ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY



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Re-evaluate recycling options
for the Claus unit
This simulation-based study finds that significant sulfur
recovery capacity is attainable through recycling
S. NAGPAL and P. K. SEN, Engineers India Ltd., Gurgaon, India
W
hac are che effects of recycling sulfur dioxide (50
2
) on
the Claus sulfur recovery unit (SRU)? Environmental
laws restrict air emissions; thus, facility operators are
hard pressed to remove and recover sulfur-containing copi.pounds.
The authors explore recycling che SOrconraining process stream
for tail-gas treatment, including the Claus unit operation. This
case history provides several good operating examples to consider
when optimizing tail-gas treatment.
THE STUDY
A simulation-based evaluation of the effect of S0
2
recycle
on the Claus SRU is presented. A Gibbs-free energy minimiza-
tion-based model was used. Findings from this study shows that
significant capacity enhancement is possible, while simultane-
ously enhancing sulfur recovery to 99 .9%, in existing Claus 5RU
when applying tail-gas treatment with 50.2 recycle. Key scudy
criteria include:
• Required update co Claus furnace and catalytic converter
operation
• Impact of 50
2
recycle when processing acid-gas with low
H
2
S concentration is examined.
The st udy provides a quantitative index to the change for
Claus SRU operations when an 50
2
recycle is applied.
The process. 50
2
recycle on che Claus SRU is one possible
process option co optimize unit efficiency. This option treats Claus
tail-gas co convert all sulfur species into 50
2
, followed by concen-
tration of this stream, and recycle of the 50
2
to the Claus furnace.
Several SRU process modifications can improve sulfur recovery and
capacity enhancement. Claus 5RUs are ubiquitous in petroleum
refineries and are the preferred method to convert hydrogen sulfide
(H
2
S) in refinery gas streams to elemental sulfur (5).
Several tail-gas treatment process options for 50
2
concentration
have been developed. These include the sulfite, phosphate, amine
and physical solvent-based processes. We have earlier presented a
simulation-based comparison of several of these sulfur dioxide con-
centration processes.
1
All of these processes are capable of produc-
ing a concentrated 50
2
-gas scream suitable for recycle co the Claus
SRU furnace. These methods can achieve over 99% 50
2
capture for
recycle. The developers of these processes have outlined the main
advantages of the 50
2
recycle options. These include:
• Total SRU sulfur recovery in excess of99.9o/o, with 50
2
in
treated gas below 200 ppmv
• Troublesome petroleum refinery srreams such as the our-
water stripper (SWS) gases can be incinerated in the tail-gas
incinerator. •
• All sulfur species in the tail-gas are converted to 0
2
by
incineration in excess air.
• 5RU capacity can be increased as recycle of 50
2
, and bypas
ofSW5 and other low-concentration sour gases reduces inert gas
Aow through the 5RU.
• High 5RU recoveries are possible even when processing acid-
gas with lower H
2
S concentration.
• By elimination of the Claus front -end furnace and maxi-
mizing acid-gas bypass maximum sulfur recovery at
minimum cost is estimated.
In this study, an SRU proce s model was developed and vali-
dated with literature and operating data. It is used to evaluate
the impact of 5RU process modifications and 50
2
recycle on
the Claus SRU performance. Quantitative indicators have been
developed with changes that are likely to occur when applying the
so2 recycle option for Claus plant enhancement.
Claus SRU model. A Claus 5RU process model developed
with a commercial process simulator was used for this study.
1
An earlier paper gives a detailed discu ion of this model.
1
The
various components of the 5RU-the furnace, waste-heat boiler,
line-burner, catalytic converters, conden er and gas-ga heat
exchanger in the Claus unit, and the tail-ga furnace, and waste
heat boiler, were simulated with suitable reactor/heat exchanger
models available in the commercial process simulacor. The regen-
erative 50
2
removal/concentration unit (RSR) was not ri gorou ly
simulated for the present study. Instead, ir was simulated with a
splitter block allowing recycle of a fraction of the feed 0
2
to the
Claus furnace along with some water vapor to simulate typical
concentrated 50
2
gas produced by the 0
2
concentration unit
regenerator. Detailed RSR unit models developed on the same
platform were used to determine the splitter block parameters.
