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.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ................... 5 ɋɢɦɭɥɬɚɧɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ȺȾ...................................... 4 Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ....................................................................................... 9 Ɍɟɤ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ......................................... 9 ɍɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɧɚ ɫɨɞɪɭɠɧɢɰɢɬɟ ɜɨ ɪɟɡɭɥɬɚɬɢɬɟ ɨɞ ɪɚɛɨɬɟʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 ɋɜɢɤɭɜɚʃɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ........... ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ɋɟɡɢɦɟ ............................................................................................ 3 ȼɈȼȿȾ ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 ɁȺɄɅɍɑɈɄ ..................................................................................... 6 ɋɭɤɰɟɫɢɜɧɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ȺȾ ....................................... 7 ȳɚɜɟɧ ɩɨɜɢɤ ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Abstract ..................................................................... 11 ɄɈɊɂɋɌȿɇȺ ɅɂɌȿɊȺɌɍɊȺ .........................................

2    .

                   ? ?? . ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɤɢɬɟ. joint provision and differences that exist in the procedure for the establishment of joint stock company and participating in establishing the corporation as a trading company. To comprehend the ways of establishing a joint stock company. ɡɚɟɞɧɢɱɤɢɬɟ ɨɞɪɟɞɛɢ ɢ ɪɚɡɥɢɤɢ ɤɨɢɲɬɨ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚɬ ɜɨ ɩɨɫɬɚɩɤɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɡɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɢ ɤɨʁ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɭɜɚ ɩɪɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɤɚɤɨ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ. â   With this seminar work we want to work out a subject that is related to the concept.? as the foundation of the corporation. ? ? ? ?  !3/!  ɋɨ ɨɜɨʁ ɫɟɦɢɧɚɪɫɤɢ ɬɪɭɞ ɫɚɤɚɦɟ ɞɚ ʁɚ ɪɚɡɪɚɛɨɬɢɦɟ ɬɟɦɚɬɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɟ ɩɨɜɪɡɚɧɚ ɫɨ ɩɨɢɦɨɬ. responsibility. characteristics. ɨɞɝɨɜɨɪɧɨɫɬɚ ɤɚɤɨ ɢ ɫɚɦɨɬɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ. Ⱦɚ ɝɢ ɨɫɨɡɧɚɟɦɟ ɧɚɱɢɧɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ.

2    .

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Ⱥɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚɚɬ ɡɚ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ. ɤɨʁɚ ɟ ɩɨɞɟɥɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ. ɂɦɨɬɨɬ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɜɨ ɰɟɥɢɧɚ ɟ ɨɞɜɨɟɧ ɨɞ ɢɦɨɬɨɬ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɢ ɡɚɬɨɚ ɬɢɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚɚɬ ɡɚ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɢɬɟ ɧɚ ȺȾ.  Ⱥɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɟ ? ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɜɨ ɤɨɟ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɭɜɚɚɬ ɫɨ ɜɥɨɝɨɜɢ ɜɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ. Ⱥɤɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɚɬ Ⱥɞ ɛɟɡ ɪɚɫɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ʁɚɜɟɧ ɩɨɜɢɤ ɡɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ. Ⱥɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɟ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɤɨɟ ɝɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɟɞɧɨ ɢɥɢ ɩɨɜɟʅɟ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɢ ɢ/ɢɥɢ ɩɪɚɜɧɢ ɥɢɰɚ ɜɨ ɫɜɨʁɫɬɜɨ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢ ɡɚɪɚɞɢ ɜɪɲɟʃɟ ɧɚ ɨɞɪɟɞɟɧɢ ɞɟʁɧɨɫɬɢ ɩɨɞ ɡɚɟɞɧɢɱɤɚ ɮɢɪɦɚ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɛɢɞɟ ɫɢɦɭɥɬɚɧɨ ɢ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɢɜɧɨ. ɉɪɜɢɨɬ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɟ ɫɢɦɭɥɬɚɧɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ. ɤɨʁ ɫɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɚ ɩɪɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɢ ɧɟɝɨɜɚɬɚ ɜɢɫɢɧɚ ɧɟ ɟ ɢɫɬɚ ɡɚ ɫɢɬɟ ȺȾ. Ⱥɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɟ ɩɪɚɜɧɨ ɥɢɰɟ ɢ ɬɪɝɨɜɟɰ ɫɩɨɪɟɞ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨɬɨ ɩɪɚɜɨ. ɲɬɨ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɭɜɚ ɜɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ. Ⱥɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɢɦɚ ɫɜɨʁ ɩɨɫɟɛɟɧ ɢɦɨɬ ɫɨ ɤɨʁ ɝɢ ɜɪɲɢ ɫɜɨɢɬɟ ɞɟʁɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɜɡɟɦɟɧɢɬɟ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɢ ɜɨ ɩɪɚɜɧɢɨ ɩɪɨɦɟɬ ɫɩɪɟɦɚ ɬɪɟɬɢ ɥɢɰɚ. ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɟ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ 25000 ɟɜɪɚ ɩɪɟɫɦɟɬɚɧɚ ɜɨ ɞɟɧɚɪɫɤɚ ɩɪɨɬɢɜ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬ. Ɉɞ ɞɪɭɝɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ȺȾ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɢɦɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟɧ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ. ɛɟɡ ɨɝɥɟɞ ɧɚ ɫɜɨɟɬɨ ɪɚɛɨɬɟʃɟ. Ɉɞ ɟɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɢ ɩɨɝɥɟɞ ɟ ɧɚʁɡɧɚɱɚʁɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɢ ɧɚʁɩɪɢɮɚɬɥɢɜɚ ɢ ɟɞɧɨɫɬɚɜɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɧɚ ɤɨɧɰɟɧɬɪɢɪɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɝɨɥɟɦ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ ɨɞ ɧɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ ɛɪɨʁ ɥɢɰɚ ɜɨ ɟɞɧɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ. ɨɫɜɟɧ ɚɤɨ ɧɟ ɝɨ ɩɥɚɬɢɥɟ ɞɨɝɨɜɨɪɟɧɢɨɬ ɢɡɧɨɫ ɢɥɢ ɞɟɥ ɨɞ ɧɟɩɥɚɬɟɧɢɨɬ ɜɥɨɝ. ɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚɚɬ ɡɚ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ. Ⱥɤɨ ɩɚɤ ȺȾ ɫɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɫɨ ɪɚɫɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ʁɚɜɟɧ ɩɨɜɢɤ ɬɨɝɚɲ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɟ ɦɢɧɢɦɭɦ 50000 ɟɜɪɚ. ? ?? . Ⱥɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚ ɡɚ ɫɜɨɢɬɟ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɢ ɫɨ ɰɟɥɨɤɭɩɧɢɨɬ ɫɜɨʁ ɢɦɨɬ. ɚ ɜɬɨɪɢɨɬ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɢɜɧɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ.

