International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01

146

CUSTOMIZATION OF STARFISH TECHNOLOGY IN THE PRODUCTION OF COTTON-KNIT FABRICS: A PRACTICAL APPROACH

By

A.K.M. Mobarok Hossain1 and Dr.A.B.M. Zohrul Kabir2

……………………………………………………………………………………………………
1

Assistant Professor, Department of Textile Technology, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh 2 Professor,Islamic University of Technology,Gazipur,Bangladesh

117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS

IJENS

International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01

147

ABSTRACT
Demands for Cotton-knitted garments have been increasing steadily since 70s as consumers worldwide recognized their comfort and adaptability for all types of regular, leisure and sportswear. While processing order for the buyer, knit-garment makers generally specify their requirements in terms of grams per square meter (GSM), fabric width and shrinkage (both length and width),based on mostly buyer’s requirements and processing capability; for a finished knitted fabric of a particular shade. The fabric suppliers (particularly the knitters), on their part, have to choose knitting variables like machine gauge (defined by no. of loop-forming needles per unit circumference of the machine), yarn count (a measure of yarn fineness) & stitch length (length of yarn in a loop).The choice of these knitting variables is important in order to meet the quality specification of the buyers. Sometimes the combination of the requirements as demanded on the finished knitted fabric, is quite impossible to achieve. For this reason it is very common for knitted-fabric manufacturers to carry out a fairly large numbers of sample trials when they are required to develop a new product. These trials can consume considerable amount of time and raw materials, and cause considerable disruption to production schedules, before a satisfactory solution is found. Research works have been carried out worldwide for developing a practical system for reliably predicting the shrinkage and dimensional properties of finished Cotton–knitted fabrics. The most recognized effort may be that of IIC (Recent CTI) termed as STARFISH. It is a computer program, and a body of know-how which can demonstrate how to engineer cotton circular knits so that the quality and the performance can be right first and on time. To use STARFISH with the simplest option , the user has to give input variables of machine gauge, yarn count and stitch length mainly as well as specifying a target value of GSM and fabric width or shrinkage. In case of target GSM and fabric width, the STARFISH gives shrinkage as outputs and in case of target shrinkage; the software gives GSM and fabric width as outputs. But as STARFISH outputs represent the results developed from many industrial trials of different countries, the user just gets the standard average values of GSM, Width and Shrinkage of a particular fabric from STARFISH. So to customize this software in a particular factory, the results given by STARFISH has to be calibrated according to the factory results. Though the software provides a self-calibration method which is more experimental, a quick calibration procedure will definitely be more users friendly and support the application of this software more practically in a real factory situation. In this work, first, the relationship between STARFISH inputs (yarn count and stitch length) and outputs (GSM/Width) has been established through a set of multiple linear regression models for each specific machine gauge. The models thus developed have a high degree of correlation ship. Consequently, the regression models can be used as a substitute of STARFISH to predict outputs with a high accuracy under similar environment. Secondly STARFISH predicted results have been compared with recorded results of Beximco Knitting Limited (A renowned knitting factory of Bangladesh) using standard statistical measures in order to customize STARFISH as a real factory case. It was observed that the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) is less than 5% for all machine gauges. The findings thus clearly establish a quite advantageous approach for applying such technology for the selection of decision variables.
KEY WORDS: Knitting, Gauge, Yarn Count, Stitch Length, GSM, Shrinkage

117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS

IJENS

International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01

148

1. INTRODUCTION
Knitting is a process of fabric manufacturing by interlocking series of loops of one or more yarns. Knitted fabrics are used to produce garments that cover every part of the human body, in a wide range of garment types from socks, caps, gloves and underwear to upper and lower body garments varying from T-shirts to formal jackets. The dramatic increase in the popularity of knit fabrics during the last three decades provides a vivid example of the interrelationships between lifestyle, technology and fashion. The high degree of stretch and comfort that knit cloth brings to close-fitting garments, coupled with excellent wrinkle resistance, makes them eminently suitable to the modern consumer s demands. Unlike weaving, knitting cannot commence with any type of yarn. Knitting requires a relatively fine, smooth , strong yarn with good elastic recovery properties. Cotton yarn is proven worldwide as particularly suitable for knit garments like underwear, outerwear, sportswear and socks. Though the development of synthetic fibers brought revolution to the clothing industry, cotton-knitted fabrics have always enjoyed great popularity among all kinds of knitted fabrics. Due to unprecedented competition in the global apparel industry customers are demanding better quality in terms of improved performance (e.g. lower shrinkage and better retention of shape and performance). The International Institute for Cotton in1988 introduced to the industry the results of an extensive research program into the shrinkage and dimensional properties of finished knitted cotton fabrics. The package is marketed as a computer program called STARFISH.

117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS

IJENS

 To search for any type of possible relationship between input and output parameters by analyzing STARFISH results.  To propose the calibration for customization of STARFISH for that factory and thus establishing a feasible general way for customization of this technology for all circular weft-knit plants under similar production environment. OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study can be summarized as follow:  To study the STARFISH Technology and its relevance with knit manufacturing.  To compare some relevant R&D (Research and Development) records of a standard knit factory with STARFISH outputs with the help of statistical analysis.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 149 2. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .

bleaching and/or dyeing  Pressing. : Production sequence of knitted garments. women's and children's underwear .International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 150 3. including men's. calendaring or decatizing or stentering (finishing}  Marker making  Laying up (spreading) of fabric  Cutting  Assembly  Examine and mend  Finish press Fig. Fabric manufacturing (Knitting) unit Wet processing unit Garments manufacturing unit 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .swimwear. Yarn receiving  Circular knitting of fabric  Scouring. The production sequence of such garments is shown below.THEORITICAL BACKGROUND : 3.1. sportswear and leisurewear.FLOW CHART OF KNITTED GARMENTS MANUFACTURING All knitted garments can be classified into four categories according to general Production methods: (1)Fully cut (2)Stitch shaped cut (3)Fully fashioned (4)Integral Among these fully cut garments cover the widest range of different types of garments.