2
In this SRU model, the (i) Claus furnace, (ii) catalytic convert-
ers, and (iii) tail-gas furnace/incinerator were simulated with a
Gibbs free-energy minimization (FEM) model . Claus SRUs have
been successfully simulated using such Gibb -FEM models in the
past, and is the standard method adopted in various commercially
available Claus 5RU process simulators. The Gibbs-F M tech-
nique can allow accurate si mulation of multi -reaction ga phase
equilibria, and was first applied for Claus SR simulation in the
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING OCTOBER 2005 11 01
ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
early 1970s.3 A detailed description of the Gibbs-FEM technique
is given in mith and Van Ness.
4
The technique allows accurate simulation of the Claus reac-
tion furnace and catalvtic converters since both reactors operate
close ro thermodynam-ic equilibrium. The Claus furnace typically
operates at very high temperatures in the range of950-l ,400"C.
At these temperatures, most reactions attain equilibrium at short
residence times (typically ~ 1 ec). Conversely, the catalytic con-
,·erters operate at much lower temperatures (200-400"C) but
appl y highly effective catalysts to drive the main Claus reacrionb
ro equi librium at hort residence times within 2-3 sees.
everal key rea tions do not reach thermodynamic equilibrium
in the rypical re idence times used in commercial Claus reactors.
Conversion of rhese reactions is modeled using estimated reac-
tion approach ro equi librium, or other rules-of-thumb based on
opeming experience. co and cs2 hydrolysis in the catalytic
converters, and NH
3
destruction and H
2
formation in the furnace
are examples of reactions that do not attain equilibrium.
The accuracy of the RU model was tested for a variety of feed
acid-gases with different impurities such as C0
2
, NH3, hydrocar-
bons and warer. The model provided good results for total sulfur
recovery, ulfur recovery in the furnace and catalytic stages, tail-gas
compo ition, and hear recovery in the various hear exchangers.
Impact of 50
2
recycle. The impact of installing a tail-gas
treatment unit (TGTU), which allows recycle of concentrated
S0
2
to the laus furnace, on SRU capacity enhancement was
studied. Simulations were conducted for an SRU comprising a .
furnace, waste-heat boiler, a line-burner, two (or one) catalytic
com'erters, condensers, and a gas-gas hear exchanger in the Claus
unit, and a tail-gas furnace, wasteheat boiler and regenerative so2
removal (RSR) unit in the TGTU. Fig. 1 shows a process flow
diagram of the RU-TGTU; this is a typical Claus SRU configu-
ration. A line-burner combusring a slip-stream' of the acid-gas
tream to reheat the feed gas to the first catalytic stage was used.
The gas-gas exchanger rehears the gas to the second catalytic stage.
The first catalytic stage exit temperature is set at 315"CC by adjust-
ing acid-gas flow to the line burner. The second catalytic stage exit
temperature is kept 5"C above sulfur dew point by adjusting the
feed-ga temperature to the converter. The furnace waste-heat-
boiler and three condenser temperatures are set to 31 0°C, 195°C,
190"C and 130" . respectively.
We will discuss four cases to illustrate the effect of 0
2
recycle.
Two feed sour-gas streams were considered: (i) an acid-gas stream,
and (ii) gas from an WS. The base case capacirywas taken at 100
tpd feedS (acid-gas+ WS gas). A two-zone Claus furnace was
simul ated usi ng two furnace stages. This allows evaluating a split-
flow acid-gas feed to the furnace. Partial feed of acid-gas to first zone
of furnace (with complete ai r feed} allows high-flame temperatures
in the fir t zone r mainrain a stable flame and for NH
3
/hydrocar-
bon destruction. The TGTU was assumed capable of reducing S0
2
concentration in the treated gas to 200 ppmv. Table 1 summarizes
the feed gas compo ition details, and Table 2 lists a summary of the
imularion results. The option evaluated were:
Base case: o
2
recycle, Claus SRU with two catalytic
stages, SWS gas fed to Claus furnace.
