‫ﺑﺴﻢ اﷲ اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ اﻟﺮﺣﯿﻢ‬

‫ﺟﮭﻮد اﻷﻣﯿﺮ ﻋﺒﺪ اﻟﻘﺎدر اﻟﺠﺰاﺋﺮي ﻓﻲ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻋﻠﻮم اﻟﺤﺪﯾﺚ وﺑﻌﺜﮭﺎ ﻣﺠﺪﱠدًا‬
‫ﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﲪﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻛﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻃﻴﺒﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻠﻬﻢ ﺻﻞِّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﻠﻴﺖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﻝ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺇﻧﻚ ﲪﻴﺪ ﳎﻴﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ‪:‬‬
‫ﻓﺈﻥﹼ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻳﻬﻴﺊ ﳍﺎ ﻣﻦ ﳚﺪﺩ ﳍﺎ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻠﻤﺎ ﺍﺑﺘﻌﺪﺕ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻭﺣﻪ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻧﺪﺭﺳﺖ ﻣﻌﺎﳌﻪ ﺍﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻫﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻗﺪ ﺻﺢ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻨﱯ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻗﺎﻝ ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﷲ‬
‫ﻳﺒﻌﺚ ﳍﺬﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺱ ﻛﻞ ﻣﺌﺔ ﺳﻨﺔ ﻣﻦ ﳚﺪﺩ ﳍﺎ ﺩﻳﻨﻬﺎ((‬

‫]ﺭﻭﺍﻩ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ[‬

‫ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺍﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ :‬ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺭﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﺮ‪‬‬
‫ﲟﻘﺘﻀﺎﳘﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎﺗﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﺍﶈﺪﺛﺎﺕ ‪ .‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺣﺪ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﳎﺪﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ‬
‫) ‪(1‬‬

‫ﺫﻛﺮﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺣﺪﻳﺜﻲ ﺇﻟﻴﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺇﳕﺎ ﻫﻮ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺟﻞ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻭﻣﺸﻬﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﺇﺣﻴﺎﺀ ﻭﲡﺪﻳﺪ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺭﺍﻳﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻗﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﺎﺷﺘ‪‬ﻬﺮ ‪‬ﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ‪ ‬ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻤﻞ ﻫﺎﻡ ﺟﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺘﺠﺪﻳﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺑﻌﺚﹸ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ‪‬ﻫﺎ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﺚﱡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻌﻲ‪ ‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀِ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺒﺬِ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ﺍﳌﻤﻘﻮﺕ! ﻫﺬﺍ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺟﻞ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲏ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﻳﺴﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻧﻘﻮﻝ ‪ :‬ﺇﻥﹼ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺳﻌﻰ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﻧﺒﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺑﻌﺚ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ؛ ﳚﺐ ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﻬﻢ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻻﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺃﻥ ﻧﻔﺴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﻓﻘﹰﺎ ﳌﻔﻬﻮﻣﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﻣﺪﻟﻮﻻ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻧﺎ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ! ﻭﻣﻊ ﺃﻥﹼ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﻔﺎﻭﺗ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺍﺗﺴﺎﻉ ﺍﳌﺪﻟﻮﻝ ﻓﺈﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﺓ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺑﺎﳋﻄﻮﺓ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 1‬ـ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﰲ )ﻋﻮﻥ ﺍﳌﻌﺒﻮﺩ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺳﻨﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺩﺍﻭﺩ( ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳌﻼﺣﻢ ؛ ﻟﻠﻌﻈﻴﻢ ﺁﺑﺎﺩﻱ‪.‬‬
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‫ﻫﺎﺟﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺑﻦ‪ ‬ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺍﶈﺾ ﺑﻦِ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺍﳌﺜﲎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺑﻦِ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﺑﻦِ ﻋﻠﻲ‪ ‬ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺍﻷﻗﺼﻰ ﻓﺮﺍﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻴﻮﻑ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺳﻴﲔ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘ‪‬ﻨﻔﺮﻭﺍ ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺟﺎﻻﺕ ﺁﻝ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺴﻦ ﻭﺍﳊﺴﲔ ﺭﺿﻲ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻨﻬﻤﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻞ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﱠﺖ ﺣﻮﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﻭﺑﺎﻳﻌﻮﻩ ﺇﻣﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﻘﺘ‪‬ﻠِﻪ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪177‬ﻫـ( ﺑﺎﻳﻌﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻷﺻﻐﺮ]ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺗﻮﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪213‬ﻫـ([ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﻣﺖ ﻟﻸﺩﺍﺭﺳﺔ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻷﻧﺪﻟﺲ ﺩﺍﻣﺖ ﺣﱴ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪459‬ﻫـ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻬﻢ ﻗﺪ ﺯﺍﻟﺖ ﻓﺈﻥ ﻣﻘﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻷﺳﺮﺓ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﻳﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﺑﻘﻲ ﳏﻔﻮﻇﹰﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﺸﺮﻑ ﻧﺴﺒﻬﻢ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﳌﹼﺎ ﻫﺎﲨﺖ ﺍﳉﻴﻮﺵ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﺔ ﲤﻬﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻻﺣﺘﻼﳍﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ )‪1245‬ﻫـ =‪1830‬ﻡ(‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺘﻔﹼﺖ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺎﺋﻞ ﺣﻮﻝ‬
‫ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺷﺨﺼﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺇﺩﺭﻳﺴﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ﺃﻻ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺼﻄﻔﻰ ﺍﳊﺴﲏ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻗﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍ‪‬ﺎﻫﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﺼﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﺰﺍﺓ ﻣﺪﺓ ﻋﺎﻣﲔ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻃﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﻴﻌﺘﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻋﺘﺬﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻄﻠﺒﻮﺍ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺒﺎﻳﻌﻮﺍ‬
‫ﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻮﻳﻊ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﻣﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﻠﺒﻼﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ﻭﻗﺎﺩ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﲬﺴﺔ ﻋﺸﺮ ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺃﻋﱴ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﲏ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟِﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ )‪ 23‬ﺭﺟﺐ ‪1222‬ﻫـ = ‪1807 /9/26‬ﻡ(‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻈﻬﺮﻩ ﺻﻐﲑ‪‬ﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺃﺷﻬﺮ‪ ‬ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﺑﺄﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺃﺷﻴﺎﺧﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1241‬ﻫـ ﺗﻮﺟ‪‬ﻪ ﻣﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻷﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﳊﺞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺮ ‪ 19‬ﻋﺎﻣ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺃﺩﺍﺀ ﻓﺮﻳﻀﺔ ﺍﳊﺞ ﺗﻮﺟﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺃﻗﺎﻣﺎ ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﻬﻮﺭﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰِﻊ‪ ‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ‪‬‬
‫ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻭﺍﺑﻨﻪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﳏﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻣﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺰﺑﺮﻱ )‪-1184‬‬
‫‪ 1262‬ﻫـ= ‪1846 -1771‬ﻡ( ﺑﻌﺾ‪ ‬ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﲟﺴﺠﺪ ﺑﲏ ﺃﻣﻴ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺟﺎﺯﳘﺎ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﰲ‬
‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﰒﹼ ﺭﺟﻌﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﻃﻦ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺇﺫﻥ ﻓﺎﻷﻣﲑ ﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ :‬ﻓﺪﺭﺱ ﻣﻮﻃﺄ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻣﺴﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺃﻟﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﹶﻜﱡﻮﺩﻱ)‪ ، (2‬ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﻮﺳﻴﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﺡ ﺍﳌﺼﻨﻒ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻔﻴﺔ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻳﺴﺎﻏﻮﺟﻲ)‪ (3‬ﰲ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ﻟﻠﻔﻨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﻟﻠﺴﻴﻮﻃﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺮﺃ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺃﻓﻼﻃﻮﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﺜﺎﻏﻮﺭﺙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺳﻄﻮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭﺱ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺎﺕ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﲑ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﲔ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻬﻮﺩ ﺍﳋﻼﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﱘ ﻭﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻠﺴﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻠﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻞ ﺣﱴ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻄﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬
‫ﲡﻤ‪‬ﻌﺖ ﻟﺪﻳﻪ ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻗﺎﻡ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺇﱃ ﻭﻓﺎﺗﻪ‪ .‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻳﺪﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺗﻘﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﰲ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳉﻘﻤﻘﻴﺔ)‪ . (4‬ﻭﰲ ﺷﻬﺮ ﺭﻣﻀﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1275‬ﻫـ ﺍﻋﺘﻜﻒ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﺮﺃ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻟﺸﻔﺎ ﺑﺘﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺣﻘﻮﻕ ﺍﳌﺼﻄﻔﻰ( ﻟﻠﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻋﻴﺎﺽ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻻﺑﻦ ﺃﰊ ﺯﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﲑﻭﺍﱐ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﻋﺪﺓ ﻣﺮﺍﺕ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﻓﻴﺔ ‪ .‬ﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔﹰ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻌﻘﺪﻫﺎ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭﻩ‪.‬‬

