Further Reading
Alton GG, Jones LM, Angus RD and Verger JM (1988) Techniques for the Brucellosis Laboratory. Paris: INRA. Beerens H and Luquet FM (1987) Guide Pratique d'Analyse Microbiologique des Laits et Produits Laitiers. Paris: Lavoisier-APRIA. Blasco JM (1997) A review of the use of B. melitensis Rev1 vaccine in adult sheep and goats. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 31: 275±281. Corbel MJ and Brinley-Morgan WJ (1984) Genus Brucella Meyer and Shaw 1920, 173AL. In: Krieg NR and Holt JG (eds.) Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol. 1, pp. 377±388. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Davies G and Casey A (1973) The survival of Brucella abortus in milk and milk products. British Veterinary Journal 129: 345±353. Garin-Bastuji B and Blasco JM (2000) Caprine and ovine brucellosis (excluding B. ovis infection). In: The OIE

Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines, 4th edn, pp. 475±489. Paris: OIE. Garin-Bastuji B and Verger JM (1994) Brucella abortus and melitensis. In: Hahn G (ed.) The Signi®cance of Pathogenic Microrganisms in Raw Milk, pp. 167±185. Brussels: IDF. Garin-Bastuji B, Blasco JM, Grayon M and Verger JM (1998) B. melitensis infection in sheep: present and future. Veterinary Research 29: 255±274. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Brucellosis (1986) 6th Report, Technical Report Series 740. Geneva: WHO. MacMillan AP and Stack J (2000) Bovine brucellosis. In: The OIE Manual of Standards for Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines, 4th edn, pp. 328±345. Paris: OIE. Nielsen K and Duncan JR (1990) Animal Brucellosis. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Young EJ and Corbel MJ (1989) Brucellosis: Clinical and Laboratory Aspects. Boca Raton: CRC Press.


see Diseases of Dairy Animals, Infectious: Brucellosis.

Buffalo Breeds

see Dairy Animals: Water Buffalo.


Asia Mediterranean Region

M R Jainudeen, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All Rights Reserved

Tropical Asia is the homeland for almost 158 million of the population of 163 million domestic buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in the world (1999 estimate). Domestic buffaloes in Asia are of two types: the swamp type for draught in the eastern half of Asia

milk is marketed through a network of milk cooperatives. most conceptions occur when the female weighs 250±275 kg. Buffalo milk contains twice as much butterfat as cows' milk. Murrah. Types and Population The term `buffalo' refers to three species in the family Bovidae. Breeding Management Buffaloes. Indonesia. Pakistan. Sri Lanka. crop residues and mineral supplements such as urea±molasses±mineral block (UMMB). Thailand. are polyestrous. Besides ghee. Table 1 Some characteristics of swamp and river buffaloes Characteristic Location Countries Horns Breed(s) Wallowing habits Chromosome number (2n) Purposes Swamp buffalo Eastern half of Asia Burma. Once a sadly neglected farm species. In India and Pakistan. the domestic buffalo is emerging as an alternative source for the manufacture of dairy products worldwide. animals are hand-milked twice daily with the calf present to stimulate milk letdown. The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and the North American buffalo (Bison bison ) have yet to be domesticated. the Asian buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was domesticated around the same time in history as cattle for draught power. Breeding females are retained in the herd until about the ninth lactation (16 years of age) with reasonable economic returns. River buffaloes are vulnerable to most infectious and metabolic diseases affecting cattle. milk and meat. such as butter. The river buffalo makes up nearly 75% of the buffalo population in Asia (Figure 2). Puberty The buffalo attains puberty at a later age than cattle (see Oestrus Cycles: Puberty). chromosome numbers and physical features (Table 1). . On recommended levels of nutrition. Lactation is 200±300 days with ®rst lactation milk yields of 1500±1800 kg. In the male viable sperm appear at about 24 months of age. Nili-Ravi and Surti and in Pakistan the Nili-Ravi and Kundi. rivers or streams 50 Milk and meat Figure 1 Wallowing behaviour of river buffalo. and produce two calves every 3 years. which guarantee a stable price throughout the year for the farmer. calve for the ®rst time at 3±5 years following a gestation period of 305±320 days. Philippines. Lactating animals are fed mainly on straw. Nili-Ravi and Surti Clean running water. full cream milk powder. several other products are manufactured from buffalo milk. skim milk powder and infant formulae. In most rural areas.g. In India and Pakistan. Oestrus Cycle The oestrus cycle length is about 21 days with oestrus lasting 12 to 30 hours and ovulation occurring spontaneously after the end of oestrus (Table 2).g. These two buffalo types differ in their wallowing habits. but the calving pattern is in¯uenced by rainfall. Vietnam Grow outwards and curve in a semicircle but remain on the plane of the forehead Single breed Swamps 48 Draft and meat River buffalo Western half of Asia India. the river type buffalo currently produces about 55 million tonnes of milk annually from some of the world's best buffalo breeds in India and Pakistan. Nepal. China. e. Thus. The dairy breeds of river buffaloes in India are the Murrah. The domestic buffalo is also known as the `water buffalo' because of its fondness of cooling itself in water (Figure 1). Iran.BUFFALO HUSBANDRY/Asia 187 and the river type for milk in the western half of Asia (see Dairy Animals: Water Buffalo). cheese. Buffalo Species. e. conceive at 250±275 kg body weight. Iraq. breeding throughout the year. They breed throughout the year. On the contrary. like cattle. Bangladesh Grow downwards and backwards Seven recognized breeds. most buffaloes calve between November and March. feed supply. Malaysia. ambient temperature and photoperiod.