Case 1:
2
recycle co laus furnace while also feeding the
WS gas co the laus furnace.
Case 2: 0
2
recycle to Claus furnace while feeding the SWS
gas to the tail-gas furnace/incinerator.
Case 3: ase 2 without second catalytic stage.
102 \ OCTOBER 2005 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
Base case. In the base case, no S0
2
recycle, Claus SRU with
nvo catalytic stages, SWS gas to Claus furnace are applied. Fig. 1
shows the base case without the TGTU. Simulation results for this
SRU configuration allowed 92.5% total sulfur recovery (nor opti-
mized). Various details of the simulation are listed in Table 2.,
Case 1. In Case 1, S0
2
recycle to Claus furnace, and feed of SWS
gas to rhe Claus furnace are used. Adding an SRU-TGTU, compris-
ing a furnace/incinerator, a tail-gas waste-heat-boiler, an so2 concen-
tration unit allows simulation of recycle of all residual sulfur species
as a concentrated S0
2
gas to rhe Claus main furnace. Fig. 1 show
this SRU-TGTU configuration. Comparing the simulation results
wirh the base case, we find that now total sulfur recovery has increased
to 99.9%. The main furnace exit temperature drops 109"C, from
1,344"C to 1,235"C. This could lead to NH
3
destruction problems
irt the furnace. However, this can be addressed by partial bypass of
acid-gas from the front to the middle of rhe furnace. For example, a
30% bypass allows temperatures in excess of 1 ,350"C in the furnace
front-end allowing SWS gas H
3
destruction.
The gas flow in the furnace drops about 5% from 560 kmol/hr
(base case) to 530 kmollhr, while the flow in the first catalytic stage
drops from 540 kmollhr to 505 kmol/hr. Recycle of7.38 tpd of
sulfur from the TGTU reduces air flow to the furnace required to
maintain the 2:1 H
2
S:S0
2
ratio. Result: Lower gas flows through
the main Claus unit; rhus, a small capaciry enhancement i po -
sible. Recycling S0
2
can also increase H
2
concentration in the
feed gas to the first catalytic stage from 4.9% to 5.8%. A drop
in the first convertet feed temperature from 271 "C to 257"C is
required to maintain the 315"C exit temperature.
Case 2. In this case, 0
2
recycle to Claus furnace while feed-
ing the SW gas ro the rail-gas furnace/incineraror is applied.
The presence of an incinerator in the TGTU means that "dirty"
gases such as the NHrcontaining W gas can be incinerated
here instead of the Claus main furnace. This option can signifi-
cantly increase capacity of the RU depending on the volume of
the "dirty" gases. In this case, the SW gas was fed to the rail-gas
furnace; acid-gas flow increased by 35% over the base case lead-
ing to an overall (acid-gas + SWS gas) sulfur feed of 131 tpd (as
compared to 100 tpd for the base case and Case 1).
Simulation results for this case again allowed a total sulfur
recovery of99.9%. In spite of the increased acid-gas feed, the net
gas flow co the main furnace and first catalytic stage drop to 520
kmollhr and 480 kmol/hr, respectively. Higher acid-gas feed can
be processed in the furnace and converters without decreasing the
gas residence time in these reactors. Thi is possible due ro bypass
of the WS gasd to the tail-gas furnace, recycle of concentrated
S0
2
, and reduced air feed. The S0
2
recycle increases from 7.38
rpd in Case 1 to 19.5 rpd here.
The main furnace exit temperature drops f u ~ t h e r to 1,11 0°C
resulting from rhe reduced fraction of acid-gas com busted, and higher
S0
2
recycle. H
2
S concentration in the feed gas to the first catalytic
stage increases further to 7.57%. Mainrenance of first converter exit
temperature at 315°C would require dropping the feed tempera-
ture to below the sulfur dew point. Thus, the first converrer is now
operated at a feed temperature of253°C and an exit temperature of
330°C. The second converter temperature also increases by about 5"C
as a result of higher acid-gas concentrations and sulfur dew point.