‫‪ 2‬ـ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺯﻳﺪ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﳌﹶﻜﱡﻮﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﺤﻮﻱ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻲ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﰱ ‪807‬ﻫـ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 3‬ـ ﺇﻳﺴﺎﻏﻮﺟﻲ‪ :‬ﻫﻮ ﻟﻔﻆ ﻳﻮﻧﺎﱐ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﻤﺲ ﺃﻱ ‪ :‬ﺍﳉﻨﺲ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﻭﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺽ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ؛ ﻭﻫﻮ ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺘﺴﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻨﻄﻖ ‪ .‬ﻭﺻﻨﻒ ﻓﻴﻪ ﲨﺎﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﻭﺍﳌﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪ :‬ﻭﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﳌﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﰲ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻨﺎ ﻫﻮ ‪) :‬ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺼﺮ(‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﺴﻮﺏ ﺇﱃ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻞ ﺃﺛﲑ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ :‬ﻣﻔﻀﻞ ﺑﻦ ﻋﻤﺮ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺮﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﰱ ‪ :‬ﰲ ﺣﺪﻭﺩ ﺳﻨﺔ ﺳﺒﻌﻤﺌﺔ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎ ﳚﺐ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﺤﻀﺎﺭﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻨﻄﻖ ‪ .‬ﲰﻲ ‪ :‬ﺇﻳﺴﺎﻏﻮﺟﻲ ﳎﺎﺯ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺎﺏ ﺇﻃﻼﻕ ﺍﺳﻢ ﺍﳉﺰﺀ ﻭﺇﺭﺍﺩﺓ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﳌﻈﺮﻭﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻈﺮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﺗﺴﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺷ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺣﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﴰﺲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ :‬ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺰﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﳌﺘﻮﰱ ‪ :‬ﺳﻨﺔ ‪834‬ﻫـ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‬
‫ﻭﺛﻼﺛﲔ ﻭﲦﺎﳕﺌﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﳑﺰﻭﺝ ﻟﻄﻴﻒ ‪] .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ )ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻟﻈﻨﻮﻥ( ﳊﺎﺟﻲ ﺧﻠﻴﻔﺔ ‪[206/1‬‬
‫‪ 4‬ـ ﺗﻘﻊ ﴰﺎﻝ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﻱ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﳉﻘﻤﻘﻴﺔ ‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺳﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺟﻘﻤﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﺗﺮﺑﺔ ﺃﺳﺴﻬﺎ ﺍﳌﻌﻠﻢ ﺳﻨﺠﺮ ﺍﳍﻼﱄ ‪،‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺍﻧﺘﺰﻋﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺒﻨﺎﺋﻬﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪761‬ﻫـ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻﹼ ﺃﻧﻪ ﻣﺎﺕ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺇﲤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﺗﻮﱃ ﺳﻴﻒ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺟﻘﻤﻖ ﻧﻴﺎﺑﺔ‬
‫ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪822‬ﻫـ ﺃﰎ ﺑﻨﺎﺋﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻇﻠﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﺸﻮﻣ‪‬ﺎ ؛ ﻭﰲ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪824‬ﻫـ ﻗﺒﺾ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﻈﻔﺮ ﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻳﺪ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻗﺘﻠﻪ‪].‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ )ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ( ﻟﻠﻨﻌﻴﻤﻲ ‪[208/1‬‬
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‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻟﻴﺤﻞﹼ ﳍﻢ ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺷﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﻓﻼﺳﻔﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﳛﺎﻭﻝ ﺩﺍﺋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻮﺟ‪‬ﻬﻬﺎ ﲟﺎ ﻳﺘﻔﻖ ﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﺲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺴﺒﺒﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻧﺸﺄ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻧﺸﺄﺓ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﻭﺃﺧﺬ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﻫﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﲎ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﺼﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﺷﺪﻳﺪﺓ ؛ ﺣﱴ ﺗﻔﻮ‪‬ﻕ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﳊﻜﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻠﻴ‪‬ﺔ ؛ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﻔﻆ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻦ ﻇﻬﺮ ﻗﻠﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻘﺮﺋﻪ ﳌﺮﻳﺪﻳﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳ‪‬ﺠﻴﺰﻫﻢ ﺑﻘﺮﺍﺀﺗﻪ ﺣﱴ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ‬
‫ﻻ ﻳﻬﻤﻞ ﺍﳌﺜﺎﻗﻔﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻼﺡ ﻭﺭﻛﻮﺏ ﺍﳋﻴﻞ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻧﺒﻎ ﻋﺎﳌﺎﹰ ﻓﺎﺿﻼﹰ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔٍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺎﺭﺳﺎﹰ ﺛﹶﻘِﻔﹰﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺔٍ‬
‫ﺛﺎﻧﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺠﻤﻊ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺇﻧﻨﺎ ﻧﻠﻤﺲ ﺳﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻭﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ﻭﺍﻷﺛﺮ ﰲ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﺎﺋﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﻦ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬ـ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﺣﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﺷﺒﻪ ﺍﳌﺮﺗﺪﻳﻦ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﺣﺸﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻷﺩﻟﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻧﻌﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻮﺍﻻﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻹﺩﻻﺀ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﻢ ﺑﺄﻱ ﻣﻌﻮﻧﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻨﺪ ﺇﱃ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲞﺎﺻﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻟﲑﺩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﺄﺟﺮ‪‬ﻢ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﻟﲑﻭﺟﻮﺍ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻟﱰﻭﻝ ﲢﺖ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺍﻻﻧﻀﻤﺎﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﲡﺎﻫﺪﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬ـ ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﺍﳌﻘﺮﺍﺽ ﺍﳊﺎﺩ ﻟﻘﻄﻊ ﻟﺴﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺺ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﻟﺒﺎﻃﻞ ﻭﺍﻹﳊﺎﺩ( ‪.‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺪ‬

‫ﺃﻟﹼﻔﻪ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳏﺘﺠﺰ‪‬ﺍ ﰲ ﻗﻠﻌﺔ ﺇﻣﺒﻮﺍﺯ ﺑﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺣﻴﺚ ﺳﺠﻨﺘﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺩﺭﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺳﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻟﻴﻒ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳊﻜﹼﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺑﻴﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻀﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺺ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻳﻦ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ‪.‬‬
‫ﻓﺄﺳﺮﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻭﻭﺿﻊ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻣﻦ ﺣِﻔﹾﻈﻪ ﻳﺮﺩ‪ ‬ﻓﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﳌﺘﻨﻘﱢﺺ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺣﺸﺪ ﻛﺒﲑ‬
‫ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺭﻭﺍ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻗﺪﺭ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﳍﻢ ﻣﻊ ﺫﻛﺮ‬
‫ﻛﺘﺒﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻭﺭﺩﻭﺍ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬ـ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﺫﻛﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻭﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻓﻞ(‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺟﻬﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﱃ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺔ ﻳﺪﻋﻮﻫﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ؛ ﻭﻗﺪ ﺑﺪﺃﻩ ﺑﺎﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﻭﺗﺮﻙ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﺍﻧﻘﺴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﺇﱃ ﳏﻤﻮﺩ ﻭﻣﺬﻣﻮﻡ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﻴ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﻀﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺇﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﺓ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻫﻲ ﻣﻨﺒﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲢﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﻗﺼﻮﺭ‬
‫‪4‬‬

‫ﺍﳌﻜﺬﺑﲔ ﻟﻸﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﺮﻫﻦ ﳍﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺳﻴﺪﻧﺎ ﳏﻤﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺁﻟﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻫﻮ ﺧﺎﰎ ﺍﻷﻧﺒﻴﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﰒ‬
‫ﲢﺪﺙ ﻋﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺑﺔ ﻭﺿﺮﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ‪.‬‬

‫‪4‬ـ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﻭﺷﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺋﺐ ﻭﺯﻱ‪ ‬ﺍﳉﻨﺪﻱ ﺍﶈﻤ‪‬ﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺐ(‪ .‬ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻉ ]ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﻴ‪‬ﺐ ﻳﺸﺘﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬

‫ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻮﺍﻧﲔ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﲜﻴﺶ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻭﺩﻭﻟﺘﻪ ﻭﻓﻴﻪ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﺎﺳﻴﺔ؛ ﺧﻄﹼﻪ ﻛﺎﺗﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑ "ﻗﹶﺪ‪‬ﻭﺭ ﺑﻦ ﺭﻭﻳﻠﺔ" ﺑﺈﺷﺮﺍﻓﻪ[‬

‫‪5‬ـ )ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﺳﻼﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻬﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﺑﲔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻭﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ(‪ .‬ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﻣﺪﻯ ﻋﻨﺎﻳﺔ‬

‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﲜﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﻭﺁﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻛﺘﻔﺎﺋﻪ ﲟﺎ ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﺃﻭ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪6‬ـ )ﺃﺟﻮﺑﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔ ﻭﺟﻬﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻣﻌﺎﺻﺮﻭﻥ ﻟﻪ(‪ .‬ﻣﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻳﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ‬