In most smallholder farms. Artificial Insemination Adapted from Jainudeen and Hafez (2000). an AI network consisting of over 140 main and about 400 subcentres provides more than 3 million inseminations annually.188 BUFFALO HUSBANDRY/Asia Swamp Buffalo River Buffalo Asia Figure 2 Distribution of domestic buffaloes in Asia. Ejaculate volume and concentration of semen are lower in buffalo than cattle. As a result. restlessness. 1999. AI centres in India and Pakistan provide an AI service with either chilled or frozen semen. Buffalo semen is routinely collected in AI centres with an arti®cial vagina. Unlike cattle. arti®cial insemination (AI) has been practised in the river buffalo in the Indian subcontinent but its progress has been very slow because of the dif®culty of detecting oestrus and low conception rates in smallholder farms. Homosexual behaviour or standing to be mounted by another female is observed only occasionally in the buffalo. Techniques of semen evaluation. Oestrus commences toward late evening with peak sexual activity at night. vocalization and reduction in milk (see Mating Management: Detection of Oestrus). a male buffalo may not be available for oestrus detection. (Adapted from FAO. . processing and cryopreservation are as in cattle with minor modi®cations (see Gamete and Embryo Technology: Arti®cial Insemination).) Table 2 Reproductive parameters of buffalo and cattle Parameter Sexual season Age at puberty (months) Oestrous cycle Length (days) Oestrus (h) Gestation length (days) Age at ®rst calving (months) Calving intervals (months) Ejaculate volume (ml) Sperm concentration (106 mlÀ1) First service conception rate (frozen semen) (%) River buffalo Polyoestrous 15±36 18±22 12±30 305±320 36±56 15±21 3±6 300±1500 10±50 Cattle Polyoestrous 10±24 14±29 17±24 278±293 24±36 12±14 4±10 800±2000 45±75 such as clear vulval discharge. overt signs of oestrus are not pronounced (see Oestrus Cycles: Characteristics). In Pakistan. most inseminations are based on less-reliable signs Since the early 1950s. frequent urination. similar in design to that for cattle.