2    .

Ⱦɨɛɪɚɬɚ ɲɬɨ ʁɚ ɫɨɱɢɧɭɜɚɚɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɫɟ ɩɨɞɪɟɞɟɧɢ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɥɢɱɟɧ ɪɟɠɢɦ ɨɞ ɨɧɚ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɦɟɧɭɜɚ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɞɨɛɪ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ: ɫɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɢ ɡɚ ɧɟɤɨʁ ɜɢɞ ɢɦɨɬ ɫɨ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɚ ɧɚɦɟɧɚ.          ? ?? . ? ? ?   (    !$'"#$ Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ʁɚ ɫɨɱɢɧɭɜɚɬ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɫɬɚ ɧɚ ɜɥɨɝɨɜɢɬɟ ɜɨ ɩɚɪɢ. ɉɨɜɟʅɟ ɨɞ ɨɱɢɝɥɟɞɧɨ ɟ ɞɟɤɚ ɤɨɪɢɫɧɨɫɬɚ ɨɞ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ʅɟ ɛɢɞɟ ɧɢɤɚɤɜɚ ɚɤɨ ɚɤɬɢɜɚɬɚ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɩɚɞɧɟ ɧɚ ɧɭɥɚ ɢɥɢ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɛɥɢɠɢ ɤɨɧ ɧɭɥɚ ɛɢɞɟʅɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɜɨ ɬɨʁ ɫɥɭɱɚʁ ɧɟɦɚ ɞɚ ɢɦɚ ɩɨɤɪɢɬɢɟ ɜɨ ɧɢɲɬɨ ɤɨɧɤɪɟɬɧɨ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɢɦɚ ɫɢɦɭɥɬɚɧɨ ɫɦɟɬɤɨɜɨɞɫɬɜɟɧɨ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɧɨ ɡɧɚɱɟʃɟ. ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɫɟ ɫɦɟɬɚ ɤɚɤɨ ɨɛɟɡɛɟɞɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɞɨɜɟɪɢɬɟɥɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɢ ɡɚɬɨɚ ɟ ɫɭɛɫɭɦɢɪɚɧɚ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɟɛɟɧ ɪɟɠɢɦ. ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɢ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɚ. ɋɨ ɧɟɚ ɫɨɞɪɭɠɧɢɰɢɬɟ ɧɟ ɦɨɠɚɬ ɞɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚɚɬ ɢ ɧɟʁɡɢɧɢɨɬ ɢɡɧɨɫ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɛɢɞɟ ɡɚɱɭɜɚɧ ɚ ɪɟɡɟɪɜɢɬɟ ɢɦ ɫɬɨʁɚɬ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɫɨɞɪɭɠɧɢɰɢɬɟ ɧɨ ɫɚɦɨ ɡɚ ɩɨɤɪɢɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɡɚɝɭɛɢɬɟ ɢ ɮɢɧɚɧɫɢɪɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɬɟɤɨɜɧɢɬɟ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢ ɢ ɩɨɬɪɟɛɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɪɚɡɜɨʁɨɬ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɬɭɤɭ ɢ ɡɚ ɞɨɩɨɥɧɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɫɪɟɬɫɬɜɚɬɚ ɲɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɢɦ ɝɢ ɫɬɚɜɚ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɨɥɚɝɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɫɨɞɪɭɠɧɢɰɢɬɟ ɜɨ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɧɚ ɞɢɜɢɞɟɧɞɚ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɟ ɧɟɞɨɩɢɪɥɢɜɚ. Ɉɞ ɝɥɟɞɢɲɬɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɚɜɨɬɨ.