‫ﻣﺪﻯ ﺳﻌﺔ ﺍﻃﻼﻉ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺪﻯ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻌﺎﺑﻪ ﻟﻠﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﲝﻴﺚ ﻳﺴﺘﻄﻴﻊ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﺘﺢ ﻣﺴﺘﻐﻠﻘﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬ـ ﻭﻻ ﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ ﻣﻬﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺷﺎﻋﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﺮﻫﻒ ﺍﻹﺣﺴﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺎﺋﺪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﺷﻌﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﲨﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﻧﺰﻫﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻃﺮ ﰲ ﻗﺮﻳﺾ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ(‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬ـ ﻭﻳ‪‬ﻨﺴﺐ ﻟﻸﻣﲑ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻗﻒ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﰲ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻑ ﻭﺣﻞ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻹﺷﻜﺎﻻﺕ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻛﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﻦ ﻋﺮﰊ‪ .‬ﻭﻳﺮﻯ ﺍﶈﻘﻘﻮﻥ ﺃﻥﹼ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺄﻟﻴﻔﻪ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ‬
‫ﻫﻮ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﲨﻊ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﳋﺎﱐ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞﹶ ﲰﻌﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺳﺌﻠﺔﹰ ﺃﺟﺎﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻵﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻗﻮﺍﻻﹰ ﳌﺘﻘﺪﻣﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻣﺘﺄﺧﺮﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺷﻌﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺼﻮﻓﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺨﺮﺟﺖ ﺿﻤﻦ ﺳﻔﺮ‬
‫ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ﺛﻼﺙ ﳎﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺒﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺗﻌﻈﻴﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻪ ﰲ ﻇﻨﻪ!‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﺀ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﰲ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮ ـ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳋﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ ﻭﺗﻮﺍﻃﺆ ﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ﻭﺗﻮﻧﺲ ﻣﻊ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎـ‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺇﱃ "ﺑﺮﻭﺳﺔ" ﰲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﺚ ﻛﺎﻥ ﰲ ﺿﻴﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺎﻥ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍ‪‬ﻴﺪ ﺧﺎﻥ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﺼﺮﻩ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻭﺳﺔ‬
‫ﺯﺍﺭﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺒﺎﱐ ﺍﳌﺮﺍﻛﺸﻲ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺷﺘ‪‬ﻬﺮ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺑﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲏ!‬

‫‪5‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺃﻯ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻃﻨﲔ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﺳﺘﻮﱃ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻌﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﰒ ﺿﻢ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳌﺬﻛﻮﺭﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﺄﱂ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻭﺍﱄ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺈﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﶈﻞ ﳊﺎﻟﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻠﻢ ﺗﻠﺘﻔﺖ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻋﻮﺍﻩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﺳﺘﺎﻧﺔ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﻃﻰ ﺃﺳﺒﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﻹﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﶈﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺃﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﻲ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺤﺼﻞ ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻧ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻠﻄﺎﻧﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻭﻗﺪﻣﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﱄ‬
‫ﻓﻄﺮﺣﻪ ﰲ ﺯﻭﺍﻳﺎ ﺍﻹﳘﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﺗﺜﻤﺮ ﳏﺎﻭﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ‪ .‬ﻭﺟﺮﺕ ﺑﻴﻨﻪ ﻭﺑﲔ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺾ ﻣﺸﺎﻳﺦ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺧﺼﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﳍﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﺐ ﻭﻫﺠﺎﻫﻢ ﺑﻘﺼﺎﺋﺪ)‪ ، (5‬ﰒ ﲨﻊ ﺭ‪‬ﺣ‪‬ﻠﹶﻪ ﻭﺳﺎﻓﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺍﳌﻨﻮ‪‬ﺭﺓ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺗﺬﻛﹼﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺟﺘﻤﻊ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﻩ ﰲ ﻗﺼﺮﻩ ﺑﱪﻭﺳﺔ ﻭﺷﻜﺎ‬
‫ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺘﺐ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﳜﱪﻩ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺮ ﳌﺎ ﻭﺟﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺐ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﲑﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﻓﻴﺔ ﺑﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﻑ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﳌﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺩﻝ‪ .‬ﻭﺗﻘﻊ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻕ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﻠﻌﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﰲ ﺳﻮﻕ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮﻭﻧﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻓﺘ‪‬ﺘﺤﺖ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪630‬ﻫـ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆﹸ ﺃﺑﻮ‬
‫ﻋﻤﺮﻭ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺼﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺮﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﻬﺮﺯﻭﺭﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﻮﻟﹼﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﺃﺳﺎﻃﲔ ﻋﻠﻢ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ :‬ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺃﺑﻮﺷﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﳌﻘﺪﺳﻲ ﺛﹸﻢ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﰒ ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﳌِﺰ‪‬ﻱ ﰒ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩ ﺍﺑﻦ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻭﻏﲑ‪‬ﻫﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫) ‪(6‬‬

‫ﺍﳊﺎﻓﻆ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺣﺠﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻘﻼﱐ‪ ،‬ﻭﺑﻘﻲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ‪ ‬ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﻷﻟﻒ ﻭﻣﺌﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﰒﹼ ﺣﻞﹼ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ ‪ .‬ﻓﻀﻌﻒ ﻧﺸﺎﻃﻬﺎ ﻭﲢﻮﻟﺖ ﻏﺮﻓﻬﺎ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺴﺎﻛﻦ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﻮﺥ ‪ .‬ﺇﻻﹼ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺀ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻮﱃ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺼﺎﺭﻯ ﺍﻷﺟﺎﻧﺐ )ﺍﻷﺭﻭﺍﻡ( ﺍﳌﻘﻴﻤﲔ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺍﲰﻪ )ﻳﺎﻧﻜﻮ( ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﰒﹼ ﺿﻢ‪ ‬ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﻟﱵ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﳏﻞﹼ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ‬

‫‪ 5‬ـ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺭﺃﺳﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳊﻠﱯ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﻈﺮ )ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﺪﻣﺸﻖ( ﻟﻠﺤﺼﲏ ‪ 700/2‬ـ ‪ ، 701‬ﻭ)ﺃﻋﻴﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺩﻣﺸﻖ( ﻟﻠﺸﻄﻲ ﺹ‪.297‬‬
‫‪ 6‬ـ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ )ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﰲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ( ﻟﻠﻨﻌﻴﻤﻲ ‪ .19/1‬ﻭ)ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ( ﻟﻠﺨﻄﻴﺐ ﺹ‪.30‬‬
‫‪6‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻨﻮﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﻭﳏﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻟﻸﺣﺎﺩﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﻭﻗﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ‪ .‬ﻓﺼﺎﺭﺕ ﺣﺎﻧﺔﹰ ﻭﳏﻼﹰ‬
‫ﻟﻮﺿﻊ ﺑﺮﺍﻣﻴﻞ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ)‪ . (7‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺮﺃﻯ ﻭﻣﺸﻬﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻊ!!‬
‫ﻭﺑﻌﺪ ﻣﺪ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻠﺖ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻭﺳﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻭﺻﻠﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻘﺮ‪ ‬ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺣﱴ‬
‫ﺫﻫﺐ ﻳﺘﻘﺼ‪‬ﻰ ﺃﺣﻮﺍﻝ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﻓﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﺫﺍ ﺑﻪ ﳚﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﺮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ‬
‫ﻓﺄﺧﺬﺗﻪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻭﻏﲑﺗﻪ ﺍﻹﺩﺭﻳﺴﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺴﻨﻴﺔ ﻹﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ .‬ﻓﺄﺣﻀﺮ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﺮﻭﻣﻲ‬
‫ﻭﺩﻓﻊ ﻟﻪ ﻣﺎﻻﹰ ﺟﺰﻳﻼﹰ ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﶈﻠﱠﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺑﺈﺻﻼﺡ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻏﺮﺏ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﻣﻨﺤﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﰒ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ﻋﻘﺒﻪ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﻧﺴﻠﻬﻢ ﻳﺮﺟﻊ ﺭﻳﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﻣﻦ ﲨﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﺳﻨﺔ‬
‫‪1272‬ﻫـ = ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺳﻊ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1856‬ﻡ ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻀﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪﻭﻡ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺇﱃ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺃﻗﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺷﻬﺮ!‬
‫ﰒ ﺃﺿﺎﻑ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳌﻐﺘ‪‬ﺼﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﻭﺃﻣﺮ ﺑﺘﺮﻣﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻜﻞ ﺑﻨﻔﻘﺘﻪ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺟﻌﻞ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺠﺪﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﺑﺬﻟﻚ ﺟﻌﻞ ﺍﷲُ ﺇﻧﻘﺎﺫ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺗﻄﻬﲑﻫﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳋﻤﺮ ﻭﺭﺟﺴﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻈﻢ ﺍﳌﱪ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪.‬‬
‫ﰒﹼ ﺃﺭﺳﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺧﱪ‪‬ﺍ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﻓﺤﻀﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺍﳌﻨﻮﺭﺓ ﻭﺳﻜﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﻭﺗﺴﻠﹼﻢ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ)‪.(8‬‬
‫ﻭﰲ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻳﻮﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺟﺐ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1274‬ﻫـ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺑﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺔﹰ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﻠﺲ ﻹﻗﺮﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺻﻼﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﻬﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺼﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺩﺭﺳ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﻓﻼﹰ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﳛﻀﺮﻩ‬
‫‪ 7‬ـ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ )ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ( ﻟﻠﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،1603/3‬ﻭ)ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺮ( ﶈﻤﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ‪.75/2‬‬
‫‪ 8‬ـ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ )ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺮ( ﶈﻤﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ‪ 75/2‬ـ ‪ ، 78‬ﻭ)ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ( ‪ ، 1603/3‬ﻭ)ﺃﻋﻴﺎﻥ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ( ﻟﻠﺸﻄﻲ ﺹ‪،299‬‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪7‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻷﺫﻛﻴﺎﺀ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻄﻠﺒﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺧﺘﺎﻣﻪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺑﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1274‬ﻫـ ﺍﳌﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ ﻣﻦ ﺣ‪‬ﺰﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1858‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺣﺼﻞ ﺍﳊﻀﻮﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺟﺎﺯﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺃﻧﺸﺪ ﺑﲔ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺃﺑﻴﺎﺗ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻨﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻚ ﺍﳌﺴﺮ‪‬ﺍﺕ‪ ‬ﻗﺪ ﻧﺎﻟﺖ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻳـﺎ ﻧﻌﻤﺔ ﻣﺎﳍﺎ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻳﺪﺍﻧﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﻴﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﳍﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﲟﻮﲰﻪ‬

‫ﻓﺎﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﻛﻮﻧ‪‬ﻚ ﻳﺎ ﺃﻗﺼﻰ ﺃﻣﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻳﺎ ﳒﻞﹶ ﻓﺎﻃﻤﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍﺀ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﻓﹶﻀ‪‬ﻠﹶﺖ‪‬‬

‫ﻃﹸﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻧﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪ‪‬ﻧﺎ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ ﺫﺍ ﻳﻀﺎﻫﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺇﱐ ﺃﻫﻨﻴﻚ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﳌﺒـﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻞ‬

‫ﺑﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺜﻠﻚ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻧﻴﺎ ﺃﻫﻨﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻧﻌﻢ ﺃﻫﲏ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪ ‬ﺇﺫ ﻇﻔﺮﺕ‬

‫ﲟﺜﻠﻚ ﺍﻵﻥ ﺗﻐﺪﻭ ﰲ ﺿﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﳌﱠﺎ ﺑﺪﺍ ﻭﺟﻬﻚ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﻰ ﺑﺴﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺗﺮﺍﺩﻑ ﺍﳋﲑ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﻊ ﻧﻮﺍﺣﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻻ ﺳﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﻴﺪﻱ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺪ‪‬ﺧ‪‬ﺮ‪‬ﺍ‬

‫ﻣِﻦ ﻓﻚ‪ ‬ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻣِﻦ ﺧ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺑﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺎﺭﺕ ﻭﺃﺣﻴﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻣﺮﺑﻌﻬﺎ‬

‫ﳌﹼﺎ ﺗ‪‬ﻠﹶﻮ‪‬ﺕ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﺳﻂ ﻧﺎﺩﻳﻬﺎ‬

‫ﺗﻼﻭﺓﹰ ﻣـﺎ ﲰﻌﻨﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺗﻼﻩ ‪‬ﺎ‬

‫ﻣﻦ ﻋﻬﺪ ﳛﲕ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﻭِﻱ‪ ‬ﰲ ﻣﻐﺎﻧﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻓﺎﺷﻜﹸﺮ‪ ‬ﺇﳍﻚ ﺇﺫﹾ ﺃﻭﻻﻙ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻳﺪ‪‬ﺍ‬

‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻟﻐﲑﻙ ﺟ‪‬ﻞﱠ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻌﻄﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺍﺑ‪‬ﺸِﺮ‪ ‬ﲞﲑٍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﷲ ﺫﻭ ﻛﺮﻡ‬

‫ﳜﻔﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﺩﻳﺮ‪ ‬ﺃﺷﻴﺎﺀٍ ﻭﻳﺒﺪﻳﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻭﺍﷲ ﻳﻨﺼﺮﻛﻢ ﻧﺼﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻛﻨ‪‬ﺼﺮﺗﻪ‬

‫ﺃﺻﺤﺎﺏ‪ ‬ﺑ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺭِ ﺍﻷُﱃ ﰒ ﺍﳌﹸﻀﺎﻫﻴﻬﺎ‬
‫ﺃﻭﺝ ﺍﻟﻜﻤﺎﻻﺕ ﺑﺎﺩﻳﻬﺎ ﻭﺧﺎﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬

‫ﻻ ﺯﻟﺖ ﻳﺎ ﳒﻞﹶ ﳏﻴﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺗﻘﻴ‪‬ﺎ‬

‫) ‪(9‬‬

‫‪ 9‬ـ )ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ( ‪ ، 1604/3‬ﻭ)ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺮ( ‪ .80/2‬ﻭﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺼﺎﺋﺪ ﺃﺧﺮﻯ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﰲ ﻣﺪﺡ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﻨﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪8‬‬

‫ـ ﻭﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﺍﻓﺘﺘﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﻗﺎﻣﺘﻪ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺮﺩﺍﺩ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺑﺮﻭﺍﻳﺔ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﰒ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻣﻮﻃﺄ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﲦﺮﺍﺕ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺃﻥ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪‬ﺎﺅﻫﺎ ﻭﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺒﺪﺃ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻳﻮﺟﻬﻮﻥ ﺃﻧﻈﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﻭﻳﺴﻌﻮﻥ‬
‫ﻹﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﺎ ﺯﺍﻝ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻳﺮﻭﻱ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﻭﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺧﺮﻯ ﻭﳚﻴﺰ ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ‬
‫ﺗﻮﻓﹼﺎﻩ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ‪ .‬ﺣﱴ ﺇﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻨﻘﻄﻊ ﻋﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﻭﺗﺪﺭﻳﺴﻪ ﻣﺪﺓ ﺳ‪‬ﺠﻨﻪ ﲬﺲ ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ﰲ ﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ!‬
‫ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﻠﹼﻢ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻭﻟﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺑﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺴﲏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻗﺪ ﺭﺗ‪‬ﺐ ﻟﻪ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺒ‪‬ﺎ ﺷﻬﺮﻳ‪‬ﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﺇﻻﹼ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺃﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺑﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻋﻮﺍ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﱵ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺪﻫﻢ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺷﺘﺮﻁ ﻋﻮﺩ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﱃ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻧﻘﻄﻌﺖ ﺫﺭﻳﺘﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺗﺼﺮ‪‬ﻑ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﻗﻒ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ!‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺫﻫﺒﺖ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻜﻦ ﺑﻘﻴﺖ ﺍﳌﺪﺭﺳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﻭﺭﺣﻢ ﺍﷲ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﻌﻬﺎ ﻭﺭﳑﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﻋﺎﺩ ﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻨﻬﺞ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺇﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻔﻜﹼﺮ ﻭﻧﺒﺬ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﻰ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻟﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻮﻟﺔ ﻳﻜﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺮﺩﻳﺪﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺴﻄﱢﺮﻫﺎ ﰲ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺎﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻲ ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ‪‬ﻴﻤﺔ ﺗ‪‬ﻘﹶﺎﺩ ﺃﻓﻀﻞ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﻣﻘﻠﺪ ﻳ‪‬ﻨ‪‬ﻘﹶﺎﺩ(()‪ ،(10‬ﻭﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺻﻮﻓﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻌﻈﻢ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺼﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻻﹼ ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﺧﺬ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻑ ﻟﺒ‪‬ﻪ ﻭﺧﲑﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺒﺬ ﻗﺸﻮﺭﻩ ﻭﺑﺪﻋﻪ ‪ .‬ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﻠﻘﻰ ﺍﻟﻮِﺭ‪‬ﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﻱ )ﻧﺴﺒﺔ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻴﻼﱐ( ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﱂ ﻳ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﻢ‪ ‬ﻧﻔﺴﻪ ﺷﻴﺨ‪‬ﺎ ﻟﻠﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺾ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﺑﺮ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻃﻠﺐ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺃﺣﺪ ﺍﻷﺷﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻥ ﳚﻴﺰﻩ ﺑﺴﻨﺪﻩ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭﻱ ﻓﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜﻨﻪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﻨﺒ‪‬ﻬﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻣﺮ‬

‫‪ 10‬ـ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ )ﺫﻛﺮﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗﻞ ﻭﺗﻨﺒﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻓﻞ( ﻟﻸﻣﲑ ﺹ‪.7‬‬
‫‪9‬‬

