INTRODUCTION

Marketing Planning is the combination of two words -Marketing and Planning. Therefore, to understand the meaning of Marketing Planning, it is necessary that the meaning and definition of these two words must be under stood separately. The details in this regard are as under:

Meaning and Definition of Marketing
Marketing is generally, understood to be the sale and purchase of goods and services but it is not correct to understand it so. Marketing is the entire process of satisfying the needs and wants of consumers. It includes all those activities which are performed in this process. Some of the important definitions of Marketing are as follows : J.f.Pyle,"Marketing comprises both buying and selling activities. Tousley, Clark and Clary "Marketing consists of those efforts which affect transfers in the ownership of goods and services and provide for their physical distribution.” American Marketing Association, "Marketing is the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user." Cundif a Still, "Marketing is the business process by which products are matched with markets and through which transfers of ownership are effected.” On the basis of above definitions, it can be concluded that marketing is not an activity. It is a process which begins with the discovery of consumer wants and it continues till these needs are effectively satisfied. Marketing stresses upon the satisfaction of consumer needs to such great extent that all the activities of economic world go around these needs. The producers produce what consumers like. They fix the prices keeping in view as to what consumers can afford. They distribute the goods and services through the channels which are most suited to the consumers. They distribute these goods and services at the time and place which are most convenient to the consumers. All the producers want to attract more and more customers to their products. For this, they adopt all the possible media of advertisement and sales promotion. Special emphasis is laid on market research so that

every change in the fashion, habit, liking, dis-liking of consumers may be effectively met. New and improved products are introduced in the market and customers are inspired to use them. Thus, the standard of living of the society is improved. Hence it includes all the activities starting from the discovery of consumer needs till there satisfaction.

Meaning and Definition of Planning
Planning is the process of deciding the future actions. What to do?, How to do?, When to do?, Who to do?, Why to do?, Where to do?, etc. are the questions to be decided by the process of planning so that pre-determined objectives of the enterprise may be achieved successfully and economically and future uncertainties may be minimised. Planning is also regarded as a process of selecting the best possible alternative from among the various alternatives available for the solution of a given problem. The term Planning' has been defined by many eminent authors. Some of the important definitions are as follows : James L. Lundy, "It means the determination of what is to be done, how and where it is to be done, who will do it and how results are to be evaluated." M.E. Hurely, "Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done. It involves the selection of objectives, policies, procedures and programmes from among alternatives." George R. Terry, "Planning is a method or technique of looking ahead, a constructive reviewing of future so that the present action can be adjusted in view the established goals." These analytical study of above definitions, it can be concluded that panning is the process of deciding future actions. It involves the selection of organizational objectivities, policies, procedures and programmes.Planning is an important activity of management because to get success in a venture, it is necessary d to decide the policies and programmes for it.

Meaning and Definition of Marketing Planning
After making the separate study of the words - Marketing and Planning it can be concluded that Marketing Planning is a part of the process of overall planning of a business and industrial enterprise. Marketing Planning sales forecasting, determination of marketing objectives, and the formulation of marketing programmes and policies for the achievement of

these objectives. The term `Marketing Planning' has been defined by many eminent authors. Some of these important definitions are as follows: Stephen Morse, "Marketing planning is concerned with the identification of resources that are available and their allocation to meet specified objectives.” American Marketing association, "Marketing planning is the work of setting up objectives for marketing activities and of determining and scheduling the steps necessary to achieve such objectives." On the basis of analytical study of above definitions, it can be concluded that Marketing Planning is a continuous process in which the marketing objectives of and enterprise are decided and marketing programmes, policies, and procedures are determined for the performance of different marketing activities such as 1. Marketing Research, 2. Product planning & development, 3. Advertisement and sales promotion, 4. Physical distribution and after sale services etc. The process of marketing planning involves Product policy planning, price policy planning, physical distribution policy planning and sales promotion policy planning. Marketing planning is the liability of marketing department. Marketing department is divided into many sub-departments and separate managers are appointed to look after all these sub departments. All these sub-departments prepare their individual plans on the basis of which marketing planning for the whole enterprise is chalked out.

Objectives of Marketing Planning
Marketing Planning is the base of marketing management. The object of marketing planning is to make the best possible utilization of all the human and physical resources of an enterprise so that pre-determined marketing objectives of the enterprise can be achieved. Marketing Planning helps in establishing effective co-ordination between various activities of the enterprise, brings certainty in its marketing activities, checks the wastages and brings economy in managerial efforts. However, the objects of marketing planning in an enterprise can be described as follows: (1) Helpful in Forecasting. Forecasting is the essence of planning. The main object of marketing planning is to formulate marketing plans on the basis of sales forecasting. Thus, marketing planning provides the base for

sales forecasting. (2) To Minimise Future Uncertainties. Future is very much uncertain. An expert marketing manager is one who can forecast the future circumstances and prepare necessary plans and policies. Marketing planning provides for the analysis of present circumstances and past trends so that the future circumstances may be forecasted and the plans to achieve pre-determined objectives may be prepared. Thus, marketing planning helps in minimising the future uncertainties, as far as possible. (3) Helpful in Co-ordination. Co-ordination is the essence of marketing management. To achieve any success in the efforts of organisation, it becomes necessary that all the efforts must be very well co-ordinated. Marketing planning helps in co-ordinating the activities of all the departments of the enterprise. Marketing planning co-ordinates the activities not only of its own department but it helps in co-ordinating the activities of all the departments of the enterprise. (4) Helpful in Control. Marketing planning is also an important tool in the hands of management to control the activities of the enterprise. With the help of marketing planning, the objectives are set up, the results of actual performance are measured and compared with pre-determined standards and the variances, if any, are analysed and corrective measures are adopted. Thus, marketing planning helps in controlling the activities of all the departments of the enterprise. (5) Helpful in Management by Objectives. Management by objectives is the latest approach of management. Under this technique, top executives of the enterprise take the decisions only in respect of the key problems. Problems of routine nature are solved at junior levels of management. It is marketing planning which makes a difference between the problems of key nature and that of routine nature. Thus, marketing planning helps in management by objectives. (6) A check upon Wastages. Marketing planning determines the objectives of the enterprise, decides the plans and policies, and prepares programmes, and procedures and, thus controls the activities of an enterprise in a very efficient manner. All the efforts are made to get the maximum results with the help of minimum efforts. Thus, it helps in checking all the wastages in the enterprise. (7) Helpful in Maintaining Healthy Competition within Enterprise. The process of marketing planning determines marketing objectives and prepares

marketing plans, programmes, and policies. It also determines the duties, responsibilities and power of all the employees of the enterprise very specifically. All the employees of the enterprise try to achieve their objectives. It creates the feelings of competition among them. (8) Helpful in Providing Maximum Satisfaction to Consumers. The process of marketing planning concentrates upon providing best possible satisfaction to the consumers. The interests of consumers are duly protected. All the best efforts are made to provide the goods and services of best quality at reasonable prices and at the time and place most suitable to the consumers. It also provides effective after sale-services. All the activities of the enterprise go around the satisfaction of needs and wants of consumers. Thus, the process of marketing planning helps in providing best possible satisfaction to the consumers. (9) Helpful in Facing Competition. It is the time of throat cut competition. A business and industrial enterprise can be successful only if it can read the policy of its competitors and may prepare itself to face the challenges created by its competitors in the market. The process of planning helps in achieving this object very successfully. It does not concentrate only upon the activities of the enterprise but it keeps a close eye upon the policies and strategies of its competitors so that appropriate actions may be taken at proper time and the competition may be faced successfully. (10) Helpful in Increasing the Efficiency of Employees. The process of marketing planning help in increasing the efficiency of the employees of the enterprise also. It sets the individual objectives for all the employees, measures the results of their individual performance and evaluates this performance in the light of their individual objectives. It increases the feeling of responsibility among the employees. They try their best to achieve their objectives and they make their best efforts to get the best results. It helps in increasing their efficiency.