2    .

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ɇɚɛɚɜɧɢɬɟ ɢɥɢ ɩɪɨɢɡɜɨɞɧɢɬɟ ɬɪɨɲɨɰɢ ɜɨ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɢɬɟ 3ɝɨɞɢɧɢ ɡɚ ɧɟɩɚɪɢɱɧɢɬɟ ɜɥɨɝɨɜɢ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɜɧɟɫɭɜɚɚɬ. Ʉɚʁ ɫɢɦɭɥɬɚɧɢɨɬ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɝɢ ɩɪɟɜɡɟɦɚɚɬ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɫɨ ɢɡʁɚɜɚ ɜɨ ɩɢɫɦɟɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɚ. ɁɌȾ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɭɜɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɫɨɞɪɠɢɧɚ ɧɚ ɢɡʁɚɜɚɬɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɲɬɨ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɛɢɞɟ ɜɨ ɩɢɫɦɟɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɚ ( ɤɨɟ ɥɢɰɟ ɢɡʁɚɜɭɜɚ ɢ ɫɟ ɩɨɬɩɢɲɭɜɚ. Ʉɚʁ ɨɜɨʁ ɜɢɞ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɫɟ ɞɟɥɢ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ. ȼɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɢɨɬ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ ɫɟ ɩɪɢɤɚɠɭɜɚɚɬ ɫɭɲɬɟɫɬɜɟɧɢɬɟ ɨɤɨɥɧɨɫɬɢ ɨɞ ɡɧɚɱɟʃɟɬɨ ɡɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɨɫɨɛɟɧɨ ɫɟ ɧɚɜɟɞɭɜɚɚɬ: ɂɡɧɨɫɨɬ ɧɚ ɭɩɥɚɬɟɧɢɬɟ ɩɚɪɢɱɧɢ ɜɥɨɝɨɜɢ. Ⱦɚɥɢ ɢ ɧɚ ɤɨʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɱɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɬ ɧɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɭɜɚʃɟ ɫɟ ɡɞɨɛɢɥ ɫɨ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɚ ɩɨɝɨɞɧɨɫɬ ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɨɛɟɲɬɟɬɭɜɚʃɟ ɢɥɢ ɧɚɞɨɦɟɫɬ ɡɚ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɨ ɜɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ. ɚ ɜɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɫɨ ɋɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ. ɂɡʁɚɜɚɬɚ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɛɢɞɟ ɩɪɢɥɨɠɟɧɚ ɤɨɧ ɫɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ. Ȼɪɨʁɨɬ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɲɬɨ ɩɪɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɛɢɥɟ ɩɪɟɜɡɟɦɟɧɢ ɡɚ ɫɦɟɬɤɚ ɧɚ ɱɥɟɧ ɧɚ ɨɪɝɚɧɨɬ ɧɚ ɭɩɪɚɜɭɜɚʃɟ . ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? . ɂɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ ɡɚ ɬɟɤɨɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ (ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɢ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ). ɜɪɟɦɟɬɨ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɨɬɨ ɧɚ ɭɩɥɚɬɚ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ). ɞɟɤɚ ɫɟ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɢ ɞɚ ɝɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɚɬ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɢ ɞɟɤɚ ʁɚ ɩɪɟɜɡɟɦɚɚɬ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɭɩɥɚɬɚ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ. ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɜɪɟɞɧɨɬɚ ɧɚ ɜɧɟɫɟɧɢɬɟ ɧɟɩɚɪɢɱɧɢ ɜɥɨɝɨɜɢ. ɜɨ ɤɨʁ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɟɧ ɢɡɧɨɫ. ɤɨʁ ɪɨɞ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɝɢ ɩɪɟɜɡɟɦɚ. ɤɨɥɤɭ ɚɤɰɢɢ.ɢɥɢ ɞɚ ɛɢɞɟ ɫɨɞɪɠɚɧɚ ɜɨ ɫɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ ɲɬɨ ɝɨ ɩɨɬɩɢɲɭɜɚɚɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ.Ɉɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɫɨɫɬɚɜɭɜɚɚɬ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ ɜɨ ɩɢɫɦɟɧɚ ɮɨɪɦɚ ɡɚ ɬɟɤɨɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ. ɉɪɚɜɧɢɬɟ ɪɚɛɨɬɢ ɜɪɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɧɚ ɤɨɢ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɫɬɟɤɧɭɜɚ ɧɟɩɚɪɢɱɧɢ ɜɥɨɝɨɜɢ.  ɋɢɦɭɥɬɚɧɨ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɜɨ ɤɨɟ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɫɟ ɢɡɞɚɜɚɚɬ ɫɚɦɨ ɧɚ ɧɟɝɨɜɢɬɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢ ɢɥɢ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ ɛɪɨʁ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɥɢɰɚ ɛɟɡ ʁɚɜɟɧ ɩɨɜɢɤ.