‫ﻣﻬﻢ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻥﹼ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻻ ﻳﻨﺠﻴﻪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﷲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﺻﺎﺩﻗﹰﺎ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺟﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﷲ ﺑﺎﻟﺬﻛﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺩﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻹﺟﺎﺯﺓ ﺇﻻﹼ ﺭﺟﺎﺀ ﺑﺮﻛﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻣﻀﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﻳﺘﻔﻨﻦ ﰲ ﺍﻻﺳﺘﺸﻬﺎﺩ ﲟﻮﺍﻗﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﺟﻮﻉ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﱂ ﻳﻌﺮﻓﻪ ﺃﻭ ﺗﺮﺩﺩ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺷﺮﻋﻴﺔ ﻃﺎﺭﺋﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ)‪.(11‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺃﻳﺎﻡ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ ﳝﻨﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﺪﺧﲔ ﰲ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ ﻭﻟﻌﺐ ﺍﻟﻮﺭﻕ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻨﺎﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﻫﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻟﻴﺲ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺭ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﺪﺍﻩ ﺇﱃ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﲏ )ﺍﻹﻧﺸﺎﺩ( ﻓﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻳﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻨﻪ ﻭﳝﻨﻌﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﻭﻹﺧﻮﺗﻪ ﺭﺳﺎﺋﻞ ﰲ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻳﻌﺘﻤﺪﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻷﺋﻤﺔ ﺍﳌﺎﻟﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﻏﲑﻫﻢ ‪ .‬ﻭﺣﱴ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺘﻔﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺑﺎﳌﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﱂ ﻳﻜﻦ ﳛﺘﻔﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﻏﺎﱐ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻀﺮﺍﺕ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ ﳚﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﻌﺮﺍﺿ‪‬ﺎ ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳ‪‬ﺎ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻳﺄﻣﺮ ﻗﻄﻌﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﻴﺶ ﺑﺘﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮﻛﺔ ﺃﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﺎﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﲣﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻱ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺗﺄﺛﺮﻭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻭﲟﻨﻬﺠﻪ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻤﺮﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﺞ ﻭﻃﻮ‪‬ﺭﻭﻩ‬
‫ﻭﺍﺗﺴﻌﻮﺍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﺍﺑﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺻﺎﱀ ﺍﻟﺴﻤﻌﻮﱐ )‪1338-1268‬ﻫـ =‬
‫‪1920-1852‬ﻡ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﲝ‪‬ﺎﺛﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻛﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﺎﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﹶﻠِﻔﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻗﺘﻨﺎﺀ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ )ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ( ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲨﻊ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺮﻕ ﰲ ﺍﳋﺰﺍﺋﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺳﺎﻋﺪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ )ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﳋﺎﻟﺪﻳﺔ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺪﺱ ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻀﺎﺀ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲰﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ‪ .‬ﻛﺎﻥ ﳛﺴﻦ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﻛﺎﻟﻌﱪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﺮﻳﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﳊﺒﺸﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺰﻭﺍﻭﻳﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺮﻛﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﺭﺳﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﳓﻮ ﻋﺸﺮﻳﻦ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻬﺎ )ﺍﳉﻮﺍﻫﺮ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﰲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺎﺋﺪ ﺍﻻﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻁ( ﻭ)ﺍﻟﺘﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ -‬ﻁ( ﻭ)ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺮ ﺇﱃ ﻋﻠﻢ‬

‫‪11‬‬

‫ـ ﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺳﻢ ﺳﻌﺪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ‪) :‬ﻫﻞ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺣﺪﺍﺛﻴ‪‬ﺎ( ‪ 11‬ﺷﻮﺍﻝ ‪1429‬ﻫـ=‪ 11‬ﺃﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ ‪،2008‬‬

‫)ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻭﻕ(‪.‬‬
‫‪10‬‬

‫ﺍﻷﺛﺮ ‪ -‬ﻁ( ﻭ)ﺗﻔﺴﲑ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ‪ -‬ﺥ( ﰲ ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﳎﻠﺪﺍﺕ‪ ،‬ﻭ )ﺍﻹﳌﺎﻡ ‪ -‬ﺥ( ﰲ ﺍﻟﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻳﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﹶﺟ‪‬ﻞﱢ‬
‫ﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ )ﺍﻟﺘﺬﻛﺮﺓ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ‪ -‬ﺥ( ﻭﻫﻲ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻛﺒﲑﺓ ﰲ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ ﳐﺘﻠﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﺃﺭﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﺇﱃ ﻣﻼﺯﻣﺔ ﺻﺎﺣِﺒِﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﲏ‬
‫) ‪(12‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﱐ‬

‫ـ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻟﺼﻴﻘﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﲑ ﰲ ﺣﻠﱢﻪ ﻭﺗﺮﺣﺎﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﳜﺼﺺ ﻟﻪ‬

‫ﻭﻷﻭﻻﺩﻩ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺎﺕ ﺷﻬﺮﻳﺔ ـ ﻭﺫﻟﻚ ﻷﻥﹼ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤﻲ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻓﹰﺎ ﺑﻜﺮﺍﻫﻴﺘﻪ ﻟﻠﺒﺪﻉ ﻭﺍﻷﻭﻫﺎﻡ‬
‫ﻭﺍﳋﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ)‪.(13‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﻫﻮ ﺭﺍﺋﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘﺪ ﺳﻌﻰ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﺭﺱ ﻭﺍﻻﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻃﺐ ﻭﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺀ ﻭﺭﻳﺎﺿﻴﺎﺕ ﻭ‪ ،..‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻫﺘﻤﺎﻣﻪ ﺍﻷﻛﱪ ﺑﻨﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺫﻛﺮﻧﺎ ﻣﺆﺳﺲ ﺍﳌﻜﺘﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ﺣﻴﺚ ﲨﻊ ﻧﻮﺍﺩﺭ ﺍﳌﺨﻄﻮﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﲟﺴﺎﻋﺪﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﲣﺮﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻳﺪﻳﻪ ﳎﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺼﻠﺤﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﻢ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬ـ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﺐ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ )‪1303‬ـ‪1389‬ﻫـ=‪1886‬ـ‪1969‬ﻡ( ﻣﺆﺳﺲ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻠﹶﻔﻴﺔ ﻭﻣﻜﺘﺒﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻲ ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻧﺸﺄ ﻭﺣﺮﺭ ﻋﺪﺓ ﺟﺮﺍﺋﺪ ﺭﺻﻴﻨﺔ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺷﺮﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺸﺮ ﻋﺪﺩ ﻛﺒﲑ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺧﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻨﻄﺎﻭﻱ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ؛‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ﺍﻟﺴﻔﺎﺡ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﻡ ﻏﻴﺎﺑﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1916‬ﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻤﺎ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﻤﺮ‪ ‬ﺑﻦِ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‪.‬‬
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‫ـ )‪ 1298 - 1222‬ﻫـ = ‪ 1881 - 1807‬ﻡ( ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻐﲏ ﺑﻦ ﻃﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﻦ ﲪﺎﺩﺓ ﺑﻦ ﺇﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﻟﻐﻨﻴﻤﻲ ﺍﻟﺪﻣﺸﻘﻲ‬

‫ﺍﳌﻴﺪﺍﱐ‪ :‬ﻓﺎﺿﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻓﻘﻬﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻴﺔ‪ .‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﺗﺂﻟﻴﻔﻪ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ "ﺍﻟﻠﱡﺒﺎﺏ ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ" ﻭﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ ﺍﳊﻨﻔﻲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﻓﻴﻪ ﳐﺘﺼﺮ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺪﻭﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭ" ﻛﺸﻒ ﺍﻻﻟﺘﺒﺎﺱ ‪ -‬ﺥ " ﰲ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭ" ﺷﺮﺡ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻄﺤﺎﻭﻳﺔ –‬

‫ﻁ"‬

‫‪ 13‬ـ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻘﺎﻝ )ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﺘﻤﻊ( ﻟﻠﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﻧﺰﺍﺭ ﺃﺑﺎﻇﺔ ـ ﳎﻠﺔ )ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺙ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ( ﺍﻟﻌﺪﺩ ‪ 108‬ﺹ‪ 23‬ـ‬
‫ﺫﻭ ﺍﳊﺠﺔ ‪1428‬ﻫـ =‪2007/12‬ﻡ‪.‬‬
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‫‪2‬ـ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﹼﻣﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻋﻠﻲ ‪1372-1293) :‬ﻫـ=‪1953 -1876‬ﻡ( ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﺎﺣﺐ ﳎﻠﺔ )ﺍﳌﻘﺘﺒﺲ( ﻭﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑﺓ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﻛﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭ‪‬ﻟِﻲ‪ ‬ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺓ ﺍﳌﻌﺎﺭﻑ ﻣﺮﺗﲔ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬ـ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﳊﻤﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺰﻫﺮﺍﻭﻱ ‪1334 -1272) :‬ﻫـ = ‪1916 -1855‬ﻡ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺯﻋﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺣﺪ ﺷﻬﺪﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﻥ )ﻋﺎﻟﻴﻪ(‪ .‬ﻟﻪ ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺼﻮﻑ ‪-‬ﻁ( ﻭﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺧﺪﳚﺔ ﺃﻡ ﺍﳌﺆﻣﻨﲔ ‪ -‬ﻁ( ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬ـ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﺒﺤ‪‬ﺎﺛﺔ ﺭﻓﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻌﻈﻢ ‪1343-1284) :‬ﻫـ= ‪1925-1867‬ﻡ( ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ‬
‫ﺭﺟﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮﻳﺔ ﰲ ﺳﻮﺭﻳﺔ ‪ .‬ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻙ ﰲ ﻛﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻋﻤﺎﻝ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﻌﻴﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺣﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﲝﻮﺛﹰﺎ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ ﰲ ﻛﱪﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ ﻭﺍ‪‬ﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺻﻨﻒ )ﺃﺷﻬﺮ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﲑ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﰲ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ ‪ -‬ﻁ( ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺃﺟﺰﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻭﱂ ﻳﻜﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺎﻥ ﰲ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﻧﺘﺸﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﺩﻳﺎﻥ ‪ -‬ﻁ(‬
‫ﻭ)ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﳊﻜﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻨﺎﺷﺌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ‪ -‬ﻁ( ﻭ ﻏﲑﻫﺎ ‪ .‬ﻭﻣﻦ ﻣﺂﺛﺮﻩ ﺇﻫﺪﺍﺅﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺧﺰﺍﻧﺔﹶ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻭﻫﻲ ﳓﻮ ﺃﻟﻒ ﳎﻠﺪ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬ـ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﱐ ‪1351-1294) :‬ﻫـ= ‪1933-1877‬ﻡ( ‪،‬ﺗﻮﱃ ﻣﻨﺼﺐ‬
‫ﺍﻹﻓﺘﺎﺀ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺃﻗﻀﻴﺔ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺍﻋﺘﻘﻞ ﰲ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﻭﺣﻮﻛﻢ ﺑﺪﻳﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰲ‬
‫ﺑﻌﺎﻟﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻧﻔﻲ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻷﻧﺎﺿﻮﻝ ‪ .‬ﺃﻟﹼﻒ ﰲ ﺳﲑﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻛﺘﺎﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﲰ‪‬ﺎﻩ )ﺗﻨﻮﻳﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﺼﺎﺋﺮ ﺑﺴﲑﺓ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ‪ -‬ﻁ( ﻭﻟﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻮﻋﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻗﺪﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﲑﺍﻥ ﰲ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺍﳌﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﳌﺘﻌﻠﻘﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ(‬
‫ﻭ)ﻋﻤﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻠﻔﻴﻖ( ﻭ)ﺍﳌﻮﻟﺪ ﺍﻟﻨﺒﻮﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ(‪.‬‬
‫‪6‬ـ ﺷﻜﺮﻱ ﺑﻚ ﺍﻟﻌﺴﻠﻲ‪1334-1285) :‬ﻫـ= ‪1916-1868‬ﻡ( ﻣﻦ ﺯﻋﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺜﺔ‪ .‬ﻭﺃﺻﺪﺭ ﺟﺮﻳﺪﺓ )ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺲ( ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻣﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻤﺎ ﻧﺸﺒﺖ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﺣﻜﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺩﻳﻮﺍﻥ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﺎﻹﻋﺪﺍﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﻔﺬ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻢ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ‪ .‬ﻟﻪ )ﺍﻟﻘﻀﺎﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ‪ -‬ﻁ( ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭ)ﺍﳋﺮﺍﺝ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ‪-‬‬
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‫ﻁ( ﺭﺳﺎﻟﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻭﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻫﻦ ﰲ ﳎﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﻨﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺜﻤﺎﱐ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺤﺎﻝ ﺃﻣﺮ ﺍﻟﺼﻬﻴﻮﻧﻴﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺃﺑﺮﺯ )ﻃﻮﺍﺑﻊ( ﻛﺎﻧﻮﺍ ﻳﺴﺘﻌﻤﻠﻮ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺑﺮﻳﺪﻫﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﺑﻌﺾ ﺗﻼﻣﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﺗﻠﻤﻴﺬ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻠﹼﻬﻢ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺑﺎﺭﺯﻭﻥ ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻮﺍ‬
‫ﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﺷﻴﺨﻬﻢ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻀﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻫﻢ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﻻ ﲣﻔﻰ ﻭﳍﻢ ﻓﻀﻞﹲ ﻛﺒﲑ ﰲ ﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﺧﺺ ﺗﻼﻣﻴﺬ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﻣﻦ ﻋﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺸﻬﻮﺭﻳﻦ )‪1335 -1253‬ﻫـ=‪1916-1837‬ﻡ( ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻋﺎﳌﹰﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻳﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﺘ‪‬ﻀﻠﱢﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﺩﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺎﺭﻳﺦ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻔﻆ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﰲ ﺻﺒﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻣﻬﺮ ﰲ ﻋﻠﻮﻣﻪ ‪ .‬ﻭﺍﺷﺘﻐﻞ ﺑﺎﻷﺩﺏ ﻣﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻗﺘﺼﺮ ﰲ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺃﻣﺮﻩ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋِﻠﹾﻤ‪‬ﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﺩﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﰲ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻠﻔﻲ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻘﻲ ﰲ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻋﻨﺘ‪‬ﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳉﺎﻣﺪﻳﻦ‪.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺣﻔﻴﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪)) :‬ﻫﻮ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺑﻼ‬
‫ﺷﺒﻬﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻣﺮﺍﺀ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﺃﻭ‪‬ﻝ ﻣﻦ ﺃﺧﺬ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺟﺎﻫﺪ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺭﻓﻊ ﻓﻮﻕ ﺭﺅﻭﺱ ﺃﻫﻞ‬
‫ﺍﳊﻖ ﺭﺍﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﱰﻳﻞ(( ‪ ،‬ﰒﹼ ﻧﻘﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﹼﻣﺔ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ ﻓﻴﻪ ‪)) :‬ﺇﻥ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﺫﺍﻙ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ؛ ﳑﻦ ﺍﺷﺘﻬﺮ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺭﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﺮﺍﻓﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳑﻦ ﻳﻘﺎﻭﻡ ﺑﻠﺴﺎﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻭﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻨﻪ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﳋﺰﻋﺒﻼﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻧ‪‬ﻪ ﳑﻦ ﻻ ﺗﺄﺧﺬﻩ ﰲ ﺇﺑﺎﻧﺔ ﺍﳊﻖ ﻟﻮﻣﺔ ﻻﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻻ ﻳﺼﺪﻩ ﻋﺘﺐ ﻋﺎﺗﺐ ﻭﻻ‬
‫ﻗﻮﻣﺔ ﻗﺎﺋﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻪ ﺻﺪﻉ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ﻋﺠﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﳏﺎﺑﺎﺓ ﻭﻣﺪﺍﺭﺍﺓ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﻞ ﻣﺎ ﻳﺮﻭﻯ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻜﺎﻳﺎﺕ‬
‫ﺍﳌﺘﻤﻔﻘﺮﻳﻦ )ﺍﳌﺘﻈﺎﻫﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺼﻮﻑ( ﻓﺈﻧﻪ ﻳﺰﻧﻪ ﲟﻴﺰﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻞ ﻓﺈﻥﹾ ﺃﺑﺎﻩ ﺭﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﺟﻬﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻗﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﺑﺎﻟﺼﺪ‬
‫ﺇﻧﻜﺎﺭ‪‬ﺍ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻃﺎﳌﺎ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﺎﻹﻧﻜﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻳ‪‬ﻨﺎﺩﻱ ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﻳﻌﺘﻘﺪ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻷﻣﻮﺍﺕ ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺸﻔﻊ ﺑﻪ‬
‫ﰲ ﻗﻀﺎﺀ ﺍﳊﺎﺟﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﻌﺮ‪‬ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻒ ﰲ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﻣِﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻪ ﺃﻣﺮ‪ ‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﹶﺫِﻥﹶ ﺍﷲُ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬ﺇﺫ ﺃﻣﺮ‬
‫ﺑﺪﻋﺎﺋﻪ ﻭﺣﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺪﻋﺎﺀ ﻏﲑﻩ ﳑﺎ ﻻ ﻳﺮﺿﻴﻪ ﻛﻤﺎ ﺻﺮ‪‬ﺡ ﺑﻪ ﰲ ﻏﲑ ﺁﻳﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺮﱘ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﺼ‪‬ﺪﻩ‬
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‫ﺗﺮﻗﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻧﺪﺍﺀ ﺃﺣﺪٍ ﺇﻻﹼ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺪﻡ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﺐ ﺇﻻﹼ ﺑﺎﳋﺎﻟﻖ ﺗﺒﺎﺭﻙ ﻭﺗﻌﺎﱃ((‪.‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ]ﺍﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ )ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ(‪12/1‬ـ‪[17‬‬
‫ﺇﺫﻥ ﻫﺬﺍ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂﹸ ﺍﻟﺼﺎﺩﻉ ﺑﺎﳊﻖ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻛﺘﺐ‪ ‬ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔﹰ ﺳﻨﺔﹶ‬
‫‪1296‬ﻫـ ﺇﺛﺮ ﺫﻳﻮﻉ ﺧﱪ ﻭﻓﺎﺓ ﺷﻴﺨﻪ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺑﻘﺎﺋﻪ ﺣﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﻛﺎﻥ‬
