 4087E+12 -.8041 2.8777 3.1876E+09 .22 70.50 .2138E+11 w. .8180 3.7953 3.84422E-01 -.1071E÷12 9728E+12 3.44627E+01 .0934 74.1857 75.6677 2.86 71.11 15.26 75.3813E+14 0.7299 3.50 .45416E+01 . .1436E+10 0.9290 3. Cph ogr 15.j914E÷15 *.9270E+07 N.31 70.9563 309425 3.00 16.89 71.6779 3.6299E+10 *.42277E+01 .63 74.1543E+14 .30375E-01 .61855E*01 .59554E-01 .n690 3. egr/c.9940 74.00 .43 18.40 74.6576 2.1292 74. *.7088 3. 7311E*13 -.91 69.8801 2.40 70.2224E+09 0.2861E+10 3.6802E+13 3.67858F-01 .n192 3.86459E-01 .2811E.

25 8.8836 0.5262E122 '.9598 0.14897E+01 .20 -. Zero Fl .94971+23 0.jIOOE* 8 -. 2 38841.9037 0. 9254E÷17 ".25 11.25 14.9113 0.9567 0.9658 11.98612E-01 713674E.25 6.90j9 0.8915 0.12711E10 2 .9235 0.8806 0. -.11902E+01 .9539 0.59415E+01 .25 12.50 12.9518 * * * * * * 0.2146E÷14 -.14960E+01 -. 20712*21 ".15548E+02 .*23 O. 2500E+0 -. -.75 .6313E+09 012214E+i0 '.9701 4 * 4 4 4 4 * * 14..4795E+06 -.00 12.75 .4314E+25 0.85 6 0 2 E*01 .9682 0.15395E+01 . 2 300E+10 *91800*E09 0.9506 0.9292 0.15033E+0 2 .13227E+02 .1841E415 0.9285 0.9313 0.2823E+21 1377E+22 *. 3790E*24 -.14316E+01 -.TABLE 2 (Continued) cph ogr 0. S9. 9057E+22 2312E+23 5891E+23 1496E224 P.1387. 12 9 2E*1 7 *.00 11.7228E*18 0.9493 0.14485E+01 .00 0 9.15189E+01 .14582.00 7.75 .9326 0.67300E+01 .15464E.9070 0.9662 0.90811÷E01 .I0521+21 5351E+21 a.8981 0. -. -.14141E+01 . 1769E+16 =.14481E*01 .12969E+0 2 .6323E1+4 -.12447E. 3 106E+14 *.79671Ej 1 n. 2424E+25 -.75 . 6088E+25 w.50 5.9685 0.3958E+13 -.75 . 1113E+14 8.9575 0.13 2 64E+01 :13370E+01 ' 1 3474E+0 1 :11575E*01 -.9649 0.11158E+0 2 .15532E+01 -.12045E+01 .7 6508E+18 -.699 2 2F+01 . 4 892E+ 1 2 ".96014E+01 9.9538E. -.5677 9 E+01 .8939 0. 76 0 4E+0 0 9 *.50 7.9639 * * 9. 9586E224 -.9698 0.9175 0.9269 0.11935E+02 .158052*02 :15325E÷01 .10899E*02 .9671 0.3933E*20 0.01 .9480 0.6440E+24 0.9704 0.8864 0.01 0.13486E+02 . -.14002E102 .00 5.9591 * * * * * * * .75 488 2 07E+01 .9689 13.9558 * * * * * * u.25 5.9629 0.-25 13. 7340E+09 *.9623 0.4466E408 -.0 2 .9207 0.74842*21 3535E+22 *11982E*22 0.9695 0.11676E+02 .9611 0.75 .9605 0.9707 0. 1180OE20 .14051E*01 . -.9054 0.50 13.1497E+i0 7 0.14775E+02 :15035E*01 .126 6E+ 1 -.64675E+01 .12183E+01 8 .00 14.9217 0.9186 0.8 2 994E+01 .1672F÷25 §.14884E+01 .7515 E+01 .25 7.7199E*13 4 w.0634 0.9549 0. -.53972"19 a.466E+24 0.620 4 6E+01 .77772E+0 1 .9226 0.9529 0. the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical angles fails.9667 0. -.9244 0. 4506E+19 -.14517E+02 .25 S1C. -. 6498E+15 *.9583 0.14728E+01 .9127 0.14260E+02 .934 1 3E+0 1 .25 N x.75 . 1 28 1 5E+0 1 :12932E+01 .01 '1 2 579 3 E+01 0 . 1 0 1 2 1 E+0 2 910381E+02 .9277 0.11755E*01 .14567E101 .80384E+0 1 .9617 * * * * * * * .2631F+18 1 7 16E+1 9 4.20 t.75 .9152 0.12317E+01 .9320 0.2520E*12 *.9139 0. 2373E+15 ".14649E+01 -.24 4E+11 7.00 10.j397E+13 .15290E+02 . 8 6 14'E+ -.9306 0.75 . -. 1977E~19 ".9332 0.9164 0.9654 0.15182E201 :15254E+01 -.9085 0.781214 12 N.9253 0.8960 0.13744E+02 . -.10640E*02 * * 10.00 6.9674 12..12194E+02 .3420E+17 2461E+18 ".50 14.50 10. 3467E*17 "1i222E+17 * .9299 0.11417E+02 .4336E+16 -. 7995E*20 -.00 8.50 0 7 cgr/cI * * 76 4 * * * * * * * * 4 4 * * Because all Franz zeroes have cph< cgr< c. 1 3771E+01 :138661*01 '*13960E+01 -. * .13156E+01 -.531aE415 1.2122E* -.9196 0.7 2 5 4 1E+01 8 .9099 0.3 b19001 0.522E416 *.9713 * 4 * 4 4 * Re(D) CPh//c Im(D) Re(u) Im(1)) 5.14 2 2 9E*01 .50 8.9692 0.3076E.1 2 4 5 2 E.50 6.3630E*23 ".13045E+01 .8891 6.00 13.9710 71 0.9644 0.50 11.9678 0.9261 0. 6702E+10 1989E+11 5840E+11 1 6 9 8 E+12 '.

19659E+02 .17632F+01 .16897E+01 .16346E*+Q '16403E+01 .9718 0.9727 0.15796E+01 -.90 17.23758E+02 .53208440 '.23246E*02 .16461E401 .19146E+0 2 -19403E+0 2 .9454 0.2852E+26 3838E+2 .16228E*01 .9477 0. 7231E*40 .6173E+38 9 &.41 0.75 . -.25 17.17445E+01 .9753 0.8597F+39 0. 1852E÷41 -.8119E+30 -. -.?054E*31 -.1136F+36 -.7455E+41 0.22478E+02 .75 .9435 0.17349E+02 .50 16.9489 0.25292E÷02 . 1 6834E+02 .25548E+02 .9427 0. -.20172E+02 . -.21198E+0 2 '21454E+02 .9783 0.41 '. egr/c.j8801e27 0.9769 0. 2 034E+31 '.16628E+01 716683E+01 :16737E+01 -.00 19.9446 0.9461 0.22990E+02 . fails. -. -.9738 0.3193E.9742 0. 8357E+30 a. * * * * * * * * * * 4 * * * * * * * * 4 * * * the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical angles 77 * * .17252E+01 :17301E+01 .25 22.75 25.25 16.9431 0.25 15.22734E+02 .9471 0.16287E+01 .9761 21.24270E+02 .9730 0.9764 0.4658F+35 -.9344 0.977T 0.32 "11921F+32 w.50 2C. 3403E+3C w.9746 0.00 24.1018F+38 .16949E+01 -. 3151E÷40 -.9423 0.4932E+33 0.9756 0.01 -.50 18.25 21. 2262E+29 9 0.00 16.9350 0.16047E.9744 0.1279E+30 -.17768E+01 -. -.34 ot7702E+34 1529E+35 -. * * * * * . -. -.9763 0. 5590E+2 -.15860E+01 .9410 0.15OOE*3 ".9770 0. -.16791E÷01 :16844E+01 . 1236E+32 *.18119E+02 .15923E+01 . 1527E+26 wq1112E+26 6 ".00 17.9406 0.3232E*30 0.1235E*34 2586E+34 0.9766 0.18633E*02 .75 .30378*34 6362E. -. -.9500 0.9372 0.50 21.2003E+33 0.15986E+01 .1287E*32 0.17091E÷0 2 .9720 0.17723E+01 .2783E+36 -.9778 * * 4 4 * * 0.17203E+01 .9464 0.16320E+02 .9775 0. 5044E+3i *.17153F+01 -.9367 0.9779 0.9760 0. -.75 .9387 0.9723 16.9361 0.22222F+0 2 .17350F+01 -.20685E+0 2 -20941E+02 "16573E+01 ..3112E*28 -.9492 0.9450 0.15731E÷01 .15666E+01 .00 22.21966E+0 2 .20429E+0 2 . 1346E+40 -.00 18.17398E+01 . 3689E÷35 0.24781E+02 . 2118÷+36 0.75 .9480 0.9755 * * 2C.17103E101 .75 .9377 0.25 18.9486 0.1293E.9392 9.9725 0.9771 0.9750 0.9732 * 17.9415 0.1392E+30 *.16108E+01 '16169E+01 '.9715 0.50 19.24014F+02 .9382 0.19916E+02 .9419 0.6898E+36 0.50 2ý.25 19.75 .31188.00 2C.9774 0.9338 9.48j5E127 wt220E*28 9. 5978E+27 8 1 4 83E+2 3689E+28 9094E+28 1. -.9758 0.9751 0.2005E*29 -.5138E'31 -.9443 0.18376E+02 .1882E+35 0.17539E+01 -.9734 0.50 23.15599E+01 .9495 0. -. -.24525E+02 .16063E+02 .9767 * 22.9356 0 0.9483 0.17678E+01 . 1069E+34 ".17052E-01 .25037E+02 .25 Ž3.16577E+0 2 . 1242E+37 P.9736 0.253T7E+38 16871E38 6.9397 0.17586E+01 .17001E+01 .17606E+02 .5055E+29 -.50 i5.16517E+01 -.00 . 0phb gr Zero x1 Fl 15.00 15.9457 0.9401 0. -.00 21.9740 * * * * * * * * 18.25 24. 24.17492E+01 . 3025E+32 7333E+32 1795E÷33 4395E+33 0.26059E+0 2 '26315E÷02 . 8865E135 0.00 21. -.25804E+0 2 .9782 0.9780 0.75 . 4205E841 Because all Franz zeroes have cPh< cgr< c.9439 0.40 =.22048.1716E637 3096E+37 0-4221E+37 70671÷37 0.21710E÷02 .23502E+02 .9784 4 * * 4 * * S o S S S S V 23.3609E÷39 0.7359E*26 9593E*26 2392E+27 *.75 .9474 0.25 2C.17862E+0 2 .7914E+28 0.TABLE 2 (Continued) Re(v) Re(D) Im(u) Im(D) ePh/c.18890E+02 .9773 4 4148E+38 1022E+39 2343+139 9 5180E÷3 *.9498 0.9467 0.50 24.9748 * * * * 19. 5164E+36 N.

3770E*25 .00 5.9309 0.75 .75 .42610F+01 .75 . 4763E+27 0.459$lE*01 :46 3 3 2 E+01 .3975E*15 t1332E+16 4301E+16 9.2051E+15 .TABLE 2 (Continued) cgr/c. -.7675 0.2526E*11 w.8500E÷II 6. aph gr 0.7298 0.8906 .2509E218 .43605E+01 .75 .12451E+02 .13272E+02 .47576E201 .44085E+01 -. * * * (U * * + * * * + * * 4 0.82811E201 0 8 *8 5 63 E+ 1 . -.9011 0.00 11.9062 * .25 8. -.8733 0.10799E*0 2 .50 5.7069 0.3400E411 .48756E+01 .9316 * * * * .8 .5 13.17332E+02 .8307E*25 #1752E+26 .17601E+02 .01 .41019E.80972+26 1069E+28 .53595E+01 .25 11.16794F+02 752959E+01 . -.7985 0. 4981E+21 t6258E+20 q1685F*21 .25 7. * * * * * . -.50 0 o cph/c. -. -.25 2 N S10.50 6.01 -.9093 0. egr< c the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical angles fails.7484 0.9029 0.7740 0.11076E+02 .P974F+24 .8972 0. * * * * * .1348F+17 #4120E217 i1233E+18 9 8 361 E*1 0.43114E+01 .9046 0.25 9.2846E213 3 606 E+1 .8222 0.3925E+16 .4973E+23 0.9215 12.50 8.51296F÷01 -.18 -.8151 0.26 5781E+26 1541E+27 .12725e+02 .8113 0.49136E+01 .7003 0.7096E*j3 .2427E+17 .52635E.1 5 0 6 E+1 . -.9244 0.14632E+02 .51637E÷01 . 1613E+22 5024E+22 1519E223 4484E+23 #3061E+22 7852F*22 1989E223 .7299E+14 7.7802 0.7396 0.9121 * .940716+01 .1251E*18 .56782E17 .11403E+01 .54820E+01 .3880E.1130E.44553E201 t45012E+01 8.6546E*lI .45461E.00 7.8205 0.00 10.12999E+02 .1186E.00 12.01 . -. .00 14.96867E201 .7441 0.2996E*14 8.9270 0.8688F+11 #1328E+13 .00 6.7937 0.8052 6.9225 0. .11 6.2865E+12 ".11352E+02 Vr 9.14271E+01 .8799 .9294 0.9134 0.15445F+02 . 1046E+19 .50 9.8992 * * * * * .14089E+02 .6055E+26 4075E+27 .7708 0.9253 13. -.53907E÷01 -.50 11.0 7.01 .8187 14.8856 0.51975E+01 :52387E-01 . 7913E225 2149E.9500E+12 ".7911 0.25 5.1655E+25 0.26 2784E+28 7195E+28 -.39284F+01 .11902E+02 .8008 0.7565 0. 1299E+24 3701E+24 1040E+25 2885E+25 .8093 0.7858 0.7885 0.15174E+02 .16525E+02 .54215E201 -54519E*01 . 78 * * .9278 0.9000E.7090E*24 .9931E+16 .13642.8929 0.50949F+01 .9147 0.10.5626E+15 6 .135452+02 * * 11.8030 0.8132 0. + * * Because all Franz zeroes have cph.8882 0. -. 3865E220 -.1044E219 2967E*19 t8308E219 t2295E220 0.75 . .14904t-^2 .15985E+02 .7190 0.14361E+02 . 1453E'21 -.25372+14 .7131 0.25 12.16255E+02 .99657E+01 . Re(v) Im(O) F2 5.50 12.9205 0.8828 0.8238 0.55118E+01 -.00 8.01 .9262 0.9302 0. * * * * * .25 14.55279E.75 .42094E'O1 .12177E+02 .9078 0.7245 6.7526 0.4194E+18 .8073 0.17869E+02 .9160 0.75 .8951 0.7640 0.1226E+24 . * .9171 + * 10.75 .48369E+01 .46754E+01 .41564E+01 .9286 * * 0.9234 0.10522E+02 .50597F+01 .4483E+21 1178E+22 0.9107 0.9183 0.7348 0.3454F426 0.7830 0.50 13.47169E+01 .13817F÷02 .00 13-.15715E+02 .8700 0.39880E+01 .8767 0.50 14.15 .75 .50240E+01 .49878E.77128E.91268E201 .8170 0.9194 0.47976E+01 .25 6.7603 0.17063E+02 .79974F+01 .00 -11627E+0 o a N 9. 8579E+19 -.10 2 44E+02 .49510E+01 . -.7961 0.88457E+01 .8254 Re(6) Im() Zero X.01 -.75 .7772 0.1i .40458E+01 .