both male and female hybrids are fertile. induction of oestrus with prostaglandin or intravaginal progesterone-releasing devices and better nutrition have hastened the resumption of early postpartum ovarian activity and reduced the calving to conception intervals. below).BUFFALO HUSBANDRY/Asia 189 Most inseminations are usually performed between 12 and 24 h from the onset of oestrus. The F1 crossbreds (river  swamp) possess an intermediate karyotype of 2n ˆ 49. The foetus is delivered in anterior presentation with fully extended limbs and foetal membranes are expelled 4±5 h later. Reproductive Management Gestation is longer in buffalo than cattle. buffaloes calving in summer or autumn resume ovarian cyclicity earlier than those calving in winter or spring. Induction of oestrus with synthetic analogues of prostaglandin F2a and ®xedtime insemination with frozen semen may prove useful in restricting mating seasons so that calving occurs when water and green feed are abundant. IVF has potential applications in Pakistan and India. based on rectal palpation. At this time. which may be overcome by providing cooling facilities during the hot season. However. on average. photoperiod and feed supply. the ®rst oestrus and ovulation occur at about 60 and 90 days respectively in well-managed herds. as compared with 50±70% in dairy cattle. `silent oestrus' ± ovulation not preceded by oestrus ± was believed to be a major problem in buffalo breeding but recent hormonal studies have revealed that it is due to the farmer's inability to detect oestrus. Pregnancy is routinely diagnosed by rectal palpation of the uterus from about 40 to 45 days following insemination. varying from 305 to 320 days for the river buffalo and from 320 to 340 days for the swamp buffalo. seasonal calving patterns in buffaloes have been attributed to ambient temperature. Several Southeast Asian countries have embarked upon crossbreeding the indigenous swamp to the river buffalo. Several laboratories have produced buffalo embryos by IVF. China and the Philippines. early weaning. Twinning is rare. Most reproductive management programmes adopted for cattle can be effectively applied for the buffalo but the commercial and smallholder farmers have not realized the bene®ts of such programmes. Fertility Several countries are engaged in developing embryo transfer (ET) technology in the buffalo. females could be inseminated with semen collected and cryopreserved during the cooler months. Male buffaloes show marked seasonal ¯uctuations in libido and semen quality. Similarly. and the incidence is less than 1 per 1000 births. In the past. Both India and Pakistan export frozen semen to upgrade or crossbreed indigenous buffaloes in Thailand. Gestation Conception rates based on the nonreturn rates to AI are inaccurate. the ®rst IVF buffalo calf was born in India. A buffalo usually produces. the cervix is suf®ciently dilated for the deposition of semen in the uterine body with the same insemination equipment as for cattle. Perhaps decreasing day length and cooler ambient temperatures favour cyclicity. The basic principles of ET technology in cattle are applicable to buffalo except that embryos are collected from the uterus on day 5 of the cycle instead on day 7 or 8 adopted in cattle (see Gamete and Embryo Technology: Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer). Postpartum Period After calving. because of the inherent dif®culty of detecting oestrus (see above). In addition. In vitro fertilization (IVF) of buffalo oocytes is an alternative to superovulation (see Gamete and Embryo Technology: In vitro Fertilization). Also the pregnancy rates have been less than 10% in Bulgaria and India. Unlike other mammalian hybrids possessing chromosome complements differing from their parents. Parturition The birth process is similar to that of cattle (see Pregnancy: Parturition). Postpartum anoestrus or failure to resume oestrous cycles after calving remains a major problem As mentioned previously. Poor superovulatory response to gonadotrophins. calving intervals of 14 to 15 months have been achieved. Pregnancy rates. Since oocytes can be collected at slaughter from highproducing buffaloes at the end of their lactation (see `Feeding the Lactating Buffalo'. In India and Pakistan. and over 60% for hand matings. 25% to 45% with frozen semen. Embryo Transfer Technology contributing to long calving intervals (see Oestrus Cycles: Postpartum Cyclicity). . low embryo recovery rates and the small number of calves born suggest that the technology is not ready for commercial application in the buffalo. two calves every 3 years. Improvements in nutrition could increase growth rates and hasten the onset of puberty. Birth weights range from 26 to 35 kg with male calves weighing 2±3 kg more than female calves. in well-managed herds. In 1997. usually range from 50% to 60% with chilled semen.