Elements of Marketing Planning
The process of marketing planning involves the performance of many activities. All the activities which are performed in the process of marketing planning are known as the elements of marketing planning. Main elements of marketing planning may be' described as under: (1) Determination of Objectives. Every business and industrial enterprise is established for the achievement of some specific objects and all the

Policies provide guidance to the subordinates in proper discharge of their responsibilities. Forecasting is the art of estimating future on the basis of analysis of past data and present circumstances. They also help the management in maintaining effective supervision and control. These objects may be determined for long term as well as for short-term. A procedure is the specific manner in which t h e actions are to take place and the works are to be performed. Marketing activities also require well defined policies so that the actions may go on in desired direction. The objectives must be very specific and clear and these must be clearly defined to all the concerned employees. Therefore. will do it in the uniform manner. A procedure is a sequence of steps to be undertaken by an enterprise to enforce a policy and to achieve its pre-determined objectives. . setting up of objectives is the very first step of the process of marketing planning. These must be flexible so that necessary changes maybe made according to the need. and type of employees to be recruited. (4) Procedures. Policies also help in establishing co-operation among them. Marketing activities are also performed with the same objects. Policies indicate the manner in which the employees of an organisation will work in a particular situation. It is the duty of top marketing executives to set the marketing objectives of the enterprise. A policy Establishes the boundaries which provide general direction in which managerial actions will take place. These procedures must be in acccordance with the objects and circumstances of the enterprices.activities of the enterprise are performed for the accomplishment of these objects. quantity of a particular product to be produced. (2) Forecastings. They explain these objectives to all the members of staff and then determine the individual objectives of all the members of staff and inspire them to achieve their individual objectives. amount of finance required. Second element of the process of marketing planning after the determination of marketing objectives of the enterprise is to forecast different aspects to facilitate the achievement of these objectives. (3) Policies. Marketing activities of the organisation require the determination of specific procedures through which the activities will be performed. Policies are the general statements of understanding created for the attainment of objectives. Thus. On the basis of sales forecasting. can be decided. it is essential that an organisation must decide its policies well in advance. Procedures define the way in which a particular work will be performed so as to ensure that whosoever performs it.

Policies decide the sequence of activities to be done.g. Thus. Specific schedules must be determined for the programmes of advertisement and sales promotion. A programme is a sequence of the activities which aim at implementing the policies of the enterprise so that predetermined objectives may be achieved. Schedule determines the time limit for each activity. A rule is a definite and rigid plan that specifies what is to be done or not to be done in a particular situation. Thus... financial strategies. Plan and policies have to be changed according to the change conditions.g. It defines the steps to be taken. intensive or extensive. a programme is a mixture of objectives policies. production strategies and personnel strategies etc. . time limit for each step and the persons liable to execute a plan. e. Programme may be short-term or long-term. general or specific. In the field of marketing right activity at the right time is the key to get success. while rules do not decide any such sequence. Strict schedule must be determined for every activity of marketing and schedule must be strictly followed. shortage of the raw material or power problems etc. price reduction by competitors. resources to be used. A rule is a plan which cannot be deviated. A strategy is a particular type of plan which is prepared to adjust with other plans. Strategies depend upon the situations and problems occurring within and outside the firm. A programme is considered as a brief plan to do a particular work. A programme is prepared to execute the planned works. Rules must be decided well in advance in respect of all the marketing activities to be performed and all the best e its should be made to get these rules followed. slump in demand. e. a rule is a specific guide to actions and permits no discretion or judgment. (7) Rules. marketing strategies. (6) Schedule. no flexibility can be allowed from rules. strike by employees. (8) Strategies. It must be decided well in advance that how much quantity of a particular product will have to be delivered at what time and at which place. Strategies help in adjusting with the changed conditions and implementing the plans in such conditions. It seeks to meet some specific problems. procedures and rules. It represents the decisions to initiate certain in actions for the accomplishment of pre-determined objectives.(5) Programme. Rules are different from policies because policies are framed for the benefit of the enterprise while rules are only the simple form of plans. Strategies are framed for various functional areas of a business or industrial undertaking. Programme must be prepared keeping in view policies and procedures of the enterprise.

A budget is a very important tool of planning in the modern industrial age. budget is considered to be a part of planning process. adjustment in the quantity of production to meet the changes in demand. production budget. The activities. It may be for a period of three months. This type of planning is the liability of medium level of management. The problems to be dealt by short term marketing planning are . and expansion of plant etc. overheads budget etc.the details in this regards as follows: [i] Long-term Marketing Planning .(9)Budgets. Scope of Marketing Planning Activities Marketing Planning activities can be divided in to three parts:[1]Long term Marketing Planning [ii]Short term marketing planning . this type of planning relates to the planning of new product. nine months or a maximum twelve months. Long-term marketing planning provides the frame work within which short-term marketing plannning and ad hoc marketing planning are prepared and implemented. A budget is a financial plan. Long-term planning is a liability of a top management. sales budget. six months. Budgets may be of different types. purchase budget. Generally.expansion of market. selection of price policy. Therefore. It can never be prepared for the past.Short-term marketing planning is prepared within the framework of long term marketing planning. . and[iii]Ad hoc marketing planning . A budget is always prepared for the future. of an enterprise can be controlled effectively through this budget.it involves the development of basic objectives and the determination of fundamental policies to guide future efforts of an enterprise. such as. selection of channels of distributions. selection of media of advertisement and sales promotion etc [ii] Short-term Marketing planning. exapansion of product line . Determination of advertisement and sales promotion programme for the current year. selection of me diaries. product diversification. Because of this element.Long-term marketing planning means planning for a period of more than one year . It establishes the limits within which e goals must be achieved. solution of the problems of routine nature of selling fore etc. Short-term Marketing planning is the planning of marketing activities for a period of less than one year.Adjustment in the prices of products to face the competition.cash budget. budget is a toot for maintaining effective control. Short-term marketing planning relates to the planning of problems of recurring nature. Long-term marketing planning selection of marketing research programme.

to make the process of marketing planning effective. Marketing objectives may be determined in respect of sales volume. These objectives must be very clear and specific. costs of marketing activities.it is a solution to the problems arising in the actual performance of marketing activities. (2)Prognosis. latest tendencies of demand. Adhoc Marketing Planning is the planning of activities to be performed in the future. Prognosis means to study the condition of a patient in future. Setting up of marketing objectives means to decide where we want to go. This type of planning is required immediately to solve the specific problem. So. Many unforeseen and unexpected changes may take place in the circumstances prevailing in the market. etc. volume of sales in different sales territories. circumstances and problems of the particular enterprise are properly analyzed. share of the . then present policies and programmes must be changed accordingly to achieve best results. a study should be conducted for the particular business and industrial enterprise that if present circumstances continue. Thus. present policies of the enterprise may be continued but if it is revealed by this study that future of the enterprise is dark. Process of Marketing Planning Philip Kotler has described six steps of the Process of Marketing Planning as under : (1) Diagnosis. proper diagnosis of his disease. total capacity of the plant. what will be the volume of sales and profits of that enterprise. in the same manner. (3) Objectives. In the same manner. Ad hoc marketing planning provides a solution to such problems. Many problems arise which require on-the-spot solution.Thus the ad hoc marketing planning is not a regular and a systematic form of planning . share of enterprise in the total sales of the market.[iii] Adhoc Marketing Planning. past trends and future forecasts must be analysed properly. 'if he continues in a particular situation. effective marketing planning is possible only when the situations. Such analysis may relate to various fields such as . Future is quite unpredictable. As proper treatment of a patient is possible only after. it is necessary that the present situations. prognosis is the research in respect of marketing environment.volume of sales of different products. If this study reveals that the future of the enterprise is bright.

Tactics is a method adopted for implementing the strategies. (6) Control. There may be different possible strategies available to face a particular problem. it is an objective. For the implementation of this strategy. Limitation of resources of the enterprise must also be considered while deciding these objectives. the best possible strategy must be selected after careful evaluation of merits and demerits of all the strategies available. the reasons for this situation are analysed and the necessary corrective measures are adopted. These three words can be explained with the help of an example . The last step of the process of marketing planning is to control.How the strategies of an enterprise will be used for the achievment of pre-determined objectives. Results of actual performance are collected and compared with the standards. . the tactics indicate the particular vehicle it will use. (4 )Strategies. it is strategy. to attract maximum number of consumers and to make maximum exploitation of all the physical and human resources available in an enterprise. If there are favourable variances. A Strategy is the way to achieve pre-determined objectives of the enterprise. it is tactics. the strategies indicate the intended route.A business enterprise decided the object of increasing its sales volume by 50% in a particular year.enterprise in the market and profits etc. In the words of Philip Kotler. Strategies may be regarded as the principles which are determined and used to face the competition successfully. For the achievement of this objective. it was decided that the stockists will get 2% commission on sales and an attractive incentive sche a will be launched for the retailers. it was decided that the sales will be increased through stockists and retailers. (5) Tactics. "The objectives of a company indicate where it wants to go. is known as tactics. In this situation. Main marketing object must be to maximize profits by providing maximum satisfaction to the consumers. the efforts are made to maintain this situation but if the variances are unfavourable. These marketing objectives must be determined in the light of marketing environment. he process of control sees whether the strategies and the tactics of the enterprise are being properly implemented or not and whether the activities of the enterprise are going in the right direction of achieving its predetermined objectives or not.