Case 3. In this example, Case 2 with a single catalytic converter
is evaluated. Removal of the second catalytic stage from the process
in Case 2 can enhance capacity. In this case, the feed sulfur was
raised to 143 TPD by increasing acid-gas flow by 48.5% over the
base case. Simulation results for this case allowed an rota! sulfur
~
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TABLE 1. Composition and flows of
feed acid-gas and SWS gas to the SRU
Composition, % Acid gas SWS gas
H
2
0 4.00 41.30
H
2
S 84.20 33.96
CH4
1.20 0.00
Hz
0.08 0.00
NH
3
0.00 24.73
C0
2
9.20 0.00
Ethane 0.60 0.00
Propane 0.40 0.00
n-Butane 0.32 0.00
Total flow, kmol/hr 137.40 42.74
kg/hr 4,699.54 992.67
recovery of99.9%. The gas flow to the main
furnace is unchanged at 520 kmol!hr, and
that in the first catalytic stage drops margin-
ally to 470 kmol/hr, as compared to Case 2.
This ensures adequacy of furnace and con-
verters from hydraulic, and reaction-rime
perspective. The 50
2
recycled increases to
33.12 tpd from 19.5 rpd in Case 2.
The Claus fUrnace exit temperature drops
to 932°C. The minimum flame temperature
required for stable combustion in the fUrnace is known to be 926oC.5
Thus, more 50
2
recycle would require a feed stream pre-heat and/or
partial acid-gas bypass. H
2
S concentration in the feed gas to the first
catalytic srage increases to 10%. The single catalytic converter is now
operated at a feed temperature of255°C and an ex.it temperature of
350°C to ensure operations above the sulfUr dew point.
Kinetic model simulation of catalytic converters.
A separate kinetic model for the catalytic converters was used
co check the results of the Gibbs-FEM equilibrium model. The
model considered kinetics of the main Claus reaction, and chose
of the COS and C5
2
hydrolysis reactions. The Claus reaction
kinerics were those reponed by Tong et al.,
6
while the COS and
CS
2
hydrolysis reactions were from Tong et aU A constant bed
depth of I m and bed cross-section area of 12m
2
was used for all
cases, resulting in a space velocity of 1,008 scmh/m
3
of catalyst
bed for the base case, and increasing mean-gas residence rimes
in rhe catalytic converters as S0
2
recycle is increased. Since the
converter feed gas H
2
S concentration increases from the base case
co Case 3, the reaction rate increases and net conversion calcu-
lated by the kinetic model increases. The kinetic model results
were in agreement with the Gibbs-FEM model, and indicate that
a converter designed to achieve equilibrium conversion for the
base case will allow similar or bener approach to equilibrium in
Cases 1, 2 and 3.
Options. The cases discussed above show that the 99.9% total
SRU recoveries and significant capacity enhancement can be
achieved by applying a TGTU to allow S0
2
recycle co the Claus
unit. In these cases, capacity enhancement resulted primarily from
rwo factors: I) SWS gas bypass co the TGTU furnace, and 2) S0
2
recycle. In general, feed oflow-concentration H
2
S streams, and/or
partial feed of main acid-gas stream to the tail-gas incinerator will
ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
result in capacity gains. Recycle of the recovered 50
2
results in
these changes in 5RU operation:
• Reduced furnace temperatures, as fraction of acid-gas com-
busted to so2 is reduced
• Higher furnace sulfur yield, in spire of the reduced furnace
temperatures due to the higher acid-gas concentrations
• Enhanced capacity due to reduced inert gas flows
• Higher acid-gas concentration in the catalytic rages, which
leads co
• Higher temperature risee and higher exit temperarures in the
catalytic stages
• Lower catalytic stage feed gas hearing requirement
• Reduced Claus furnace waste-hear-boiler steam generation
• Increased tail-gas furnace steam generation.