2    .

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Ɉɜɨʁ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ȺȾ ɩɨɞɪɚɡɛɢɪɚ ɩɨɜɟʅɟ ɟɬɚɩɢ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɢ ɩɨɪɚɞɢ ɬɨɚ ɩɨɫɬɚɩɤɚɬɚ ɟ ɩɨɫɥɨɠɟɧɚ. ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɤɥɚɫɢ. ɧɨ ɦɨɠɧɨ ɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɞɚ ɝɨ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɚɬ ɦɚɤɫɢɦɚɥɧɢɨɬ ɛɪɨʁ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢ. ȳɚɜɧɢɨɬ ɩɨɜɢɤ ɩɨɤɪɚʁ ɮɢɪɦɚɬɚ. Ʉɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɟ ɢ ɬɨɚ ɲɬɨ ɨɜɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɧɟɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɝɨ ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɢ ɩɪɟɧɨɫɨɬ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɧɚ ɬɪɟɬɨ ɥɢɰɟ.ɫɟ ɭɫɜɨʁɭɜɚ ɋɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɫɟ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚɚɬ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ. ɪɨɞɨɬ.ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ɫɟ ɞɨɝɨɜɚɪɚɚɬ ɡɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ȺȾ. ȺȾ ɫɟ ɫɦɟɬɚ ɞɟɤɚ ɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨ ɧɚ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɢɜɟɧ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɚɤɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɡɚ ɜɪɟɦɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɝɨ ɭɫɜɨʁɚɬ ɋɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ. Ɍɪɟɬɚ ɮɚɡɚ. ɉɪɜɚ ɮɚɡɚ. ɂɡɧɨɫɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ. ɇɟɩɚɪɢɱɧɢɬɟ ɜɥɨɝɨɜɢ. ɚɤɨ ɫɟ ɢɡɞɚɜɚɚɬ ɩɨɜɟʅɟ ɪɨɞɨɜɢ. ɫɟɞɢɲɬɟɬɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɞɦɟɬɨɬ ɧɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɫɨɞɪɠɢ ɩɨɞɚɬɨɰɢ ɡɚ : Ⱦɚɬɭɦɨɬ ɤɨɝɚ ɟ ɭɫɜɨɟɧ ɫɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ ɜɪɡ ɨɫɧɨɜɚ ɧɚ ɤɨʁɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɢɡɞɚɜɚ ʁɚɜɟɧ ɩɨɜɢɤ. ? 0! 6 ? ȳɚɜɧɢɨɬ ɩɨɜɢɤ ɫɨ ɤɨʁ ɫɟ ɩɨɜɢɤɭɜɚ ɧɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɫɟ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɜɭɜɚ ɜɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɬ ɫɨ ɨɞɪɟɞɛɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɋɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ. ɞɟɤɚ ɛɪɨʁɨɬ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢ ɟ ɧɟɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɟɧ. ɡɚɩɢɲɚɬ ɫɪɚɡɦɟɪɟɧ ɛɪɨʁ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɜɨ ɡɚɜɢɫɧɨɬ ɜɨ ɭɩɥɚɬɚɬɚ ɜɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɢ ɭɩɚɬɚɬ ʁɚɜɟɧ ɩɨɜɢɤ ɡɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ. ɫɟ ɞɨɫɬɚɜɭɜɚ ɢ ɩɪɨɫɩɟɤɬ ɡɚɪɚɞɢ ɩɨɞɨɛɪɢ ɢɧɮɨɪɦɚɰɢɢ ɡɚ ɧɨɜɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ. Ȼɪɨʁɨɬ. ɫɟ ɧɚɜɟɞɭɜɚɚɬ ɫɢɬɟ ɪɨɞɨɜɢ ɢ ɤɥɚɫɢ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɤɨɢɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɧɭɞɚɬ ɧɚ ? ?? . ɭɫɜɨɟɧ ɨɞ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ. Ɂɚ ȺȾ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɧɨ ɫɨ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɢɜɟɧ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɤɚɪɚɤɬɟɪɢɫɬɢɱɧɨ ɟ ɲɬɨ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɢɦɚ ɧɚʁɦɚɥɤɭ ɞɜɟ ɥɢɰɚ. ɝɨ ɩɨɬɩɢɲɭɜɚɚɬ ɬɟɤɫɬɨɬ ɧɚ ɋɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ ɢ ɫɟ ɞɨɝɨɜɚɪɚɬ ɡɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ȼɬɨɪɚ ɮɚɡɚ.ɫɟ ɭɩɚɬɭɜɚ ʁɚɜɟɧ ɩɨɜɢɤ ɫɨ ʁɚɜɧɚ ɩɨɧɭɞɚ.