3340E*29 *.25 15.22140E+02 N 19.25054E+02 .24790E+02 . 0.3025E+43 . -.38 2095E+36 0.18405E+02 .25847E+02 .25 24.60224E501 .75 '25583E+02 .8512 0. 3001E+30 -. 1 059E+36 n.8634 0.8581 0.8048E640 =.2151E+32 -.50 18.9420 0.4295E'33 0. -.00 20225 S20. 18.8502 0.9424 0.50 16.23996E+02 .50 17.8953E.1063E.5275E+44 .02 .9356 0. * * * * * * 4 4 * * 4 * 4 4 .1151E*43 w.3681E+43 .8572 6. 6570E+32 o.94299 .64339E+01 .9466 0.2689E*40 .8301 0.2271E.3519E*36 -.62124E+01 "62353E+01 .55412E+01 755703E+01 .9446 * * * * 2C.26111E÷02 .e * * * .24526E*02 .3021E*34 0t#9JYE+34 m.8523 0.19743E+02 ..9323 0.7741E*31 0.63692E*01 .58969E+01 .63909E+01 .8371 0.58711E+01 .7716E+40 .5898E*32 -.60468E+01 ". 1193E+30 -.I144E*34 ".8600 0.5481E*39 0.25319E+02 .00 16.86J7 0.950O 0. -.9498 0.26375E+02 .5962E541 .8330 0.8608 0.4338E+42 .75 .8697 0.9477 * * * * 23.1439E.25 16.7900E÷43 .75 25.8434 0.9484 0.9362 0.8458 0. 3721E+33 *.59477E*01 -.55991E+01 . -.9405 0.5027E+35 w.8562 0.33 -.8651 0.64552E÷01 .00 24.1350E+45 0.8849E538 .9487 0.8682 0.2320E+35 *.21874E+02 .9494 0.9379 0.63030E+01 .1096E+45 0.8642 0.8270 0.9497 O.5730E*37 8969E+36 ".50 24.2341E+38 .38 O.75 .28219E+02 -28482E+02 -28745E÷02 . 1571E+33 o.2050E+44 .8543 0.2933E+39 *.1554E*43 0.9385 0.9504 0-9507 * * Re(O) Re(D) Im(O) Im(D) Zero x.75 .2741E+31 -.8357 0. -.22405E*02 . 1 8 6iE+31 *.5339E*35 ".1615E*42 .2736E+42 0#6530E542 *.00 23.8590 0.23466E÷02 #23731E+02 .1374E436 . 7498E.50 15.9462 * * * * 22.64974E.8384 6.9337 0.00 o 19.8491 0.9374 0.21608E+0 2 .1140E÷42 8.57112E*01 .9350 0.3234E*30 -.134 7 E44 0 0.18673E+02 .20010E+0 2 .75 -20277E+02 t20543E+0 2 .57385E+01 17.8315 0.?221E.25 22.4728E+44 0.98663E+43 0.2030E+44 '.24261E+02 21.8446 0.9450 0.56557E+01 .9087E+39 .39 *.63252E+01 .00 17.58451E+01 -.00 .84j0 0. 79 * .8626 0.58188E+01 .9790E428 0.9410 * * .9330 0.8469 0.64125E*01 .9480 0.30 0.9438 0.27956E+02 .61426E+01 -.9533E*3 0 -.27693E.3300E440 0.8667 0.50 23.8553 0.9415 0.56836E+01 .00 18.61893E+01 .4439E+3 7 .2163E*41 -.26902E+02 .25 21.37 6857E536 P.18137E+02 .61660F+01 .57655E+01 . 4 4 * * * Because all Franz zeroes have eph< cgr< ce the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical angles fails.00 21. * .27429E+02 463473E+01 .8286 0.25 18.4732E*41 0.9470 0.64764E+01 .8533 0.8690 0.59224E+01 .59728E+01 .20810E+02 .62580E+01 .75 17. -.61189E+01 .R959F436 0.9491 4 * 4 4 4 4 * 24.19476E+02 .56275E+01 -.9390 * .9343 * * * * * * * * -.75 20.9400 0.8674 0.3599E*38 ePh/. 47i0E29 -.9433 0.75 .19208E+02 . =.59977E+0j .8344 0.01 765182E+01 .27166E+02 .57923E+01 .9454 0.25 S19-50 N 19.2525E#28 *.60710E+01 .26638E+02 .9368 * * * * 2726E+32 0.75 .60951E+01 .9442 0.8422 0.22671E+02 922936E+02 -23201E+02 .00 15.20628+35 0.21076E+02 . F2 15.9395 0.8480 0.21342E+02 .30 16. 1122E+32 *.18941E+02 .8397 0.25 23.1955E*41 P.50 22.TABLE 2 (Continued) ogr cgr/cl Oph 0.628068÷01 . 4585E'31 0.00 k2.50 8729E*33 2025E+34 4641E+34 i 0 47E+3 5 4045E+36 *.1599E.8659 0.50 21.9473 0. 1848E+29 -.75 . 2137E+36 0.

10878E-00 . 5 0 9 2E* 0 5 .4 8 8 8 E+ 0 6 2.1507E*0 6 2.19188E-00 .5882 2.25 11.o852E*0 2 .51242E+01 .75 -30186E+01 -31046E+01 .75 .derivatives L(D). 1482E+09 -.2 5 522E-00 -.3718 2.00 .3143 2. -.0 0 .26 0 3E+0 7 2o3632 2.4 2 011E+01 .748 8 E+ 0 6 0 6 .00 12.30072E-00 . Zero X.34 64.00 14.2 8 2 7 E4 0 6 .3473 2.7501F+05 .00 5.21 64.31997E-00 :326@0E-00 .27 66.3490 2.1 4 8 5 E* 0 5 .4 IC.62 73.0929 2.9574 3.2533 2.0377 2.45 64.2 5 460E+01 -2 6 202E+01 .04n7 2.53 61.3307 2.75 .12 71.67 71.58 64.344 9 E*04 .93 72.69 7.6169E+06 .50 8.2038 2.16 65.3727 2.30736E-00 .3603 2.0331 2.3037 2.17411E-00 .33187E-00 :33760E-00 .04 .79 62.3831 2.47708E+01 .453 9 5E+01 '26354E-00 .03 65.1075E+09 -.2 7 156E-00 . velocity ratios cph/c 1 first two Rayleigh zeroes RI.3472E'06 090 8 ".7291E+04 .3762 2.72 64.9810E*02 .29385E-00 .00 i1.03 60.5470 3.9 0 2 6 E+ 0 4 . -.50 13.5919E.20105E-00 W2i030E-00 . R2 and the first two Franz zeroes Fl.50 .58 65.44 62•.31929E+01 .34321E-00 .2 7 7 3 7 E+01 .2065E*05 -.7952 2.4141E+09 2774E*09 -.58468E+01 .75 .00 M 80 .2 9 3 49E+01 1 2 955E-00 :135 8 7 E.C7 60.3859 2.71 1i.45 8.3803 2.34719E÷01 :35697E÷01 .00 7.4772 3.25 13.03 9. cgr/.96 60.25 8.7589 2.40 64.47 0 S9.61 61.75 a SIC.1182 9 E'00 .75 .4553E*04 -.8 8SE÷0 2.2781 2o2999 3.3090 2.296 2.86 67.C6 64.17 65.00 6.8701 2. 6193E+08 P.79 12.1400E+13 2.75 .1812 65.5091E+03 .25 .37722E+01 .50 14.64594E+C1 .5622E*04 2o2255 2.36698E+01 .3418 2.1602 2.1400E.3481E4 0 5 2.12369E-00 .3313E+0 ..50 5.jOT2E+06 . -.36987E-00 .3681 2.2268$E08 w.3212E+0 8 *.46 64.13 1C.63363E+01 . 8434E+08 -.1SS2E*0 8 *.43126E+01 10.0 0 . 1129E40 9 -.89 73. 13 9 6 E÷0 7 7 7 -.3363 2.7956E+03 .8i56E+0 4 .21956E-00 .27928E-00 .3252 2.25.0539 2.3937E*08 2.61 60. 2 503E+04 .1615 2.297 2.48878eE01 .3328 61.1728E+09 0. 7420E+07 .0814 2o1226 2.21 65.2083E+06 .3 9 83 0 E+01 .15757E-00 .3843 2.69 66.77 14.3768 2.1027 3.75 . 1029Ee06 1 8 88E*0 6 32 7 1E+0 6 5 4 4 9 E* 0 6 .20 61.35944E-00 -.50 S9.5157E*05 .52434E+01 #53631E+01 .3197 2.31376E-00 -.P9 72.37500E-00 .44254E÷01 .0 0 .1154 64.27 61. F2 for aluminum shell: b/a=.3861 2.59 64.4187 2.38008E-00 -. 1 8 93E+0 9 w.3581 2.1 E+0 ".120 3 E+ 0 4 .7784E*06 -.97 64. 216 E+0 7 -.75 .3693 2.20 70.6536 2.50 i1.1945 3. 3 9 17E*04 ".54 60.19463E÷09 3808E+09 -. 8819E*06 -.19 65.22 65.460iE+04 .1035 2.1 6 566E-00 .9468 2.11 3 33E-00 .6180E*07 -.72 63.54 6.61 69.89 62.75 .n481 64.2884 2.80 64.25 5.96 64.2270E*08 -. -.42 62.2377 9 E.3851 2.50 7.25 9.1441 2.1235E*08 -.35412E-00 .91 64.46546E+01 .3 7 6 2EF0 6 .3811 2.9306E*04 .25 14.19 13.25 6.2835 2.5270 2.69 60.54834E+01 . ps=p1 =l.93 70.02 63.0749 64.3189 2.0603 2. 2 6960E+01 .15 64.1288 2..6442E*06 ".50 12.57252E+01 .25 7.12 65. 4991E+07 .22 65.65 64.32 61.86 60.28533E+01 .11 65.25 12. 2363E+09 .C4 68.4 0 912E+01 22 8 75E-00 .00 13.00 8.6208Ea09 3197E+09 .0246 63.60909E÷01 .32835E+01 .23 72.98 61.3233E*04 . -.2685E*0 9 2.29 61.3353 2.66 64.1 7 6 2E+0 4 N. Ogr for the Positions of the zeroes 1).18287E.1805 3. Re(d) Im(O) Re(b) Im(D) cPh/c 1 cgr/c.24022E+01 -247 3 4E+0 1 .20 67.50051E+01 .8236E+03 .62135E+01 . 8 4 7 6 E+ 0 4 .33765E+01 .50 6. 8 59 9 WE 6 .65 63.TABLE 3 .23OIE605 .09 64.4704 65.59687E+01 . Qph gr RI 5.14265E-00 .0834 2.07 65. -.36469E-00 .2921 65.16 69.2985 2t2934 2.2 8 67OE-00 -.30 63.12 9.56041E+01 .14989E-00 .46 61.6602E+08 ".35 63.1 7 31E* 0 4 .85 64.3528 2.34871E-00 .24663E-00 .3 8 766E+01 .3 0 3 6 E* 0 3 2.0672 2. 448 9 E+0 8 P.7228 64. .e0 62.4062 3.0288 64. and critical angles nph.