(4) To Increase the Organisational Efficiency. Thus. marketing planning helps in effective co-ordination between managerial activities of production department. determines the order of these activities. sales promotion. The process of marketing planning increases the organisational efficiency also by making decision making process quick and by defining individual duties. (3) Co-ordination in Managerial Functions. Marketing planning provides the base of comparison of actual results with the pre-determined standards to evaluate the success of these programmes and policies. marketing planning prepares planned strategies and programmes for the future so that future uncertainties may be minimised and the objectives of the enterprise may successfully be achieved (2) Clarification of objectives. In the process of marketing planning. Along with this. finance department and personnel department so that all the departments of the enterprise may join together and make combined efforts for the achievement of objectives of enterprise. It co-ordinates all the activities of marketing department. prepares marketing programmes.physical distribution and after-sale-services etc. Not only this. It establishes effective coordination among different activities of marketing department such as marketing research. plans and policies. product planning and development. policies and strategies. Future is always uncertain. past trends and present circumstances are analysed so that forecasts may be prepared for the future in different fields of marketing activities. rights and liabilities . necessary plans are prepare for the achievement of objectives of the enterprise. The objectives of the enterprise are clarified by marketing planning and clearly explained to all the concerned employees of the enterprise so that they may contribute their whole-hearted efforts for the achievement of these objectives.Importace of Marketing Planning No entrepreneur can achieve pre-determined objectives of his enterprise in the absence of an effective marketing planning because the process of marketing planning decides the activities to be performed. Uncertainty future makes marketing planning necessary for all the enterprises. The importance of marketing planning increases many folds due to the following reasons: (1) To Offset Future Uncertainties. Marketing planning helps in coordinating all the managerial activities of the enterprise. advertisement. and then helps in successful implementation of these programmes.

Then the individual objectives of all the employees of the enterprise are determined. (5) Economy in the Operations of Enterprise. the objectives of the enterprise can be achieved with minimum efforts and also at. (6) Helpful in Controlling Functions.of all the employees of the enterprise. The process of marketing plan mined objectives of the enterprise through maximum satisfaction to the consumers. The theme of the marketing planning is the satisfaction of needs and wants of consumers. of time labour and money.limitations or Criticisms of Marketing Planning Marketing Planning is an important part of marketing management but it is not free from criticisms. It directs all the employees also so that they may contribute with their best efforts to achieve organisations objectives. If the variances are favorable. maximum possible exploitation of all the human and physical resources of the enterprise. Marketing planning has been criticised by many scholars on many grounds. Their argument is that marketing plans are determined in the background of . The process of marketing planning sets overall marketing objectives for the enterprise. efforts are made to maintain them and if these variances are unfavourable . It is felt and realized that only the satisfaction of consumers' needs can fetch the desired results. It also aims at making. The variances are located. Thus. Therefore. all the activities of the enterprise must concentrate to provide more and more satisfication to the consumers Difficulties. Minimum costs. Then the objectives of individual departments are determined. Marketing planning is also helpful in increasing managerial efficiency of the enterprise. It develops the feeling of sincerity and sense of responsibility among managerial executives of the enterprise.It directs all the managerial activities of the enterprise and controls these activities. Actual performance of these employees and departments are measured and the results of actual performance are compared with pre-determined targets. Marketing planning aims at achieving maximum results with minimum efforts. Some of the scholars are of the opinion that marketing planning is only the wastage. It checks all unnecessary expenses. efforts are made to remove them (7) To Increase managerial Efficiency. (8) Satisfaction of Consumer Needs. money and energy of the enterprise may be saved. It develops the feeling of responsibility among all the employees. It also checks repetition of activities so that the time.

advertisement. Most of the business enterprises are not in a position to meet this expenditure.most of the business and industrial enterprises avoid marketing planning. present conditions and estimates of future circumstances. energy and money which increases the cost of marketing planning.Marketing Planning is based on sales forecasting. Some of the scholars are of the opinion that the behavior of consumers in India is very uncertain. It reduces the importance of marketing planning. The longer be the period of sales forecasts. These difficulties and limitations are as follows: (1) Uncertainty of Future Events or Conditions. This makes it very difficult for the products of the enterprise to compete in the market. This change necessitates frequent changes in the prices of products. Any effort of marketing planning can be successful only with the co-operation and coordination of various factors like supply of raw-materials. frequent changes in costs cause a great problem in the success of marketing planning. Any change in the price of product bears a direct relation with the demand of product in the market. (5) No Control on the Suppliers of Raw-Materials. (2) Expensive Method. Out of these factors. It needs a lot of time.uncertain and changing circumstances and when the base of determination of these plans is uncertain. (4) Rapid Changes in Cost of Production. The process of marketing planning is quite expensiv e because it involves extensive marketing research. distribution. Thus. In the absence of sound marketing research. sales forecasts are made in the atmosphere of uncertainty. marketing planning can not be very fruitful. Any change in the demand of product affects objectives of marketing planning. production. Marketing planning is based entirely upon marketing research. It makes the process of marketing research very difficult and the results of marketing research are not very reliable. the factors of supply of raw-materials and power are beyond . sales promotion. Basic reason of the criticisms of marketing planning is the difficulties in the process of marketing planning or the limitations of marketing planning. Future is always uncertain. The burden of such expenditure is ultimately born by the consumers. demand etc. these forecasts can not be believed to be true and correct. Therefore. They do not express their feelings and opinions. (3) Difficulties in Marketing Research. The costs change very frequently in our country. Sales forecasting is based on analytical study of past trends. how can it be believed to be certain. So. less will be their reliability because future events and circumstances are more uncertain for a longer period. Thus. supply of power.

While determining plans. Thus. In addition to this. policies and strategies so frequently. Difficulties and limitations increase the liabilities and responsibilities of planners. In the light of this problem. The process of marketing planning suffers from the lack of flexibility also. they must be more aware and vigil. Marketing planning is a process. If there is a lack of such persons or if the marketing manager is not of required calibre. marketing efforts cannot be successful even if all other factors are properly controlled and co-ordinated. If the supply of any of these two factors is not adequate. Thus. It causes a problem in the successful implementation of these programmes and policies. Thus. the process of marketing planning cannot be effective. marketing planning becomes unproductive in the absence of control over the supply of raw-materials and power. Of course. marketing manager must be assisted by intelligent staff members. The process of marketing planning requires an intelligent marketing manager. the selection of best alternative is a great problem in the process of marketing planning. The reason of this problem is that the circumstances of a business and industrial enterprise keep on changing while it is not possible to change the marketing programmes. the selection of best alternative becomes very difficult. the difficulties and problems are there but it does . Marketing planning is an activity involving the use of great intelligence. It can not be successful without the whole-hearted co-operation of all the employees and all the departments of the enterprise. may not serve as the best tomorrow. (7) Lack of Flexibility. Above discussions makes it clear that marketing planning has certain limitations and these limitations become the problems in the way of effective planning but it should not mean that marketing planning is not necessary. (8) Lack of Adequate Managerial Ability or Intelligence. Moreover. Every alternative has its own merits and demerits. the process of marketing planning cannot be very successful and effective. (9) Psychological Problems. If the employees of the enterprise do not extend their co-operation or if the marketing manager is unable in getting their co-operation. Marketing planning involves the selection of best alternative from among the available alternatives but it is not very easy to select the best alternative. lack of required flexibility is also a problem in the way of marketing planning. (6) Difficulty in the Selection of Best Alternative. an alternative which is considered to be best today.the control of manufacturers.

