Rating means the judgment of one person by another. Rating is a term applied to expression of opinion or judgment regarding some situation, object or character. Opinions are usually expressed on a scale or values. Rating techniques are devices by which the judgments may be quantified. A rating scale is a method by which we systematize the expression of opinion concerning a trait. The ratings are done by parents, teachers, a board of interviewers and judges and by the self as well. These ratings scale given an idea of the personality of an individual. Ratings scales resemble checklists, but are used when finer discriminations are required. Rating scales provide systematic procedure for obtaining, recording and reporting the observers’ judgment. DEFINITION  Rating is a term applied to expression of opinion or judgment regarding some situation, object or character  Rating techniques are devices by which judgments may be quantified.  A rating scale is a device by which the opinion concerning a trait can be systematized Example 1. How good was the performance? Excellent very good good average poor

halo effect. logical error o Attitude of the rater TYPES OF RATING SCALE . cheerfulness. personal bias.  They tend to be very adaptable and flexible  They can be efficient and economical  They can be comprehensive in the amount of information recorded  They can help to reduce the subjectivity and unreliability that are usually associated with observations method DISADVANTAGES OF RATING SCALE  There is lack of uniformity  There are several common sources of errors in rating scales. honesty. How many times you will discuss with your friend to take decision? Always Sometimes Never ADVANTAGES OF RATINGS SCALE  Rating scales are standard device for recording qualitative and quantitative judgments about observed performance.  Errors may be due to o Ambiguity o Personality of the rater.2. enthusiasm.  They measure specified outcomes or objectives of education  They evaluate personal social development  They help the teachers to rate their students periodically on various characteristics such as punctuality. cooperativeness and personality traits.

Graphic rating scale.Instead of using predetermined scale values. Numerical rating scale.a position any where along a continuum. Keys – 5.Average 2.It is simplest type of rating scale and rater simply markes a number that indicate the extent to which a characteristic or trait is present. Were the illustrations used interesting? 1 Too little 2 little 3 adequate 4 much 5 too much .below average 1. The rater is required to assign some value to a specific trait.Unsatisfactory Skill o Questions were specific 1 2 3 4 5 o Questions were relevant to topic discussed 1 2 3 4 5 o Questions were grammatically correct1 2 3 4 5 Behaviour excellent 5 very good 4 fair poor very poor 3 2 1 2.above average 3.Encircle the appropriate number showing the extent to which the pupil exhibits his skill in questioning.1. the ratings are made in a graphical form. EXAMPLE Direction. Example1.outstanding 4. The trait is presented in a statement and values from 1 to 5 are assigned to each trait and it is rated. A common key is used and it provides a verbal description.

passive participates as much than any other group member participate more than any other group member 4. Ranking method. There are modifications of ranking methods which are time consuming procedures.3. Descriptive graphic rating scale.It leads to greater objectivity of the rating process. the pupils are ranked in the order in which the rater estimates the characteristics being judged. Never participates quiet. The description of a trait or behaviour helps to clarify a particular dimension. The advantage of ranking method is that it requires the rater to differentiate among pupils being rated and place them in relative order form high to low. PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE RATING  It is directly related to learning objectives  Define clearly the specific trait or mode of behaviour  only those learning outcomes which can be evaluated and stated clearly should be checked by rating scale  The characteristics evaluated should be directly observable  The characteristics and points on the scale should be observable  The characteristics and points on the scale should be clearly defined  Raters should omit ratings where they feel unqualified to judge  Ratings form several observers should be combined wherever possible  Identify educationally significant traits  Clearly define the traits to be rate and the scale points to be used  Express the traits to be rated as questions rather than as immediately after questions .In this approach.

The general tendency of the evaluator to rate all individuals at approximately the same position on the scale  Generosity errors or leniency error-Some raters tend to use the high end of the scale only  Central tendency error. The rater should be unbiased and trained QUALITIES OF RATING SCALE  Clarity  Reliance  Precision  Variety  Objectivity  Uniqueness COMMON ERRORS IN RATING  Personal bias.This effect occurs when the examiner supposed that there is a relationship between two variables  Halo effect. This is a tendency to rate in terms of overall general impressions of the rate of the person being rated which influences how he rates him on individual characteristics.The rater avoids both extremes of the scale and tends to rate every one average  Logical error. Factors improving validity of ratings  Take care in the construction of the scale and the selection of the raters  Encourage raters not to rate those traits or persons for which or for whom they have insufficient or no knowledge  Averages judges ratings  Rate only one trait or characteristics at a time .It refers to tendency of rater to base evaluations of a person being rated upon general favorableness toward that individual.