After knitting it goes to wet processing unit for coloration and minor adjustments in finished dimensions. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . Width etc). These machines vary in diameter . like. A simple flow-chart is shown below. A) Fabric type (Plain Jersey. 1.TRADITIONAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCEDURE PRACTICED BY KNITTING PLANT After getting fabric specification from garment manufacturing unit.The marker is laid out to a particular width of a fabric and within an optimum length . hence the term fully cut.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 151 The fabric for this process is invariably knitted on circular knitted machines. Also fabric stability and handles are improved in finishing. Wool etc). Shrinkage. s 3. laid up (spread) on to cutting tables . Garment pieces are cut from finished piece goods fabric. All parts of the garments other than the trims are cut from the lay. The garments are assembled by seaming machines and trims are added where appropriate. GSM. knit-plant goes for sample development. Each garment pieces has all edges cut. Silk. . gauge(the number of needles per inch) and production capacity. Marker portrays the way in which pieces of a garment are laid out on the fabric for cutting . Rib etc) B) Fiber type (Cotton. Garments manufacturing unit Function: Supplies fabric specifications. and may represent only one size or a mixture of two or more sizes. C) Fabric properties (Shade. 2.

Factory management Function: Gives order to research and development center of the plant for sample development. dyeing and finishing section Function: Takes sample development program .Knit. Knitting.Research and development center of the factory 4. Takes necessary steps for arranging raw materials and executing sample development.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 152 2. Search for similar existing R&D records If found Give program for similar development Submits the sample to the garment manufacturing unit Developed sample is OK (Required properties have been achieved Developed sample is not OK (Required properties have not been achieved) If not found Gives trial sample programs to knitting dyeing and finishing section Figure: Rolls of different teams in the research and development(R & D) chain of a knit fabric Note : Sample development programs are totally controlled by factory management for factories which do not have R&D centers 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . 3.

EXPERIMENTAL STEPS: The work progressed by completing the following steps sequentially. -Searching records of those specific samples from R&D Department of Beximco Knitting Limited (a renowned and standard Knit factory of Bangladesh).Forecasting the possible factory outputs with the help of calibrated STARFISH outputs 5. .It embodies the principle that. processing of which are very much similar to STARFISH guided processing sequence.e. we must first have an accurate knowledge of the finished product. in order to know how to produce a knitted fabric with the desired dimensions and performance.Finding out mathematical relations between input and output variables by analyzing the STARFISH results with the help of MATLAB and WINQSB software so that those can be used anywhere for prediction without the help of a computer. .e. GSM and Width) keeping the third output (i.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 153 4. -Finding out the deviations between STARFISH results and factory results by standard statistical measures. The collection of new data and the development of improved analytical 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . -Obtaining simulated test results from STARFISH for two output variables (i. Shrinkage) same as the factory result. STARFISH COMPUTER PROGRAM The name STARFISH is contracted from the phrase “START as you mean to FINISH” . The STARFISH Kit was first made commercially available in 1988 after several years of preliminary testing and development in the industry.

So shrinkage is generally selected as target. carded etc. diameter & no. stitch length and knitting machine.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 154 techniques for the interpretation of the data base is being continued by Cotton Technology International (CTI). A simplified operational procedure of STARFISH software (Version 5. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .03) is shown below  Software Operation : . deep etc. Winch etc.Units Giving Inputs: Fabric type Yarn type (combed. of needles) Yarn count Stitch length Wet process route (Dyeing machine type: Jet.) Targets (Shrinkage/ GSM & Width) Presetting Target values specified: (Values of GSM& Width /Shrinkage) Getting outputs: (Values of Shrinkage /GSM& Width) Note: ►For a particular fabric of a specified shade. major and dominating inputs are yarn count. ►Generally buyer's requirement is more rigid on Shrinkage as it is the most sensitive issue from the consumer's point of view.) Knitting machine (specified by gauge. medium.) Nominal depth of shade (White.

117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . In the case of a new product this is almost inevitably the case and is to be accepted as a fact of life – part of the process of product evolution and improvement in response to market opportunities. But problem arises when the demanded weight. It may be a store group. the “customer” is the person or organization. Even the customer may ask for better shrinkage on an existing quality without allowing any changes in weight and width! If the manufacturer has access to STARFISH and thus has the calibrated result. a garment maker. Also the customer may be offered various practical alternatives to choose if he wishes. which calls for combination of properties like* GSM * Width and * Shrinkage Sometimes this combination of properties is quite impossible to achieve in practice. a converter or a retail division of a vertical company. which decides the final performance of the product.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 155 6. width and shrinkage values are mutually incompatible. It is a well-known fact that the demands of customers are often based largely upon wishful thinking rather than solid experience of the product that they have in mind. then the specification can be checked and the customer can be informed of what it is possible to achieve without depending on sample making. CUSTOMERS SPECIFICATION AND STARFISH For a finished knitted fabric. The customer usually sets out his requirement in the form of a specification.

MS Excel Auto filter Option was used for doing this Also Log books were checked manually for accuracy. the first step is to find out those production or sample records. For this purpose the most standard and popular knitted fabric-PLAIN JERSEY was selected and the recent production and sample records of Beximco Knitting Limited were considered. 20G30D. Knitting machines are of 18G30D (18 Gauge and 30” Diameter}. 24G30D and 28G30D respectively. The other unique characteristics of these records are1) The fabrics were knitted and processed in Beximco Knitting Limited with the yarn of Padma Textiles Limited.1 DATA SORTING FROM EXISTING R&D RECORDS OF BEXIMCO KNITTING LIMITED For customization of STARFISH. 3) Samples were only solid dyed in medium deep shade (between 4-6% dyestuff) and no reprocess or additional chemical treatment was carried out.a sister concern of Beximco. So a high consistency is expected in measuring production variables and outputs.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 156 7. processing of which are very much similar to STARFISH guided processing sequence. 4) Samples were subjected to a reference relaxation procedure (similar to that of 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . DATA COLLECTION 7. Dyeing machines are of jet type. 2) Samples were knitted in four type of knitting machines and one type of dyeing machine.

