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, Paper ID 260.

**Study Transient Impedance of Spherical Electrode Buried in the Ground
**

Mohamed Nayel

Electric and Electronics Engineering Department Xi'an Jiaotong LiverpoolUniversity Suzhou, Jiangsu Province 215123, China Mohamed.Nayel@xjtlu.edu.cn

Abstract -This paper studies the transient characteristics of a spherical electrode embedded into ground at different depths. Step like current of different rise times is injected into the spherical electrode to investigate the domain frequency of injected current effects on the spherical electrode impedance. The results show that the spherical electrode impedance dependent on the domain frequency of the injected current and depth of the grounding spherical electrode. This explains the effect of penetration depth of the domain frequency on the wave propagation and the spherical electrode impedance. Index Terms - Hemispherical electrode, Transient characteristic, Frequency effects

resistance tester (Yokgawa Electric Work type 3244) as a function of depth. The measured resistivity shows a decreasing of grounding resistivity with ground depth as shown in Fig. 2. The experimental site was at yard area of Doshisha University, Kyotanabe Campus, Kyoto, Japan.

I. INTRODUCTION The grounding electrodes main job is dissipating fault currents effectively into the ground, and to prevent damage of installations. The performance of the power system also, is influenced by proper functioning of grounding systems. Up to now, there are no derived formulas of impedance and admittance even for a simple vertical or horizontal naked conductor buried in ground during transient. Experimental techniques are still the best method to investigate the transient characteristics of the grounding systems. Transient characteristics of grounding systems can be investigated by numerical electromagnetic analysis [1-4]. Or, using experimental technique to investigate transient characteristics of grounding systems. There are two directions for investigating transient characteristics of grounding systems, one concerns of a frequency-dependent effect [5-11] and the other relates wave propagation [12-15]. This paper studies the transient characteristics of spherical electrode buried at different depths and different injected current rise times to understand the impedance transient characteristics. II. EXPERIMENT SETUP Fig. 1 shows an experimental setup to study the transient characteristics of spherical electrode. A step-like current of 7 or 308 nsec rise time is applied from a pulse generator (PG) of 500V to grounding spherical electrode via a lead wire that is supported at 4 m height above the ground surface. The grounding spherical electrode is apart from PG by 11 m. The current is measured by a CT (Peason model 2877, bandwidth from 300Hz to 200MHz), and recorded by a digital oscilloscope (Tektronix TDS 3054m, bandwidth 500MHz). Transient voltages were measured by a voltage probe (TEKTRONIX P6139A, bandwidth 500MHz). The ground resistivity of experimental site is measured by means of Wenner method using a specific ground

Fig. 1 Experimental setup

Fig. 2 Ground resistivity vs. ground depth

A hemispherical electrode had been buried in the ground to study the effects of spherical electrode depth and injected current rise time (domain frequency). The studied injected current rise times are 7 and 308 nsec. The studied depths of the hemispherical electrodes are 0, 10, 20 and 30 cm. II. MEASURED RESULTS Figure 3 show the measure injected currents and hemispherical electrode voltages waveforms for the different studied cases. The capacitive/resistive characteristics are observed in the spherical electrode voltages and currents wave forms.

663

5 0.1 11. This is coming from that the 7 ns rise time has a high frequency which penetrate near the ground surface. The hemispherical electrode impedance decrease rapidly in the case of 7 ns injected current than that of 308 ns injected current.The spherical electrode impedance decreases rabidly with frequency increases.2 11. as the spherical electrode impedance decreases. 20 and 30 and at and injected currents of rise times 7 and 308 nsec Table 1 show the steady state calculated resistance and the time delay between the voltage and current waveforms. The impedance phase angle in case 308 ns change from 0o to -90o rapidly than that of 7 ns injected current. 2. This can be explained by the effect of penetration depth which demand pass all currents near the ground surface at high frequency and this depth decreases with injected current domain frequency increases.147 0.As the spherical electrode go deeply in the ground of reduced resistance with depth. . As the spherical electrode go deeply as the frequency response impedance decrease due to the decrease of ground resistivity with depth as shown in fig. so as the hemispherical electrode go deeply as the current diffusion in ground take a time and increases time delay of the voltage waveform. 2 178. 10.1 35 163.The spherical electrode resistance at low rise time is higher than that at high rise time due to penetration depth and both decreases when the spherical electrode goes deeply in the ground for the studied cases.1 179. time delay increases with the spherical electrode depth increases. The time delay increases with the depth decreases.1 308 ns Td [ns] 84 15.839 2. The time delay between voltage and current wave forms shows that for 308 ns rise time.The time delay between the current and voltage waveforms increase with the spherical electrode depth decrease. .551 Td Time delay between voltage and current wave forms R% percentage difference between resistances measured at 308 ns and 7 ns CONCLUSIONS From the experimental results one can obtain the following conclusions . TABLE 1 CALCULATED RESISTANCE AND TIME DELAY d [cm] 0 10 20 7 ns R[Ω] 311. The time delay between voltage and current waveforms shows that for 7 ns rise time the.0 233. . The percentage differences (R%) between 7 ns and 308 ns resistances show that this difference decrease with the depth increase. 664 .4 Td [ns] 5 6 8 R[Ω] 299. 4 to be composed dominantly of a resistance and a capacitance.(a) Case 1 (d=0 cm) (b) Case 2 (d=10 cm) (c ) Case 3 (d=20 cm) (d) Case 4 (d=30 cm) Fig. 3 Measured voltages at depths 0.4 R% 3. The impedance of spherical electrode for different cases is observed in fig. This is coming from that the 308 ns injected current has a low frequency which go deeply in the ground where the ground resistivity decrease and spherical electrode capacitance decrease vise verse near the ground surface where the spherical electrode capacitance increased.5 228.786 30 164. The hemispherical resistance decreases as the depth increases and as the injected current rise time increases.

