Governments make many rules to protect people from danger, for example, by making people wear seat belts

in cars or not allowing smoking in public buildings. However, many people believe that there are too many rules nowadays. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement. Answer Governments have the responsibility of ensuring the safety of their citizens by imposing certain restrictions that might seem unnecessary. Although it may restrict their freedom to a certain extent, experiences have proved that many dangers have been averted by imposing these safety measures. Rules and regulations cause minor inconveniences to people but it should be weighed against the safety aspects of individual and social living. It is a reality that hundreds of accidents are caused due to drunken driving. Since there are many rules against driving under the influence of alcohol, many accidents that could cause great damage to human life and property, are avoided. Those who believe that such rules interfere with their freedom pay with their own lives and that of others. The conclusion one can draw from these experiences is that people should tolerate certain inconveniences, in order to protect their lives from possible dangers. Littering and spitting in public places is considered a serious offence in Singapore, which is dealt with serious fines. People in countries like India, that do not have such strict rules on public hygiene may not realise the value of such a regulation but this has made Singapore one of the most beautiful and cleanest countries in the world. When people learn the benefits of certain restrictions, they would begin to appreciate such constrains on their freedom. However, in certain case, we may find that some rules are unnecessary and ineffective. These are only rare instances and citizens have the right to raise objections against them. Any sensible government would revoke such rules and regulations if it finds them unproductive. In general, the rules that we have are not too many but essential for the smooth functioning of any civil society. The absence of such controls would lead to chaos and confusion in public life.

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More and more people claim that modern work patterns are a source of stress. What do you think are the causes of this? Can you suggest some possible solutions? Modern work patterns have definitely led to a stress filled work environment. This could be attributed to several professional and personal issues guiding quality and productivity in modern work places. Effective management practices to deal with such situations can play a significant role in reducing the severity of this problem considerably. Firstly, capitalist free economies have encouraged increasing levels of competition in the market, which has led to a situation where companies compete with each other in order to establish the superiority of their products and services and increase profit. The major responsibility of achieving these goals would obviously be transferred to workers at various levels, who are forced to improve their skills at work. When people work in target oriented and quality conscious work places, it would naturally increase their levels or stress. Again, companies often need to deliver their services within a stipulated time frame with the required quality. To meet these deadlines, employees have to work for long hours and this can definitely lead to a stressful work environment. Strict supervisory policy of managerial staff is another prime reason for this situation. Software companies and travel agencies are ideal examples of such work practices. Scientific human resource management policies can tackle this situation quiet effectively. I believe, the most obvious solution is to create relaxed environments at work, where employees can work effectively in a comfortable manner. For example, most software companies today provide gym facilities and other sports activities for employees, which they can use during their break times. A further step would be, to reduce the hours of work, so that it may not exceed the physical and psychological capacity of workers. Another possibility is to encourage workers to use their weekends and holidays more effectively by spending with their families or for picnics. In conclusion, a certain level of stress is inevitable in today s workplaces but effective human resources policies can reduce it considerably.
The words and phrases to study. This could be attributed to/ considerably increasing levels of competition/ establish the superiority responsibility of achieving these goals would obviously be transferred to target oriented and quality conscious work place within a stipulated time frame can tackle this situation/ the most obvious solution A further step would be/it may not exceed the physical and psychological capacity of workers Another possibility is/ a certain level of stress is inevitable 2

Because of the falling birth rates and better healthcare, the world¶s population is getting steadily older and this trend is going to cause serious problems for the society.

To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?

The increase in the number of older population, due to better health care and falling birth rates, can definitely have serious social and economic implications.

Since the elderly are physically and psychologically weak, caring for them automatically becomes the responsibility of the younger population. If their number rises beyond a certain level, it would become a huge burden on them to provide food, healthcare and other basic facilities. Inevitably, a major share of country s resources has to be spent for this purpose. Consequently, this would lead to the reduction in budgetary allocation for other developmental activities, resulting in serious economic consequences. The maintenance of homes for the retired and old age pensions have become a huge burden for governments in many western countries.