9 209 57. 1944 Needles Yarn Count Stitch Length GSM Width Length Shrinkage (%) Width Shrinkage (%) 1 20 2.5 2. 1944 Needles Knitting Machine Type : 20G.2 3 17/1 3.3 6 4 17/1 3..83 217 58 5 5 2 20 2.94 200 58 5 5 4 20 3.5 2. 7. 1728 Needles Yarn Count Stitch Length GSM Width Length Shrinkage (%) Width Shrinkage (%) 1 15/1 3.3 2 16/1 3.2 CHART OF APPLICABLE PRACTICAL DATA FROM BEXIMCO KNITTING LIMITED The following tables show the list of all data that were found as standards for the desired purpose . 30" Dia.14 195 54 2 7 6 20/1 3. the results achieved are comparable with STARFISH generated results.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 157 STARFISH recommendation) for property measurements in standard atmospheric conditions.31 231 59.79 216 56 5 5 3 20 2.7 6.38 222 58 4 5 5 20/1 3.8 200 56 5 5 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .The collected data was arranged knit-machine wise as shown in table (i)to table (iv)for better understanding and implementation. Table (i): Data from knitting machine type: 18G. 30" Dia. 30”D. Therefore. 30”D.26 231 56 4.78 217 51 3.3 8 20/1 2.01 190 60 5 5 5 20 2.5 6.3 6 22 2.8 Table (ii): Data from knitting machine type: 20G. 1728 Needles Knitting Machine Type: 18G.6 4.4 6.02 205 53 5 5 7 20/1 3.5 3.3 4..32 272 56 5.07 202 54.

63 174 157 177.85 2.02 207 64 5 2.5 70.2 8. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .7 6 7 8 24 24 26 2. For making a comparison between original factory output and STARFISH output.5 61 1.91 218 67 2. similar values of inputs and target to the software were given to get values of outputs.5 72 63 Length Shrinkage (%) 4.77 3 2.3 Width Shrinkage (%) 4.3 2 20 2.5 7 7.15 198 69 7 7 4 20 2.96 202 64 5 5 3 20 3. 2640 Needles Knitting Machine Type: 28G.2 4 7. 30”D. 2640 Needles Yarn Count 26 30 30 34 40 Stitch Length 2.1 198 69.5 64.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 158 Table (iii): Data from knitting machine type: 24G.5 8. 30" 1 2 3 4 5 Dia. 30”D. Tables (v) to (viii) show the STARFISH outcomes for the sorted applicable data obtained from the factory as mentioned in section 7.5 6 7.7 6.6 5 Table (iv): Data from knitting machine type: 28G.69 2.3 STARFISH GENERATED RESULTS. 2256Needles Yarn Count Stitch Length GSM Width Length Shrinkage (%) Width Shrinkage (%) 1 20 3.61 2. It may be mentioned that as shrinkage is the most sensitive issue from the consumer’s point of view it has been specified as target in this project work rather than GSM & width.45 GSM 180 146 144 120 129 Width 69 68 73. 30" Dia.9 5 3..77 2..2 .3 7 5 22 3.8 5 7. 2256 Needles Knitting Machine Type: 24G.4 9.2 12.

5 3.8 5 2.02 2.1 218 198 207 173 67 69.5 60.3 Width Shrinkage (%) Target 4.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 159 Table (v):STARFISH results for same values of factory inputs from 18G Machines Knitting Machine Type: 18G.7 7.5 6.1 5 5 3 20 2.26 231 231 232 216 59.96 207 202 205 203 64 64 69.6 7 7 4 5 20 22 2.8 Table(vi):STARFISH results for same values of factory inputs from 20G Machines Knitting Machine Type: 20G.8 72.07 205 202 200 199 53 54.3 6 7 7.4 6. 30" Dia..15 198 185 69 74.1 5 5 4 20 3..3 5 3 20 3.94 200 204 58 60. 30" Dia.1 5 5 Table (vii):STARFISH results for same values of factory inputs from 24G Machine Knitting Machine Type: 24G.4 6.4 1.02 3.1 5 5 2.32 GSM (Factory) 272 GSM (Starfish) 240 WIDTH (Factory) 56 WIDTH (Starfish) 61 Length Shrinkage (%) Target 5.8 61.38 3.3 4.01 190 200 60 61.3 6 22 2.4 2.77 174 183 64. 30" Dia.5 161 177 70.1 4 2 5 7 6 7 20/1 20/1 3.14 222 195 213 196 58 54 60. 1728 Needles 1 Yarn Count 15/1 Stitch Length 3.5 61 70.5 54.8 3. 1944 Needles Yarn Count Stitch Length GSM (Factory) GSM (Starfish) WIDTH (Factory) WIDTH (Starfish) Length Shrinkage (%) Target Width Shrinkage (%) Target 1 20 2.8 5 8.6 57.6 5 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .9 209 209 57.9 2.31 3. 2256Needles Yarn Count Stitch Length GSM (Factory) GSM (Starfish) WIDTH (Factory) WIDTH (Starfish) Length Shrinkage (%) Target Width Shrinkage (%) Target 1 2 20 20 3.6 5 5 2 20 2.2 6 4 5 17/1 20/1 3.5 66.78 217 213 51 52.3 8 20/1 2.83 217 210 58 58.1 70.4 55.3 2 3 16/1 17/1 3.91 3.6 4.8 200 195 56 57.7 5 6.63 157 177.5 7 8 24 26 3 2.79 216 213 56 58.5 70.1 5 5 5 20 2.5 56 60 58..7 6 24 2.