. These animals. Often male calves are neglected and die of starvation. which are generally low in protein (see Developing Countries. Nutritional Requirements large rumen volume. Utilization of Crop Residues Milk letdown is slower in buffalo than in cattle. The dry matter intake and digestibility of roughage can be improved by supplementing with a mixture of urea and molasses. bypass protein. high rate of salivation. Milk Yield Several physiological and physical factors contribute to the buffalo's ability to utilize poor quality roughage and crop residues.8 to 188. There is no physiological need for concentrate feed to maintain butterfat content that is about twice as much as cows' milk. Beyond 4±6 weeks of age. slow rumen motility and higher cellular activity.48 126. As they grow older. `Dry' animals are sent to the abattoir since it is uneconomical to transport them back to their original villages.75 4% fat-corrected milk) Digestible crude protein Dry and lactating animals (g kgÀ1 W0.5 kg concentrate mixture per litre of milk produced. Almost all the milk is produced in smallholder farms. This block supplies fermentable energy. The presence of the calf initiates the milk letdown re¯ex. shorter calving intervals and higher milk yields. are transported to cities where they are con®ned in large holding areas and fed with dry fodder and large quantities of discarded bread and other preparations made of ¯our. The available resources are essentially tropical pastures (both green and mature). Buffaloes fed these supplements show better body condition.75) Milk production (kcal kgÀ1 W0.34 Two systems are practised for rearing buffalo calves. a buffalo could be retained in the herd up to about the ninth lactation (16 years of age) with reasonable economic returns.and microminerals to make the rumen micro¯ora and fauna more ef®cient in digesting roughages. straws and crop residue.28 to 3. In commercial farms. In smallholder farms.6 to 166. and macro. calves are weaned at birth and managed as for dairy calves (see Replacement Management. Milking Technique The energy and protein requirements have been established for maintenance and milk production for the river buffalo (Table 3). Large herds of high-producing buffaloes are located near big cities in India and Pakistan.8 1171 to 1863 1. suckling time is gradually reduced and replaced by grass and small quantities of concentrate. Thus. whereas in big herds in India and Pakistan they are machinemilked as for cattle. (2) semi-intensive. Feeding Management Many Asian countries have limited feed resources for feeding their buffaloes. since the buffalo releases unwanted fat into the milk and stores only a minimum in body tissues. Feeding concentrates increases milk fat content as high as 15%. In most smallholder farms. Feeding the Lactating Buffalo Feeding systems of buffaloes for milk can be broadly classi®ed as (1) extensive. with animals tethered in the farmer's backyard and fed mainly on cut fodder and crop residues. Milk yields range from 1500 to 1800 kg for the ®rst lactation with a steady increase to a peak in the fourth lactation. animals are hand-milked with the calf to stimulate milk letdown. Feeding the Calf River buffalo 97. The second system is most common. and (3) the intensive system.75) Milk production (g 100 gÀ1 of protein in milk) Adapted from Mudgal (1988) and Ranjhan (1998). slower rate of passage of digesta through the reticulo-rumen. and are then maintained at peak levels until the ninth lactation. purchased from the villages immediately after calving. calves are allowed to suckle their dams both for milk letdown and to suck 1±2 l of milk. Cattle: Preruminant Diets and Weaning Practices).190 BUFFALO HUSBANDRY/Asia Table 3 Metabolizable energy and digestible crude protein requirements for maintenance and milk production of the river buffalo Parameter Metabolizable energy Dry and lactating buffalo (kcal kgÀ1 W0. Normally buffaloes are milked twice a day. Cow Management: Asia). Among these factors are the The lactation length is about 300 days in the Murrah breed and about 320 days in the Nili-Ravi breed. Milk Harvesting and Storage The annual production of buffalo milk in the Asian± Paci®c region exceeds 55 million tonnes (see Table 4) with India and Pakistan contributing more than over 50 million tonnes (Figure 3). the calf is used only for milk letdown. The mixture is available as a block lick (UMMB). Lactating animals receive 0.