The price determined by the enterprise. necessary adjustments in the number of selling employees. it also includes the division of advertisement and sales promotion efforts according to products. This plan relates to the determination of policy and preparation of programmes relating to advertise ment and sales promotion. It also includes the formulation of policy in this regard. It includes the evaluation of effectiveness of marketing efforts of the enterprise so that necessary changes may be made in these efforts. determination of the message of advertisement and the selection of methods of sales promotion. This plan relates to the functions of physical distribution of the goods and services. (6) Marketing Research Plan. This plan includes the determination of price for the goods and services keeping in view the situation of money inflation. (2) Sales Force Plan. money deflation and competition. motivation and inspiration to the selling employees etc. It includes the selection of channels of distribution and the number of such channels. This plan relates to the estimate of expansion. must be reasonable from the point of view of customers and beneficial from the point of view of enterprise. training to selling employees.not make it unnecessary or unfruitful. This plan relates to the efforts of marketing research in an enterprise. selection of media of advertisement. contraction and modification of product line so that the changes in demand of product may be met successfully and timely and marketing objectives may be achieved. Marketing Planning System in Various Marketing organisations (1) Product Mix Plan. It includes the preparation of advertisement budget. It also includes the study of consumer behavior and the study of changes in the conditions of market. Determination of price is perhaps the most important and sensitive issue of all the marketing functions. customers and market segments. (3) Advertising and Sales Promotion Plan. (5) Pricing Plan. This plan relates to the planning of efforts of selling force of enterprise. . The aim of this plan is to make the efforts of sales force of the enterprise more effective. In addition to this. It includes reorganization of sales territories. (4) Distribution Channels Plan.

(7) Physical Distribution Plan. different marketing policies are formulated and different marketing programmes are fixed for different products. These plans relate to the determination of individual marketing objectives for every segment of market.Marketing Planning in the Product-oriented Marketing Organisation. (8) Marketing Organisation Plan. Market oriented marketing organisation is the type of marketing organisation in which marketing plans are prepared from the point of view of different segments of market. [III] Marketing Planning in the Market-oriented Marketing Organisation. the determination of points of distribution and the selection of means of transportation so that the goods and services may be made available to the consumers at minimum cost of transportation. Product oriented marketing organisation is the type of marketing organisation in which different marketing plans are prepared. It establishes effective co-ordination between various departments of the enterprise so that the plans.There are some more specific areas to evaluate so as to complete marketing planning or we can say evaluation of these elements are essential for continuity of marketing planning they are: (a) Marketing Strategy (b) Marketing Programme (c) Marketing Mix (d) Marketing Decision Meaning and Definition of Marketing Programme The very first problem arising before a business and industrial enterprise just after the determination of marketing objectives is how to achieve these . It includes the determination of the system of inventory control. and programmes of the enterprise may be implemented effectively and easily. [IV]Marketing Planning in the Customer-oriented Marketing Organisation. This plan relates to the efforts of physical distribution of the goods and services. Customer-oriented marketing organisation is the marketing organisation in which all the customers of the goods and services being produced by an enterprise are divided into different groups on the basis of their characteristics and different marketing plans are determined for every group of customers. [II]. This plan relates to the efforts of co-op ration and co-ordination. After Analyzing different components of marketing planning .

The term Marketing Programme has been defined by many eminent authors. communication mix and service mix.marketing objectives.this task must be performed with due care and attention because if the programme is not sound . allocation and mix of marketing efforts. co-ordinates and controls the actual performance. Factors Affecting the Planning of a Marketing Programme Marketing Programme is a programme prepared with a view to coordinate . This programme determines marketing mix which includes the determination of distribution mix. Jerome McCarthy. it can be concluded programme that a programme is prepared for the achievement of predetermined marketing objectives. Sales of an enterprise . A marketing programme is a well defined plan in writing which co-ordinates and directs the marketing activities of the enterprise." On the basis of analytical study of above definitions. Therefore. Thus. It defines all the activities to be performed by marketing department for the achievement of pre-determined marketing objectives. before planning factors must be duly considered.the marketing efforts will not be able in producing desired results . "A marketing programme is a set of policy decisions on the level.planning of marketing programme is very important task before marketing department .direct and control various marketing activities of an enterprise so that pre-determined marketing objectives of the enterprise may be achieved . Main object of every business and industrial enterprise is to earn the maximum profits and this object can be achieved only by maximising the sales of the enterprise. it can be concluded that marketing programme is the determination how the marketing activities will be performed for the achievement of marketing objectives in a certain time with the use of available resources. Some of the important definitions are as follows : Philip Kotler. "A marketing programme is a set of marketing strategies which seek to reach the firm's goals by making the most effective possible use of the firm's resources. It fixes the time schedule for the performance of these activities. This programme is known as marketing programme. These factors are as follows: (1) Demand Variables. motivates. It also determines the persons who will perform these activities and directs." E. A programme is prepared so that these objectives may be achieved.

These factors include the prices of products.An enterprise can make important changes in the demand of different products its marketing decisions. the quality of products. brand and packing of products. (2) Marketing Decision Variables Or Internal Variables. Marketing allocation means the allocation of total money to be spent on total marketing efforts of the enterprise among its products." Marketing allocation the way in which the total amount to be spent on marketing . nature of consumers. the firm is using at a particular time. In the words of Philip Kotler. it is equally important to use this money in the best possible manner. Level of marketing efforts means the total amount allocated for marketing efforts and the effectiveness of marketing efforts means the utilisation of allocated money." The marketing manager decides the best possible marketing mix for the enterprise on the basis of particular circumstances and requirements of his enterprise. such as behavior of consumers. segments and sales areas. methods of sales promotion. communication mix and service mix. These demand variables must be properly considered at the time of planning of a marketing programme.income and habits of consumers. consumers and sales territories. In the words of Philip Kotler.These factors are called demand variables. These factors are within the control of enterprise. distribution mix. Marketing efforts mean the total amount of company input in to the marketing process to stimulate al of Marketing efforts of an enterprise can be divided into two parts . (4) Marketing Efforts. The demand of a product is affected by many factors. and (ii) Effectiveness of marketing efforts. In the words of Philip Kotler. "Demand variables are the factors which affect industry and company sales".needs. Marketing mix includes product mix. and the rules of credit and discount etc. The volume of sales in an enterprise depends upon both the factors. customers. There may be several marketing mixes suitable for an enterprise but the best and most suitable marketing mix is to be selected by the enterprise." Marketing mix refers to the amount and kinds of marketing variables. (5) Marketing Allocation. channels of distribution. media of advertisement.(i) marketing efforts. These are the variables which are related to the marketing decisions taken by an enterprise. "Marketing allocation is the company's division of its market of efforts among its products. It is not sufficient to allocate a heavy amount for marketing efforts. (3) Marketing Mix.depends upon the demand of its products in the market.

While preparing marketing programme. Meaning and Definition of Marketing Mix Marketing Mix refers to a combination of all marketing resources and marketing efforts of an enterprise through which pre determined objectives of the enterprise may be achieved and maximum satisfaction may be provided to the consumers. marketing responsiveness must also be carefully considered so that particular attention may be paid to the customers not giving required response to the efforts of the enterprise. has been defined by many eminent scholars. In other words.Marketing Mix. Marketing Mix is the sum total of all the pains taken by an enterprise in the field of marketing management the term." Prof. Some new competitors enter into the market while some existing competitors go out of the market. In addition to this. In the words of Philip Kotler "A marketing strategy is a set of objectives. the designing and the integration of the elements of marketing into a programme or mix which. Bordon of Harvard Business School. "Marketing Mix refers to the amount and kinds of marketing variables. Marketing strategy indicates the policy of an enterprise to meet out the changes in the demand of its products. Some of the important definitions are as follows: Philip Kotler. habit and behavior of consumers. the combination.activities of the enterprise will be distributed on different products and market segments. There are frequent changes in the nature."Marketing responsiveness includes the study of response and reaction of an individual buyer. policies and rules that guide over time the firms marketing efforts." Marketing conditions are never static. Marketing strategy affects marketing programme of an enterprise to a great extent. These changes make it necessary for an enterprise to have a dynamic strategy and make necessary changes in its marketing efforts. mixes and allocation of marketing efforts. Neil H. the situation of competition also keeps on changing. the firm is using at a particular time. (6) Marketing Strategy." The marketing Mix refers to the apportionment of efforts. (7) Marketing Responsiveness. Change is the regular feature of market. a market segment or the whole market. Marketing responsiveness means the response and reaction in the market to the marketing activities of an enterprise. In the words of Philip kotler “Marketing responsiveness is the behavior of sales in response to alternative levels. on .