2106 2.0 16.83299E+01 -84558E+0 1 .5 6 237?E00 .46205E-00 .00 22.11250E+02 .o8369E+11 .27 59.97 63.25 16.1602 1.5537Fi4 .84 59.47680E-00 .4 8 984E-00 .97209E+01 .6419 1.9599 1.85819E÷01 .1626 2.2210F11 2.1210E+12 .3001E+10 .2209 212174 1.11122E+0 2 .3929E+10 0.25 22.50 18.89 62.9904 1.88 .24 59.98 62.51273E*00 .00 20.52182E*00 '52636E+00 753089E+00 .1511 2.*1 .1490 1.45737E-00 .80 60.3466E+14 .50 21.75 2 S * ogr cgr/c.9581 62.1 9 73E+1 0 *.17022E+01 .10 63.33 63.00 17.40 60.29 63.9546 1.59 62.00 24. 81 .42424E-00 .40977E-00 .57 59.7 9 16E+11 2.24 63.50 22.1948 2.44327E-00 :44799E-00 .11 8 .122?E+11 0.92137E£01 .10102E+0 2 -10229E+02 .48 63.39508E-00 "400@0E-00 -.25 21.41462E-00 .10867E+02 -10994E+02 ý53541E+00 .64 63.25 19.12 .79529E+O0 18.75 -10612E+0 2 .9553 1.84 .55 59.78275E+01 .88 60.25 17.2 6 E+12 P.n7 2C.34 59.48 59.12 66 9 7E+12 -1343E'13 s2382E.4603E+14 .4212E.2029E+11 .41 59.38 59.1556 2.23 .2740E.9972 1.0090 2.2561 2.29 24.2648 2.75771E*0 1 .2604 2.9808 3.1634E*13 .0109 2.75 .774 63.9 9 750E+01 .85 52.00 16.9609 1.2140 2.8033E41 4 2.2518 2.1 7 9 6F+15 23 9 6 E410 33 5 5E*15 2#1675 2.82041E*01 .13 7 8 E+1 4 .25 23-50 23.39 62.80784E+01 .1203E•12 .0140 63.48 62.1805 j.6 6 5 4E.93404E+01 .7 9 51E+15 .0725 2.f0784E+01 .00 .36 23.2694 2.9677 t.63 62.15 63.9535 62.47i36E-00 .7137E+10 0.1 8 04E*12 9.2009 2.0210 2.95 59.87080E+01 .10 5 8 E+1 4 .3962F+11 9 0.9 8 479E+01 .73 2 74E+01 .50 16.9561 1.13 2.94671E+01 .4067E+13 2.68301E+01 .74522E+01 .9948 1.52 62.14 3 7 9 9 E+14 .1629E.9665 62.18 60.00 23.1751 2.50 20.25 18. RI 15.9690 1.3915E+12 ".8158E+12 *.40490E-00 .2524E.2201 1.38512E-00 .2357 2.34 60.1259E.58 60.43 22.7090E±11 .9703 62.9926 63.72028E+01 .46671E-00 .10357E+02 .2477 2.4688F+.48524E-00 .431 E1 .2740 2.8490E410 .25 2C.9745 1.75 25.1361E+12 2.48062E-00 .10739E+02 .44 7 7 E+1 4 .29 60.53992E+00 .1 8 77£E16 2.38 59.9997 1.1025E*12 6 9 .00 18.0131 2.55341E+00 .1889 1.45269E-00 .54892E+00 .1 2. 2705E+09 ".1918 1.TABLE 3 (Continued) aph 2.27 59.32 59.23 59.0248 2.75 .50 24.75 .49444E-00 .iI cPb/c0 21.43379E-00 .70 59.46 62.21 -.5 4 442E£00 .2787 2.94 62.9590 1.50 21.9572 1.3 9 2 8 E.91 59.06 63.9620 62.135 9 E+1 6 .2245 2.39012E-00 .67 62.2229E*14 .39 59.2 8 4 5 E*1 4 .43 63.316 09 E4133 .69 63.56684E. -.1832 2. 2427E+0 9 O.11378E+02 -11505E+02 .9883 1.55790E+00 .25 15.10484E+02 .30 59.1650 2.50360E+00 .74 59.11633E+02 .2396 2.52 Re(L) Im(G) Im(D) x.9844 63.51728E+00 .4Q903E-00 .41944E.2436 2.91 63.6 7 68F+15 .75 .19 59.0022 63.82 59.9653 1.43854E-00 .01 59.77 59.9826 1.5150E+15 .1051E*14 .4 7 9 7E+14 .65827E+01 .13 60.74 19.0174 2.1700 1.2319 1.1157E+13 P.78 59.36 62.1978 2.30 62.53 63.1 7 7 5E+14 .517 E+11 m.I0 .95939E+01 .7943E+13 .71 59.1 4 .3262E+11 9 .2 4 1 5 E*14 1193E'i5 .1655E*14 2.6749E+13 .9730 1.00 .46 62.75 -9087 1 E+0 1 . -. -.5877E*13 .2065E*10 -. Re(-o) Zero *t2985E.33 62.00 19.9716 62.0 0 17.69542E+01 .1860 2.25 59.3398E+13 6 6 69 E+÷4 2 0 8 8 E+15 2 4 02E+15 4 7 2 9 E*15 .2278E+13 .1182E1il .99 59.56 59.50 17075 .50817E+ 0 0 .88343E+0 1 -88961E+01 .9863 1.00 .2732E+0 9 R.42 59.429Q3E-00 .49 62.67U63E+01 .2073 2.9642 1.85 63.2282 2.62 68.1579 2.1778 2.50 19.75 .23 59.1533 2.9631 1.0078 2.512 E*11 .00 15.74 63.6478E4.57131E*00 .25 24.2536E+0 9 ".50 15.5677E+12 ".68 70.1407E12 .

TABLE 3 (Continued)
Zero

X,

Re(D)

Im(()

5.00
5.?5
5.50
5.75

.71957E+00
.719 4 93 3E+00
.6 6 89 E+00
.6708 E+00

.46338E-00
.41174E-00
*35410E-00
.30084E-00

-. 5967E+01
,5070E*02
".25812E02
,3993E202
0 9
-4 5 6 6 E+022
,±670E.02
-. 4 5 E*0
w,1211iE02

6.9486-64,9295*
7,3496-31,6701*
7# 8 9 12'11.9966'
8,5707"1o.7863*

81,73
82.18
82.72
83.30

6.00
6.25
6.50
6.75

,65004E+00
-6427 7 E+ 0 0
'67647E+00
*T7658E+00

.246 2 0E-00
.1 7 752F-00
.7 9 61 9 E-01
.25152E-01

-"382
1 E+02
-. 2 4 9 2E+02
6 7
-. 2 1 EO02
-. 6274E+02

9,2302-23.1893*
9 723tl3,4861"
9,6087
4.9578
8.6919
2.7582

83.78 *
84.10
*
84.03 78,36
83.39 68.Y4

7.00
7,25
7,50
7.75

.85939E÷00
,9 2 944E+00
999361E+00
-10547E+01

.12958E-01
.8405 2 E-0 2
,61360E-0
2
-48227E-02

.i128E+03
,14377E402
-. 1734E203 v,8830E,0 2
".2421E*03 P,1666E203
-. 3123E+03 0,28 9 7E*03

8,1453
7,8004
7,5482
7,3480

3,P939
3,7323
3,9939
4.1505

82.95
82.63
82.39
82.18

72.33
74.46
75.50
76.C6

3

8.00
8.25
8,50
8.75

,11 1 4 1 E+0 1
*11725E+01
-12304E201
.12881E+01

.39903E-0 2
.3 4 392E- 0 2
.3 0 374E-02
.27542E-02

*.3722E+03
-. 4042E203
-. 3 8 49E+ 0 3
-2 8 22E*03

*t4694E603
*,7164E* 0 3
0:1 0 3 9 E* 0 4
I,1440E*04

7.1807
7,0361
6,9082
6,7932

402443
4,2988
4.3278
4.3394

81.99
81.83
81.68
81.53

76,37
76.55
76,64
76.68

P

9.00

,13456E201
- 1 40 3 3E+0 1
*14611E+01
# 1 5 1 92E+0 1
- 1 5777E+0 1

-25461E"02
.23919E-0 2
;22772E-02
.2 1 927E-02

-. 6032E+02
.3233E203
.9141E*03
" 1 758E+04

0,1916E*04
1,0451E+04
*13018E,04
O,3572F*04

6,6883
6,5916
6,5018
6,4j77

4,3388
4,3293
4.31P9
4,P912

81.40
81.27
81.15
8 .04

76.67
76,64
76.59
76.52

.213

.2895E*04

*,4053E*04

6,3385

4,P651

80.92 76,44

10,50
1C,75

-1
.1
5 E*01
.17554E+01

.2
"206 1E-02
.20432E-02

.4 3 6 0 E+ 0 4
. 6 1 7 1E+0 4
83
27E+04

9,43 8 0 2E 0 4
P,4 4 52E+0 4
0,4154E*04

6,2635
6,1921
6,1238

4.7353
4.?021
4,1660

80.81 76.34
80.71 76.23
80.60 76.11

11.00
11.25
11.50
11.75

-18157E+01
.1 8 766F+01
,19381E+01
-20003E+01

.20352E-02
.2 0 339E-02
.20369E-02
.20420E'02

.1080E+05
.1353E+0 5
.1642E+05
.1933E*05

w,3352E÷04
*,1 9 0 3E* 0 4
,3421E*03
,3533E*04

6,0582
5.9949
5,9336
5,8741

4.1271
4.0855
4.0416
3,9955

80.50
80.60
80.30
80.20

75,98
75.83
75.67
75.51

12.00
12.25
12.50
12.75

"20633E+01
.21270E+01
.21915E+01
922570E+01

.20469F-0 2
.20489E-02
.20452E-02
.20327E-02

.2208E+05
.2 4 45E+05
.2616E*05
.2687E+05

,1808E+04
,1330E*05
,2011E*05
,2833E*05

5.8160
5,7593
5,7038
5,6492

3,9475
3.8979
3.8472
3.7961

80.10
80.00
79.90
79.80

75,33
75.I3
74.93
74.73

13.00
13.25
13.50
13.75

-23233E+01
,23905E.01
.24586E+01
.25275E+01

.20081E-02
:19682F-02
.19101e-02
.18317E-02

.2620E+05
.2370E*05
.1 8 84E+05
'1096E205

.3801O405
,4 9 172E05
,617 9 E405
,7579E* 0 5

5,5956
5,5428
5,4910
5.4401

3.7452
3.6955
3.6481
3.6040

79.71 74,51
79.61 74.30
79.51 74.09
79.41 73,89

14.60
14.25
14.50
14.75

.25973E201
.26678E+01
.27389E+01
.28105E+01

.17318E-02
16199E-02
.14712E-02
.13164E-02

-. 6595E*03
".1YOOE+05
-. 3 9 15E+05
-. 6843E+05

,9101F+05
,I071*06
,1237E+06
,1399E+06

5,3902
5,3415
5,2941
5,2481

3.5646
3.5308
3.5035
3.4835

79.31
79.21
79.11
79.02

R2

S9.25
S9.50
S9.75
-1C.00

S10,25
U

6
365E+01
69 7

1 4E'0 2
0 88
5E- 0 2
9

Re(6)

.

Im(6)

0,3556E*02
eo431 0 E40 2
',2 9 4OE 4 0 2
",2431E*02

cPh/cI

cgr/c,

oph

gr
*
*
*
*

73.71
73.55
73.42
73.32

Because of the strong anomalous dispersion these negative group velocities have no physical
significance.
82

TABLE 3 (Continued)
cgr

Re(D)

Im(D)

cPh/cl

cgr/el

Oph

-.
-.
-.
-.

1064E+06
6
1546E+0
6
2150E+0
8
6
2 90E+0

,1546E*06
9
F+06
,165
,1715E+06
0
1678E+ 6

5,2039
5,1605
5,1211
5,0828

3.4712
3.4665
3.4693
3.4789

78.92
78.83
78.74
78.65

.51694E-03
0
8
.3 936E- 3
.28034E"03
.19066E-03

-.
-.
-.
-.

3779E+06
8
4
6
4 2 E+0
6
0
9
6 1 E10
6
7343E+0

,1503E÷06
0 6
11132E+
0
9 8
,4 3 E4 6
a,4960F÷06

5,0467
5,0127
4,9809
4,9513

3,4947
3.5159
3.5415
3.5707

78.57 73.37
78.49 73.48
78.42 73.60
78.35 73,74

.34527E101
5
7
.3 21 E+01
.35902E+01
9
.3657 E+01

.12083F-03
0
.67480E4
.31188E-04
9
. 5591E-05

-.
-.
-.
-.

8750E+06
0 7
7
1 1 E+0
8
0 7
114 E+
7
1254E+0

Pt19341+06
9
6
0 6
,,3
2 E1
5
9
0 6
D,6
7 E1
0
7
*,OO EO0

4,9237
4,8982
4,8744
4,8525

3,6017
3.6365
3.6717
3.7074

78.28
78.22
78.16
78.11

73,88
74.04
74.20
74.35

18,25
18.50
18.75

,37250E+01
7
.3 915E+01
8
.3 573E101
,39226E+01

;53403F-06
.22321E-05
.12870E-04
0
.30850E4

-.
-.
-.
-.