which were of our interest. a multiple linear regression model could be formed.5 5 40 2..2 7.8 9.9 4. Knitting machines located in a particular factory can be divided generally into certain categories.61 180 179 69 70.2 2 30 2.45 129 119 63 63.77 146 151 68 71.3 5 4 3 30 2.3 7 8.1 ANALYSIS OF STARFISH PREDICTION SYSTEM STARFISH is commercial costly software and the manual or software itself does not reveal any mathematical technique by which the predictions are generated.69 120 121 72 74.7 8. So classifying the data according to knit-machine wise and thus eliminating one independent variable an easily understood model of multiple linear regression model could be formed where independent variables were yarn count and stitch length and dependent variables were GSM & Width taking into mind that 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 160 Table(viii):STARFISH results for same values of factory inputs from 28G Machine Knitting Machine Type: 28G. yarn count and stitch length and two dependent variables were GSM & width. DATA ANALYSIS 8.85 144 145 73. It was thought that by considering the major knitting variables as independent variables and software outputs as dependent variables.5 75. So the three independent variables were taken as knitting machine. 2640 Needles Yarn Count Stitch Length GSM (Factory) GSM (Starfish) WIDTH (Factory) WIDTH (Starfish) Length Shrinkage (%) Target Width Shrinkage (%) Target 1 26 2.4 12.9 4.1 3. 30" Dia.2 4 34 2.

Then for each pair values of yarn count and stitch length.2 APPLICATION OF MATLAB MATLAB is a high performance language for technical computing. at first.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 161 shrinkage was our target. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . The detailed operation sheets have been attached in APPENDIX-A.3 and other rows show the corresponding regression results. To work with this software. In this thesis work MATLAB has been employed to build multiple regression models for each specific target shrinkage of a particular gauge machine.e. The first row of a table shows the target shrinkages obtained from a similar type of table of section 7. Both MATLAB and WINQSB software were used for performing multiple linear regressions. gauge wise. some randomly selected values of yarn count and stitch length that covers the full practical range of these independent variables for a particular gauge were taken as inputs.e. Summarized results of regression models from MATLAB for different specific target shrinkages have been shown in table (ix)to (xii) which are arranged based on knitting machine type i. GSM and width from STARFISH software were taken as outputs. values of dependent variables i. 8.

81 -0.18 -58. 16 .408 0. · If VDQ = 115.12 -58. 22.16 -61.08 601.02 -57. nt for yarn t for stitch t for yarn t for stitch count length count length 5. Approximately suitable count for a particular type of machine (Gauge): (Gauge) 2 Ne = 18 If Gauge = 18.15 10.643 12.81 -0.95 -0.908 29.38 Table (ix): Summarized results from MATLAB regression models for 18G machine Output Target GSM Width (Length Regressio Regressi Regressi Regressi Shrinkage n on on on and Width Consta Max Consta coefficient coefficien coefficien coefficien Shrinkage) nt Err. 2.644 12.32 29. then Ne = (18) 2/18 =18 2.58 596. 3.79 606.251 4.3%X4.47 10.7%X6. Selected values : 14.96.421 0.403 29.45 3.89 599.38 . Knitting Machine Type: 18 gauge.29 29.18.56 -0. 20.32.446 0.101 5%X5% -11.5%X6.689 30. then Stitch Length = [115 X 41.88 -0.565 29. then Stitch Length = [140 X 41.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 162 1.16 -57.8% -11.56 614. 3.375 0. 3.375 0.3% -11.593 2.634 12.) for minimum and maximum stitch length in existing 18 Gauge machines are 140 and 163 respectively.532 0.039 3. 1728 needles (18G 30”D 1728N) Input range Yarn Count (Ne) = 14-22 .057 Note : 1.78-3.634 12. of needles) = 3.8(Constant)]/1728(No.403 29.32 613.802 4%X5% -11.38 Max Err.68 -0. 30 inch dia.628 12.4 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . of needles) = 2.32 -59.54 10. Selected values : 2.1 10.34 10.78.38 11.02 -57.8(Constant)]/1728(No.71 -0.415 0. 0.58 596. Practically used/useable count range in 18 gauge machine = 14-22 3. Machine setting (VDQ No.54 10.09 10.14.08 -57.6X4..98 603.04 -0.629 12.78 · If VDQ = 140.593 2%X7% -11.64 12.2% -11.3% -11. 24 Stitch Length (mm) =2.3%X6% -11.715 30.648 12.

47 · If VDQ = 145.25 529. Approximately suitable count for a particular type of machine (Gauge): (Gauge) 2 Ne = 18 If Gauge = 20. then Stitch Length = [115 X 41.470 2.7 -56.507 13. 3.22 ≈ 22 2.57 -55. 20. for yarn t for stitch t for yarn t for stitch count length count length 5% X5% -7. Practically used/useable count range in 20 gauge machine = 18-28 3.8(Constant)]/1944(No.698 30.8(Constant)]/1944(No.63. of needles) = 3.897 0.95. of needles) = 2. then Stitch Length = [145 X 41. Machine setting (VDQ No.79. 22.398 0.521 30. 2. Knitting Machine Type: 20 gauge.47.47-3.) for minimum and maximum stitch length in existing 20 Gauge machines are 115 and 145 respectively.26 9.20 10. nt Err.. Selected values: 18. 2. · If VDQ = 115. Selected values: 2. 24.11 Table(x): Summarized results from MATLAB regression models for 20G machine Output Target GSM Width (Length Regressio Regressi Regressi Regressi Shrinkage n on on on and Width Consta Max Consta Max coefficient coefficien coefficien coefficien Shrinkage) nt Err. 28 Stitch Length (mm) =2. 2.33 -0.3% -7.517 13. 1944 needles (20G 30”D 1944 N) Input range Yarn Count (Ne) = 18-28 . 30 inch dia.4%X6.73 -0.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 163 2.5 Note : 1. 26.73 522. then Ne = (20) 2/18 =22.11 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .11 .