The enterprise selects the products according to the needs and wants of its consumers. Distribution Mix refers to a combination of all the efforts of an enterprise to distribute the goods and services being produced by it to the consumers.the basis of an appraisal of the marketing force. It includes the sales promotion and personal selling etc. and service mix. communication mix. It also aims at giving full information regarding alternative uses.Wholesalers-Retailers. (3) Communication Mix. Thus. These services include the . (iii) Producers-Selling Agents-Consumers. Main aim of these efforts is to create. marketing mix may be referred as a combination of various elements constituting a total marketing system for a firm. The details regarding various elements of Marketing Mix are as follows: (1) Product Mix." Marketing Mix refers to all marketing efforts and all the marketing decisions of an enterprise for the purpose of achievement of predetermined objectives. Any one of channels may be selected by the enterprise. (ii) Producers-Agents-Retailers-Consumers. Communication Mix refers to the efforts of advertisement and sales promotion. distribution mix. (4) Service Mix. Marketing Mix includes product mix. Goods and services may be transmitted to the consumers through different channels of distribution and an enterprise has to select the most suited channel of distribution for transmitting its goods and services. Channels of distribution commonly used by producers are as under : (i)Producer. will achieve the best objectives of an enterprise at a given time. Product Mix means the group of all the products being produced by an enterprise. It includes selection of channels of distribution. All the efforts are made to study the behaviour of consumers so that necessary changes may be made in the products according to the needs of these consumers. Service Mix refers to the various services provided by an enterprise to its consumers before and after sales. quality and characteristics of products of the enterprise to the consumers. It also helps in making a comparative study of the products of enterprise with the similar products of others enterprise so that the consumers may convinced that they should go only for the products of enterprise.Consumers. (2) Distribution Mix. (iv) Producers-Consumers. maintain and increase the demand of goods and services being produced by the enterprises.

the basis of competition. The demand of goods and services produced by an enterprise depends upon the tastes.These factors areas follows : (1) Consumer Behaviour. Therefore.' actors relating to market. habits and likings of consumers depend to a great extent upon the standard of living of consumers. (2) Competition. Thus. Factors or Forces Affecting Marketing Mix Factors affecting marketing mix can be divided into two parts. Tastes. prepared by the enterprise. free repair. The effect of each such variable of marketing mix must be thoroughly studied so that the markteing programme. various marketing decision variables must be duly considered. . Competition is perhaps the most important factor affecting the demand of goods and services of an enterprise. Market factors affecting the marketing mix of an enterprise are the factors relating to the conditions of the market. (ii) actors relating to marketing. The number of competitors. replacement etc. guarantee. Marketing Mix establishes effective co-ordination among all these mixes. marketing strategies and policies of competitors. A market manager must make a thorough study of competitive conditions in the market. The details in this regard are as follows : [1] Factors Relating to Market. in turn. every change in the standard of living of the consumers affects the demand of the goods and services of an enterprise. the marketing mix for the goods and services of the enterprise. Consumer behaviour is one of the most important factors affecting demand and. the quantity and characteristics of the products of competitors. a marketing manager must study the changes and the factors affecting these changes in the standard of living of consumers and product mix of the enterprise must be determined on the basis of this study. While chalking out the marketing programme. and the view point of competitors towards consumers must be considered before deciding upon the marketing mix for the enterprise. habits and likings of consumers.facility of credit. Any effort of enterprise can be successful only if these factors are duly considered. may meet its objectives and may contribute in achieving objectives of the enterprise. These factors are not under the control of the enterprise but affect marketing mix to a great extent.

behaviour. product research. In India also. [II] Factors Relating to Marketing Marketing factors are the internal factors affecting marketing mix of an enterprise. of the products. These factors are within the control of the enterprise. we observe governments intervention in regards to pricing. attitude. Only the distributors come into direct contact with the customers. marketing manager must study the government rules and regulations applicable to the products of his enterprise before deciding upon marketing mix. product development. Product planning includes marketing research. quality. Attractive packing attracts the attention of . determination of the qualities of products. Government. marketing manager must consider different forms of distribution system. Following factors are included in this group. the nature and the behaviour of distributors. brand. Therefore. and wants of consumers in a better manner. Therefore. the facilities offered by these distributors and the terms and conditions of these distributors. The success of marketing efforts of an enterprise depends to a large extent upon the effectiveness of the channels of distribution adopted by the enterprise.(3) The Pattern of Distribution System. Packing is also playing an important role in increasing the sales of an enterprise. The decision about the selection of distributors must be taken after due consideration of the nature and characteristics of the products of the enterprise. Brand policy must be decided after considering the nature of products and attitudes of consumers. There may be two alternatives regarding brandSimilar brand may be adopted for all the products of enterprise or different brand may be adopted for different products of the enterprise. packing. market segmentation. Table. (4) Government Control. etc. through its various rules and regulations. control the marketing activities of the country. (3) Packing Policy. Therefore they can understand the nature. (1) Product Planning. The aim of product planning is to satisfy the needs and wants of consumers so that the sales of the enterprise may be increased and the marketing objectives may be achieve (2) Brand Policy. It includes the decisions regarding trade-mark and brand name of the products. Trade mark and brand names also affect the volume of sales of the enterprise. determination of the quantity of products etc.

Some new competitors enter into the-market at different times while some existing. and services from producers to consumers is a very important part of marketing activities. (4) Distribution Channels. he may make necessary changes in the marketing strategy of his enterprise according to the changes taking place in the market. This all depends upon the experience. quality.First. analysis and evaluation of all the above factors and determines an ideal marketing mix for his enterprise. in such circumstances. A successful marketing manager is one who makes a careful study. he may be neutral towards the changes taking place in the market. colour and the get up of packing must be decided after careful analyses of various factors. There is no hard and fast rule as to the selection of different factors. Only the salesmen sell the products to the consumers. Personal selling is the translation of all the ideas and objectives into action. The size. A particular channel of distribution must be selected after a careful study of the nature of products and needs and requirements of the enterprise and the facilities offered by different channels. Above discussion makes it clear that\there are various factors affecting marketing mix of an enterprise. rational thinking and foresightedness of marketing manager. There may be various channels of distribution. The policy of making necessary changes in the elements of marketing according to the needs and circumstances of the market is called marketing strategy.The term"Marketing Strategy" has been defined as under: . competitors go out of the market and some of the existing competitors change their marketing strategy. Salesmen are the real heroes of the field of marketing. Meaning and Definition of Marketing Strategy Change is the permanent feature of market. or second.himself in continuous touch with the changes in the market and makes necessary changes in the marketing strategy of his enterprise. No rigid principle can be laid down regarding the ratio in which various elements of marketing mix should be mixed. (5) Personal Selling.consumers and it increases the sales of products. there are only two alternatives before the marketing manager of an enterprise . A successful marketing manager is one who offers second alternative and keeps. Physical distribution of goods. Advertisement Programmes must be followed by effective personal selling.