2    .

Ʉɨɝɚ ɢ ɤɨɥɤɭ ɨɞ ɡɚɩɢɲɚɧɢɬɟ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɬɪɟɛɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɭɩɥɚɬɚɬ ɩɪɟɞ ɩɨɞɧɟɫɭɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɩɪɢʁɚɜɚ ɡɚ ɭɩɢɫ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɜɨ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɢɨɬ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɟɪ. ɚɤɨ ɬɚɤɨɜ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ ɩɨ ɛɚɪɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ. ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɥɢɰɚ ɜɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɫɬ ɫɨ ɨɜɨʁ ɡɚɤɨɧ ɛɢɥ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɜɟɧ. ɉɨɞɚɬɨɰɢɬɟ ɡɚ ɩɨɫɟɛɧɢɬɟ ɩɨɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɢ. ȿɆȻȽ. ɛɪɨʁɨɬ ɧɚ ɩɚɫɨɲɨɬ. Ɍɪɨɲɨɰɢɬɟ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɧɚɩɪɚɜɟɧɢ ɩɪɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ. ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɤɥɚɫɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ. ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɲɬɨ ɛɢɥɟ ɩɪɟɜɡɟɦɟɧɢ ɛɟɡ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚɟʃɟ ɢ ɩɪɚɜɚɬɚ ɤɨʁɲɬɨ ɢɡɞɚɞɟɧɢɬɟ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɝɢ ɞɚɜɚɚɬ. ɨɫɧɨɫɧɨ ɮɢɪɦɚɬɚ. ɩɪɨɫɩɟɤɬɨɬ. ɨɞɧɨɫɬ ɛɪɨʁɨɬ ɧɚ ɥɢɱɧɚɬɚ ɤɚɪɬɚ ɚɤɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɨɬ ɟ ɫɬɪɚɧɫɤɨ ɮɢɡɢɱɤɨ ɥɢɰɟ ɦɨɠɟ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɚ ɢɫɩɪɚɜɚ ɡɚ ɭɬɜɪɞɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɢɞɟɧɬɢɬɟɬɨɬ ɜɚɠɚɱɤɚ ɜɨ ɧɟɝɨɜɚɬɚ ɡɟɦʁɚ ɢ ɧɟɝɨɜɨɬɨ ɞɪɠɚɜʁɚɧɫɬɜɨ ɤɚɤɨ ɢ ɦɟɫɬɨɬɨ ɧɚ ɠɢɜɟɟʃɟ. ɇɚʁɜɢɫɨɤɢɨɬ ɢɡɧɨɫ ɧɚ ɬɪɨɲɨɰɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ. ɲɬɨ ɩɚɼɚɚɬ ɧɚ ɬɨɜɚɪ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ? ? ? ? ? ?? . ? ? ? ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ. ɆȻɋ ɚɤɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱ ɟ ɩɪɚɜɧɨ ɥɢɰɟ. ɚ ɫɩɨɪɟɞ ɫɥɭɱɚʁɨɬ ɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɢɨɬ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ ɢ ɢɡɜɚɲɬɚʁɨɬ ɧɚ ɪɟɜɢɡɢʁɚɬɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ. ɩɨɝɨɞɧɨɫɬɢɬɟ. ɂɦɟɬɨ ɢ ɩɪɟɡɢɦɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɫɟɤɨʁ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱ. ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɤɨɝɚ ɫɟ ɫɦɟɬɚ ɞɟɤɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɟ ɭɫɩɟɲɧɨ ɤɚɤɨ ɢ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɢɰɢɬɟ ɲɬɨ ɧɚɫɬɚɩɭɜɚɚɬ ɚɤɨ ɪɚɬɢɬɟ ɧɟ ɫɟ ɭɩɥɚɬɭɜɚɚɬ ɰɟɥɨɫɧɨ ɢ ɧɚɜɪɟɦɟɧɨ. ɇɚɱɢɧɨɬ ɧɚ ɫɜɢɤɭɜɚʃɟɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ. ɋɟɞɢɲɬɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɛɚɧɤɚɬɚ ɤɚʁ ɤɨʁɚɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚɚɬ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɢ ɭɩɚɬɭɜɚʃɟ ɞɟɤɚ ɬɚɦɭ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɩɪɟɝɥɟɞɚ ɫɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ. ɫɟɞɢɲɬɟɬɨ. Ⱦɟɧɨɬ ɤɨɝɚ ɡɚɩɨɱɧɭɜɚ ɢ ɡɚɜɪɲɭɜɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ. ɧɢɜɧɢɨɬ ɧɨɦɢɧɚɥɟɧ ɢɡɧɨɫ ɢ ɰɟɧɚɬɚ ɩɨ ɤɨʁɚɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɩɪɨɞɚɜɚɚɬ ɤɚɤɨ ɢ ɛɪɨʁɨɬ ɢ ɪɨɞɨɬ. ɨɝɪɚɧɢɱɭɜɚʃɚɬɚ ɢ ɞɪɭɝɢɬɟ ɭɫɥɨɜɢ ɩɨɜɪɡɚɧɢ ɫɨ ɪɨɞɨɬ ɢ ɤɥɚɫɚɬɚ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɢɡɞɚɜɚɚɬ. Ⱦɟɧɨɬ ɤɨɝɚ ɩɪɟɫɬɚɧɭɜɚ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɚɬɚ ɡɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚɱɨɬ ɚɤɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɞɨɬɨɝɚɲ ɧɟ ɛɢɞɟ ɩɪɢʁɚɜɟɧɨ ɡɚ ɭɩɢɫ ɜɨ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɢɨɬ ɪɟɝɢɫɬɚɪ.