‫ﻣﺮﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ‪ ،‬ﳛﻤﺪ ﺍﷲ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻘﺎﻝ ‪)) :‬ﳓﻤﺪ‪‬ﻙ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨﻌﻢ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﺣﺴﺎﻧﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻧﺸﻜﺮﻙ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺟﺰﻳﻞ ﺍﻣﺘﻨﺎﻧﻚ ‪،‬‬
‫ﲪﺪ‪‬ﺍ ﻭﺍﻓﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﺑﻮﺍﻓﺮ ﺁﻻﺋﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺷﻜﺮ‪‬ﺍ ﻣﻜﺎﻓﻴ‪‬ﺎ ﳌﹸﺘﻜﺎﺛِﺮ ﻧ‪‬ﻌ‪‬ﻤﺎﺋﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺎ ﺭﺍﺣﻢ ﺍﳌﺘﻀﺮ‪‬ﻋﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺃﺭﺃﻓﻚ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻳﺎﻣﻨ‪‬ﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﻨﻘﻄﻌﲔ ﻣﺎ ﺃﻋﻄﻔﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺎ ﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺮﲪﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻮﺩ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺣﻠﻤﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻳﺎ ﺩﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﻤﺔ ﺑﻠﻄﻔﻚ ﻣﺎ‬
‫ﺃﺣﻜﻤﻚ ﻭﺃﻋﻈﻤﻚ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺪ ﻏﻤﺮﺗﻨﺎ ﲜﻤﻴﻞ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻭﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻏﺮﻗﺘﻨﺎ ﰲ ﲝﺮ ﻟﻄﻔﻚ ﺍﳌﻮﺻﻮﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺳﺒﻠﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺳﺘﺮﻙ ﺍﳉﻤﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺩﻣﺖ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺣﺼﻨﻚ ﺍﳉﻠﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻣ‪‬ﻦ‪ ‬ﺃﻧﻘﺬﺗﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺩﻳﺔ ﺍﻟﻐﻮﺍﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﻓﺴﻴﺢ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺷﺎﺩ ﻭﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺮ‪‬ﻓﺘﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺍﳌﻄﻠﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻫﺪﻳﺘﻨﺎ ‪‬ﺪﺍﻳﺘﻪ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺍﻁ ﺍﳌﺮﻏﻮﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺸﻔﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻟﻨﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻴﻮﺑ‪‬ﺎ ﻛﻨ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﻌﺘﻘﺪﻫﺎ ﻃﺎﻋﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﻟﻠﺘﻨﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ‪‬ﺞ ﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺍﳉﻤﺎﻋﺔ ؛ ﺍﻷﳎﺪ ﺍﻷﻭﺣﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﻠﹶﻢ ﺍﳌﻔﺮﺩ ‪،‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻓﻊ ﺑﻔﻀﺎﺋﻠﻪ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻣﻊ ﺑﺪﻻﺋﻠﻪ ﻣﻌﺎﻧﺪﻱ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﶈﻤﺪﻳ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺃﻣﲑ‬
‫ﺍﻷﻣﺮﺍﺀ‪ ،‬ﻭﻗﻄﺐ ﻣﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻀﻼﺀ ‪ .... ،‬ﺍﳊﺴﻴﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺐ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻒ ﺍﳌﺎﺟﺪ ﺍﻷﺭﻳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳊﺴﲏ ‪ ،‬ﺃﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﷲ ﺑﻘﺎﺀﻩ ﻭﺟ‪‬ﻮ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﳍﲏ ‪.... ،‬ﺇﱁ((‪.‬ﺍﻧﺘﻬﻰ ؛ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺇﻗﺮﺍﺭ‪ ‬ﻭﺑﻴﺎﻥﹲ ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﻛﻮﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﻦ ﺃﻭﺍﺋﻞ ﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﰲ ﻋﺼﺮﻩ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺘﺰﺍﻡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺴﻨ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﳌﻄﻬ‪‬ﺮﺓ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ!‬
‫ﻭﳑﻦ ﲣﺮ‪‬ﺝ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﻋﻼﹼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ ﻭﻓﻘﻴﻬﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻜﺒﲑ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ )‪1332 -1283‬ﻫـ = ‪1914 -1866‬ﻡ( ‪ ،‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺳﻠﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﻴﺪﺓ ﻻ ﻳﻘﻮﻝ ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻘﻠﻴﺪ‪.‬‬
‫ﺍﻧﺘﺪﺑﺘﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻟﻠﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻭﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ﰲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻯ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻮﺭﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﻗﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺃﺭﺑﻊ‬
‫ﺳﻨﻮﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳌﺎ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺍ‪‬ﻤﻪ ﺣ‪‬ﺴ‪‬ﺪ‪‬ﺗ‪‬ﻪ ﺑﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ ﻣﺬﻫﺐ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﲰﻮﻩ )ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺐ ﺍﳉﻤﺎﱄ( ﻓﻘﺒﻀﺖ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﳊﻜﻮﻣﺔ )ﺳﻨﺔ ‪1313‬ﻫـ( ﻭﺳﺄﻟﺘﻪ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﻬﻤﺔ ﻓﺄﺧﻠﻲ ﺳﺒﻴﻠﻪ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻋﺘﺬﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﻭﺍﱄ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ‪،‬‬
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‫ﻓﺎﻧﻘﻄﻊ ﰲ ﻣﱰﻟﻪ ﻟﻠﺘﺼﻨﻴﻒ ﻭﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻭﺱ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﺍﻟﺘﻔﺴﲑ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻳﻌﺔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻷﺩﺏ‪ .‬ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﲝﻮﺛﹰﺎ ﻛﺜﲑﺓ ﰲ ﺍ‪‬ﻼﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺼﺤﻒ‪ .‬ﻟﻪ ﺃﻛﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﺍﺛﻨﲔ ﻭﺳﺒﻌﲔ ﻣﺼﻨﻔﹰﺎ‪ ،‬ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻔﺴﲑﻩ ﻟﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻤ‪‬ﻰ )ﳏﺎﺳﻦ ﺍﻟﺘﺄﻭﻳﻞ( ﻳﻘﻊ ﰲ ‪ 17‬ﳎﻠﺪ‪‬ﺍ‪ .‬ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﻳﺜﲏ ﻛﺜﲑ‪‬ﺍ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻭﻳﺴﺘﺸﻬﺪ ﺑﻜﻼﻣﻪ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺒﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻓﺮﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﺿﺎﻓﻴﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ )ﺗﻌﻄﲑ ﺍﳌﹶﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﺂﺛﺮ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ(‬
‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺃﻃﻮﻝ ﺗﺮﲨﺔ ﰲ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻪ ﺗﻘﻊ ﰲ ﲬﺴﲔ ﺻﻔﺤﺔ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒ‪‬ﺎ! ﻭ‪‬ﺎ ﺧﺘﻢ ﺟﺰﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺮﺍﺟﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺗﻼﻣﺬﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﳏﻤﺪ ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ )‪1311‬ـ‪1396‬ﻫـ=‪1894‬ـ‪1976‬ﻡ(‬
‫ﻭ))ﻫﻮ ﻋﻠﻢ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺇﻣﺎﻡ‪ ‬ﻣﻦ ﺃﺋﻤ‪‬ﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻔﻴﺔ ﺍﳊﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺩﻗﻴﻖ ﺍﻟﻔﻬﻢ ﻷﺳﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ‪ .‬ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻣﺎ ﻳﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﻋﻦ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﻣﺎ ﳜﺎﻟﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺻﻮﺍﺏ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣﺴﺘﻜﻤﻞ ﻟﻸﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﳌﺆﻫﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ .‬ﻭﻫﻮ ﳎﺎﻭﺯ ﻟﻠﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺍﳌﺬﻫﺒﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ(()‪ .(14‬ﻫﻜﺬﺍ ﻭﺻﻔﻪ ﺍﻟﻌﻼﹼﻣﺔ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﲑ ﺍﻹﺑﺮﺍﻫﻴﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺋﻴﺲ ﲨﻌﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻳﲔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺑﺪﻣﺸﻖ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﻫﺮﺓ‬
‫ﻭﺑﻐﺪﺍﺩ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﲔ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﻨﺸﻄﲔ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺆﻟﻔﺎﺕ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺤﻮﺙ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﻛﺎﻥ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ ﻳﺸﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ‪ ،‬ﻭﳒﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻭﺍﺿﺤ‪‬ﺎ ﰲ ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻘﺎﺗﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ ﰲ‬
‫ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﻋﺸﺮ( ﳉﺪ‪‬ﻩ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻟﻌﻞﹼ ﺃﻛﱪ ﺃﺛﺮ ﺗﺮﻛﻪ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﻫﻮ ﺗﻠﻚ ﺍﻟﻨﺨﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺮﻳﺪﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻋﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﲣﺮ‪‬ﺟﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
‫ﻭﻣﻦ ﺃﺷﻬﺮﻫﻢ ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻌﻼﹼﻣﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻄﻨﻄﺎﻭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻌﺎﱂ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺿﻞ ﺳﻌﺪﻱ ﻳﺎﺳﲔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮﺭ ﺃﻣﲔ ﺍﳌﺼﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺍﶈﺪ‪‬ﺙ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻷﺭﻧﺎﺅﻭﻁ‪ ،‬ﺭﲪﻬﻢ‬
‫ﺍﷲ ﲨﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻋﻲ ﺳﻌﺪﻱ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺟﻴﺐ ﺣﻔﻈﻪ ﺍﷲ‪ .‬ﻭﻟﻦ ﺃﻃﻴﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﺑﺬﻛﺮ ﺗﺮﺍﲨﻬﻢ ‪،‬‬
‫ﻓﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻫﲑ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﺻﺮﻧﺎﻫﻢ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 14‬ـ ﺍﻧﻈﺮ )ﳏﻤﺪ ‪‬ﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﺣﻴﺎﺗﻪ ﻭﺁﺛﺎﺭﻩ( ﻋﺪﻧﺎﻥ ﺍﳋﻄﻴﺐ ﺹ‪.18‬‬
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‫ﻭﻫﺆﻻﺀ ﻫﻢ ﺍﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﲪﻠﻮﺍ ﻟﻮﺍﺀ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﻋﻠﻮﻡ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﻗﺎﻣﻮﺍ ﺑﺘﺪﺭﻳﺴﻬﺎ ﻭﻧﺸﺮﻫﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺪﻓﺎﻉ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻭﻧﺸﺮ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺟﻊ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺍﻷﺷﺮﻓﻴﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺻﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻹﻣﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﺨﺎﺭﻱ ﺑﺄﺳﺎﻧﻴﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﰒ ﻭ‪‬ﻛﹶﻞﹶ ﺗﺪﺭﻳﺲ ﻋﻠﻮﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﺍﳌﻐﺮﰊ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﻣﻦ ﲦﺮﺓ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺸﻴﺦ ﺑﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲏ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ‪.‬‬