eliminating the middleman from the pro®ts.105 2. these cooperatives provide loans to farmers to purchase superior animals.006 4. There are many that yield 4000 l in a lactation of 300 days ± some have even attained 5000 l.150 2.145 1.001 0. particularly the whey proteins. ghee.694 20. such as butter. the lower water and higher fat contents make buffalo milk better suited for the manufacture of fat-based and solids-not-fatbased milk products.603 0.005 0.053 0. India (1999±2000) Members: district cooperative milk producers' union 12 Number of producer members 2 11 755 Number of village societies 10 411 6. Surplus milk is processed into butter.190 0. Their extension programmes help producers to increase production and reduce costs.356 57.013 0. Dried milk products prepared from buffalo milk exhibit higher levels of undenatured proteins when processed under similar conditions.020 0.010 0.090 0.031 55.300 Ð Ð 0.7 Daily milk handling capacity (l  106) 1 586 Total milk collection (1999±2000) (l  106) 43. the latter is not only pale creamish-yellow but also the milk fat is golden yellow. Unlike the cow.213 0. is now common. and is passed on to milk.340 0.117 0.022 35. 1999. considered a record 30 years ago. The dairy Few differences exist between buffalo and cattle in the nutritive value of milk and milk products (see Milk: Introduction). Anand.061 0. India (35. sell animal feed and provide a routine veterinary and AI service.933 Table 5 Some statistics of the buffalo dairy industry in Gujarat.134 Milk (Mt Â106) 0. (Adapted from FAO. Milk Marketing a China has a population of about 150 000 crossbred buffaloes (river  swamp buffalo).104 0.456 0. Ghee).286 0.465 0.242 0.004 0. improved management and the establishment of more dairy herds. curd and cheese (see Milk Fat Products: Anhydrous Milk Fat ± Butteroil.004 1.3) 4% Figure 3 Major producers of buffalo milk in Asia (Mt  106).854 92.3) 65% The rapid expansion of the buffalo dairy industry in the past two decades can be attributed to the Cooperative Milk Marketing model.353 Meat (Mt Â106) 0. .403 0. ghee and milk powder (Table 6). India (Table 5).067 Ð 2. Therefore.032 163. are more resistant to heat denaturation than those of cows' milk.011 0. Adapted from FAO (1999). Composition and Nutritive Value Bangladesh (0. industry has grown from small creameries to large dairy plants supported by thousands of small farmers who supply between 5 and 10 l of milk per day. The individual 3000 l-per-lactation female.818 3. Calcium. then adopted by other states in India and Pakistan. the smallholder farmer is guaranteed a stable price for milk throughout the year. iron and phosphorus in milk are higher in buffalo than in cow.2) <1% Nepal (0.10) <1% Iran (0. Most Asians consume buffalo milk in liquid form. The lower cholesterol content in buffalo milk should make it more popular than cows' milk with the healthconscious public. ®rst developed in Gujarat.200 3. which is colourless. In this model.018 Ð 0.46 Average daily milk collection (l  106) 450 Milk drying capacity (tonnes dayÀ1) 1 450 Feed manufacturing capacity (tonnes dayÀ1) Sales turnover (US$ million) 500 Source: Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation.065 3. the buffalo converts the yellow pigment b-carotene into vitamin A.02) <1% Myanmar (0.721 0. Proteins of buffalo milk.169 0. In addition.419 21.) With selective breeding.016 0. buffalo milk is distinctively whiter than cows' milk. milk yields are increasing.BUFFALO HUSBANDRY/Asia 191 Table 4 The domestic buffalo's contribution to milk and meat production in Asia Country River type Bangladesh India Iran Iraq Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka Swamp type Cambodia Chinaa Indonesia Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Thailand Vietnam Total Asia Total World Numbers (Â106) 0.051 0. Dairy products that are usually made from cows' milk are also produced from buffalo milk in modern dairy plants. However.713 2. condensed milk.5) 30% China (2.73) <1% Pakistan (16.729 16.000 158.379 3. India.