2    .

ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁɨɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɡɚ ɬɪɨɲɨɰɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ. ? ?? . ʁɚɜɧɢɨɬ ɩɨɜɢɤ. ɫɟ ɱɢɬɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɢɨɬ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ ɢ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁɨɬ ɡɚ ɪɟɜɢɡɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɝɨ ɫɜɢɤɭɜɚɚɬ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɫɨ ɩɨɜɢɤ. ɋɭɞɨɬ ɧɚ ɱɢɟɲɬɨ ɩɨɞɪɚɱʁɟ ɫɟ ɧɚɨɼɚ ɫɟɞɢɲɬɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ. Ɉɞ ɞɟɧɨɬ ɧɚ ɩɨɫɥɟɞɧɨɬɨ ɨɛʁɚɜɭɜɚʃɟɧɚ ɩɨɜɢɤɨɬ ɡɚ ɫɜɢɤɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɞɟɧɨɬ ɧɚ ɨɞɪɠɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɩɨɦɢɧɚɬ 15 ɞɟɧɚ. ɦɨɠɟ ɧɚ ɩɪɟɞɥɨɝ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɚɤɨ ɡɚ ɬɨɚ ɩɨɫɬɨʁɚɬ ɨɩɪɚɜɞɚɧɢ ɩɪɢɱɢɧɢ. ɜɨ ɫɨɝɥɚɫɧɨɬ ɫɨ ɫɜɨʁɨɬ ɡɚɤɨɧ.   !  7$8 ! ɉɨ ɨɬɜɚɪɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɫɟ ɢɡɛɢɪɚ ɩɪɟɬɫɟɞɚɜɚɱ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɞɜɚʁɰɚ ɛɪɨʁɚɱɢ ɧɚ ɝɥɚɫɨɜɢ. ɫɩɢɫɨɤɬ ɧɚ ɭɩɢɫɧɢɰɢɬɟ. ɪɨɤɨɬ ɧɚ ɨɞɪɠɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɞɚ ɝɨ ɩɪɨɞɨɥɠɢ ɡɚ 30ɞɟɧɚ. ɧɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɤɨɢ ɢɦ ɫɟ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧɢ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɜɨ ɛɚɧɤɚɬɚ ɜɨ ɤɨʁɚɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɡɚɩɢɲɚɧɢ ɞɚ ɢɦ ɝɢ ɫɬɚɜɚɬ ɧɚ ɭɜɞ ɫɬɚɬɭɬɨɬ. ɉɨɬɨɚ. ɚɤɨ ɬɚɤɨɜ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ ɩɨ ɛɚɪɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɫɟ ɞɨɥɠɧɢ. ɲɬɨ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɫɟ ɨɛʁɚɜɢ ɧɚ ɢɫɬ ɧɚɱɢɧ ɤɚɤɨ ɢ ʁɚɜɧɢɨɬ ɩɨɜɢɤ ɡɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ. ? ? ? ?  4"5! 78 ! Ɉɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɫɟ ɨɞɪɠɭɜɚ ɧɚʁɞɨɰɧɚ 60 ɞɟɧɚ ɩɨ ɢɫɬɟɤɨɬ ɧɚ ɪɨɤɨɬ ɡɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟɧ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥ ɫɨ ʁɚɜɧɢɨɬ ɩɨɜɢɤ. ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɥɢɰɚ. ɚɤɨ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɧɟ ɛɢɞɚɬ ɡɚɩɢɲɚɧɢ ɜɨ ɩɨɤɪɚɬɨɤ ɪɨɤ ɨɞ ɪɨɤɨɬ ɨɩɪɟɞɟɥɟɧ ɡɚ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ. ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɢɨɬ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ. ɫɩɢɫɨɤɨɬ ɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɛɚ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɢ ɫɩɢɫɨɤɨɬ ɧɚ ɥɢɰɚɬɚ ɤɨɢ ɩɪɟɜɡɟɥɟ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɛɟɡ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚʃɟ ɜɪɡ ɨɫɨɜɚ ɧɚ ʁɚɜɧɢɨɬ ɩɨɜɢɤ ɫɨ ɧɚɜɟɞɭɜɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɪɨɞɨɬ ɢ ɛɪɨʁɨɬ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢɬɟ ɤɨɢɲɬɨ ɫɟɤɨɢ ɨɞ ɧɢɜ ɝɢ ɩɪɟɡɟɥ ɢ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁɨɬ ɡɚ ɪɟɜɢɡɢʁɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɚɤɨ ɬɚɤɨɜ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚʁ ɩɨ ɛɚɪɚʃɟ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢɬɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɞɪɭɝɢ ɥɢɰɚ ɛɢɥ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɜɟɧ. ɛɢɥ ɩɨɞɝɨɬɜɟɧ.