‫ﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎﻇﺮ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻵﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﻴ‪‬ﺒﺔ ﰲ ﳎﺎﻝ ﺍﻹﺻﻼﺡ ﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ ﻭﺗﻼﻣﺬﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﲨﺎﻝ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ ﻭﺗﻼﻣﺬﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﻃﺎﻫﺮ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻭﺗﻼﻣﺬﺗﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻠﺸﻴﺦ ﺑﺪﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﳊﺴﲏ ﻭﺗﻼﻣﺬﺗﻪ‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺪﺭﻙ ﺑﻮﺿﻮﺡ ﺃﳘﻴﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪﺃﻩ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﰲ ﲡﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﺑﺎﻟﺴﻨﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﻷﻣ‪‬ﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺇﻧﻪ ﺩﺭﺱ‪‬‬
‫ﻟﻨﺎ ﲨﻴﻌ‪‬ﺎ ﻧﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ ﻣﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﻌِﱪ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻮﺍﺋﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻌﻞﹼ ﻣﻦ ﺃﳘﹼﻬﺎ ‪ :‬ﺃﻥﹼ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﳌﺮﺀ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺎﻫﻢ ﰲ ﺑﻨﺎﺀ ﺻﺮﺡ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺒﺼﲑ ﻭﺗﺮﺳﻴﺦ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺼﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻭﻟﻮ ﺑﻮﺿﻊ ﻣﺪﻣﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﻟﹶﺒِﻨﺎﺕ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺡ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧ‪‬ﻪ‬
‫ﺳﻴﻜﻮﻥ ﺳﺒﻴﻼﹰ ﳌﻦ ﺑﻌﺪﻩ ﻟﻴﺒﻨﻮﺍ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻣﺪﺍﻣﻴﻚ ﺃﹸﺧﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺇﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﻌﻠﻮ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﺡ ﻭﻳﺮﺗﻔﻊ ‪.‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺑﺪﺃ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﲞﻄﻮﺓ ﺧﻄﺎﻫﺎ ﲝﺰﻡ ﻭﺛﺒﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺭﺃﻯ ﻣﺎ ﺃﺩﻯ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﳌﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﻭﻗﺘﻬﺎ ﰲ ﺑﻼﺩ‬
‫ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﻋﻨﻪ ﺗﺴﻠﻂ ﺍﻷﻋﺪﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﺳﺘﻐﻼﳍﻢ ﳉﻬﻞ ﺍﻷﻣ‪‬ﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﺒﻌﺪﻣﺎ ﺧﺮﺝ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺠﻨﻪ ﺑﻔﺮﻧﺴﺎ‬
‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻄﺒﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻣﲑﻳﺔ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻭﺍﻃﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻋﻤﺎﳍﺎ ﻭﺃﺷﻐﺎﳍﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﻝ ﻟﺒﻌﺾ ﺍﻷﻋﻴﺎﻥ ‪" :‬ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ‬
‫ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳌﺪﺍﻓﻊ ﺍﻟﱵ ‪‬ﺪﻡ ‪‬ﺎ ﺍﳊﺼﻮﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻼﻉ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ ﺍﳊﺮﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﻘﻠﺐ‬
‫‪‬ﺎ ﺃﺳﺮ‪‬ﺓ ﺍﳌﻠﻮﻙ ﻭﲣﺮﺏ ﺩﻭﳍﻢ ﻭﻫﻢ ﻻ ﻳﺸﻌﺮﻭﻥ" )‪. (15‬‬
‫ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﻵﺧﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺍﳌﻄﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻳﻀ‪‬ﺎ‪ :‬ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺲ ﺭﺃﻳﺖ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﻴﻮﻡ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺑﻄﺎﺭﻳﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ)‪.(16‬‬
‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺍﻧﺘﻘﻞ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻣﻦ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﻒ ﺇﱃ ﺟﻬﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻢ ‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻟﻸﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻨﻬﺾ ﻭﺗﻨﻔﺾ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﻛﺎﻡ‬
‫ﺍﳉﻬﻞ ﻭﺍﻟﻐﻔﻠﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻟﺴﺒﻴﻞ ﺇﱃ ﺗﺪﺍﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﻘﺺ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﺪﻫﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﻠﺬﻳﻦ ﺃﺧ‪‬ﺮﺍ ﺍﻷﻣﺔ ‪.‬‬
‫‪ 15‬ـ )ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺮ( ﶈﻤﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ ‪.44/2‬‬
‫‪ 16‬ـ )ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ( ﻟﺸﺎﺭﻝ ﻫﻨﺮﻱ ﺗﺸﺮﺷﻞ ﺹ‪.271‬‬
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‫ﻭﻓﻌﻼﹰ ﳒﺢ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﻗﻴﺾ ﺍﷲ ﻟﻸﻣﺔ ﻣﻦ ﻳﺘﺎﺑﻊ ‪‬ﺠﻪ ﻭ‪‬ﻀﺖ ﺍﻷﻣ‪‬ﺔ ﻭﺑﺪﺃﺕ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻌﺎﺩﺓ ﺷﻲﺀ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﺄﺳﺄﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺃﻥ ﻳﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺍﻟﻨﻬﻮﺽ ﻭﺃﻥ ﺗﺴﺘﻌﻴﺪ ﺃﻣﺘﻨﺎ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻣﻴﺔ ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻷﻭﱃ ﰲ‬
‫ﺭﻳﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﻢ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳊﻤﺪ ﷲ ﺭﺏ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﲔ ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩ‪.‬ﻣﻜﹼﻲ ﺍﳊﺴﲏ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ‬
‫ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ‪/8‬ﲨﺎﺩﻯ ﺍﻵﺧﺮﺓ‪1430/‬ﻫـ =‪2009/7/1‬ﻡ‬
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‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ ‪ :‬ﺗﺮﺍﺟﻢ ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﺭﺩﺓ ﰲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﳌﻘﺎﻟﺔ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﻛﺘﺎﺏ )ﺍﻷﻋﻼﻡ( ﻟﻠﺰﺭﻛﻠﻲ‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﺍﳌﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﳋﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺴﲑﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﳉﺰﺍﺋﺮﻱ ﻣﺄﺧﻮﺫﺓ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ ﺍﻟﱵ ﺗﺮﲨﺖ ﻟﻪ ﻭﺃﳘﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬
‫‪1‬ـ )ﺣﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺒﺸﺮ( ﻟﻌﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺯﺍﻕ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻄﺎﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪2‬ـ )ﲢﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﺋﺮ( ﶈﻤﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪3‬ـ )ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻮﺍﺭﻳﺦ ﻟﺪﻣﺸﻖ( ﶈﻤﺪ ﺃﺩﻳﺐ ﺍﳊﺼﲏ‪.‬‬
‫‪4‬ـ )ﺗﻌﻄﲑ ﺍﳌﺸﺎﻡ ﰲ ﻣﺂﺛﺮ ﺩﻣﺸﻖ ﺍﻟﺸﺎﻡ( ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻣﺔ ﲨﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﺪﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﲰﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪5‬ـ )ﺣﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻷﻣﲑ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﺭ( ﻟﺘﺸﺮﺷﻞ‪.‬‬
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