Some are the marketing inputs which are synergistic nature. If any change is expected in the prices of products by competitors.Phlip Kotler. there are various channels of distribution. Similarly. relative changes become immediately necessary in another inputs also. Similarly. for increasing the volume of sales. For example. after sale services. Factors to be Considered in Formulating Marketing Strategy Following factors must be considered while determining marketing strategy for an enterprise: (1)Expected Countermoves of The Competitors. There are many marketing inputs affecting marketing strategy of an enterprise. production policy and channels of distribution are the marketing inputs of synergistic nature. efforts must be made to forecast whether the competitors will also reduce the prices of their products or not. it can be said that whenever an enterprise changes its marketing strategy. such as . facility of home delivery. Officials of marketing department of an enterprise must try to forecast the expected countermoves of competitors before deciding upon marketing strategy for the enterprise. In other words. Marketing strategy for the enterprise must be decided only after a thorough ' study of these changes and moves of the competitors. the effect of such change on the demand of products of the enterprise must also be forecasted. (3) Substitutability. If any change is made in the production policy of the enterprise. if an enterprise reduces the prices of its products. Efforts must be made to forecast the changes in other services being provided by the competitors to the consumers. "Marketing Strategy is a set of objectives. A marketing manager must make a careful study of such inputs before deciding upon the marketing strategy of the enterprise. etc. Some of the marketing elements have the nature of substitutability. For example. efforts must be made to forecast the changes in the marketing strategies of competitors. (2) Synergistic Potential. . An enterprise can select any one or more of these channels and not the all. policies and rules that guides over time the firm's marketing efforts. relative changes become imperative in the channels of distribution also. an enterprise may adopt to make more advertisement or new techniques of sales promotion. If any change is made in any of these inputs.facility of credit. For example.

there are various media of advertisement and an enterprise may select any one or more of these media. if an enterprise reduces the prices of its products. efforts must be made to forecast whether the competitors will also reduce the prices of their products or not. Factors to be Considered in Formulating Marketing Strategy Following factors must be considered while determining marketing strategy for an enterprise: (1)Expected Countermoves of The Competitors. The best possible element must be selected for the enterprise. relative changes become immediately necessary in another inputs also. (2) Synergistic Potential. etc. Some of the marketing elements have the nature of . such as . Therefore. Some are the marketing inputs which are synergistic nature. For example. If any change is expected in the prices of products by competitors.facility of credit. If any change is made in the production policy of the enterprise. Officials of marketing department of an enterprise must try to forecast the expected countermoves of competitors before deciding upon marketing strategy for the enterprise. There are many marketing inputs affecting marketing strategy of an enterprise. the effect of such change on the demand of products of the enterprise must also be forecasted. after sale services. Efforts must be made to forecast the changes in other services being provided by the competitors to the consumers. relative changes become imperative in the channels of distribution also. Marketing strategy for the enterprise must be decided only after a thorough ' study of these changes and moves of the competitors. (3) Substitutability. efforts must be made to forecast the changes in the marketing strategies of competitors. For example. a marketing manager must decide the marketing strategy for his enterprise after a very careful consideration of such elements of marketing. In other words. If any change is made in any of these inputs. A marketing manager must make a careful study of such inputs before deciding upon the marketing strategy of the enterprise. facility of home delivery. it can be said that whenever an enterprise changes its marketing strategy. It is to consider that every element has its own merits and demerits. production policy and channels of distribution are the marketing inputs of synergistic nature.

a marketing manager must decide the marketing strategy for his enterprise after a very careful consideration of such elements of marketing. there are various media of advertisement. The factor of such diversity must be thoroughly considered before deciding upon the marketing strategy. An enterprise can select any one or more of these channels and not the all. . Therefore. It is to consider that every element has its own merits and demerits. For example. Every media has its own merits and demerits. For example. To take the decisions is a very important responsibility of a manager. Officials of marketing department of the enterprise must pay due attention and consideration to these factors while deciding upon marketing strategy for the enterprise. there are various media of advertisement and an enterprise may select any one or more of these media. an enterprise may adopt to make more advertisement or new techniques of sales promotion. Above discussion makes it clear that there are various factors affecting marketing strategy of an enterprise. Similarly. Advertisement through Radio and Television may have effect in the whole country while advertisement through a signboard its effect at a particular place only. Meaning and Definition of Decision Marking Management is compulsorily a process of decision making. Different marketing inputs have different levels of productivity. another enterprise fixes different prices for its products for the consumers living in different areas. while an another enterprise fixes different prices of its products for the consumers living in the same area also. (4) Diversity in productivity levels of marketing inputs. an enterprise have elasticity fixes one and the same price for its products for all the consumers through out the country.substitutability. Many marketing inputs and these inputs affect the demand of the products. This diversity has its own role to play in deciding the marketing strategy for an enterprise. there are various channels of distribution.for increasing the volume of sales. Therefore. (5) Elasticity of marketing inputs. The best possible element must be selected for the enterprise. This factor of elasticity of marketing inputs must be taken into accounts before deciding upon marketing strategy for an enterprise. Similarly. For example. such as wholesale price and retail price.

present and affects the decision in one way or the other. sometimes a decision is the result of some other decision." G.S. The nature of decision making can be expressed as follows: (1) Process of Continuity. innovation and representation.E. controlling. A decision may also be expressed as to consider a problem or not to consider it or to consider it after sometime.Shackle."Management decisions are those decisions which are always made in the course of one of the true management activities: Planning. The person taking the decision is committed to implement ii to prepare the plans according to the decision taken. the process of decision .” Earnest Dale. In addition to this. Not only this. Directing. "Decision making is the focal creative physic event where knowledge . The success of a manager depends to a great extent upon his ability to take the decisions under different conditions. a decision creates many other decisions. To decide the best alternative from these alternatives is called decision making.management is also called the process of decision making. A decision is generally expressed as a policy or as a rule or as an order or as a directive of the enterprise. "A decision is an act of choice wherein an executive forms a conclusion about what must be done in a given situation. A manager is faced with many alternatives for the solution of a given problem. Thus decisions are inter-related and inter-dependent Thus.'Mc Farland. the term Decision Making has been defined as under : D. If some problems may be considered at present and the best alternative is selected is used in the future.thoughts. All the business activities are performed in accordance with the decisions taken by the top management of the business enterprise. Every incident of past. A decision reflects the commitment of the person who takes the decision. (2) Commitment. it is said that decision making is a process of continuity. Organising.” Nature of Decision Making The process of decision making involves selection of best possible alternative from among the available alternatives for doing a p Ultimate object of decision making is to achieve the pre-determined targets of business and industrial enterprise.L. feeling and imagination are fused into action. staffing. Thus.

If the decisions are not followed. (3) Evaluation. there is no need of taking a decision. (4) Birth to New Decisions. For taking decision. These elements may be summarised as under: (1) Continuity. following of variations and actions to take the decisions to remove these variations. Thus. all the available alternatives are analysed and compared carefully and then the best possible alternative is selected. it is a process which never ends. (3) Environment of Decision Making.making reflects the commitment of the enterprise to carry on its activities according to the decisions taken. implementing it. Basic Elements of Decision Making The process of decision making is very important in a business enterprise. the objects of enterprise may not be achieved. It is a process of taking a decision. There must be proper environment for decision making in the organisation. it is necessary that there must be proper arrangement of communication in the organisation . the best decisions might have been taken.and evaluated. sometimes the decision are taken to remove the variations of actual results from decisions. (2) Selection of Best Alternative. Decision must be followed and actual results must be evaluated so that the implementation of decision may be ensured. The process of decision making is the selection of best alternative from among the various alternative available for the solution of a given problem. It is not sufficient and enough to take the decisions. If there is only one way of doing a particular act. Decision making process is a mental process which involves the rationality of best possible alternative from among the available alternatives. It involves the choice of best possible course of action it is per formed only by human beings. The need of taking a decision arises only when there are more than one alternatives available. (5) Rationality. In this process. Some are the decisions which create the need of many other decisions. Some decisions are taken to overcome the defects of the decision taken earlier. All the decisions must be taken with utmost care and intelligence. however. Some basis elements of the process of the decision making must be followed while taking the decisions. Decision making must be taken up as a continuous process and not as a function.

situation and information. Habits temperament social environment.and organisational structure should be formal. (6) Participation of Employees. because the decisions are affected by the personality of the persons taking such decisions. Implementation of decisions can be ensured only when these are timely. it will cause various problems for the management. The process of decision making must be performed by the persons who are able. If the decisions are not implemented or followed. employees of the organisation are integrated in the process of decision making and then they will contribute their whole hearted efforts in the implementation of those decisions.. Principles of Decision Making Decision making is very important function of a business and industrial enterprise. clearly and properly communicated. personal likings and dislikings of the persons taking decisions have impact on the decisions taken by them. If the decisions are not timely and properly communicated to those who have to implement them and who are concerned with them in any way. it will help in achieving the objects of enterprise more successfully. If the decision is taken in this manner. it well be wastage of time energy to take the decisions. Decisions and its communication must go together. intelligent and experienced for it. If it is not taken at the right time. it will. Timing of decisions is very important. If a decision is taken at its proper time. (5) Psychological Factors. Uncommunicated decisions are of no use howsoever important or good they may be. be better if it is taken with the consultation of all those who have to implement it. Decisions must be taken after a careful consideration of the Psychological factors. (7) Communication of Decisions. Decisions must be taken at their proper time. top management and it is implemented by their subordinates. A decision is taken b. Proper communication of decisions is as important to take the decisions.Therefore. domestic life. It is closely related with business forecasting. Top management must invite active participation of their subordinates in the process of decision making. it will be of no use to take the decisions. Therefore. Therefore. political learning. the decisions must he taken at proper time. there must be proper atmosphere for decision making process. Business activities . (4) Time of Decision Making.