Milk Products Ghee accounts for about 45% of the total milk produced in India. malignant catarrhal fever Haemorrhagic septicaemia (Pasteurella multocida). Heat. Certain traditional cheese varieties. repeat breeding Vaginal. endometritis. hepatica) Ectoparasites: tick infestation (Boophilus microplus. The sales ®gures for Amul's butter have increased from 1000 tonnes yearÀ1 in 1966 to over 25 000 tonnes yearÀ1 in 1997. mange (Sarcoptis scabiei. the domestic buffalo's ability to sweat and lose heat through evaporative cooling is signi®cantly diminished. Thermal Stress Adapted from Rajorhia (1988) and Ganguli (1992). Psoroptes spp. and can depress signs of oestrus (see Stress. Amul products are exported to the United States. Ghee is the only source of animal fat in the vegetarian diet of the human population in India. Ghee from buffalo milk has no colour. F. tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis). postpartum uterine prolapse. cheese. unlike ghee from cattle. Corynebacterium pyogenes) Haemoprotozoa: Anaplasma. infectious diseases and disorders similar to those of cattle. hypophosphataemia. the domestic buffalo is more sensitive than cattle to direct solar radiation and high ambient temperatures during the summer months. they are susceptible to thermal stress. B. foot and mouth disease. puerperal metritis. buffalo milk is preferred to cows' milk (see Buffalo Husbandry: Mediterranean Region). Theirleria. Thus. For the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. In addition. skim milk powder. annulata). ghee. hypomagnesaemia. Thermal stress may lead to higher calf mortality. Thermal stress can be reduced by providing cooling facilities such as shade and wallows. selenium toxicity. Trypanosoma and Schistosomia species Gastointestinal nematodes: Haemonchus contortus.) Hypocalcaemia (milk fever). vibriosis (Campylobacter fetus). hardjo) Prepartum vaginal prolapse. retention of foetal membranes. uterine and ovarian disorders Adapted from Adlakha and Sharma (1992). in Dairy Cattle: Effects on Mik Production and Composition. Babesia. humid conditions in the tropics. which is golden yellow due to the presence of carotenoids as stated earlier. ice cream and nutramul. . infant formulae.14 manufactured from buffalo milk. The products include butter. their dark body coat promotes heat absorption from the direct rays of the sun whereas the thick epidermal layer prevents heat dissipation through conduction and radiation. and by sprinkling water on to the skin during Table 7 Common diseases and disorders of the domestic buffalo in Asia Aetiology Viral Bacterial Parasitic Disease or disorder Rinderpest. Cheese made from buffalo milk displays typical body and textural characteristics. Toxocara vitulorum. Johne disease (Mycobacterium paratuberculosis). mastitis (Staphylococcus and Streptococcus spp. hypoglycaemia (ketosis).65 Cows' milk 870 125 46 33 36 3. chocolates. Escherichia coli. full cream milk powder. Health Management Contrary to the popular belief that domestic buffaloes thrive in the harsh.. trichomoniasis (Trichomonas foetus). because greater levels of calcium and phosphorus are converted into the colloidal form. delayed resumption of ovarian cycles Metabolic disorders Abortion. liver ¯uke (Fasciola gigantica. Effects on Reproduction). such as paneer in India or pickled cheeses from the Middle East countries. Amul is a cooperative factory in Gujarat which produces a range of milk products exclusively Table 6 Composition of milk of river buffalo and cow Constituent Water (g lÀ1) Total solids (g lÀ1) Lactose (g lÀ1) Proteins (g lÀ1) Fat (g lÀ1) Cholesterol (mg gÀ1) Buffalo milk 820 172 55 44 75 0. are best made from buffalo milk. bracken fern poisoning Brucellosis (Brucella abortus). New Zealand and the Gulf States. cystic ovaries. Ghee is clari®ed butterfat and contains about 99% of milk fat.192 BUFFALO HUSBANDRY/Asia Ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated buffalo milk and cream are intrinsically whiter and more viscous than their cows' milk counterparts. leptospirosis (Leptospirosis pomona and L. lower milk yields and slow growth. With less than one-tenth the density of sweat glands compared to cattle.