80.762 1.86 -0.5% -6.498 0. Knitting Machine Type: 24 gauge. of needles)= 3..03 -49.553 15.6% -5.215 37.477 2.59 · If VDQ = 163.49 439.59.76 -47.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 164 3.06 7. then Stitch Length = [140 X 41. 2.) for minimum and maximum stitch length in existing 24 Gauge machines are 140 and 163 respectively.497 37.91.548 15. Practically used/useable count range in 24 gauge machine = 20-32 3 Machine setting (VDQ No.59-3.548 15. Approximately suitable count for a particular type of machine (Gauge): (Gauge) 2 Ne = 18 If Gauge = 24.219 37. 28.609 7%X7% -5. Selected values : 20.02 Stitch Length (mm) =2.49 8.97 -0.15 -50.457 0. nt Err.02 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .19 7.551 15.477 0.03 -49.14 476.50 -0.559 15.01 7.24 -0.218 37. 32 2.8(Constant)]/2256(No. 24.540 2.3% X7% -6. then Ne = (24) /18 =32 2 0. 30.3% -6. 30 inch dia.536 14.65 -46. 2256 needles (24G 30”D 2256 N) Input range Yarn Count (Ne) = 20-32 .04 -0.372 6.407 35.78 445.879 36.57 448. Selected values : Table (xi)::Summarized results from MATLAB regression models for 24Gmachine Output Target GSM Width (Length Regressio Regressi Regressi Regressi Shrinkage n on on on and Width Consta Max Consta Max coefficient coefficien coefficien coefficien Shrinkage) nt Err.516 0.48 468.507 0.32 -0.127 Note : 1.472 0.268 37.38 8.7% -5. 26.8(Constant)]/2256(No.34 466.87 469.00 -49. for yarn t for stitch t for yarn t for stitch count length count length 5% X2. then Stitch Length = [163 X 41.7%X7. 2.521 14.83 7.71.75 -46.28 -0.02 . of needles) = 2. · If VDQ = 140. 2. 3.563 5%X5% -6.127 6% X7.8%X8.05 8. 22.

30.5 345. 40 Stitch Length (mm) =2.45. 2640 needles (28G 30”D 2640 N) Input range Yarn Count (Ne) = 26-40 .475 0.667 42.) for minimum and maximum stitch length in existing 28 Gauge machines are 155 and 185 respectively.541 0.531 0. Selected values : 26.8(Constant)]/2640(No. Machine setting (VDQ No.9% X4.73 5.97 -43.83 393.327 5%X4% -3.99 -0. 34.133 41.74 5.497 16.041 4.15 -0.5% -3. Approximately suitable count for a particular type of machine (Gauge): (Gauge) 2 Ne = 18 If Gauge = 28.41 6.6 42.88 -43. of needles) = 2.48 -38.465 2.480 16.4%X12.524 17.81 -0. then Ne = (28) /18 = 43. then Stitch Length = [185 X 41.8(Constant)]/2640(No. then Stitch Length = [155 X 41.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 165 4.688 8.96 -44.45 · If VDQ = 185.45-2.240 Note : 1. · If VDQ = 155.66 -40. 2.17 393.5 387. 2. t for yarn t for stitch t for yarn t for stitch count length count length 3. 2.1 41.171 9. nt Err.95 6.5 ≈ 43 or 44 2 0.57.2% -3.67 363.2% -3. 30 inch dia. Knitting Machine Type: 28 gauge.93 Table(xii):: Summarized results from MATLAB regression models for 28Gmachine Output Target GSM Width (Length Regressi Regressi Regressi Regressi Shrinkage on on on on and Width Consta Max Consta Max coefficien coefficien coefficien coefficien Shrinkage) nt Err.81..2%X7.23 -0.93 .69. of needles) =2.3%X7%% -3.93 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . Practically used/useable count range in 28 gauge machine = 26-40 3.480 16.541 0.496 16. Selected values : 2. 32.21 -0. 2.62 5.617 45.

15-11. But putting the values from input range into the regression equation it is found that maximum error occurs for the extreme values of outputs.C.7.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 166 8.73 X 2. 2.L(Stitch Length) Width=29.57 Y.908 S. i. 18 and stitch length is minimum.C.47 STARFISH gives GSM = 258 (maximum value) Equation (1) gives GSM = 522.57 X 18 – 55. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · (2) When yarn count (Y. i.L.+12..C.04 and maximum error for width will be 0.61. Maximum error represents the maximum deviation between the predicted outputs by MATLAB regression equations and STARFISH original outputs. for a target shrinkage of 7%X7% if existing 24 Gauge machines are used then maximum error for GSM will be 8.039. · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · (1) Width = 30.507 Y. – 55.C. For example consider the regression equations for GSM and Width at 5%X5% shrinkage target in 20 Gauge machines.3% if existing 18 Gauge machines are used then regression equations for GSM and Width will be GSM = 613.7% and width shrinkage of 6.35 (maximum value) 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . and intercept a regression equation can be formed .By using the values of regression co-efficient for yarn count and stitch length.521 S.398 .It should be noted that MATLAB does not indicate the point where the maximum error occurs.C(Yarn Count).16 Y.32 S.3Exploring means of MATLAB result 1.26 . GSM = 522.0.0. 2.e.L.7.) is minimum.For example.26 .73 S.e.47 = 248. +13.L. for a target length shrinkage of 2.643 Y. For example.477.

8 (maximum value) Equation (2) gives Width = 30.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 167 Now error (deviation) = 258-248.) is maximum.74 % only Again when yarn count (Y.398 .35 = 9.8-63.32 (maximum value) Now error (deviation) = 63.4705≈0. A typical example has been shown in table (xiii) 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . i.48 (Maximum value) [most accurately 0.4 Application of WINQSB WINQSB is an another advanced mathematical software. It gives a detailed Regression summary with analysis of variance.e.507 X 18 + 13.) is minimum.75 % only 8. Regression equation can also be found directly from here.521 X 3.32 = 0.0.11 = 63.e.11 STARFISH gives Width = 63. 18 and stitch length (S. 3.L. i.470: see APPENDIX-A] = 0.65 (Maximum value) [most accurately 9.73: see APPENDIX-A] =3.C.7286 ≈9.