This principle states that the decisions once taken cannot be implemented all the times in all the circumstances. the policies. (3) Principle of Dynamism. the managers must consider the situations and the likely behaviour of their employees in those situations before taking the decisions finally. According to this principle. all the possible alternatives for the solution of a problem must be duly considered. According to this principle. the objects of enterprise. As human being he behaves in a particular manner and in a particular situation. the decision taken must not be rigid and these must be flexible enough to incorporate the change in circumstances. The circumstances may change and with the change of circumstances. . These principles are discussed as below : (1) Principle of Individual Self-interest. This principle states that every person behaves in reasonable manner. (2) Principle of Reasonable Behaviour. To make the process of decision more effective and successful. Therefore. condition of competition. Government policies etc. tendencies of labour unions. the feeling of workers. All the alternatives must be compared and evaluated and only then the best alternative must be selected. Therefore. objects and ambitions which he thinks of great importance for himself. may also change. some principles have been established. they may prove very useful to the enterprise. if the decision is taken on a scientific basis and analysis. If the decisions are taken in haste and irrational manner the decisions may be wrong and these decisions may cause a great loss to the business enterprise. the rules and the procedures may change. Keeping Pin view these changes the need may arise to change the decisions accordingly. the ambitions and objects of employees must be carefully considered because if the employees of the organisation are satisfied the enterprise may achieve its objects easily and successfully. (4) Principle of Alternatives. every rational person makes his efforts to satisfy those needs.. An employee is first a human being and then an employee. while taking the decisions for a business and industrial enterprise. Therefore. Management is a living science dealing with the human problems.are directly affected by the decisions taken in the enterprise. Along with this. the managers while taking decisions must estimate the effect of decisions being taken on the employees for which they are being taken. If these principles are followed while making the decisions. Therefore. it is expected that the decisions taken will be sound and effective. On the contrary.

7.The decisions taken with consultation of workers. 5. All the decisions must be taken in the interests of enterprise and not in the interests of any individual. to get the economies.Implementation of such decisions become easier. It increases their morale.Such decisions are better than individual decisions. are not opposed by the workers. This principle establishes that the decisions must be beneficial to the enterprise. Employees participation in management offer the following additional advantages to the organisation : 1. Opinions of employees must be taken and their suggestions must be invited before taking final decisions. It increases their efficiency. The decision must be taken well in advance.Workers make their whole-hearted efforts for the accomplishment of predetermined targets of the enterprise.Participation in management motivates the employees to work for the organisation. 4. it must be decided immediately. If advance decision is not possible.(5) Principle of Timing. (6) Principle of Maximum Profits. Employees Participation in Decision Making This principle establishes that the employees must be given an opportunity to participate in the management.It also makes direction and supervision easier and more effective because the decisions are already convinced to the workers. to make the production process easier and to get the maximum profits. Process of Decision Making Under this method of decision making. 8. 2. The decisions must be taken to improve the efficiency of workers.Such decisions also help in developing the sense of responsibility among workers. 3. 6. 9. The principle explains that the decisions must be taken on the right time because a late decision does not serve any purpose. a scientific process is applied for .

(4) Se1ection of the Best Alternative. we cannot solve it. After ascertaining and analysing the problem. The problem must be ascertained carefully before deciding its solution. After developing all the possible alternatives and studying them thoroughly. an attempt is made to select the best possible alternative. After understanding the problem. the very first task in the process of decision making under this method is to understand the problem fully and deeply because unless we understand our problem.Peter. (vi) To provide a better after-sale-services to the consumers. Therefore. while making such selection. This is the most important step of the process of decision making. Analysis of problem involves the following: (i) Who should take the decision? (ii) What information would be required before taking decision? (iii) How can the required information be obtained? (iv) Who can must be consulted before making decision? (v) How the decision must be made? (vi) Who must be informed of the decision? (3) Development of Alternative Solutions. Peter.Drucker laid down the following criteria for such selection: . the co. second important step of the decision making process is to analyse the problem. certain points must be considered. (2)To Analyse the Problem. all the possible alternatives are developed for the solution of problem. For the analysis of problem. (iii) To change the look or packing of product so that it may attract the attention of customers.. All the possible alternatives may be as follows : (i)To reduce the selling price (ii) To improve the quality of product. For example. (vii) To discontinue the product. Drucker has described this process as under : (1)Acertaining the Problem.F.F. (v) To arrange for more effective distribution of the product. it becomes necessary that the reasons for the fall in the sales must be diagnosed.operation of research and development department must be taken. (iv) To advertise the product incentively. if the sale of enterprise are decreasing and the decisions are to be taken to increase the sales.taking decisions.

We must take the right decision at the right time. The effectiveness and the uses of decisions can be evaluated only. If we take a decision which cannot be implemented because of the lack of resources. (6) Following up the Decision. The reasons for such variations must be established and corrective measures must be taken to remove such variations. if the decisions are not effectively followed. It is only a means to achieve an end.(ii) Risk. A decision taken at a wrong time is useless even if it was the best . (iii) The acceptance of employees must be obtained on the particular decision so that they may contribute their whole-hearted efforts to implement it. the limitation of resources must be considered and the decision must be taken keeping in view the available resources. For such implementation. Timing is a very important factor while making a decision. it will be useless.the time important as an element must be considered. All the necessary steps must be taken to implement the decision. following procedure may be adopted: (i) Managerial executive must be delegated required authority to implement the decision. (iv) Limitation of Resources. Actual results must be compared with the decisions made and the points of variations must be determined. if it is properly followed. but not followed. Therefore. if it is not implemented. all be made for getting the decision implemented. (iii) Timing. (5) Implementing the Decision. It will be of hardly any use to the enterprise.Therefore. It is of no use the efforts must best possible decision. if the decisions are taken and implemented. Decision making process is not completed. A decision is not an even the end in itself. The process of decision making can be made clear with the help of the . (ii) Effective communication system must be adopted to communicate the decision to the concerned employees. While making a decision the availability of resources to implement the decision must be duly considered. Therefore. Risk is an essential part of the business activity and every decision involves some or the other risk the only thing we can do and we must do is to take the measures to minimize the risk.

responsibilities and power of the .To analyse the problem 3.Ascertainning the Problem 2.Selection of the Best Alternative Best alternative (3) 5.Implementing the Decision 6. Marketing decisions define the scope of marketing activities of the enterprise.following chart : Process of Decision Making 1. Following up the Decision Main types of Marketing Decisions Marketing decisions are very critical because the achievement of marketing objectives and the success of an enterprise depends upon these decisions.Development of alternative solutions Alternative (1) Alternative Alternative Alternative Alternative (2) (3) (4) (5) 4. They also define the duties.

(2) Minor Decisions. are called recurring decisions. form etc.The decisions which are made for the implementation of major decisions. Purchase of day to day materials and sale at the sale counters are the examples of routine decisions. Marketing decisions may be of many types as follows: (1) Major Decisions. etc. The decisions which affect marketing efficiency and profitability of the organisation. are called minor decisions. Decisions involving great risk. Major decisions are considered to be pillars of the marketing activities of an enterprise. advertising etc. These decisions are of routine nature and relate to the colour design. to change the channels of distribution and to change the sales organisation. Some examples of major decisions may be as-whether to produce a new product or not. of the products. Though these decisions are not very critical yet they also affect the demand of products in the market.. (3) Routine Decisions. The examples of such decisions may be to change the advertising agency. (7) Very Risky Decisions. are called vital decisions. to change the organisational structure. whether to continue the production of an existing product or not. (4) Important or Vital Decisions.. These decisions must be based on careful study and analysis of relevant factors. These decisions relate to the usual matters of organisation. Hence. these decisions must also be taken after a careful study. The decisions which are made repeatedly at different intervals. whether to provide the facility of credit to the consumers or not. are the examples of recurring decisions. are called risky . Rare decisions are the decisions which are not taken regularly and repeatedly. The decisions which have to be made in the regular course of business are called routine decisions. etc. (5) Recurring Decisions. a decision to purchase a new plant or to develop the capacity of the old plant are the examples of vital decisions. Such decisions are taken only in specific conditions. packing.employees of the enterprise. (6) Rare Decisions. Decisions of determining sales quota of various middlemen. These decisions are taken very repeatedly. For example. These decisions may be taken very carefully because they directly affect the achievement of marketing objectives of the enterprise. Such decisions affect the product line of the organisation or the quality of production or key policies of the organisation.