2    .

Ɂɚɩɢɫɧɢɤɨɬ ɡɚ ɪɚɛɨɬɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɝɨ ɜɨɞɢ ɧɨɬɚɪ. Ɉɞ ɬɚɤɜɚɬɚ ɩɪɢɪɨɞɚ ɧɚ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɬɪɝɧɭɜɚ ɢ Ɂɚɤɨɧɨɬ ɡɚ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɢɬɟ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ɤɨʁ ɩɪɨɩɢɲɭɜɚ:? ɞɟɤɚ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɫɚɦɨɫɬɨʁɧɨ ɢ ɬɪɚʁɧɨ ɜɪɲɢ ɞɟʁɧɨɫɬ. Ɂɚɩɢɫɧɢɤɨɬ ɨɫɜɟɧ ɧɨɬɚɪɨɬ. ? ? ? ɉɪɢɥɨɡɢɬɟ ɤɨɧ ɧɚɜɟɞɟɧɢɬɟ ɢɡɜɟɲɬɚɢ ɫɟ ɱɢɬɚɚɬ ɫɚɦɨ ɚɤɨ ɬɨɚ ɝɨ ɩɨɛɚɪɚɚɬ ɩɪɢɫɭɬɧɢɬɟ ɢ ɡɚɫɬɚɩɟɧɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɢ ɢ ɡɚɩɢɲɭɜɚɱɢ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɤɨɢ ɢɦɚɚɬ ɧɚʁɦɚɥɤɭ ɟɞɧɚ ɞɟɫɬɢɧɚ ɨɞ ɜɤɭɩɧɢɨɬ ɛɪɨʁ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ ɫɨ ɩɪɚɜɨ ɧɚ ɝɥɚɫ. ɡɚɪɚɞɢ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɭɜɚʃɟ ɞɨɛɢɜɤɚ ɞɟɤɚ ɫɨɞɪɭɠɧɢɰɢɬɟ ɡɚɟɞɧɢɱɤɢ ʁɚ ɞɟɥɚɬ ɞɨɛɢɜɤɚɬɚ ɢ ɡɚɝɭɛɚɬɚ ɨɞ ɪɚɛɨɬɟʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ Ʉɨɧɫɬɢɬɭɬɢɜɟɧ ɟɥɟɦɟɧɬ ɧɚ ɫɟɤɨɟ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɫɟ ɫɥɟɞɧɢɬɟ ɰɟɥɢ: ɨɫɬɜɚɪɭɜɚʃɟ ɞɨɛɢɜɤɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɛɚ ɧɚ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɟɧɚɬɚ ɞɨɛɢɜɤɚ ɢ ɧɚɫɬɚɧɚɬɚɬɚ ɡɚɝɭɛɚ ɦɟɼɭ ɫɨɞɪɭɠɧɢɰɢɬɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ?       ? ? ? . ɝɨ ɩɨɬɩɢɲɭɜɚ ɩɪɟɫɟɞɚɜɚɱɨɬ ɧɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɚɱɤɨɬɨ ɫɨɛɪɚɧɢɟ ɢ ɛɪɨʁɚɱɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɝɥɚɫɨɜɢ. ? ? c7!$ '"9 $!!3"($$$!'8$!5!$  !$ '"#$ Ɍɪɝɨɜɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɩɨ ɞɟɮɢɧɢɰɢʁɚ ɟ ɩɪɨɮɢɬɟɧ ɩɪɚɜɟɧ ɫɭɛʁɟɤɬ ɤɨʁ ɲɬɨ ɫɟ ɫɨɡɞɚɜɚ ɧɨ ɢ ɫɭɲɬɟɫɬɜɭɜɚ ɡɚɪɚɞɢ ɨɫɬɜɚɪɭɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɞɨɛɢɜɤɚ ɢ ɧɟʁɡɢɧɚ ɪɚɫɩɪɟɞɟɥɛɚ ɦɟɼɭ ɫɨɞɪɭɠɧɢɰɢɬɟ ɨɞɧɨɫɧɨ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ.