Moreover, since the falling birth rates reduce the number of young people, the productivity of the country would be affected seriously. Young and energetic professionals are required in various developmental projects, research and development. Although a few older people do work beyond their retirement age, their contribution is very limited in physically demanding jobs and modern technology. For instance, in a number of developed countries shortage of young professionals in important areas like healthcare and information technology is experienced today. These countries are forced depend on the services migrant professionals from developing countries to fill the vacancies in those areas.

In conclusion, although increasing life expectancy can be counted as a sign of development, if it is coupled with the reduction in the number of younger population it would lead to many issues related to the progress of the country. Hence a number of countries are now encouraging more children in families by giving them incentives in terms of economic benefits and longer maternity leave.

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Euthanasia, or mercy killing, has been a controversial issue for many years. Although many people are strongly against such a practice, there is a growing demand to have it legalised. How far do you agree with euthanasia being made legal? Essay Although certain human right groups and religious organisations may raise objections to the legalisation of mercy killing, from a practical point of view it has enormous benefits for the critically ill patients who have no hope of coming back to normal life. In the first place, legalisation of euthanasia can save the expenditure involved in sustaining lives of many terminally ill patients, who just live with the help of sophisticated medical equipments like ventilators. It is unreasonable to spend huge amounts of money on medicines, medical personnel and equipments, since such people are unlikely to recover. Governments in many orthodox Muslim countries spend millions of dinars for sustaining the lives of patients in vegetative state, because their religious law prohibits euthanasia. In fact, the money wasted for this purpose can be used for treating other patients who can be brought back to a healthy life. Again, in certain extreme cases, it can also be end the hardships and excruciating physical and mental agony of patients who are in the last stages of certain critical illnesses like cancer. Since the law does not allow mercy killing, the last few days are often a trying time for both the patients and their close relatives and friends. Legalisation of this practice can definitely give these patients a peaceful end through a clinically assisted death. On the other hand, there are arguments that there could be incidents of illegal elements misusing this law for their personal advantage. Strict laws and proper surveillance can definitely prevent the occurrence of crimes related to this issue. Religious people who object to the legalisation of mercy killing or moral grounds should consider the practical difficulties involved in preserving a life in vegetative state. If proper guidelines are put forward by the authorities, to determine the validity of a legal euthanasia, it will prove to be a great blessing for many patients who survive just because of life-sustaining equipment attached to their body.

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High technology is now being harnessed to help the elderly by providing monitoring, tracking and, perhaps one day robots as companions. Whilst there are obvious benefits for the elderly in these developments, some people are uneasy about the social consequences. Essay

The social consequences of using high technology in the care of the elderly, if any, are inconsequential, compared to the enormous benefits it has brought about in the lives of the aged as well as those who take care of them. The devices that provide monitoring, tracking and many other facilities have enabled old people to have greater self-reliance. Today, they need not depend on other individuals to perform many functions, like moving about or checking their vital signs. This would give them greater independence and self confidence and definitely lead to their better emotional and physical wellbeing. For example, there are tracking devices that can help the elderly to move around without the help of a caregiver or other individuals. All these benefits that the elderly receive with the help of technology can reduce many social issues associated with old age. Again, many elderly people would need the help of a nurse of a caregiver, if they are bed-ridden or immobile. Although, taking care them is a very demanding job both physically and psychologically, modern equipments have reduced the workload of carers. For example, helping old people to take a bath or to move around is a physically demanding task, but devices like automated beds and modern wheelchairs have eased the tediousness of these activities. As a result, people who care for them can spend more time to interact with them and give psychological support. This can definitely have a great impact on the emotional health of old people and bring down their loneliness to a great extent. Hence, instead of leading to any social problems, the use of modern equipments can help the elderly to lead a more meaningful life. However, there could be instances of the aged being left to the company of machines in the evening of their life, which means that they lose the proximity of their close relatives and other human beings. As human interaction is an important ingredient of the emotional health of the elderly, such a situation could make them more irritated and temperamental. Therefore, although the increasing use of the high technology is greatly beneficial for our senior citizens, the society should make sure that they are not denied of the closeness of other human beings. When we consider the many aspects of the above discussed issue, one can certainly come to a conclusion that the use of modern devices in elderly care is unlikely to lead to any social consequences.
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Reducing global environmental damage should be handled by governments rather than individuals. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

The damage to the environment is increasing at an alarming rate mainly due to human activities. Although a great deal of effort is being now made by governments all over the world, individuals also have a major role to play in the minimising global environmental hazards.