The higher SRU capacity also requires a larger TGTU. The
TGTU feed gas flows increases from 606 kmol/hr in Case I,
to 800 kmollhr in Case 2, to 840 kmol!hr in Case 3. The S0
2
recovered and recycled increases from 7.38 tpd in a e 1, co 19.5
tpd in Case 2, to 33. 12 tpd in Case 3. The increased feed gas 50
2
concentration co the TGTU will allow higher recovery efficiencie
in the TGTU resulting in high total sulfur recoveries. The Case 3
recycled so2 represents as much as 23% of the tOtal sulfur fed to
the RU-TGTU system. The increased 0
2
recycle load for Case
2 and 3 lead ro significant TGTU solvenr regeneration energy
requirement for these cases, as shown in Table 2. This energy
requirement reduces the net heat export from the R by abour
25%, and the specific heat outpur (kg steam/kg sulfur) by almost
50%. Heat of combustion offuel gas used in the tail-gas furnace
has been included in estimation of the specific heat output.
Acid-gas H
2
S concentration variation. Feed acid-gases
ro Claus SRU plants can have H
2
5 concentrations in the range
of 10-95%. Low H
2
S concentrations can drop furnace tempera-
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING OCTOBER 2005 1103
ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
TABLE 2. SRU capacity enhancement with 502 recycle
Case
Base
2 2
2 3
2 1
TABLE 3. Variation in SRU gas flow
with feed acid-gas concentration
Relative flows
with S0
2
without S0
2
Claus furnace Claus furnace Tail-gas furnace Tail-gas furnace
No. of catalytic stages

Total sulfur
H
2
S in acid
gas,% recycle recycte
Acid·gas, tpd S
SWS gas, tpd 5
Air fed to Claus furnace, tpd
Acid-gas to line burner, %
Furnace temperature, oc
Zone 1
Zone 2
Claus furnace sulfur yield, %
Gas flow, kmollh
Claus furnace
Converter-1
TGTU (pre-quench)
Converter-1
100
88.85
11.15
262
6
1,458
1,344
62.8
560
540
100
88.85
11 .15
231
4.5
1,357
1,235
68
530
505
615
131 143
90 1.0 1.5
119.85 ·131.85
80 1.0 1.5
11.15 11 .15
70 1.0 1.6
208 179
60 1.1 1.7
3 2.8
40 1.2 2.0
1,110 932
70 73
520 520
480 470
800 840
Inlet H
2
S cone., %
Inlet temperature/sulfur dew pt., °C
Exit temperature/sulfur dew pt., °C
4.9
2711249
315/289
5.8
2571245
3151295
7.6
255/245
10
2551246
decrea es, the Claus furnace temperature
decreases. At feed acid-gas H
2
S concentra-
tion below 60%, split-flow of acid-gas to
Zones 1 and 2 of Claus furnace was required
to maintain Zone 1 temperature above the
levels required for a stable flame. The drop
in furnace temperatures is due to both the
lower H
2
S concentration as well as the
increasing 0
2
recycle load to the furnace.
Thus, 50
2
recycle will result in larger rem-
perature drops in the furnace than would
330/300 350/306
be encountered for conventional straight-
Converter-2
Inlet H
2
S cone., % 2.2 2.2 2.5
Exit temperature/sulfur dew pt., oc 2681263 269.5/264.5 276/271
through, or split-flow configuration . The
Hz$ concentration in the gas fed co the first
catalytic stage increases slightly as feed acid-
gas cohcentration decreases. This along with
the fotentiaJ for higher COS/C
2
forma-
tion in the Claus furnace necessitates first
catalytic stage operation at 20-30°C higher
50
1
cone., in TGTU absorber, % 2.2 4.3 7
99.6 50
1
recovery in TGTU, % 98.9 99.5

Recycled S, tpd 7.38 19.5 33.12
Net sulfur recovery, % 92.5 99.9 99.9 99.9
Heat duties, MMkCal/hr
Claus furnace WHB
Condensers
Tail-gas furnace WHB
TGTU 50
2
regenerator
Net specific heat exported,
kg steam/kg sulfur recovered
-6.23
-1.74
-1.91
4.1
-5.61
-1 .68
- 1.91
+0.84
· 3.0
-5.38
-1.75
-3.37
+2.25
2.5
mres, and lower sulfur yields in the furnace and catalytic convert-
ers. Typically, for feed acid-gases with H
2
S concentration below
50-55%, the feed gas and feed air pre-heat and various acid-gas
splir-Aow schemes are adopted.