1314E+07
3
1 01E+07
8
7
11 5E+0
9288E+06

-,i427E÷07
5
0 7
w,±94 E1
0 7
4,2355E5
0
P,3251E+ 7

4,8322
4.8134
4.7960
4.7800

3,7432
3,7786
3,8133
3,P469

78.06
78.01
77.97
77.92

74,51
74,65
74.80
74.93

19.Ou
i.25
9.50

.39873E+01
.40515E+01
.•1152E+01

.54810E-04
.83580E-04
.11623E-03

-. 4 04E+06
.j746E+06
.11÷E+07

S19.75

.417851Eu1

.15203F-03

.2364E+07

",4019E+ 7
,v4832E,07
0,5650E+07
7
0,6416E+0

4,7651
4,7513
4,7385
4,7266

3,8791
3.9096
3.9384
3.9653

77.89
77.85
77.82
77.79

75.C6
75.18
75.29
75,39

i19040E-03
.23097E-03
.27349E-03
.31785E-03

.3971E*07
9
7
.5 57E÷0 7
.8337E+0
8
.1110iE0

-,1060E+07
R,7490E+07
8 9
0 7
",75 E+
0 7
ot7247E÷

4,7155

'20.50
0 20.75

.42413E+01
.43038E+01
.43659E101
.44278E+01

4,7052
496955
4,6863

3.9901
4.0127
4.n330
4.0510

77.76
77.73
77.70
77.68

75.49
75.57
75.64
75.71

21.00
21.25
121,50
21.75

.44893F+n1
.45507E÷01
.46 1 1 9E+0 1
.46730E+01

.36498E-03
:41226E,03
.46264E-03
0
3
.51553E-

.1422E+08
.1754E,08
.2098E+08
8
7
.24
3E*0

",6286E+07
*,4616E+07
*,00411÷07
1474E*07

4,6777
4,6696
4,6618
4,6544

4,0665
4,0796
4,0901
4.0981

77.66 75.76
77.63 75.81
77.61 75.85
77.59 75.88

22.00
22.25
22.50
22.75

.47339E+01
.47948E+01
,48557E+01
.49166F÷01

.57133F-03
.63053E-03
.693618-03
7
7 6163E-03

.2800E+08
.3068E*08
.3265E+08
.3346E+08

5845E#07
t1263E*08
2011&E08
*2903E*08

4,6473
4,6404
4,6337
4,6272

4,1033
4.1058
4.1054
4.1021

77.57
77.56
77.54
77.52

75.89
75.90
75.90
75.89

23.00
23.25
23.50
23.75

.49776E+01
.50387E+01
.51000.+01
,51614E+01

.83589E-03
.91650E-03
.10042E-02
.11009E-02

.3244E+08
9 8
8
.2
2E*0
.2456E*08
.1496E÷08

o3917EF08
,5070E+08
,6289E+08
,7541E+08

4,6207
4,6143
4,6079
4,6014

4,0957
4.0861
4.0734
4.0573

77,50
77.48
77.47
77.45

75.87
75.83
75.79
75.73

24.00
24.25
24.50
24.75
25.00

.52232E+01
.52853E+01
.53478E+01
.54107E+01
.54741F+01

;12089E-02
.13290E-02
4
.1 632E-02
:16125E-02
.17839E-02

.4614E+07
1149E+08
8
3152E+0
5637E+08
7
8
8 42E+0

,8866E+08
,1014E÷09
-1135E+09
9 6 4 0 9
,11
E
,1299F*09

4,5949
4,5882
4,5814
4,5743
4,5669

4.n375
4.Oj41
3.9870
3,9561
3.9234

77.43 75.66
77.41 75.57
77.39 75.47
77.37 75.36
77.35 75.23

Re(u)

Im(1)

Zero

x,

R2

15.00
15,25
15.50
15.75

.28825E101
.29546E+01
.30267E+01
.30981E+01

.11519E-02
0
.98378E3
.81823E-03
'66104E-03

1.6.00
16.25
16.50
16.7b

-31704E+0 1
.32418Eý01
-33126E+01
.33829E101

17.00
17.25
17.50
17.75
18.00

o
a
N

S20.00
S 2C.25

9

-.
-.
-.
-.

83

0

73,26
73.23
73,25
73.29

TABLE 3 (Continued)
Zero

X,

Fl

5.00
5.25
5.50
5.75

.56779E+01
.59
4 15E+01
6
, 6 204
E+01
.64675E+01

6.00
6.-5
6.50
6.75

Re(v)

Re(D)

IM(6)

cph/c,

cgr/cl

.11755E+01
.1190 2 E+01
.12045E+01
.12183E+01

.5210E+05
.1093E+06
.2 2 5 2E+06
.4562E*06

,1846E*06
t3764E*06
, 7 5 6 8E*0 6
,15O5E*07

0,8806
60,8836
0,8864
0,8891

0.9479
0.9493
0.9506
0.9518

:67300E+01
.69922E+01
.72541E÷0 1
. 7 515 8 E+01

*12317E+01
U12447E+01
. 1 2573E÷0 1
.126 9 6E÷01

.9105E+06
.1793E*07
.3492E*07
.6 7 1 9 E+O0

#2949E407
,572SE407
11102E*08
2 0 9 9 E* 0 8

9,8915
0,8939
0,8960
U,8981

0.9529
0.9539
0.9549
0.9558

7.00
7.25
7.50
7.75

.77772E+01
:80384E+01
.82994E+01
.85602E+01

.12815E+01
.12932E*01
.13045E+01
:13156E+01

.1281E*08
.2415E+08
.4520E+08
.8390E*08

3968E008
7436E408
t1384E09
o2559E*09

0,9001
0,9019
0,907
0,9054

0,956?
0.9575
0,9583
0.9591

*

*

8,60
8.25
8.50
8,75

,88207E+01
.90811E÷01
,93413E+01
,96014E+01

.13264E*01
.13370E+01
:13474E÷01
.13575E+01

.1544E+09
.2828E+0 9
.5142E*09
.9306E÷09

,4701E*09
.8577E÷0 9
,j557E+J0
,#809E*10

0,9070
0,9085
0,9099
0,9113

0,9598
0.9605
0.9611
0.9617

*

4


*

*
*

4

4

9.00

.98612E+01
- 1 0 1 2 1 E+0 2
,10381E*02
.10640E+0 2

713674E*01
: 1 377 1 E+01
-13866E+01
.13960E+01

.1674E÷10
.2979E+10
.52 9 1E÷10
.9358E+10

,5047E'10
,906 1 9E*
1 O
,1 0 6 E1.1
,2845E411

0.9127
0.9139
0,9152
0,9164

0.9623
0,9629
0.9634
0,9639

*

S9.25

10.75

910899E+02
.11158E+0 2
. 1 1 4 1 7E+0 2
"11676E+02

.14051E*0 1
.14141E+01
. 1 44 2 29E*01
.1 316E+01

.1647E*11
.2903E+11t
"504YE+11

5017E+11
88W7E11
#1 6543E*
2
@879E+11
2 9 3 E4 112

0.9175
1,9186
8,9696
0,9207

11.00
11.25
11.50
i1.75

,11935E÷0 2
.12194E+02
:12452E+0 2
.127 1 1E+0 2

.14491E+01
.14485E*01
;14567E+01
.14649E*0 1

.1529E+12
.2629E÷12
.4529E412
.7786E+12

t4684E612
,S100E*12
o1401E413
#2412E,13

12.00
12.25
12.50
12.75

.12969E+02
.13227E+02
.13486E+02
.13744E+02

.14728E+01
.14807E÷01
:14884E+01
.14960E÷01

.1329E+13
.2252E513
.3840E-13
.6515E.13

13.00
13.25
13.50
13.75

.14002E÷02
.14260E+02
,14517E502
.14775E+02

:15035E÷01
:15189E+01
.15182F+01
:15254E+01

14.00
14.25
14.50
14,75

.15033E+02
.15290E+02
.15548E+02
.15805E+02

.15325E+01
.15395E+01
.15464E+01
.15532E+01

-'

W
N

9.50
9.75

10.00
10.25

"10.50

Im(O)

0

ph

egr

*

*



*

*

*

4

4

4

0.9644
0,9649
0.9654
0.9658

4

*

0,9217
6,9226
0,9235
0 9244

,414YE+13
,7095E.13
,1215E*14
,2065F÷14

.1096E+14
.1872E÷16
.3167E*14
.5287E514
.87475E14
.14775E15
.2470E515
.4115E+15

4

4

4

4
4

0.9662
0.9667?
0,9671
0,9674

4

4

0,9253
1.9261
0,9269
0,9277

0.9678
0.9682
0.9685
0.9689

4

4

4

4

4

3526E*14
o5955E*14
1003E515
.1704E*15

0,9285
0,9292
0,9299
0,9306

0.9692
0.9695
0.9698
0.9701






92865E÷15
4825E+15
8080E015
1356E+16

0,9313
0.9320
0,9326
0,9332

0.9704
0.9707
0.9710
0.9713





4
4

4

Because all Franz zeroes have cph< cgr< c, the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical angles
fails.
84

201726÷02 .6363E+23 0.1657(E÷02 .9773 * 23.2014E+20 .25 .75 .3764E+17 7 9 .25 .16737E+01 Zero x1 Fl 15.55476+21 .1249E1 2 * * * * 4 * * * * * * P 2C.5871E623 .13476÷2± .00 17.23 o39631623 .16346E+01 .9740 * .9760 0.25 16.18633E÷02 .9427 0.00 .3464E+21 3334E+21 15396F÷21 .9755 0.20429E+02 .1213E+19 19.24 1163TE424 62622E.9477 0.9734 0.24 -4198E÷24 6717E*24 009489 0.15731E+01 :15796E+01 .9471 0.00 16.161981E01 .9761 * * * • .9718 0.50 21.19403E+02 .17052E+01 .22734E+02 .9771 0.25 15.50 22.3673F422 .5 71E÷1 .00 23.19916E+02 .9778 * 4 * * * * * 4 0.9753 0.9446 * 20-.16834E+02 .21710E+0 .25037E+02 .17091E+02 .9727 0.1478E+24 102i6.9720 0.9723 * * 16.9498 0.24781F+02 .75 .9736 0.17301E+01 '.17678E601 '.52206+20 0269E+21 .TABLE 3 (Continued) Im(u) Re(5) Im(5) cph/ck egr/c.25 23.01 716047E+01 .9467 0.9744 0.4756 * * .17445E÷01 .9361 6.75 P o S19.1776E.50 24.14106.75 9 20.16 .16228E+01 .9474 0.22990E+02 .9486 24.50 16.9780 0.17723E+01 .2057F421 0.83906E20 .8456E.1600E+18 o1296E'18 .15599E+01 .9715 0.25 22.1330E+17 7 .00 22.17632E+01 .6753E+15 .9480 0.9483 0.9454 0.17862E+02 .19659E+02 .5919E*22 .16683E+01 .15986E.01 .75 .9344 9.3550E+18 .252926402 .9748 * * 4 4 * * 4 * .17539E+01 .9356 0.5752.22 0.20 0.9758 0.20685E+02 .20941E+02 .7986E*17 0.t6 .9732 * * * * 0.9510E*18 9 .16949E101 .00 21.2282E+1 0737E+i7 f?895E+17 94777E4±7 .9777 0.15860E+01 .25548E+02 .25804E+02 .9750 0.3068E+16 2266E.9500 Because all fails.17350E+01 .9495 0.9350 0.17492E+01 .9392 0.9746 0.50 S 19.1*8 18.8727E+21 .17203F÷01 .9730 0.00 24.9319E+23 .8875E÷21 .17586E+01 .3783E16 6267E*16 1042E+17 0.15923E+01 .16 .9767 * * * 4 * * 22.9387 0.16791E*01 .9338 0.18J5E20 .9775 0.9763 0.16573E+01 "166281*01 .16844E601 .16493E601 .3244E+20 .75 21.9457 0.4791E+19 .75 .6928E+18 . cph .9377 17.9766 0.25 18.16461E+01 .16063E+02 .9406 0.9401 0. 4 4 * * * 0.7741E÷19 0 .3616E622 .17183E+01 .00 18.9367 0.1114E*20 18i61E20 2957E+20 4810E.17768E601 .1462E623 1534E*23 t?467E.4262E÷18 .156?E*i 926036.3697E425 .9751 0.1ilOE+i6 .50 23.94j0 0.50 2C.1459E÷22 .23758E÷02 .686841*9 .17398E+01 .2962E+19 .9774 0.16320E+02 .9779 0.51566.75 25.23246E+02 .21 .9769 0.9978E617 .18890E+02 .25 24.26059E+02 .277F+22 .15666E+01 .23502E+02 .25 21.9439 0.240)14E+02 .219666+02 0.2326E*425 .75 .2161E.9742 0.00 Re(u) -211986-02 0 gr * * * * * 0.19146E*02 .9184E*22 .75 .9372 0.16287E+01 .9450 0.9409 0.00 15.4132E*i9 0.22222E602 .9738 0.9435 0.22478E+02 .9461 0.9784 * * * 4 4 4 * * 4 Franz zeroes have cPh< cgr< c.9431 0.50 15.50 17.00 19.50 18.9464 0.16897E.9725 0.5765E+22 .9782 0.9764 0.17153E+01 .2129E618 .9397 0.16517E101 .9770 0.19 .2779E÷18 .9415 0. the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical 85 * * angles .24525E+02 .25 17.19 .9382 0.17252E+01 .26315E602 .2266E+22 .16169E+01 .9423 0.18119E+02 #18376E+02 .17349E+02 .17001E601 .24270E+02 .9492 0.21454E÷02 .9533E+22 0.9443 0.P783 0.17606E+02 .1839E+16 .

