Spruing , Inveseting & Casting

1)Wax Pattern 2)Sprue 3)Crucible former 4)Ring liner 5)Investment 6)Casting

Prerequisites:
1. Completion of the wax pattern & re-flowed its margin.. 2. Evaluation of the wax pattern for smoothness, finish & contour.. 3. Inspection of the pattern under magnification & removal of any residual flash.. 4. Attachment of the sprue to the pattern & then removed from the die & fitted to a crucible former.. 5. Immediate investing of the wax pattern to avoid distortion due to stress relief of the wax..

Sprue
• Variation of sprue design depending on:
1. 2. 3. Type of restoration being cast. The alloy used. The casting machine.

• Sprue requirement:
There are 3 basic requirements of sprue: 1. Wax flow The sprue must allow the molten was to escape from the mold.. out The sprue must enable the molten metal to flow into the mold with little 2. Metal turbulence as possible.. flow in The metal within it must remain molten slightly longer than the alloy that 3. Metal has filled the mold.. reservoir This provides a reservoir to compensate for the shrinkage that occurs during solidification of the casting.. N.B: The shape of the channel in the refractory mold is determined by the sprue connecting the wax pattern to the crucible former..

.B: . ♠ • Sprue diameter: A relatively large-diameter sprue is recommended  because this: 1.... Improves the flow of molten metal into the mold...In air-pressure machines.5mm) sprue is recommended... ♠ Plastic sprues can be useful when casting (FPDs) in one piece  Added rigidity & minimizes distortion. ♠ For molar & metal ceramic crown (MCC)  10-gauge (2.. ♠ Special care must be taken to examine the orifice for small particles of investment that may break off when a sprue is removed  because they can cause as incomplete casting if undetected.• Sprue material: sprueMetal spruePlastic sprueWax Most preferred because it has the same melting temperature as the wax pattern  so they melt @ the same rate as the pattern & thus allow easy escape of the molten wax. . causing shrink spot porosity or pitted castings. Ensures a reservoir during solidification. ♠ Easy to be separated. ... the melt is made directly in the depression created by the crucible former  then forced into the mold by the sudden change in pressure. the solution by adding a reservoir to the thin sprue 1/16 inch away from the wax pattern. ♠ For premolar & partial coverage restoration  12-gauge (2mm) sprue. 2. ♠ Removed @ the time of conformer. ♠ N. Sold plastic sprues are not recommended because they soften @ a higher temperature than the wax pattern & may block the escape of wax  result in ↑ casting roughness. ♠ Centrifugal casting machine  required large sprue diameter ♠ With air-pressure machines  a narrow sprue is essential  to prevents the molten metal from flowing into the mold prematurely.. ♠ Hollow plastic sprues  permit the escape of wax.. ♠ Often hollow  to ↑ contact surface area & strengthen the attachment between the sprue & pattern....Noble (non oxidized) Vs Precious (oxidized) ♠ Thin sprue freezes before the casting . ♠ Should be made from non-rusting metal  to avoid possible contamination of the wax.

2... • . Allow use of short sprue. • Usually made of rubber.. Guide the molten metal into the channel & to confine the expending molten metal especially in air-pressure.. Improve casting of thin pattern 2. • Its shape depend on the casting machine. Help gasses escape during casting 3. Ensure that solidification begins in critical areas by acting as heat sink Crucible former (Sprue former) Attach the sprue to the base of casting ring.. 3.. • Sprue attachment: Smooth to minimize turbulence Not be restricted because of necking: 1) ↑ casting porosity 2) ↓ mold filling • Venting: Small auxiliary spies or vents: 1. • It must has high walls to: 1. Allow the pattern to be positioned near the end of the casting ring.• Sprue location: •It should be attached to: the bulkiest part of the pattern Away from margins & occlusal contacts (hard to finish) A point permit a stream of metal to be directed to all part of the mold without having to flow opposite the direction of the casting force •The sprue must allow for proper positioning of the pattern in the ring because the expansion within the mold is not uniform spruing on the cusp tip  Good result Spruing on the proximal contact  casting too wide MD or OC In MOD: 2 sprues @ each proximal box instead of 1 sprue @ the narrow isthmus.

. Works as a cushion for allowing of more expansion of the investment • Wetting the liner: Wetting the liner  ↑ hygroscopic expansion of the mold but because an absorbent dry liner removes water from the investment & makes a thicker mix.↑ the total expansion. Materials: {Asbestos(Carcinogenic) – Celluloid – Fiber – Ceramic } Function: 1.. 2.. . • Squeeze liner against the ring to prevent expansion restriction..Cast Ring & Liner • Casting ring: Holds investment in place during setting. • Ring liner: Is placed inside the ring. Facilitate removal of the investment (not totally adhere to the casting ring). Restrict expansion of the mold.

. • The position of the pattern in the casting ring affects expansion: Single crown  Positioned in equidistant position from the ring walls. Casting fixed prosthesis as a one piece  Pattern is placed near the center of a large or special oval ring rather than near the edge of a smaller ring.Placing the mold in a water bath  ↑ hygroscopic expansion. • .