To start with, one of the major reasons for the pollution of the environment is the uncontrolled use of automobiles. If individuals can make a conscious effort to change their lifestyle, by cutting down the use of private cars and use public transport, it would substantially reduce the burning of fossil fuels. For instance, serious attempt should be made by individuals to travel to work regularly by buses and trains. The lack of public support can seriously hamper any government endeavour towards the reduction of pollution.

Again, people use enormous amount of plastic in daily life, which is a hazardous pollutant of the soil. Individuals can make a great contribution for the protection of the environment, opting for eco friendly substitutes. An ideal way to do this is by using paper and cloth bags instead of plastic in supermarkets.

Finally, people should gradually withdraw from excess consumerism, which has greatly contributed to the over exploitation of natural resources. This would mean that they should give greater priority to durable and reusable products in the shopping list, consequently discouraging use and throw culture.

In conclusion, individuals have a crucial role in joining hands with the government in reducing the harm caused to the environment.

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The number of cars keeps increasing, so road systems should be expanded. Some people think the government should pay for it, while others think the car owners should pay for it. What¶s your opinion?
Unless roads are developed to accommodate the increasing number of cars, it would aggravate the rising traffic problems in our cities. However, it is unfair for the government to expect car owners to bear the cost of expanding roads due to a number of reasons.

In the first place, car owners are already burdened by various types of taxes levied on them by the government at the time of purchase of the car and on a periodic basic. Increasing number of cars would naturally boost the tax revenue of the government. This money should be used for widening existing roads, building new highways and constructing bridges and flyovers. For example, in many cities of India, ideally a large number of flyovers are built by government funding. It is quite unreasonable to charge car owners to pay toll for these new developments.

Furthermore, it is the responsibility of a responsible government to provide the basic infrastructure like efficient roads to the people. If tax revenue is not sufficient for this purpose, Governments usually perform these responsibilities by availing loans. For instance, international financial institutions like World Bank and International Monitory Fund lend huge amounts of money to governments at lower interest rates for such purposes. This would mean that there is hardly any need for governments to require car owners to pay for such expenses.

On the other hand, there are people who believe that since it is the car owners who need better roads, they should pay for its construction. This argument would, in fact, seriously downplay the basic responsibility of the government to provide people with infrastructural facilities.

In conclusion, from the above arguments it is clear that government should bear the cost of improving the road system, in order to handle the growing traffic problems associated with large number of cars.

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Governments often spend large sums of money on spectacular displays to celebrate national events of significance. This money could be better spent on improving social conditions in the country. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Government should not divert the money meant for the celebration of national events of significance, as it has many benefits, in terms of reminding the citizens about the rich cultural heritage of the nation and inspiring a sense of patriotism and nationalism among various sections of population. Hence spending large sums of money for this purpose can be justified and government should allocate separate funds for improving the social conditions of the country. Firstly, the occasion of national events is the time to remind people of the history and culture of the nation. For instance, during the republic day celebration, in India, traditional art forms are staged and ceremonial processions are organised throughout the country. Although these celebrations would incur large expenditure for the state as well as people, they would make the citizens proud of the rich traditions of the country. Such feelings would also help people to develop sense of patriotism and a spirit of national integration, that are important aspects of the nation building process. Therefore, spending a large amount of money for this purpose is worthwhile. Secondly, although a substantial sum is spent on spectacular displays during national holidays, a large number of international tourists visit the country during this time and such events are telecast throughout the world. This would definitely benefit the country economically and it is a great opportunity to showcase one s culture and traditions before the world. Hence it is quite reasonable to celebrate national events with pomp and fanfare. In conclusion, the money spent for the rich celebrations of national events of significance, should not be diverted for improving the social conditions of the country as it has a number of cultural and economic benefits for the nation.

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