2 047E+09 9 8 9 .440 5E+01 . .9237E.6724E+09 .9627Ee07 0.85 6 3 8E+0 1 "88457E+01 .3 6 E+0 .7675 -11352E÷02 . * * 4 * * * * * 4 0.0145E.8030 0.467541+01 .7911 0.50 7.25 13.1 3 E1 13077E411 07241E+11 5 8 9 4 01 E 12 0.3 881E+01 .9612E+13 i3335E* 1 2 t6778E+12 o1344E1i3 p616F'13 0.17869E+0 .4890E+14 .1122E+10 *.1768E414 .00 P.8222 0.1660E~14 8 .9011 0.8856 0.8914E*16 .45012E.7961 0.50 6.8238 14.75 *9407 1 E+0 1 '96867E+01 .44553E+01 .7885 0.00 S10.1930E416 .3268E+14 0.71 4 0 3 E+01 .1735E+11 .8254 Zero x.13817E+0 2 .75 .5750E+11 '.3186E+i3 .12177E10 2 .2616E+08 .12 3E*0 .25 7.8073 0.7565 0.49510E+01 .08 0.8093 0. 1 822E-13 .9134 0.79974E+01 .41564E+01 . 6.6056E+16 .5007E+13 19458E413 .25 5.17128E+01 .54215E+01 .75 .2 54E14 .40458E+01 .2 25E+1 w.15985E÷02 . cgr/c.9244 0.7830 0.1427lE401 .147TE*17 .9302 14.7858 0.75 .4070E+15 .00 11.8951 0.9079 .5260E+08 0-3461E+07 8 ".111 E+ 0.9107 0.7740 0.16525E+02 .7298 0.12999E+02 .157E+11 0.8170 0.10 5 22E÷02 .11627E+02 .4590 1 E÷01 .13545E+0 2 .7131 0.53279E+01 .455 E+ .9262 0.52959E+01 .9430E+10 *.14089E+02 .9093 0.7526 0.49878E*01 .9205 0.9294 0.25 .8151 0.8347E+14 .7708 .8113 0.42610E+01 .8205 0.1090E4i5 11968E115 3529E~i5 0.7441 0.7615E+09 0.45461E+01 .TABLE 3 (Continued) Re(•) Im(.50 .50 5.15445E+02 .3789F.75 .p799 .13 2 72E*0 2 .2408E+15 .0 1 .2441E17 .3315E112 .9183 0.7190 0.50240E+01 .99657E+0 1 -10 2 44E+0 2 .41019E+01 .51975E+01 .54519E+01 .9147T 0.1152E116 . F2 8.3169E+11 0.9309 4 4 0.1037E+12 .75 .8992 8.11076E+02 ".1190F408 '.9078 -11902E+0 2 .49136E801 .75 . Oph gr 5.5546E113 .08 *.50597E+01 .82811E+01 .8906 * * 7.00 6-25 6.17063E+02 .7348 0.7245 0.89299 0.50 1C.5089E110 .9270 0.53595E01 :53907E+01 .25 0 U Because all 2 Franz zeroes have cph< cgr< cI the simple geometrical fails.8828 0.7772 0.1 27 2 5E+0 2 .75 . 86 * 4 4 .46332E101 0.7937 0.14904E+0 2 .8187 0.9316 * interpretation of real critical angles .00 7.7603 0.7985 0.12451E+02 :47576E+01 . * * .15715E+02 .52635E+01 .47976E+01 8 .16255E+02 .5367E+16 16297E+15 o1117E#16 t1972E1i6 o3463E*16 0.55118E101 .5880E+12 0 8 3 .50949E101 :51296E+01 .6189E+07 8 8 .14361E+02 "146 3 2E+0 2 .15174E+02 .4209 4 E+01 .52307E+01 .47169E+01 .7003 0.6558E*08 0 0 9 *.16794E+02 .9234 0.10799E+0 2 .8008 0.8882 0.9194 0.1420E*15 . * * 4 * 4 4 4 * * 4 4 * 4 * * * 4 4 * * * 4 4 * * 4 0.17601E÷02 .3242E*10 0.9171 11.50 8.92P5 0. 1 447E+10 *.7484 0.8132 0. .25 11.9046 * * 0.7396 0.9121 1C.8733 0.8052 0.25 P0 S9.j859E512 .75 S9.9062 * * * * 4 * * * * 0 4 1 C.9253 13.8767 0.1044E+09 .54820E+01 .1834F+09 0.00 14.7802 0.4024E+17 3164E+17 0.436g5E+0• 8 .9278 0.1830E+17 0.9215 * 12.8972 0.75 .09 0.43114E+01 .64 11E07 v.4 369E+01 .6858E+15 .7640 .48756E+.50 9.8699 0.IOj6E~jO * .5990E1i4 .50 13.3222E*16 .91 2 68E*01 .01 .1055E*17 0.25 .00 13.9286 14.7069 0.00 5.17332E*02 .39 2 84E+01 9 .00 9.0) Re(L) IM(D) cPh/c.9160 0.51637E+01 .50 11. 2 943E+09 7 0 7 0 9 .00 12?25 12.50 12.

50 19.8674 0.8659 0.50 16.27956E+02 *28219E*02 .9446 4 * 0.9415 * * 19.2003E423 .9497 0.25 .59977E+01 .7919E+22 .22671E+02 .1346E+22 t1695E+22 #2762E+22 20.8410 0.8357 0.60951E+01 .9429 $4 r 2C-00 20.1776E+18 .3282E+22 .5798E+19 P6384E*19 0.8286 0.8533 0.8270 0.1578E*25 p549E+25 0.9487T 0.J225E+23 .50 18.8446 0.22140E*02 4 06E+1 9 0 0 cph •gr 4 * * * 4 * * * * * 0.9424 0.20543E+02 .20 0.00 07-25 .9337 0.21 0.8502 0.8512 0.456TE+22 T48TE+22 0.3450E÷20 0 .18405E+02 .1067EF26 .75 .24 .9433 0.8422 0.61660E+01 .8572 0.00 21.4112E+25 9 .75 . 87 4 4 4 * * * 4 * * * 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 * 4 4 4 4 4 4 * * * 4 4 4 4 4 4 angles .8697 0.3466E+21 .8301 8.9400 0.3251E+19 9 .2733E.8682 0.75 .9350 0.8523 0.2505iE+02 .64552E+01 .3252E÷25 .20 .19476E+02 .50 22.7647E+24 .8384 0.1 2 E'2 23.50 24.8626 0.75 25.23201E+02 .9450 0.25583E+02 .25 .22405E+02 .8 1071E*20 17.28745E+02 .6769E*23 0 8 4 .9507 gr< c.3270E+23 .21076E+02 .9454 0.5187E*24 i6028E424 o9758E.23466E*02 .17 0.5498E+2 0 .8617 0.63909E*01 .5236E+1 .9410 4 * 4 * 4 4 S o 19.19743E+02 .64764E+01 :64974E.17TTE*26 .9385 * 4 91791E.2336E+24 .9462 8680E+23 o1412E.8469 0.9420 * 4 N 19.75 .9330 15.9355E.1085E+18 15447E*17 .2195E+21 3774E+21 0.75 -22936E+02 .25 18.64339E+01 .2161E+2 .61189E+01 .61893E+01 762124E+01 .25 16.1888E+23 .9504 0.8330 0.24 .p760E+26 0.75 #23996E+02 .9323 0.9405 0.9494 0.2012Ee19 .8562 0.8667 0.59477E+01 .24261E+02 .50 21.55703E+01 .18137E+02 .8590 0.9442 0.299.63473E-01 '63692E÷01 .59728E+01 .20010E+02 .662 E*25 .8344 0.65182E+01 S 0 0 o Because all Franz zeroes have cPh< 4 4 4 * 0.20277E+02 .00 24.25847E÷0 2 -26111Ee0 2 .56836E*01 .1349E+2 18.57655E+01 .2311E.50 .4439E423 .5461E+2i i6234E*21 1028E+22 0.9473 0.9477 .8480 0.8642 0.18941E+02 .9470 0.23731E+02 .1225E+23 .2293E*24 7 5 20E424 0.8543 0.00 16.00 15.8553 21.8600 0.00 .9466 0.1387E+21 2281E421 0.58451E*01 .25 .2899E+18 u1601E*18 .60710E+01 .1377E.9374 0.6614E+17 .5106E+22 .75 .50 23.58T11E+01 :58969E+01 .9651 0.9438 0.75 .28482E+0 2 .25 21.9343 16.9484 0.19 2 08E+0 2 .55412E+01 .8290E+20 .8434 0.18 0.64125E+01 24.TABLE 3 (Continued) x.8315 0.It18E'25 .01 :60468E+01 .63252E+01 . 15.18673E+02 .2104E+22 .25319E+02 .00 23.60224E.9395 0.21342E+02 121608E+0 2 421874E+02 .5331E+23 22.R581 0.8458 0.2900E+23 .9500 0.1244E*1 .8690 0.01 .57385E+01 .9480 0.8741E+2 .1617E*25 .26638E+0 2 -26902E+02 -27166E+0 2 -27 4 2 9E+0 2 .3492E+24 .9491 .50 15.55991E+01 .8397 17.00 .61426E+01 .9362 0.00 22.9379 * 4 * * 0.26375E+02 :62580E+01 .8491 0. the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical fails. Zero F2 Re(1>) Im(u) Re(6) Im(D) cPh/c 1 cgr/c.8608 0.59224E+01 .4652E+18 8 9 7 8 E418 1335E.25 .50 2C.25 24.4721E+18 8 6 7 .27693E÷02 .4984E.57112E+01 .19 225*E+19 0.9390 .62353E+01 .155E+24 .25 23.20810E+02 .9458 0.25 22.9356 0.58188E÷01 .8371 0.75 .2479CE+02 .62806E+01 "63030E+0 1 .9368 17.56275E+01 .00 18.8582E+21 .24526E*02 .7 5E+1 9 .E*20 .8634 0.56557E+01 .57923E+01 .

1892E*06 2.21 54. 2164E*07 .51 58.5714 2.5670E406 8 0 -.9487 2.41298E+01 i 1 5228E"00 :15283E-00 0 .25 6.8005 2.23 62.39513E+01 . 0 0 0 0 0 0 .22 67.8398 2.8635E÷0 2.4581JE+01 .0563 2.64 59. 6 0E*0 s5688E.421951-C1 '43094E*01 .00 7.67940E+01 .00 11.7238 59.3111EO0 0 .46724E+01 7 .50 13.i15748E-00 9 .4 14E*05 8 .17942E-00 8 0 0 .06 #3115E*06 8 8 6 03 11E0 7 0 6 .12 65.73 61.25 5.7453 2.25 8.57 66.1405 2.71 66.40 68.0451 2.6518 61.15431E-00 .34 69.25 11.12 68. R2 and the first two Franz zeroes Fl.454 E* 6 7 6 -. derivatives 6(D).3 .23313E-00 .01 69.9435E* 6 99967E406 .8082 2.90 68.6124 67.75 .55 59.15630E-00 .8498 2.31 66.1587 E-00 .49 69.46 56.36852E+01 .53219E+01 .00 .8348 1. 4943Ed07 -.1042 2.0 .58962E+01 .151 E1 5 0 0 6 . 1270E+07 *.57992E+0 1 .151 E.1 231E. C.37737E+01 7.25 13.83 59.50 7.6258 2.5853 2.40 57.66 68.6645 60.75 .64 0 .1124 2.15 62.0669 2.6397E*05 .5574 61.1 cph/c. -.75 .2394E+07 0.22751E-00 .4 08E*05 9 .90 11. 413E007 .4999 62.55 2E*05 .50 .33331E+01 9 . 7 E*0 .6?83E05 7 0 5 . egr for the first two Rayleigh zeroes RI.4 44E1 2.37 .53 69.56068E+01 . F2 for aluminum shell: b/a=.gr iE+03 0 E+ 3 4E+04 9 4 E+0 o.8124 1.142 E*0 1.4702 2.q7 68.5 3E* 3 7 8 7 5 0 &.7347 2.8562 1.27 66. 3391E+07 . .7125 60.20358E-00 .52 62.1 412E- .46 69.2452E.1521 2.9433 2.31579E+01 *32454E101 .D) Re(D) Im(D) Re(v) Zero 0 6 9 0 7 0 0 cgr/c.6177 1.7838 2.73 60.1341 2.9646 1.6809 2.75 .19206E-00 .46 9.i 2 E+ 4 8 9 0 ". 1C.75 .82 52.70 53.7748 2.00 6.0866 2. -.9941 2. 93 1E* -.76 81* 6 6 .25 9.38 62.7376 1.1465 2.50 6.80 69.3263E*05 0 .1574 2.86 55.24 61.5833 1. RI 5.55114E+01 .15350E.16944E"00 7 .TABLE 4 Positions of the zeroes 1.8592 2.66918E+01 .15 1 40E:00 0 0 15141E' .34 60.83 51.008E*07 #9567E+06 2.8449 50.00 5.15152E- 6.19953E-00 -.75 0 Im.80 S9.30 69.0209 2.9797 1.Y26TE4 4 1.6769 2.2 E*05 P.161jE+04 8 8 0 .6 3E*05 .5 2 E+ "8116E104 :.21716E-00 -.0957 2.00 13.86 67.02 8.37 61.i 6 .4395 62.07 j8197E+06 -.61 61.8960 1.5145 2.A222 54.9J44 1.1 171E-00 7 0 0 .61903E+01 '62894E+01 '63891E+01 .15186E-00 .51 56.1636 E 6 -.50 10.1677E*07 -.49 12.08 69.36 67.9320 1.59937E+01 .49 69.51342E+01 9 -5227 E+01 063E*05 529E*05 6 0 -.63 67.54 60.525OE* 43 .8766 2.7010 2.1200 2.7580E*05 0 6 .0078 2.15219E7 8 .1t 61.7924 56. 2735E.50 5.48559E+01 :16535E-00 .6891 2.1710 2.25 14.1055E* 9 6 . X.00 12.20786E-00 .88 68.1272 2.42 .3596 E+01 .50.2 E+0 5 8 9 .00 14.97 57.75 .21238E-00 .52 3E* 5 j. and critical angles Qph.6 8 64E+ 7 .5989 2.13 68.06 .19 69.3874E*07 x.7100 1.0333 2.50 8. 1 2 E+05 8 7 8 5 -.07 2.6501 1.4851 2.40404E+01 .75 .1668 2.1123E+05 9 0 5 .60917E÷01 . 2 11E1 7 0 6 ".16732E-00 .00 8.4 640E+01 :16023E'00 :16180E00 :16351E-00 . velocity ratios cph/c:.95 68. cgr/ 1 .18538E-00 8 0 9 6 9 5 2 6 0 6 5811E+07 7 6 06E+07 7587E+07 8392E*07 88 0 *.4318E+06 2.14 69.72 9.8545 2.57028E+01 .50 12.9472E*03 0 .7555 58.42 14.96 .22219E-00 .17669E-00 -.5771iE07 68. aph .8343 2.15275E. 0 6 E1 3 Di 4 E+04 0 OI331E* 4 1.06 67. -.j7 58.=l.27 68.8154 2.7638 1. 1 5524E-00 .23906E-00 -. 4 9 4 83E+01 '504 1 1 E+0 1 .6389 2.50 11.4550 2.75 .15157E'00 .45 62.75 *64894E+0 1 . 1682E*06 9 0 6 -.7654 2.5548E*05 8 0 .38 69.7887 2.96 65.85 61.00 S1C25 .74 67.i 863E-00 .1266E+07 -.06 62. 2.5290 2.66894E*06 8 0 .65903E+01 .2623E+04 9 8 0 4 3 2 E+ 7 0 0 4 .1 j1* 4 Po1663E*04 1.19569E-00 .3420 E+01 .1357E*05 -22701E05 .50 14.54164E+01 .0770 2.85 66.50 67.57 66.25 12. ps=p.PO 68.25 "386 2 4E+01 .35088E+0 1 9 .1623 2.8285 2.25 7.43997E01 944903E+01 .98 13.96 66.