) A Compendium of Latest Research Based on Indian Studies. Effects on Reproduction. Heat. Metabolic Disorders Cockrill WR (1974) The Husbandry and Health of the Domestic Buffalo. In: Bhatt PN (ed. Developing Countries. which includes a few Further Reading Adlakha SC and Sharma SN (1992) Infectious diseases. and annual milk production up to 600 kg. New Delhi: Indian Council of Agriculture Research. Bacteria causing mastitis. Cow Management: Asia. their treatment and control are similar to those for cattle (see Mastitis Pathogens: Contagious Pathogens. Rajorhia GS (1988) Dairy technology applied to buffalo milk. the aetiology is similar because affected buffaloes respond to therapy and control as for dairy cows. While the major purpose of the river buffalo is milk. 393± 411. New Delhi: Indian Council of Agriculture Research. . with an adult male weight of 325±450 kg. In: Nagarcenkar R (ed. Italy Copyright 2002. Ganguli NC (1992) Milk processing and marketing. and annual milk production of 1000±3000 kg. Monterotondo. Puerperal metritis and retained foetal membranes occur in the buffalo. Mediterranean Region A Borghese and B Moioli. pp. 377±392. virulent strains of Escherichia coli. London: Elsevier. Rome: FAO. See also: Buffalo Husbandry: Mediterranean Region. FAO (1999) FAO Quarterly Bulletin of Statistics. Oestrus Cycles: Puberty. 130± 141. In: Tulloh NM and Holmes JHG (eds. Cattle: Preruminant Diets and Weaning Practices. Gamete and Embryo Technology: Artificial Insemination. All Rights Reserved Introduction The buffaloes reared in the Mediterranean region are the Asian buffalo or water buffalo. Characteristics. London: Elsevier. i. Animal Production Research Institute. 4th edn.e. There is a high incidence of calf mortality caused by Toxocara vitulorum. Jainudeen MR and Hafez ESE (2000) Cattle and buffalo. vol. In: Hafez B and Hafez ESE (eds. with an adult male weight ranging between 450 and 1000 kg. Elsevier Science Ltd. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. In: Tulloh NM and Holmes JHG (eds. Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer. Mating Management: Detection of Oestrus. 1±4. pp. Replacement Management. Compared with cattle. pp. High milk-producing river buffaloes are as susceptible to metabolic disorders as dairy cows. In: Tulloh NM and Holmes JHG (eds. Milk Fat Products: Anhydrous Milk Fat ± Butteroil. 624±640. rota and corona viruses. vol.) Invited Papers and Special Lectures. Mastitis Pathogens: Contagious Pathogens. Milk: Introduction. This species includes two types: (1) the river type. 2 Part 2. Proceedings. pp. Stress. Pregnancy: Parturition. In vitro Fertilization. Larvae of To.) Reproduction in Farm Animals. Environmental Pathogens).) Buffalo Production in Subseries: Production±System Approach. Infectious Diseases River buffaloes are susceptible to most diseases affecting cattle (Table 7). pp. Rome: FAO. The high incidence of metritis and other genital infections has been partly attributed to the unhygienic practice of dilating the vagina with either inserting objects or blowing air for stimulating milk letdown. Ranjhan SK (1998) Text Book on Buffalo Production. with 48 chromosomes. 271± 303. Mudgal VD (1992) River buffalo production systems in Asia. Washington. DC: National Academic Press. pp. Bubalus bubalis. buffaloes show greater resistance to foot-and-mouth disease and brucellosis but have a higher incidence of parasitic diseases because of their wallowing habits. 12. the swamp buffalo is reared mainly for draught. 159±171. London: Elsevier. Ghee. 7th edn. Only 3% of the world buffalo population is reared in the Mediterranean region.) Buffalo Production in Subseries: Production±System Approach.) Buffalo Production in Subseries: Production±System Approach. Postpartum Cyclicity. with 50 chromosomes. vitulorum are transmitted from the dam to the calf through the milk during the ®rst month of life. Dairy Animals: Water Buffalo. The dairy buffalo is as susceptible to mastitis as the dairy cow. Environmental Pathogens. and (2) the swamp type. in Dairy Cattle: Effects on Milk Production and Composition. Apparently. Mudgal VD (1989) Energy and protein requirements for dairy buffaloes.BUFFALO HUSBANDRY/Mediterranean Region 193 the hotter part of the day and feeding roughage during the night. no. Anonymous (1981) The Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Under-Utilized Animal.