5
A TGTU with 50
2
recycle can
also provide benefits for processing such low-concentration acid-
gas streams in the Claus SRU. We did a simulation study to exam-
ine the impact ofH
2
S concentration variation in a conventional
RU with nvo catalytic stages-with and without the TGTU. The
feed acid-gas cho en for the study had the same composition as
shown in Table 1, bur now with the total (Hz$ + C0
2
) concen-
tration held constant at 93.4%, and varying H
2
S concentration
from 40% to 90%. The aci d-gas stream sulfur foedrate was kept
constant at I 00 tpd for all cases. Thus, as acid-gas H
2
S concentra-
tion decrease , the rotal feed acid-gas flow increases to maintain
the sulfur feedrate, and C0
2
concentration increases. An SWS
gas stream with composition and flow shown in Table 1 was also
included in the study. This stream is fed to the TGTU furnace for
the cases where $0
2
recycle is considered, and is fed to the Claus
furnace when the TGTU is absent.
The study indicated that applying a TGTU with $0
2
recycle
will allow 99.9% sulfur recovery for all cases with acid-gas con-
centration down ro 40% H
2
S. As acid-gas H
2
S concentration
1041 OCTOBER 2005 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING
-4.85
-1.55
-5.02
+3.81
2.2
· temperatures for the leaner feed acid-gases.
The variation in SRU molar gas flow
with varying feed acid-gas Hz$ concentra-
tion is shown in Table 3. The flows are rela-
tive to that for the 90% H
2
S in acid-gas, and
S0
2
recycle case. The data show that using a
TGTU with 50
2
recycle allows significant
reductions in the Claus SRU plant sizing,
with the reduction being higher at the lower acid-gas concentra-
tions. The increase in plant size as the feed acid-gas H
2
S concen-
tration decreases was estimated to be relatively modest when 50
2
recycle is applied.
Regenerative S0
2
removal processes allow high C0
2
rej ection/
slip in the TGTU. This will lead to a low C0
2
recycle ro the Ia us
furnace from the TGTU even when the SRU is fed acid-gases hav-
ing high C0
2
concentration. Typical C0
2
rejection for regenerative
50
2
recycle processes is 95-99%, while for MDEA based TGTUs
using H
2
S recycle, typical C0
2
rejection levels are 70- 80%
SRU without Claus furnace. RU operation without the
Claus furnace was examined with the model. Eliminating the
Claus furnace results in direct feed of about
2
/3 of the acid-gas to
the first catalytic stage, along with $0
2
produced by combu ting
and concentrating the balance V3 acid-gas in the TGTU. This
mode of operation potentially allows maximum capacity enhance-
ment for retrofitting of existing Claus SRUs.
8

9
When acid-gas of high concentration is to be processed, the
above mode of operation results in feed gas to the first catalytic
stage having very high H
2
S concentration. For an acid-gas of
I
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composition shown in Table 1, the H
2
S concentration in feed to
first catalytic stage will be about 55%. For such a high-concentra-
tion gas, operation in a conventional adiabatic catalytic stage is
not feasible due to excessive heat generation. However, acid-gases
with low H
2
S concentration (20-50% H
2
S) could be processed in
this mode. Another problem for this mode of operation is the
direct feed of acid-gases containing hydrocarbons and other gas
impurities such as NH
3
and cyanides can cause catalyst-fouling
problems, and upset the converter feed H
2
S-S02 ratio.