2    .

Ɉɞ ɞɪɭɝɚ ɫɬɪɚɧɚ ȺȾ ɦɨɪɚ ɞɚ ɢɦɚ ɨɫɧɨɜɟɧ ɤɚɩɢɬɚɥ. ɤɨʁ ɫɟ ɮɨɪɦɢɪɚ ɩɪɢ ɨɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɢ ɧɟɝɨɜɚɬɚ ɜɢɫɢɧɚ ɧɟ ɟ ɢɫɬɚ ɡɚ ɫɢɬɟ ȺȾ. ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚɚɬ ɡɚ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ. ? ? Ⱥɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɢɦɚ ɫɜɨʁ ɩɨɫɟɛɟɧ ɢɦɨɬ ɫɨ ɤɨʁ ɝɢ ɜɪɲɢ ɫɜɨɢɬɟ ɞɟʁɧɨɫɬɢ ɢ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚ ɡɚ ɩɪɟɜɡɟɦɟɧɢɬɟ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɢ ɜɨ ɩɪɚɜɧɢɨ ɩɪɨɦɟɬ ɫɩɪɟɦɚ ɬɪɟɬɢ ɥɢɰɚ. ? ? ?   c   ?  ! '"#$ ɟ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɜɨ ɤɨɟ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ɭɱɟɫɬɜɭɜɚɚɬ ɫɨ ɜɥɨɝɨɜɢ ɜɨ ɨɫɧɨɜɧɚɬɚ ɝɥɚɜɧɢɧɚ ɤɨʁɚ ɟ ɩɨɞɟɥɟɧɚ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɢ. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? . ɉɪɢ ɬɨɚ. ɂɦɨɬɨɬ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɜɨ ɰɟɥɢɧɚ ɟ ɨɞɜɨɟɧ ɨɞ ɢɦɨɬɨɬ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɢɬɟ ɧɚ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨɬɨ ɢ ɡɚɬɨɚ ɬɢɟ ɧɟ ɨɞɝɨɜɚɪɚɚɬ ɡɚ ɨɛɜɪɫɤɢɬɟ ɧɚ ȺȾ. Ɉɫɧɨɜɚʃɟɬɨ ɧɚ ɚɤɰɢɨɧɟɪɫɤɨɬɨ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɨ ɦɨɠɟ ɞɚ ɛɢɞɟ ɫɢɦɭɥɬɚɧɨ ɢ ɫɭɤɰɟɫɢɜɧɨ.

2    .

ɩɪɨɮ. ? ? ? ?   4  c  Ɂɚɤɨɧ ɡɚ ɬɪɝɨɜɫɤɢ ɞɪɭɲɬɜɚ ȿɤɨɧɨɦɫɤɨ-ɩɪɚɜɟɧ ɤɨɫɚɥɬɢɧɝ Ɏȼ.ɞ-ɪ Ɇɢɥɚɧ ɂɥɢɟɫɤɢ. ɋɤɨɩʁɟ 2009 ? ? ? ? . ɋɤɨɩʁɟ 2004 Ɍɪɝɨɜɫɤɨ ɩɪɚɜɨ.

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