2-below average.To reduce the halo effect. and vice versa  Avoid making the extremes so atypical of behavior that few raters will use these points  Make the meaning of the intermediate levels closer to the neutral of average level rather than the extreme points  The rater may be asked to quote instances in support of his judgment to avoid careless rating. vary the direction of the scale. 4-above average. . The last an undesirable trait. uniform Initiative Responsibility Leadership skills Total Keys 5-outstanding. have the first position indicate a desirable trait.  Example of rating scale for clinical performance SLNO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Assessment areas 5 4 3 2 1 Clinical skill/technical skills Planning patient care Organizing skills Interpersonal relationships Problem solving skills Communication skills Attendance Punctuality Appearance. grooming. 3-average. which is for some ratings.

calculate the total score .1-poor Developing rating scale for performance evaluation  Identify the course objectives  List the specific objectives  Enumerate the terminal/behavioural objectives  Describe the rating in qualitative and quantitative terms  Summarize the ratings by adding the scores  In order to place the student in different categories.

It is a method of recording whether a characteristic present or absent or whether the action being taken or not taken. The checklist requires the observer to judge whether certain behaviour has taken place. attitudes.CHECKLIST Checklist is prepared list of statements relating to behaviour traits performance in some area or practical work or a product of performance. They are frequently used to evaluate aspects of pupil’s interests. Checklists are especially useful in evaluating those performance skills that can be divided into a series of specific actions. Close observation of the pupil is required in marking checklist. A two column format is often used. It does not permit the observer to rate the quality of a particular behaviour or its frequency of occurrence or the extent to which a particular character is present. DEFINITION  A checklist is a list of specific behaviour or activities to be observed with a place for checking whether or not they were present during performance. A checklist enables the observer to note only whether or not a trait or characteristic is present. activities. Lists of statements are made which are important in evaluation of aspect of beahviour and checked to indicate presence or absence of particular quality. An additional column for remarks is useful. skills and personal characteristics.  Checklists are primarily used for recording observations of procedures .

ADVANTAGES  They are adaptable to most subject matter areas  They are useful in evaluating learning activities  They are most useful for evaluating those processes that can be subdivided into series of clear distinct.  Provide a simple procedure for numbering the actions in sequence or checking each action as it occurs.  When properly prepared. they constrain the observer to direct his attention to clearly specified traits or characteristics  They allow interindividual comparisons to be made on a common set of traits or characteristics  They provide a simple method to record observations  They objectively evaluate traits or characteristics Points to be considered while developing checklist  Identify and describe clearly each of the specific actions desired in the performance  Add to the list those actions which represent common errors if they are limited in number and can be clearly identified  Arrange the desired actions and likely errors in the approximate order in which they are expected to occur. it is a two dimensional arrangement in which series of questions are listed along one dimension and response alternatives are listed along the other  It is a tool used for structured observation where phenomena are recorded by putting tally against a particular behaviour. Suggestions to follow while using checklist  Checklist should relate directly to learning objectives .

if assistant observers are used  It is subjected to two types of errors like halo effect and error of severity  .  Clearly specify the traits or characteristics to be observed  Have a separate checklist for each candidate. Checklist needs to be confined to performance area that can be assessed sufficiently by examining positive and negative criteria and when sufficient opportunity for observation exists. Individual observations can be recorded on a master checklist  The observer must be trained how to observe. usually observer may wait until an event happens  Data obtained is vulnerable to bias  Use of recording device is expensive  Extensive training is necessary. sensation and perception  Time and duration of events cannot be predicted.  Use checklist only when you are interested in ascertaining whether a particular trait or characteristic is present or absent. what to observe and how to record the observed behaviour  Multiple observations provide a more accurate assessment of performance than a single observation  Students should be evaluated in the natural setting or one as closely as possible to the real situation  A completed checklist should be given to each student for review followed by an individual session with the student. to discuss the strength and weakness of the performance and formulate the plan to improve the performance. ADVANTAGES  It is important technique for studying human behaviour  Provides depth and variety of information  It allows view of complete situation DISADVANTAGES observation is demanding task requiring attention.

Checklist for evaluation of students’ performance during surgical dressing SL No Behaviours yes no 1 Explains procedure 2 Collects necessary equipments 3 Arranges equipment for convenient use 4 Prepares patient . simple language  Avoid lifting statements verbatim from text  Avoid negative statements wherever possible  Make sure that each item is clearly yes or no. true or false and the like  Review the items independently  Carry out systematic observation  The observer watches for the behaviours given on the list and put a check off besides when appropriate behaviour when it occurs  Quantifying observations UTILIZATION OF CHECKLISTS  While using checklists. evaluator should keep in mind the following  Use checklists only when you are interested in ascertaining whether a particular trait or characteristics is present or absent  Clearly specify the traits or characteristics of behaviour. to be observed  Observe only one student at a time and confine your observations can be recorded on a master checklist.STEPS IN DEVELOPING CHECKLIST  Select the aspect of the behaviour to be observed  Express each item in clear. individual observation can be recorded on a master sheet  To make valid judgments he should omit recording that behaviour for which he has insufficient information.  Have a separate checklist for each student.

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Washes hand Maintains aseptic technique Removes dressing Observes condition of wound Cleans wound Applies dressing Removes equipment Makes patient comfortable Completes charting Takes care of equipment .