1964 2.53154E+00 .1604 2.54544E+00 .85389E+01 .11513E202 .3810.6522E808 '.807982÷01 .1530 2.89 62.74 63.5315E+07 0.85 62.4243E411 2.9989 2.116386+02 .8191E*09 .51905÷E00 :52297E+00 :52715E*00 . -.0341 62.1749 2.3330E+09 19. 9040E207 1.20262*09 03362F409 .6 60.75 61.28 65.0 58.1482 1.1926 2.6331e.09 .1759 2.99 63.1253E*10 .4 62.27388E-00 .28196E-00 .99958E+01 .7849E+08 .62042.00 22.50 24.92 62.157T7*10 .327662-00 .2946E*08 -.25 15-50 15.42723E-00 .0041 2.j021I409 2.76 65.1785 2.86562E+01 .2055E+09 0.39862E"00 .75 25.19 60.50 .2598 2.33764E-00 .55 21.68 64.92557E÷01 .48 60.47716E-00 .72094E+01 .00 21.1821 2.50 22.79 59.00 16.79 62..25 18.25886E-00 .1793E+08 2.1896 2.112632÷02 -11388E+02 .25 16.264iE*09 .31S1F408 .84226E+01 Im(D) S18.0114 2.1633*+10 .11442*10 .67 62.TABLE 4 (Continued) Re(1) cPh/ce cgr/c.0650 2.10762E+02 .1847 2.428O0108 2.40839E-00 .68968E÷01 .75 .70 62.51155E+00 .3910 2.43 62.1860 2.3583E*08 .8959 1.09 -. 94153E07 '.66602*08 2.71821*08 2.436252-00 644499E-00 .37852E-00 o 19.1965 2.9867 62.50 23.61 62.C4 1 20.1462E210 .24531E-00 .88 61.46 65.35802E-00 :36829E-00 .50 16.55035E÷00 -.51 62.4237 P.90 24.63 62.00 17.00 S20.54069E+00 .2391 2.72 62.43 62.41794E-00 .17 59.02 .11013E+02 .3084iE-00 .2801 2.7663E*08 . 8740E+07 mq806E+08 2.1397E210 .92 62.89 62.91 62.1371E*08 .00 -11138E+02 .1817 2.87745E÷01 .92 63.26 59.29042E-00 .3740 62. 22702*10 -.00 S19.8522E208 x.58 62.1841 2.96235E÷01 .1939 2.0868 1.38864E-00 .3382 2.-4 60.P380E+08 -.90136E+01 .32 62.10 .97472E+01 '98713E÷01 .75289E÷01 76372E+01 .75 .150 19.0036 2.9900 1. 7277E+07 '.11542*10 .67 62.75 #10636E+02 .3194 2.60 18.75 .40 62.50 21.37 59.14 6@48j4F408 '.25191E-00 .1716 2.23 w.25 .0182 2.34779E-00 .18402+09 -.*10 .72 62.75 .0537 2.40 62.87 64.0776 62.23 S20.10246E.4076 2.75 .5076TE+00 .79762E+0 2. -.0913 2.25 17.75 -91343E+01 .46 64.1564E*09 0. 2273F211 .1514 2.1946 2.74782*09 .1225 2.9010 1.7626F*08 .11082.2511E+08 .42 60.81930E+01 .4031E+08 .1565 1.49252*10 .90 61.1896 2.28 62.25 22.1958 2.75 .1738 2.5784E408 -.1547 2.93777+01 *95004E÷01 .3803E+11 .27022+10 2.1400 62.1171E+0 9 0.87 61.49862E-00 . 9381E*07 ".1778 2.0257 2. aph gr -.?8 59.73151E+01 .00 24.46162E-00 .C9 12.30 60.1979 2.78 62.F6 60.9941 62.92 62. 4434+1i0 9966E*10 f287E*il 1525E11 118708+11 2.14216E+01 .78 23.50 17.9876 1.1932 2•3564 2. 471E*.0052 62.41572*09 .75 988936E+01 .83 59.25 24.104TE+10 .1911 2.64 60.9997 1.3001 62.50 75686E+10 1195E211 1790E+11 2585E211 3806E+11 89 .13722+10 .92 62.45344E-00 .07 -.1498 2.25 23.5027E*08 0.27322*11 3244F+11 .60012408 18.209SE410 .21 .30 62.1956 2.1968 2.46 62. 6522E+06 .85 61.700031÷01 971045E+01 .0022 62. RI 15.1970 2.108882+02 .8151E07 -. 83182*09 -.10510E+02 '49170E-00 .00 15.68 62.10121E+02 .1969 2.1873 2.10384E202 .82 62.08 -.1801 2.0026 p.04 60.1646 1.35 62.1063 62.1625 2.46952E-00 .91 62.26 58.82 62.120IE+10 .63 65.796762E01 .00 .2184 62.t463E+08 -.8619E209 .66 Re(D) Im(v) Zero x.70 60.29924E-00 17.25 21.07 60.98 60.774632÷01 78564E+01 .31790E-00 .534 9 FE 0 9 .1950 2.26618E-00 16.83072E+01 .47 63.5123E+09 .1667 2.00 23. -.1780 2.89 64.51529E+00 .484552-00 .8791F*09 2.1878 2.80 62.25 20.0434 2.1584 2.1585 2. -.536672.1915 2.

2685 2.9675E*02 -.0560 3.8930 3.19 76.50 14.22 8 51E+01 "23653E+01 .4 7 06E*04 O.1566 5.00 14.0091 2. 1068E+03 .98 61.8866 1.0 1 -.25 5.6525E+05 .8893E+05 .2031E*04 ".3670F+06 5.3335 4.72 53.50 13.25760E-02 11591E-02 :33643E-03 :12190E.3148 5.16288E+01 .34259E÷01 .8697 3.9274 P.9406 3.13747E"01 .87 71.59 -.30 75.8032 2.28117E-01 .93 74.25 71. 5 71E+02 .9116 4.6964 1.9650 3.3762 4.72 s1011Ee02 .91 69.65 85.6543 2.C6 71.0952 3.13 E*02 0 -.4922E.0216 75.1259 3. -.4782E+06 .n816 3. •ph ogr 17.1432E403 -.41 71.1175E404 9 -.11370E-01 .n966 77.8144 4.35395E.4 4 64 63E+ 0 1 -.31449E-01 .7205E÷05 o.50 -20433E+01 .6370 2.37695E301 .49522F-01 .83 81.2937 4.26059E+01 .2814 7.3 6 10E+05 4.02 74.11909E-01 .11702.49 75.50 12.54222E-01 . 7 24 7 E+ 0 2 .22047E+01 .29 71.5495E*04 v.1185 3. j404E*04 w.3237?E 2 6 -.2212 4.1562 4.75 .25 13.18 83.3387E*05 0. 6005E*04 .0 4 9.0 2 .24454E+01 .27669E+01 -28479E+01 .p332E+03 5.0 1 . 1 5 E+0 'v2 9 32F÷ 0 5 .0840 76.22062E-00 .0059 3.25 6.1879 4.0552 5.1363E405 4. 7.47145E-02 8.1 9 016E-01 .75 .1 0 7 7 E* 0 3 .0418 4.58410"-01 .0242 2.324 9 E304 4.594 2.04 4.21242E301 0 13 80E-03 -58200E-03 .7288E*05 0.24555E- S10.4472E.0689 4.V8 Im(D) Re(D) Im(U) Re(1>) Zero X.75 .25 9. 9 8 565E-01 -.6631F*05 4.16 &. 7308E÷03 .3855F÷05 3.C9 14.3175E+06 95414E#05 R.10 80.7408 1.11473E04 Pi102UE*05 4.79 76.06 .77 70.91755E-02 11.1044 3.1 8 33E+05 .00 13.25 11.0619 77.2327Ee05 6 6 4 -.§44 E*02 6.7294 4.49 69.1 S9.21 70.1143 3. 3 01E*04 ".00 8.67 13.28 71.50 N .48 66.2564 3.53 69.24930E-01 .44108E-00 . 6173E÷04 6 6 10E*04 0.39 75.?8 ".81 82.4078E+06 .01 77.1669E+06 .25 o 0 2 6 0 -.2275E+06 .q358 75.49 79. -.00 -19619E+0 1 .8679 79. 3140E+04 *. 9 6 6 8 1E+00 0 91 735E+01 .37966E-02 .00 75.2 7 85E+04 P.n369 78.30 71.8859 2.94 -.30927E+01 .17973E+01 .4223 3.66 63.40 70.1 8 80 0 E+01 .7267 2.08 75..17136E+01 .9681 3.1672F402 -.0 1 .5874 3.75 -2 9 236E-00 .32 P41C.0969 4.12 75.5320 81.3036E*05 .00 5.33417F+01 .8322 75.11744E÷01 .31752E+01 .4342E*05 0.25 78.50 5.i866E+06 .21895E-01 .50 11.94 58.77464E-02 .99 70.53753E.08 71.93 71..75 .1803E305 -.68 70.1629 8 E. 1 0 2 4 E*0 4 .36824E+01 .5 9 258E+00 .06 .9025 9.4646 6.54 79:15 78.25256E+01 . -.5271 4.13746E-02 1594E*03 23 7 5 E+ 0 3 3 5 0 9 E* 0 3 5110E#03 S9.71732E' 0 2 .30 76.88 53.50 6.9813 2.14375E.75 . 3 90 30E+02 0. R2 5.4098 2.00 6.0155 3.25 14.38536E-01 .97 12-00 12.53 76.50 9 9E+05 0.75 -32582E+01 .54 70. 2461E+04 015996E*03 -.1068 2.2715E+06 .TABLE 4 (Continued) cPh/c 1 cgr/c.7474 2.1115 3.0709 3. 188iE÷04 .31 70. 1 7537E-0 1 .36536E-00 .f4 -.14544E+0 1 *15425E+01 .8467 3.50 7.00 11.25 7.1022 11.41 70.62681E-01 . -.75 .58 70.30107E+01 .29291E+01 .-0 69.00 S1C.4723 3.66 76. 6 3 E+ 0 4 90 .00 7.13641E+01 .1073 76.3617E*04 .46146E-01 .82 78.15 71.73 69.24 77.52 67.69430E-01 .2570E+06 .75 .j499E303 7T0357 6.45 8 6E+05 P.6503E*05 4.35107E+01 .929?E*04 .84 69.84 65.1179 3.27 71.25 12.25 8.8239 2.9471E*05 .t0 54.26863E+01 .42278E-01 .3636E+06 .75 .9166 3.21 71.59 69. 1 27 1 0E+01 .79 75.1163 76.9592 2.34924E-01 .25121E.57 70.0396 3.35962E+01 .6656 J.9114 2.1496E+06 0.85 2 80E+00 .72 9 08E*00 . 4 4 5 8 E+04 #.71 68.0 0 .1333E÷ 0 3 .23 -.5074 5.90 75.79 77.25 70.9261 86.50130E-01 .50 10.7018E305 .5838E+05 .38573E+01 .9900 3.