(8) Less Risky Decisions. to change the price of products. These decisions are taken by the heads of concerned departments. these decisions must: be taken by the Top Management and based upon sound marketing research. the results of the enterprise will no: be fruitful. The success or failure of an enterprise largely depends upon the effectiveness of such decisions. Some of the important characteristics of marketing decisions may be summarized as follows : (1) Complexity. are called less risky decisions. etc. The decisions which decide the marketing policy of the enterprise are called policy decisions. The process of decision making. Marketing decisions determine the scope of marketing activities of the enterprise. Another great difficulty in taking marketing decisions is . These decisions relate to the appointment of sales representatives. etc. Examples of such decisions may be to decide the pricing policy of the enterprise. The examples of such decisions are selection of channels of distribution. Therefore. Decisions which involve comparatively. Marketing decisions are much more complex than other decisions of the enterprise because marketing management is a new concept and the techniques of decision making in the field of marketing have not developed properly. change of colour or packing of product etc. the efforts of the enterprise will produce desired results and i' the decision are not correct and practical.decisions. minimum risk or no risk. to appoint a marketing executive. feasible and practical. If the decisions taken are correct. when we talk of marketing decisions. Characteristics of Decisions relating to Marketing planning Though the process of decision making is very critical in itself because the decisions taken by the management of an enterprise determine the success or failure of the efforts of enterprise. These decisions play an important: role in the success or failure of an enterprise. (9) Policy Decisions. The image of the enterprise and the success of its marketing efforts depend upon the nature of marketing decisions. is much more sensitive because marketing decisions are the most important decisions in an enterprise. These decisions must be taken by the Top Management. It makes it necessary that the decisions must be taken by experience and intelligent officers of the enterprise after a critical and analytical study of the circumstances. selection of media of advertisement selection of methods of sales promotion.

Quantity of product. As human behavior is complex. This aim can be achieved. what his consumers may prefer. (4) Organisation Effect. (5 Birth to New Decisions. A decision to start the production of a new product will give birth to many new decisions. Main aim of a marketing manager is to provide maximum satisfaction to the consumers so that the object of earning the maximum profits may be achieved. the marketing decisions will also be sound and practical. and behavior of consumers. Marketing decisions are primarily the decisions related to human behaviour. As marketing decisions affect the decisions of other departments also and as the success of whole of the enterprise depends upon marketing decisions. the price what his consumers can afford. the process of marketing decisions becomes complex. Method of sales promotion etc. it becomes imperative that marketing decisions of the enterprise must be taken very carefully and cautiously. The success of such decisions depends entirely upon the study of human behaviour. Another important characteristic of marketing decisions is that these decisions do not affect the activities of marketing department only. the packing. form. (6) Rationality. If the enterprise is well managed and all the decisions are taken by responsible and efficient executives. He must try to understand the quality what his consumers may like. such as. (3) Long-run Effect.Quality of product. the quantity what his consumers can buy. The decisions must be based upon deep and analytical study of all the relevant conditions and situations. . tastes. Media of advertisement. These decisions affect the decisions and activities of all other department of the enterprise because the activities of the whole enterprise depend upon marketing decisions. if the marketing manager understands the behaviour of his consumers. Such marketing decisions will contribute in the achievement of marketing objectives of the enterprise.of the frequent changes in the habits. A very important characteristic of marketing decisions is that some of the marketing decisions give birth to many new decisions. Marketing decisions cannot be free from the effect of organisational conditions and situations. (2) Human Behaviour Oriented. colour and labelling.

To check the wastage and bring economy in managerial effort. To make best possible utilization of resources of the enterprise so that marketing objective of an enterprise can be achieved. Market plan helped in establishing effective co-ordination between various activities of an enterprise. . 4. 3. To have knowledge about Honda. 2.OBJECTIVE OF MARKETING 1.

2. To formulate martketing plan on the basis sales forecasting.Organisation and clean work place. SUGGESTIONS 1.5. . 6. Marketing planning provides maximum satisfaction to customers.HONDA provides a comfortable working environment by maintaining by orderly well.HONDA as highly accountable company will value communication with society.HONDA will actively support and participate an volunteer activities. 3. 4.

fro time to time also effect the marketing planning. . (2) Behavior of consumer is very uncertain.LIMITATIONS (1) Marketing Planning needs time. They do not express their feelings and opinion. This makes the process of marketing planning difficult. energy and money which increase the cost of marketing planning. (3) The frequent changes in the policy of govt.

(4) The respondents do not give accurate information about the overall activities. (5) Marketing planning involves uses of great intelligence of executive employees or workers .there is lack of such person the marketing planning cannot be successful. .

No Q.3 Do you think marketing planning determines the objective of HONDA? . Yes 2.QUESTTIONAIRE Q. Yes 2.2 Do you think in Honda marketing planning helps in coordinating the activities of all departments? Ans.1 Do you think marketing planning provide base for sale forecasting? Ans 1. No Q. 1.

Yes 2.7 Do you think marketing programme determines the duties and responsibilities of employees and thus create feeling of competition among them ? Ans. 1. Yes 2. Yes 2.5 Do you think that process of marketing programme helps in increasing the efficiency of the employees? Ans. No Q. Yes 2.9 Do you think marketing programme helps in checking the wastages in the Honda ? Ans.Ans. 1. No Q. 1. No Q. 1.10 Do you think that change in the demand of the Honda effects the marketing programme? Ans. No Q.8 Do you think marketing programme is an important tool in the hand of management to control the activities of enterprises? Ans. No Q. 1. No . 1. Yes 2.4 By proper marketing planning customers are satisfied? Ans. 1. No Q. 1. Yes 2.6 Do you think marketing planning is quiet expensive? Ans. Yes 2. No Q. Yes 2.

2.FINDINGS 1.Marketing planning assures full satisfaction to the consumers. 3.Marketing planning gives right direction to overall employees . Marketing planning gives right decision in right time. 4.Different areas of marketing phenomena can be considered easily.

CONCLUSION 1. Marketing planning facilitates a enjoyable performance to their consumers. 5. Market planning check overall activities. selling and distribution service etc. in a correct or right manner. production.Marketing planning sets objective for different pupil marling in different areas.Marketing planning involves marketing strategy for the betterment of product manufacturing and distribution.working in an organization. 3. 7. Marketing planning helps in launching their product in right time and in right place. 6. marketing. 2. .Marketing planning scheduled overall activities of an enterprise.

marketing decision. so that they could give their 100%. Marketing planning secures various functions like marketing programme. Yes 87% No 13% . Analysis of Questionnaire 1. Their is no lack of product delivering to their ultimate consumers. marketing mix.4. 5. ANALYSIS 1.

Analysis of Questionnaire 2.Analysis of Questionnaire 1 13% Yes No 87% 2. Analysis of Questionnaire 3. Yes 95% No 5% . Yes 85% Analysis of Questionnaire 2 No 15% 15% Yes No 85% 3.

Yes 88% No 12% . Yes 90% Analysis of Questionnaire 4 No 10% 10% Yes No 90% 5. Analysis of Questionnaire 5. Analysis of Questionnaire 4.Analysis of Questionnaire 3 5% Yes No 95% 4.

Analysis of Questionnaire 7. Yes 96% No 4% . Analysis of Questionnaire 6.Analysis of Questionnaire 5 12% Yes No 88% 6. Yes 80% Analysis of Questionnaire 6 No 20% 20% Yes No 80% 7.

Analysis of Questionnaire 8. Analysis of Questionnaire 9. Yes 72% No 28% . Yes 81% Analysis of Questionnaire 6 No 19% 19% Yes No 81% 9.Analysis of Questionnaire 6 4% Yes No 96% 8.

Analysis of Questionnaire 10.Analysis of Questionnaire 6 28% Yes No 72% 10. Yes 92% Analysis of Questionnaire 6 No 8% 8% Yes No 92% .