Peter Chung (pe13 3hk@gmail.

co om) 2011 

AL CHE EMISTRY EXAM N Y NOTES(IN NORGANIC CHEM MISTRY) SECTION N 7 Periodic city Propert ties of the E Elements  >>P PETER’S Ans swering Skil lls<< 
[AL2 2010 PII 1(b)] ] Sketc the variation of the first io ch n onisation entha alpy of the elem ments in Period 3 of the Perio Table and account for th variation. d odic d he

  Why y I.E. increa ase across t the period? Gen neral Steps  1. State the difference  2. What changes?  3. Reason  4. Therefore  5. Result/Fact t 
Why y IE of Al < IE E of Mg 
Moving across the perio   od atomic nu umber increase and electron are added to the same es ns t principal quantum shell   q l. The screen ning effect of the added ele f ectrons cannot offset the eff t fect of increase in nuclear ch charge.  Outermost shell electro will experi ons ience a larger effective nucl lear charge 

I.E. incre ease genera ally across th he period
Electronic configuration c ns:

1. State the difference 

  2. How specia al?  3. Reason  4. Result/Fact t 
Why y IE of S < IE of P? 
The full-f filled 3s subsh in Mg has extra stability  hell y More ener is required to break the stable subshe   rgy d ell IE of Mg > IE of Al

1. State the difference 

Electronic configuration c ns:

  2. How specia al?  3. Reason  4. Result/Fact t 
The half-f filled 3p subsh in P has extra stability hell e More ener is required to break this electronic co rgy d s onfiguration  IE of P > IE of S

less energy is liberated as energy is needed to compensate the repulsion between the extra electron and the electrons in the outermost shell of the F atom.  3. The attraction between the Na+ and Cl.d. The van der Waals forces between AlCl3 molecules in AlCl3(s) is relatively weak. F atom is much smaller than Cl atom. but PH3(g) is almost insoluble. but AICl3(s) is volatile. NaCl(s) has a high melting point. = v. 1.ions in NaCl(s) is strong. but AlCl3(s) is volatile. When an electron is added to a F atom. AlCl3(s) is a covalent compound with ionic character. State the difference  2. State the difference  2. NH3(g) is very soluble in water. 1.com) 2011  Account for each of the following: 1. Result/Fact  2. Reason  = intermolecular force    Its interaction with water is much weaker than the H-bond between water molecules. 2.w VS H‐bond  3. 1. Reason  = bonding  = ionic VS v.A.  3. Result/Fact      NaCl(s) is predominately ionic. E. The electron affinity of chlorine is more negative than that of fluorine.w.d. NaCl(s) has a high melting point.A. . Result/Fact  3. of chlorine is more negative than that of fluorine. State the difference  NH3 forms hydrogen bond with water extensively. but PH3(g) is almost insoluble.Peter Chung (pe13hk@gmail. Reason  = definition of E. NH3(g) is very soluble in water. PH3 has a very small dipole moment. The electronegativity of P is very close to that of H.