58 23.14 72.17Q3 3.70218E+01 .46 66.67018E-01 .00 16.11004E-00 -.87912F-01 .35 72.18 73.75 .10799E-00 . 1558E107 7 -.7122 3.45936E÷01 .b5192E÷01 .4 851E+01 .98869E-01 9 .10344E-00 .3220E0 ".25 15.23 66.59 73.4791 7.75 .1 66E+06 .5040 2.5089 73.4239 2.58 65.17 67.44 81E+01 .91 71.8013 3.25 18.-1373E-00 .58 67.1722 3.e4 24.4261 2.11583E-00 -.2561iE0 .73178E+01 .12142E-00 -.39460E+01 .10 65. 3165E+0 8 4 -.75 25.10116E-00 -. -.54917E+01 .4426 2.5872 2.08 0.1323E÷0 6 7 9 .5066E+08 8 . -.47 67.1282F*09 0 9 9 ".36 67.7789 3.51 18.00 24.4409 .00 22. 2227E+0 a.00 S20.10463E-00 . cgr/c.75807E-01 .21 72.50 .60848*08 D.93 67. 21B1E*0 8 -.52873E+01 .4375E+07 ".50 16.6320 2.50 15.66 72.2090E+0 9 0.72196E+01 .67 67.76 . 5955E*06 -.70 66.76 71.12052E-00 .2050E+0 P.12078E-00 .50 23.66 74.63 E+06 3.92 66.10567E-00 .00 18.75 -50851E+0 1 .77U61E+01 "t802lE+01 7 .81 66.71481E-01 .32 66.2113 3.00 d3.99 67.34 66.3527E+06 9 .4744F*08 O.5519 2.5303 2.94 73.50 72.11882E-00 .5278 2. 2184e-01 ".9237E÷0 9 .92 67. 2918E108 8 -.50 2C.3400 2.6682 3.97132E-01 .C2 66.5784 2.89 66.41 -43101E+01 .00 91 9 .14 4E* 9 7 23F+0 ".1030E* 7 3.2243E+0 7 9 w.83 65.55945E101 .11995E-00 .48858E+01 9 .84581F-01 .60069E+01 .15 66.1 0E+0 9 .12 .58 24.5637 6 71.6464 2.11 68.1136E+08 3.3935F+08 3.4356 72.4238 72.50 21.72 73.3253 3.4980E+06 .00 .2854E*07 0 7 50722E 3.3057E1 3.56975E+01 .42176E÷01 .2 31E10 0 9 -.8291E*06 0 .70 72.7179 74.5535 P.2027 2.7758 2.2504 3.4464 73.4258 S19.4751E+06 6 .1087E+09 *.70 73.25 21.25 17. ph .67216E+01 . 6445E*07 02W11+07 0 7 .83934E-01 .2299 5.88883E-01 9 .6247 3.75 .1254E+07 .85880"-01 .4701 72. 1141E10 12785E+07 12287TF07 .75 16 o o t Im(W) 9 66. 1902E+08 8 -.3552 3.11945E-00 -.4982E+06 .69 66.50 .7565 3.3342E+04 6 ". 1024E+07 -.47875E÷01 .50 18.4301 2.4598 2.00 19. 6609E-01 9 .2161E*08 8 5 -.75 Re(.r400 2.47 69.4508 2. 9565E+0 8 -.2975F. 1382E÷08 .80211E-01 .25 23.5756 2.28 74.3113 3.2614 3.90016E-01 . 4380F-01 9 .74155E+01 .64173F+01 .101OOE-00 .9981 2.1949E*09 9 '.86 71.50 22.5397 3.02 66.6527E*06 .15 67.37 74.1497E+07 7 5 9 0 7 1 F+ 2033E*07 3.8 3 8 .11404E-00 .62 71.2730 3.42 17.7343 .08 68.75 .162 S20.1867 3.6902 3.75 74.58006E÷01 *12128E-00 -.5375E* 0 . 3080E-01 .48n8 2.46900E+0 1 .77 73.4728 2.25 16.4048 2.49 73.74 65.67 71.2852 2.62±7 71.81 66.00 17.7469 2.20 65.59038E+01 .7807F*08 0 0.68221E÷01 .44•36E÷01 9 .75128E+01 .75 .11210E-00 .62126E+01 .66206E+01 22.4371 3.TABLE 4 (Continued) •gr Re(D) Im(D) cph/c.41261E101 .4302 3. 71.66 65.1655 2. 3 12E10 0.6031 3.75 . 34071E08 8 3258E0 8 2 63E+08 8 8 232 E+0 s.1 3.25 19.69222E÷01 .63 72. 2792E+08 .11604E-00 9 .25 24.6095 2.00 65.-8 74.30 19.79 66.25 22.2399 2. 2227?E0 .40356E+01 .65 68.2151F+08 ".1486F+08 R.4969E+06 .66 65.50 07.76C97E+01 .2312E*07 s2593E*07 .71 71.11103E-00 -.3386E* 7 .5158 72.. 7845E+077 -. 1 23E+0 0 7 4 9 E+ .7897 E+01 .01 65. 1590E108 -.71209E÷01 .25 S2C.82007F-01 .61098E+01 .1403E107 P.15606 2.12117F-00 .87 73. -.92 -.5191 394989 3.107 5E-00 .4600 2. 3033E*07 0 7 -. 511 E+0 -.6602 2.42 72.P043 2.11744E-00 •I.51859F+01 .6889 2.56 74.53893E+01 . 4 01E+0 0 7 -.88 68.10788E-00 .39 73.4232E+0 .2980 3.9125E* 8 3.34226 2.26 67.2204 3.4897 2.74j91÷07 0.) Zero X R2 15.3234E+07 3.63151F+01 1.4921 2.5818 3.f326E*07 6.00 15.4583 2.08 72.6047 74.3877 303711 3.1945 3.M3 65.28 65.

14775E+02 .10121E02 9.9685 0.9595 8.ll15aE÷0 2 2 '14051E+01 .2044E+11 .9054 0.9639 * * .14960E÷01 . .00 13.i036E+09 .11885E+01 .9579 7.3056E.1 .14260E+02 .56729E÷01 *59 3 75E£01 .3300E+08 .7427E+08 0. .75 .12813E+01 0 . 1 3960E+01 .2743E*05 0.3750E÷10 .9538 .9 3 84 09E+01 1 2 E÷01 .9326 0.12310E+01 .) Zero 2 080E÷06 * * * * * * * 6.15548E+02 .69907E+0 1 .9292 0.14002E+02 .14649E+01 .*5 .25 .9478 0. 1 771E+08 0.00 .9658 * * * 10.8355E+06 0.12032E+01 .1716E+05 9 9 .TABLE 4 (Continued) cgr/c.15290E+02 .9313 0.9616 9.8869 0.9496 * * .9588 8.9020 0.25 S1C.67280E+01 .4319E+05 .11417E+02 .9152 0. Im(D) Re(D) Im(O) Re(D.9306 0.8908 0.9662 0.9838E+04 .9175 0.1318E+10 .1043E+06 0.9666 0.3967E+11 .12173E+01 .1 9E+0 .9320 0.11935E+02 .50 5.2948E*07 .9459 0.3705E+06 .5216E+08 0. 2 443E*06 .00 6.4517E+09 .8470E.50 •P• 1C.50 o - w N wN .6600E404 .13044E+01 .9249E*0 .9332 0.25 8.14485E+01 .05 0.88 05E+01 .75 .9438 0.9713 * * * Because all Franz zeroes have cph< cgr< cl the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical angles fails.82990E*01 .9560 0.8962 0.1055E+09 I1493E+09 .14728E*01 "14807E*01 .50 13. 1 3 1 55E+01 .10 .2653E*10 j4170E+09 .75 .25 13.1586E.7982E+05 .9674 * 12.00 12.90 .5842E*10 0.85598E+0 1 .9070 0.9634 0.9186 0.00 7.7440E+10 .50 8.01 7 3 E*01 13575E*01 .64650E+01 .15325E*01 .12194E÷0 2 .9654 * * :14316E*01 .75 .9704 * * 14.25 7.14401E+01 .15532E+01 .8982 0.75 -10380E÷0 2 .9689 * * * * 13.i296E.2 0 E+05 .2108E*09 9 .96013E÷01 .75i 7.2203E*10 .00 5.9570 0.50 14.50 .3141E÷09 .98 6 11E+01 .9244 0.5842E+09 18169E+09 0. •ph . Fl 5.9113 0.00 1C.8120E+0 .1 3 34 70E.4852E+08 .9140 0.2851E+11 98045E+i0 0.12930E.50 11.1139EF10 0. 1 2693E+01 .15395E+01 .14567E+01 .4853E+05 6.9701 * * * * * 14.9217 0.9299 0.i074E*05 .9671 0.13486E+02 .15254E+01 .25 5.50 9.9253 0.12441E+01 0E+01 .62015E+01 .3306E+06 6.3986E*0 0.77765E+01 .25 .15033E+02 .75 .9610 0.9710 0.00 .9678 0.12711E+02 .8940 0.15805E+02 .15182E+01 . 1 257E+07 .13264E+01 .9127 9.5288E+10 . 3 651E÷08 8.13744E+02 .13674E+01 .9296 0.1523E+11 0.9695 0.5513E'11 e1109E411 .13227E+02 .1873E÷$0 .06 .15109E+01 .9682 0.12969E+02 . 92 .1462E+11 .9226 0.50 .75 .13771E+01 .9628 0.5580E*06 0.9698 0.75 .9277 0.14229E+01 .14517E+02 .9603 0.9285 Q.1506Eo08 .6740E.9644 0.1245 2 E+0 2 .9235 0.5204E*06 6 .2178E+09 .80379E+01 .00 11.9511 0.14884E+01 .9037 0.15035E+01 .9261 0.9099 Q. 603E406 0.9207 0.11733E+01 .j725F+05 .1044E'11 .15464E*01 .00 9.10899E+0 .25 .2969E+0 0. 1 0 6 4 0E+02 .2547E*08 . 244E*07 0.14141E-01 .6738E+07 .1 0 5 E+09 .1 0 10 E' 0 8 e1843E+07 *2 717E+077 .9T07 14.9526 .9001 0.6473E*09 9 .2235E+08 .25 12.9269 * 12.9550 * * * * * * * * * x.7 2 5 3 2 569E+01 Qgr cPh/c.8814 6.75 4 2 1 .8894 0.9j64 0.+0 14227E+i0 0.13 .13866E+01 .0T s122TE+08 .58 2 2 E+07 .7105E+08 .75 11.8842 0.11676E+02 1 932E+07 5 1 1 * * 11.9692 0.9649 * * * * . 4 470E÷07 .9628 0.9085 0.

9756 x.25804E+02 '26r59E+02 '26315E+0 2 .1354E*12 .21966E+02 .9897E1÷6 .50 19.9387 0.3677!E13 .1463E+12 .75 0 SC.7442E+15 9 .00 19.00 21.17723E401 .9397 0.16737E+01 .9784 * 2 2 2 Because all Franz zeroes have cPh< cgr.9742 0.9760 0.9486 0.9498 0.50 22.9734 0.25 22.25 17.1058E+12 .9401 0.2094 1 E+0 2 .9727 0. Fl 15.16287E+01 .64722.9419 0.1315E÷17 .3099E+15 .24525E+02 .16573E+01 "16628E+01 .9457 0.5349E+11 0.50 21-75 . Im(D) Re(D) Im(O) Re(v) Zero 2 'ph 0 gr * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 2C.9746 0.1811.4934E+13 .9471 0.50 A5.1348E+13 .9774 4 * Ž3.1843E+13 .Q769 0.1828E+12 0.01 .1531E+13 .16 .0853E+iI .2780E+12 .15666E+01 .00 2.17445E+01 .22734E+02 .9495 0.9500 0.9406 0.15731E+01 .9461 0.8568E+15 -1133E+16 .2367E*16 . * * * 23.2737E613 .2310E*15 .2133E+1 .9753 0.00 .6316E*13 .50 24.1 77E+1 4 .66 1 6E+13 .00 15.9372 0.25 21.23758E+02 .3821E+12 .9783 0.2883E+14 .2488E+12 v3354F+12 .25292E+02 -25548F+02 .25 *21454E+0 2 .9446 0. * * 4 * 4 4 * * angles fails.9744 0. c• the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical 93 * * * * 4 * * .17052E+01 .9477 0.9779 0.9431 0.20172E+02 .00 17.17349E+02 .1-329E16 @2780E*15 0.4656E+13 .16683E+01 .2615E+16 0.17001E+01 .9771 0.3686E+15 :17493E+01 :17539E.1586F+14 0 4 .9860E+12 .17606E+02 .9764 0.16063E102 .9423 0.16844E.7645E+11 .17091E+0 16.1122E413 .9761 21.3156E+16 4886E215 .3775E+14 .5250E+14 .1186E+14 20.25 19.6703E*14 0.25 24.17203E+01 .1721E+15 .16834E+0 2 :15599F+01 .20429E+02 .16791E*01 .00 S .1$64E+14 5 4 .9483 0.9751 0..9782 0.9415 0.17586E+01 .2830E+14 .50 17.9E+02 '18376E+0 2 .9758 0.9750 0.25 15.16320•+02 .9356 0.•247BE+02 .1498E+16 .7445E+1 .3919E+11 .15923E+01 %15986E+01 :16047E+01 .21198E+02 .01 .9740 18. 22.9773 * .6162E*12 6.16346E*01 .15 0.19403E+02 *19659E+0 2 119916E+02 .9392 0.9344 0.75 .75 . cgr/c.9450 0.16228E+01 .3892E+14 .75 25.20685E+02 .9427 0.16949F101 .4204E*16 .2019E+12 .5032E*14 .8863F+13 0.16517E+01 .17252E+01 .25 .9410 0.9489 0.2512E+13 .9367 0.18890E+02 .17153E+01 .9732 .1281E+15 .17632E÷01 .00 .9778 * 24.9770 0.16577E÷0 2 .9775 4 '24781E+0 -25037E+0 Q.17103E+01 .+01 0.16897E+01 .9522E'1 .9880E+11 .75 .9718 0.9767 * * .9738 0.9464 8.9720 0.50 16.9748 19.75 .9377 0.24014E+02 .50 23. .00 18.9382 0.17398E+01 .16108E+01 .19802.4153E+15 .1775E+16 .25 18.9777 0.16403E+01 16461E+01 .9454 6.9435 0.15796E÷01 16.16169E*01 .75 .9492 0.9338 0.9467 6.8558E+13 .75 *21710E+0 2 .9350 0.7074E4144 .3429E+13 .e3246E+02 -23502F*0 2 .212 E+1 0.9730 0.19146E+02 .8474E*12 .9766 0.9 51E+15 8921E+14 1187E+15 p1577F*+5 2094F4J5 6.75 .50 2ŽC.9480 4 ý3.50 18.2090E+Il .00 '24270E+0 .TABLE 4 (Continued) cPh/c 1 .4620E+12 .17301E+01 :17350E+01 .5597E+16 6 .2073F+13 0.00 24.18633E+0 2 .17862E+0 2 17.9725 .9736 0.17768E.9755 0.9780 0.9715 0.9474 0.9723 :15860E+01 .5252E+12 .9439 009443 0.17678E+01 .25 16.1297TF+1 0.22222E+02 .7200E+12 .5562E*15 .9361 0.22990E+02 .9763 0.