96 3.2701 23.L. Eq.9809029 Source of Variability Regression Error Total Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) -GSM Degree of Sum of Mean Freedom Square Square 2 29592.2 35.03919 0.C. (Width) :29.+12.484408 29.78 2.7 257 63.L.38 2.7011116 18 2.78 2.C.05345 0.1213 22 1.S.32 3.Width Degree of Sum of Mean Freedom Square Square 2 290.7 182 59.6429999Y.2 269 60.11.C.14 3.03919-0.2426 145.2042993 Se =0.2 263 54.38 2.37 22 527.3 225 55.96 3.1526 Y.90847 0.38 2.2 188 53.78 2.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 168 Table (xiii): An example of WINQSB Generated regression results Knitting Machine Type : 18G 30"D 1728N Target : L.9 205 60.6 187 58.14 3.2 205 54.4 180 55.386477 0.32 3.96 3.7% Х 6.20E-02 24 291.116 0.S.38 GSM WIDTH 297 55.886751 -0.42598 Constant 613.6 215 57.116 0.3461706 4.143761 5.1 200 61.L.Х W.7 198 51. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .61. Eq. 18 2.9960747 R-adjusted = 0.73 14796.6 237 53.14 3. 2.GSM Mean Variable Standard Regression Name Deviation Coefficient GSM 221.L.5 222 62.14 3.C.9957179 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) .5 196 56.L.78 2.61E-02 3.4 250 56.2278157 12.31984 Se=4.1526 .895592 R-square = 0.14 3.78 2.886751 -11.=2.31984 S.2 228 61.5 167 58. Mean Standard Regression Standard Deviation Coefficient Error 57.5 Regression Summary .1 216 52.32 3. 14 14 14 14 14 16 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 S.96 3.6429999 1.5 172 57.6 282 58.9 239 59.3% Y.2278157 -61. (GSM) : 613. Variable Name WIDTH Constant Y. 3.32 3.3863 Source of Variability Regression Error Total Reg.688 3.C.96 3.16 S.1 250 64.32 3. S.2280113 R-square = 0.9824944 R-adjusted = Standard Error 15.16 Y.90847 S.38 2.96682 24 30120 Reg. .

an eye must be kept on the adjusted R2 statistic as the more reliable indication of the true goodness of fit because it compensates for the reduction in the SSE due to the addition of more independent variables. For example.61% of the variation in the GSM values can be explained by using the mentioned two explanatory variables. In our case. However a large value of R2 does not necessarily imply that the regression model is a good one.9960747 (from Regression Summary – GSM of shown in the table (xiii) meaning approximately 99.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 169 8. R2 is defined as: R2=SSR/SST Where SSR= Regression sum of squares SST= Total sum of squares SSE= Sum of square error.5 EXPLORING MEANS OF WINQSB RESULTS 1) Regression equation gives a forecasted output value of GSM or Width for a target shrinkage. Thus it may report a decreased adjusted R2 value even though R2 has increased. unless the 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . Adding a variable to the model will always increase R2 meaning the SSR has increased. R2 is giving a measure of the amount of reduction in the variability of GSM or Width obtained by using the regressor variables yarn count and stitch length in the model . It ranges in value from 0 to 1. In order to keep from over massaging the data. R2=0. 2) The coefficient of variation “ R-Square ” value is a “goodness of fit” measure.

Once we have Se value. As from the example of table (xiii) of section 8. In fact.9960407)indicating a true goodness of fit.58] Our 95% confidence interval would be [53.78) is : 29. The adjusted R2 for the model (R2adj=0.35+1(0.35 – 2(0.6429999Y. Likewise we have 95% confidence that the actual value of GSM or Width would be within +/.C. if unnecessary terms are added. equation : (Width) =29. we can take advantage of a rough thumb rule that is based on the normal distribution and states that we have 68% confidence the actual value of GSM or Width would be within +/-1 Se of our predictable value.78 or 53.23)] or [53.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 170 improvement in SSR is more than compensated for by the addition of the new independent variables.23).90847 S.23). When R2 and R2adj differ dramatically there is a good chance that non-significant terms have been included in the model.35 [by putting input values in reg.+12. 53. the predicted value for Width (when yarn count is18 and stitch length is 2.6429999X 18+12.03919-0.03919-0.9957179) is very close to the ordinary R2 (R2=0.2 Se of our predicted value.L] Our 68% confidence interval would be [53.89.81] 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .35+2(0. 53.90847 X 2.12. the value of R2adj will often decrease. 53. For example consider the GSM regression model of the table(xiii).4. 53. 2) Standard Error (Se) represents the amount of scatter in the actual data around the regression line and is very similar in concept to the SSE .35 – 1(0.23)] or [52.

1 STARFISH GUIDELINE AND ITS APPLICABILITY It has been already mentioned earlier that STARFISH model prediction equations have been developed from many industrial trials and represent average values for typical wet processing routes from the actual values for yarn count and stitch length which the operator has chosen to enter. This may save time and help taking instant decision while the knitter is outside his normal desk. then regression equation can be established so that it can be used confidently for prediction of outputs without the use of computer.99 both for GSM and Width. DETERMINATION OF ERROR RANGE FOR CUSTOMIZATION OF STARFISH 9. STARFISH prediction model provides 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 171 8. Once the outputs from the practical range of inputs for a particular target from the software are obtained.6 REMARK ON THE APPLICATION OF MATLAB AND WINQSB It is now clear that a multiple regression model satisfactorily supports the STARFISH prediction system. So calibration is required to give predictions which apply directly to own industrial situation. Also these equations may provide valuable support to other knitters which are still out of the reach of such technology. If we calculate the R2 and R2adj for each individual trial then it may be found that the values lie within the range 0.97-0. 9.