E. Nagaoka. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] REFERENCES R Zeng. Dana. N. Volume: 41 . Volume: 20 . Jae-Bok Lee.” Experimental investigation of surge propagation characteristics on a grounding mesh”. Mattos. Paper 7-3. September 2001. Sonoda. 5. Haddad A.. Sonoda. IEEJ.61 Bo Zhang. Griffiths. T. Xiang Cui. pp. IEEJ. A./Nov. X Gong. Research Meeting. ICLP’00 Proceedings. Beijing. Mohamed Nor N. 2005 . G. pp. Paper 3c-3. 2002.al. Nayel. [12] A. “ Field measurements of surge propagation characteristics on a counterpoise”. Issue: 2 . pp. [14] Ametani.. Md Nor.. [11] T. 2001.Tsinghua University. Ametani. Sonoda and S. Haddad. 665 .. Nayel. Zhibin Zhao. Z Bo. et. Kanatani. Jun Zou. UPEC’03 Proceedings. paper B-77 August 25-29. pp. et. Paper 6c-3. Ametani. Swansea UK. Thessaloniki Greece..L. Haddad. ” Frequency response of earthing systems”. Srisakot. 2008. 2002. Jeju Korea. “Basic investigation of wave propagation characteristics on an under ground naked conductor”. 667-675." Grounding grids transient simulation".O." Numerical analysis of transient performance of grounding systems considering soil ionization by coupling moment method with circuit theory". Issue: 1 2006 . [13] Ametani et. the XIVth ISH’05. Swansea.(I) impedance (a) 7 ns (II) phase angle (I) impedance (II) phase angle (b) 308 ns Fig... pp. Sekioka. Sept. J He. 55 .. pp. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. " Transient Analysis of Parameters Governing Grounding Systems by the FDTD Method".Vol. 4 Frequency response of spherical electrode for different cases [10] T. IPST’03 Proceedings. K. pp. Griffith. [15] M. de Oliveira. Trans. H. Tannus Tuma." Lightning Impulse Performances of Grounding Grids for Substations Considering Soil Ionization". H. H. UPEC’02 Proceeding. Griffiths and A. September 2000. C. Harid. dos Santos. A. Part: 2. Jinliang He. N. Griffiths H. Sekioka and T. Zedan and A. 2001. UPEC’03 Proceedings. September 2003. September 2003. Thessaloniki Greece. 2141-2146. Srisakot S. 23 (2). da Silva Souza. 1370 – 1378. Walker” Impulse response of transmission tower earthing”. H. UPEC’01 Proceedings. 2005. . Sonoda.“A Study on grounding grid voltage transient characteristics due to lightning”. 721-724. 2005 . 2003. IEEE Latin America Transactions. Jinliang He. B. S. IEEE Transactions on . B. R. “ Characterization of ground ionization under fast impulses”.” An experimental study on surges induced from grounding grid to low-voltage control circuits”. Haddad.. Y Gao. B.. UK.M. al.671-676. N. Page(s): 1440 – 1443. Power Delivery. “Impulse characteristics of grounding resistance of counterpoise”. Griffiths. China. 188-192. R. Sug-Hun Chang . UPEC’01 Proceedings. Stafford UK. Zedan. Sept. paper HV –01-129. pp.Ad. pp. M. Rhodes Greece. M.” Effect of frequency on soil characteristics”.F.S. S.. New Orleans USA. September 2001.” The effect of mesh density on substation earth impedance”. Haddad. No.al. A. Issue: 5 . B-121. ICEE’ 02 Proceedings. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. Volume: 4 . 717-720. 417-422.

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