2804E÷1l j.1368E+11 0.25 12.7526 0. 55762+12 0.7245 0.08 0 8 .25 9.9316 3 567E*IC '. 24972*10 '.21452E10 s.7858 9.99552.22772407 0.99657E+01 .7131 0. 78312.45372+09 -.9046 0.50 o 0 1C.50 11.7368E207 -P1317E+06 -. 3082E+07 -. 1815E.8205 0.25 14.47576E*01 .950TE*10 '.8700 0. 2034E*11 -.8882 0.157152+02 . 29202.10 0.7298 0.7190 0. -.00 14.140892+02 .T1405E+01 .39284E+01 39880E+01 .9134 0.7830 SIC.25 13.47976E+01 8 -.9294 0.9234 0. 5612E+11 7836E211 10922+12 15192E12 *.0309 0.483692+01 -5807E+09 337482+08 0.94071E÷01 .132722402 .5053E+04 0.138172+02 .9029 * * 8.167942+02 . 72152.8113 0.7069 0. 2989E+06 -. 1248E+07 .64522.43113E+01 -.80602+11 0.8073 0.50 .7675 0.t4541E*06 -.8972 0.9302 0.54215E+01 .1539E.9253 13.529592+01 .A856 0.8052 0.9183 4 11.512962E01 -.43605E+01 .48756E+01 7.6737E+09 ".9121* 9.3040E+09 Because all Franz zeroes have cPh< cgr< c1 the simple geometrical 94 interpretation of real critical .8254 0.3130E*10 0.176012+02 .9160 * * .9011 * * 8.1272E*09 *. 86032*08 '.9215 4 12.146322+02 .14904E÷02 .00 13.8030 0.7441 0.75 .7937 0.8951 0.40672+04 0.8008 0. 4864E+06 .07 -.8930 0.41019E+01 -.7772 0.1961E+11 0.8829 6. 1871E*09 0.01 -.50 6.105222+02 . 0.9062 9.178696+02 . 27402E09 -.96867E+01 .7708 0.50 27E+02 6 .53279E+01 .65882+10 P.7911 0.75 .450122+01 ". . * 4 4 4 * 4 4 4 * * * * * angles fails.2504F+06 1712E.0270 0.85638E÷01 .06 -. -.01 -.50949E+01 .551182+01 -.00 5"25 5.7961 0.12451E+02 .4 2 6 1 0F+0 1 .8222 0.9225 12. 40102+11 4.7740 0.75 .8170 0.25 .535952+01 :539072.75 .75 . 5793E*0 *.8735 0.49510E+01 -. 28592*11 -.3369E+03 0.15445E+02 .781E+05 *. 1212E210 w.88457E+01 .45461E+01 -.88332. 12 E+01 .3977E+04 .TABLE 4 (Continued) Zero F2 04 ý 0 Re(D) Im(O) Re(i.09 0.7348 0.8238 0.165252+02 .13602407 W7603 0.9107 0.39982*11 O.906 * * * * 7.0286 14.08 0.04 ".25 11.07 0.79622406 0.75 .119022+02 .46332E+01 .37462*07 O.79975E201 .519752E01 .00 .9147 * 4 4 . 21082E12 -.40458E+01 -.00 -12725E+02 . 10272211 0.50 8.9093 0.828 . Im(D) cph/c. 3997E209 * 4 * 4 4 9.14273E+01 7 7 9 . 3880E*08 '.10799E+02 :45901E+01 -.502402+01 -.54519E201 . 4784E+07 @#87652.91268E+01 .9278 0.15985E+02 .50 7. * 4 " " * 8.11 .0262 0.7002 0.9078 w.151742+02 .50 13.13545E202 :498782P01 -.113522.7396 0. 14442E11 w.50597E+01 .143612+02 .7640 0.Z342E209 0.9194 0.s768 * * * * * * 5.10 -.9205 0.00 7.25 6. 1970E. 8406E+09 =.516372+01 -.7565 0.75 .54820E+01 .06 .7985 0. 1127E+08 -.7484 0.01 -.8187 0.75 .7802 6.12 -. 50802+10 -.173322+02 .2413E+ 0.5683F+11 ".17063E+02 .57752+08 -.49002+04 .9171 * N N I1C.97222+07 0.75 4 * * 11.75 .110762402 .08 .47169E+01 -.8132 0.00 .25 S10.9244 0.41564E+01 -.42094E÷01 .00 .00 .14642Ei0 0.526352.7885 0. egr/c 1 •ph ogr 5.8093 0.05 0. -.45492.50 14.12999E+02 .50 12.523072E01 . 2 585E*08 *.12177E+02 .00 .25 7.20262E09 0. 17432*10 *.440842E01 44553E+01 .16255E+02 .102442+02 . 4039E212 -.02 .491362.60732.8992 * 1 1E+0 1 .8799 * * 6.8151 0.) X.46754E+01 -.

274 2 9E+02 .8446 0. 1452E+15 0.5718E414 0.8270 0.1621E+14 6e8434 0. -.3182E+12 .26902E*02 .8562 0.64552E+01 .9390 3225E'14 4367E+14 5906E÷14 4 9 7 81E+1 1.8523 0.8617 0. -.3192E+±7 6. -.9356 0.60224E÷01 .#2685E÷15 6 %.8286 0.8590 0.00 15.60951E+01 .1609E.8458 0. 3539E+15 4755E+15 6380E*15 8556E.8315 0. 6337E*17 -.1326E'17 '.9424 0.9466 * * 6.63030E+01 *63252E+01 -.0458 0.57385Fe01 .62353E÷01 -.25583E+02 -25847E+0 2 -26111E+02 .00 18.25 22.27693E+02 .8502 0.8608 0.8600 0.9494 0.9477 * * 23.9395 0.75 S20.197 4 3E+0 2 .8634 0.21874E+02 .50 17.61189E*01 .64125E+01 ".8469 0.8553 0.4954E*15 *.1977E+15 Q.00 17.26638E+02 .4181E+14 -.9507 Re(D) Im() 7686E+12 1058E+13 1453E+13 9 1 93E+13 4.7265E+12 ".25 O cPh/c 1 Because all Franz zeroes have cph< cgr< cI the simple geometrical interpretation of real critical 95 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * a * * * * * * * * * a * * * • * angles fails.23996E+0 2 .9446 21. -.75 . .ji55E÷i7 -.27956E*02 . -.25 17.64974E-01 .9442 0.25 18.58188E+01 . -.50 22.22936E+0 2 .6209E*13 *.57923E÷01 .61426E.15 ". 1957E+15 0.O1 -.8572 0.15 0.65 1 82E+01 ".64339E+01 . 8397E*17 -.75 .2236F*16 0.1778E*17 S10383E.00 .94R0 0.26375E÷02 .00 S20.25 23.8480 0.1 6 2052E+1 274iE*16 . 3660E+16 4883E*16 6511E*16 8674E*16 P.00 23.9438 0.75 . J077E+15 0.25319E+0 2 .9470 0. -.23731E+02 .25054E+02 .3249E÷13 w.61660E+01 .8301 0.3 43E.19 2 08E+02 .o179E14 s.8410 0.75 .25 24t50 24. -.9454 0.22671E÷02 .8384 0.60468E÷01 -. 19.17 '.9433 0. 2713E*17 3.75 . -. -. 2042EE17 -.18137E+02 -18 4 05E-02 . -.9343 * * * -.23466E÷02 .8642 0.62896E+01 .50 18.2226E+14 -.8344 0.12 ". 3735E÷13 P.00 16.8397 0.00 19.59977E+01 .8357 O.25 21.9429 20.8371 0.21342E+02 . 2633E+15 0.15 ".2344E*e3 ".63473E+01 . -.8659 0.9350 0.75 °24526E+02 .9323 0.50 20.21076E+0 2 .60710E+01 .2 1 608E+02 .19476E÷02 .1351E+16 0.8682 0.6702Ei15 0.9337 0.6240E.62580E+01 .8697 0.J657E*6 P.56557E+01 .8543 8.9410 . 5101E*13 -.75 eq o S19.61893E+01 .50 15.25 19.57655E+01 .00 21.27166E*02 .00 24.50 16.8422 0.25 15. -.9374 0.3602E÷17 -.8330 0.8533 6.9500 0.9415 0.93A8 9480E+13 9 ' 12 0E*14 4 7 1 53E+1 2379E*14 0.9330 0.9379 0. -.8581 9.12 .22140E+02 .1688E+13 .50 21.7809E*±4 R.8690 0.8651 0.9462 22.28482E÷02 .00 22.28745E*02 .4495E*13 @.3054E÷14 -.8710E÷t12 -. -.9473 0.20543E602 .58711E+01 .24790E÷02 .8564E~j3 '.9395 0. -.63692E+01 .9484 0.±066E+15 Ot1452E.8512 0.9504 0.20010E+0 2 17.64764E+01 .55703EF01 .50 23.55412E÷01 .20810E÷02 .9072E*i5 04227E*i6 N.24261E÷02 .55991E+01 .59477E+01 -.8491 0. 2730E+13 "j4461E÷12 -. Uph 0 gr 0. 4779E÷17 -.9400 0. 18.18673E+02 .50 . 1146E+16 6 4 153 E.9405 0.9420 0.75 25.56275E+01 -.9450 0.1140E*12 -. 16.57112E+01 . -.8667 0.28219E+02 . -.25 16.22405E+02 .9362 0. 1112EE18 "19876E*J6 R.5467E+16 .3021E÷16 ao4065E÷j6 w.75 .948T7 0.58969E+01 '59224F+01 .8626 0. j!36E6*? -.20277E+02 .23201E+02 Re(D) Im(V) Zero xy F2 15.8674 0.62124E÷01 .56836E÷01 .58451F+01 -.9497 0.59728E+01 .9491 24.TABLE 4 (Continued) cgr/c.18941E+02 .63909E+01 . 6959E+13 "-1214E*j3 0.

APPENDIX B Figures 10-19 .

IIf w> Iz 0 z ~ _ tir w LC) 0 _ .081 z&Iep _CIO .0 .z k-i 0 La.

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APPENDIX C Distribution .

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inclusive dates) 5. ACTIVITY (Corporate author) REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION UNCLASSIFIED Uo 3. phase velocities. ABSTRACT unlimited. (Any other OTHER REPORT NO(S) this report) numbers that may be assigned d. c. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Distribution of this document is 11. REPORT Naval Weapons Laboratory S. OF REFS NO. ORIGINATING 2a. CONTRACT OR GRANT 7b.D1O. NO. FORM 1473 DD. 9b. REPORT NUMBER(S) TR 2128 b. elastic. lastname) Peter Ugincius 6. middle initial.01-807-6811 (PAGE 1) PUNCLASSIFIED Security Classification A-1408 . which gives rise to Numerical results include scattering generalized Rayleigh and Stoneley waves. OF PAGES 1 9a. DESCRIPTIVE NOTES (Type of report and. group velocities. REPORT 7a.UNCLASSIFIED Security Classification DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA . critical angles and attenuation factors for the dominant creeping-wave modes. These zeroes are found numerically by an extension of the Newton-Raphson method It is found that besides the infinity of the well-known for complex functions. SUPPLEMENTARY 13. cylindrical shell The resulting residue series immersed in a fluid and containing another fluid. is generated by poles which are the complex zeroes of a six-by-six determinant.R & D (Security classification of title. NOTES SPONSORING MILITARY ACTIVITY The Sommerfeld-Watson transformation is applied on the normal-mode solution of a plane wave being scattered by an infinite. GROUP TITLE CREEPING-WAVE ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC SCATTERING BY ELASTIC CYLINDRICAL SHELLS 4. AUTHOR(SI (First name. body of abstract and indexing annotation must be entered when the overall report is classified) 1. 10. zeroes. PROJECT NO. ORIGINATOR'S NO. rigid zeroes there exists a set of additional. cross sections.V S/N 01. DATE TOTAL 108 January 1968 8a. 2b. 12.

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