So it will be a better approach if STARFISH customization is done by determining error range from available practical outputs with that of STARFISH outputs.2 COMPARISON OF STARFISH PREDICTION WITH PRACTICAL RESULTS Tables (xiv)-(xvii) show the deviations between STARFISH predictions and practical outputs for similar values of target shrinkage(obtained from section 7. Based on such statistical measures calibration can be done according to knit machine (gauge) wise.3 ). of courses and wales found practically in the reference state. But it is too much experimental and consumes significant resources for monitoring no. 9.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 172 calibration routines which allow to modify the predictions which STARFISH makes by establishing calibration factor through increasing or decreasing courses and wales per unit found in the reference state. So to follow STARFISH guideline a sufficient number of new developments have to be made which will then be subjected to deep examination for reliable estimates of reference courses and Wales. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . Such customization will also be easily understood and welcomed by most knitters. They are also generally not interested to work with such outputs which are not major concern of most buyers. Though it will give the most accurate calibration but factory people generally don’t observe or keep recods of such parameters..

4 1.1 (which is quite unexpected and may be due to some catastrophic situations or improper process monitoring ) we get revised MAE=5.8 2.88% ●Ignoring factory results for data no.88 or +/-3.91 AE = Absolute Error MAE = Mean Absolute Error APE = Absolute Percentage Error MAPE = Mean Absolute Percentage Error Discussion of the results: For GSM ● While achieving target shrinkage by existing 18G machines.88 60 58. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .6 57.5 1.43 or +/-2. 30 inch dia. So revised STARFISH calibration is +/-5.3 1.2 0.5 51 AE MAE APE MAPE Obs.86 3.5 2.5 56 58 54 53 54.8 52.75 4.57 2.27 or +/-3. STARFISH (original) calibration should be considered as +/-2.4 55.33 2.5 8.5 2.54% For Width ● While achieving target shrinkage by existing 18G machines.43 2.83 4.1 1.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 173 Table (xiv): Determining calibration for STARFISH prediction for knitting machine type: 18 gauge.77 4.9 8.88 3.91% ●Ignoring factory results for data no. STARFISH calibration should be considered as +/-8. 1728 needles (18G 30”D 1728N) GSM STARFISH Practical (Original) (Factory) Prediction 240 272 232 216 213 196 200 199 213 231 231 222 195 205 202 217 AE WIDTH MAE APE MAPE STARFISH Practical (Original) (Factory) Prediction 13.8 60.75 or +/-3.1 54.5 1.No.27 3.6 2.54.3 61 56 0.29 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 32 1 15 9 1 5 3 4 5 0.2 0..4 6.43 and MAPE=2.5 59.3%.1 we get revised MAE=1.88 and MAPE=3. So revised STARFISH calibration is +/-1.

83 or +/-2.49 1.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 174 Table (xv): Determining calibration for STARFISH prediction for knitting machine type: 20G gauge.1 56 58 60 57.6 2.80 4.61 3.96 4.93 2. 1944 needles (20G 30”D 1944N) GSM STARFISH Practical (Original) (Factory) Prediction 210 217 213 204 200 209 195 216 200 190 209 200 AE WIDTH MAE APE MAPE STARFISH Practical (Original) (Factory) Prediction 3.33 58.65 or +/-2.41 1. 30 inch dia.1 60. STARFISH calibration should be considered as +/-1.65 2.8 1. STARFISH calibration should be considered as +/-4.1 1.1 1.56 2..1 1.1 61.02 3.5 56 AE MAE APE MAPE Obs.4 57.1 60. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 4 10 0 5 0.77% 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .9 1.1 2.38 58.77 Discussion of the results: For GSM ● While achieving target shrinkage by existing 20G machines.6 58 1.83 5 0 2.No.38% For Width ● While achieving target shrinkage by existing 28G machines.

1 6.5 5.69% ●Ignoring factory results for data no.9 0.07 % For Width ● While achieving target shrinkage by existing 24G machines.49 70.4.32 or +/.69 Discussion of the results: For GSM ● While achieving target shrinkage by existing 24G machines.4 70.03 8.37 4. So revised STARFISH calibration is +/. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 1 13 11 25 9 4 0.. STARFISH calibration should be considered as +/-8.91 2.69.4 3.6 70.31 and MAPE=4.5 (which is quite unexpected and may be due to some catastrophic situations or improper process monitoring ) we get revised MAE=5.1 5.3.5 61 AE MAE APE MAPE Obs.45 4.4.5 AE WIDTH MAE APE MAPE STARFISH Practical (Original) (Factory) Prediction 0.31 or +/.07.8 3.28 4.78 and MAPE=3.6 3.3.8 61.1 64 0.31 14.48 0.5 we get revised MAE=3.66 2. STARFISH calibration should be considered as +/-3.8 72.38 8.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 175 Table(xvi): Determining calibration for STARFISH prediction for knitting machine type: 24 gauge. 2256 needles (24G 30”D 2256N) GSM STARFISH Practical (Original) (Factory) Prediction 205 207 203 185 207 173 183 161 177 202 198 218 198 174 157 177.19 5.3 0.65 4.5 64.42 0.49 7.69% 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .5 70.7 7. 30 inch dia.32 7.9 66.19 or +/-4.51 5.4 1.No. So revised STARFISH calibration is +/-5.97 69.86 0.49 % ●Ignoring factory results for data no.4 64 69 67 69.1 74.78 or +/.

4 2.7 63.86 Discussion of the results: For GSM ● While achieving target shrinkage by existing 28G machines.59 70.06 2.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 176 Table (xvii): Determining calibration for STARFISH prediction for knitting machine type: 28 gauge.6 0.25 2.63 2. 2640 needles (28G 30”D 2640N) GSM STARFISH Practical (Original) (Factory) Prediction 179 180 151 145 121 119 146 144 120 129 AE WIDTH MAE APE MAPE STARFISH Practical (Original) (Factory) Prediction 0.5 72 63 AE MAE APE MAPE Obs.1 74.3 1. 1 2 3 4 5 1 5 1 1 10 1.68 4.86% 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .6 or +/-2.No.7 0.3 75.13 3.61 1.9 69 3.76% For Width ● While achieving target shrinkage by existing 28G machines.8 2.6 2. 30 inch dia.82 8.31 3.76 71.9 3. STARFISH calibration should be considered as +/-2.8 68 73. STARFISH calibration should be considered as +/-3.69 0.06 or +/-2..

It is well known that GSM. The answer lies on the mathematical definition of shrinkage. In this way one can also avoid storing so many regression equations for GSM and width keeping the most preferred ones. APPLYING CALIBRATION PRACTICALLY: ACHIEVING TARGET SHRINKAGES Now the question arises-how one should compare the practical outputs with STARFISH as it is impossible to guess before production what shrinkage value will be obtained from the finished product.16 cm.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 177 10.e.02)X (100/95) i. As consumers and so customers always take shrinkage as the most rigid issue one has to adjust the shrinkage level to customer's standard (e. For example.07)X (100/95) and (100-100X 0.79 cm and 103. width and shrinkages are dependent on knitting variables. 5%Х5% for Plain Jersey) before predicting through calibrated STARFISH. if a finished fabric sample has a length of 200 cm and width of 100 cm showing shrinkage 7% Х 2% then one can say that fabric sample will show 5%Х5% shrinkage if length and width are adjusted to (200-200X 0.g. One cannot alter them without changing knitting variables but conditional adjustments could be made with the help of finishing technology. 195. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS .

International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 178 11. STARFISH prediction system can be explained through a multiple regression model very satisfactorily. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . This means that the regression models can be used as a substitute of this software very effectively for any type (gauge) of knitting machine.5% in case of GSM and within 3. The values of R2 and R2adj found through the regression analysis lie above 0.95 both for GSM and Width. CONCLUSION OF THE WORK The results of analysis obtained from this thesis work are: 1. some standard statistical measures like MAE .During this project thesis MAE and MAPE for each gauge machine of Beximco Knitting Limited were calculated and the findings are summarized below.8 % in case of GSM and within 2. MAPE for STARFISH would lie within 2.8% in case of width . 2. i) While using 18G machines.4% in case of GSM and within 2. MAPE may be adopted to determine the error range as a part of STARFISH customization .1% in case of GSM and within 4.7% in case of width . MAPE for STARFISH would lie within 2. As STARFISH predictions may not coincide with a particular factory result.3% in case of width ii) While using 20G machines. iv) While using 28G machines. MAPE for STARFISH would lie within 3.9% in case of width. iii) While using 24G machines. MAPE for STARFISH would lie within 2.

In fact. the factory management of a knit plant can save a great deal of time and money by answering many questions and eliminating unworkable ideas before financial. By customization of STARFISH Technology. Though calibration task involved in this work was based on limited data. all over the world. physical and human resources are committed. Again the regression model of STARFISH software.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 179 12. Though the calibration was done only for Plain Jersey fabric of medium deep shade but the calibration procedure is similar for all types of cotton-knitted fabric of every shade. the production management of Beximco Knitting Limited now can predict satisfactorily about its factory outputs with the help of calibrated STARFISH results. END WORDS Although cotton-knit fabrics have been manufactured for decades. As shown in this work. developed in this work. The result is that. would be a fantastic tool for a knit-manufacturer as he can consult it confidently outside of the computer desk. prediction of GSM. product development of cotton knits is carried out on a “ trial and error” basis followed by adjustment and re-adjustment during successive batches of bulk production. The predictions would be more accurate if the management generates more 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . width and shrinkage after dyeing and finishing of a given quality of knitted fabric before it has ever been manufactured. width and shrinkage is still regarded as the most widespread and difficult problem with the performance of such fabrics. the factory management can utilize the software to find what GSM and width will be derived from a typical knitting machine for a particular dyed fabric. very few people in the industry know how to calculate the weight.

One needs to make sure that they conform to what is expected by taking measurements. examining both performance and aesthetics. samples from the bulk should be tested. The customer is demanding for a particular output and the manufacturer can not go without submitting practically what the customer wants.The authors would like to thank the employees of Beximco Knitting Limited for their co-operative hands. So it is necessary to make a trial piece or two and have them processed. As the last words it must be remembered that STARFISH does not remove the need for production of a sample prior to full-scale manufacturing. Then he should get the customer to approve the samples. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS : The present work was supported by Beximco Knitting Limited. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . Also during full-scale production.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 180 STARFISH recommended data for upgrading calibrations.

: Knitting Technology -3rd Edition. 1984 [4] Brackenbury.S.E.: Knitted Clothing Technology -1st Edition.U.S. Schmidt.. Inc.F..U.. Inc.K.International Journal of Engineering & Technology IJET-IJENS Vol: 11 No: 01 181 References: [1]STARFISH Manual and the software (version 5.S.. 2001 [6]Eppen. 117801-6464 IJET-IJENS © February 2011 IJENS IJENS . U.:Forecasting :Methods and Application -2nd Edition.P...1998 [7]Montgomery.C.. U. 1988 [3]The Production of High Quality Cotton Knitgoods -UNIDO Seminar Report. [8]Mackridakis.03) -Cotton Technology International (CTI). U.Decisioneering Inc.V.Moore.K..J.U.D.S.K.Blackwell Science Limited. 1992 [2]The STARFISH Approach to High Quality Cotton Knitgoods (User-manual Version 88:1) -International Institute for Cotton (IIC)...F.C.J. John Wiley and Sons.S. Woodhead Publishing Limited. U. Wheel Wright.K..T.1992 [5]Spencer.Weatherford:Introductory Management Science -5th Edition. John Wiley and Sons.K.J. U. 2001 .Gould.Mcgee. Douglas C: Design and Analysis of Experiments -5th Edition..G.D..