Application potential. The advantages of$0
2
recycle based
Claus SRU tail-gas treatment are clearly significant. However,
adopting technology is dictated by process economics. The sub-
dew point, and direct H
2
S oxidation to sulfur, tail-gas treatment
technologies allow Claus sulfur recovery in the range 99.0-99.5%,
and rypically have lower capital and operating costs.
10
However, for
large-capacity plants where sulfur recovery efficiencies approaching
99.9+% is desired, the 50
2
recycle option is definitely worth con-
sideration, especially since this route can provide capacity addition.
The well-established SCOT type process applying H
2
recycle is
reported to have similar costs to the 50
2
recycle option 10, but does
not provide the capacity addition/ debotdenecking advantage of the
0
2
recycle route. Thus, for large-capacity SRU plantS required to
operate at recovery levels - 99.9% and/or seeking spare capacity, the
50
2
recycle route must be carefully considered. HP
NOTES
' Sometimes special burners operating under reducing conditions are added to
the Incinerator for NH
3
destruction without NO, formation.
b 2H
2
S + S02 = 35, + 2H20
c cos and cs2 hydrolysis of 50% and 30%, respectively, was assumed at this
temperature.
d The SWS gas represents about 25% of rhe roral (acid-gas + SWS gas) base
case flow.
d Bed temperature rise is 44•C in base case and 95•c in Case 3, while mean bed
temperatures increase from 293°C to 30ZOC.
f Resulting from higher feeed gas C0
2
levels.
g Feed acid-gas to Claus furnace was split, 70% fed ro furnace Zone 1 along
with complete ai r and SWS gas (in cases base and l). Balance 30% fed into
furnace Zone 2.
LITERATURE CITED
1
Nagpal, ., and en, P. K., "Advanced Process Simulation Tools for Gas
Sweetening and Sulfur Recovery," Offihort World, 1(4), p. 39, 2004.
2
Nagpal, S. and K. Sen, "Selecting rhe Solvem for 50
2
Removal by
Absorption, " Chtmicai Enginuring, August 2003.
· Bennerr, H. A. and A. Meisen, "Hydrogen Sulfide-Air Equilibria under Claus
Furnace Conditions," Canadian }o,rnal of Chtmical Enginuring, Vol. 51 ,
December 1973, p. 720.
4
Smith, J. M and H. . van ess, Introduction to Chtmical Engineering
Thmnodynamics, McGraw Hill , 3rd Eclirion, 1984.
5
Kohl, A, L. , and R. · B. Nielsen, GtJJ Purification, Gulf Publishing Co.,
Houston, Texas, 1997.
"Tong, S., I. G. Dalla Lana, and K. T. Chuang, "Effecr of catalyst shape on the
hydrolysis of OS and Cs2 in a simulated Claus converter," Ind. Eng. Chan.
Res., Vol. 36, p. 4087, 1997.
7
Tong, S., I. G. Dalla Lana, and K. T. Chuang, "Kinetic Modeling of the
Hydrolysis of Carbon Disulfide Catalyzed by Either Titania or Alumina,"
Canadian}oumal of Chanica/ Enginuri11g, Vol. 73. October 1995. p. 220.
8
Eaglsson, S. T., N. Confuorro, B. Pedersen, "Labsorb: A regenerable wer
scrubbing process for controlling S0
2
emissions," Perrotech, January 200 l ,
New Delhi.
9
Hatcher, N. A., er al., "Integrating ansolv system technology inro your
sour gas treating/sulfur recovery plant," Laurence Rl=id Gas Conditioning
Conference, Norman, Oklahoma, March 1998.
10
Strickl and, J. F. , et al., "Assessment of Recovery Capabil iries and Cosrs ofTail-
gas Cleanup Processes." Report by KBR, Houston, and GTI. Chicago,
Illinois, Website: www.gasprocessors.com.
ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
SRU
TGTU
RSR
PFD
FEM
sws
tpd
scmh
NOMENCLATURE
Sulfur recovery unir
Tail-gas treating unit
Regenerative sulfur dioxide remol'al
Process flow diagram
Free energy minimization
Sour-water stripper
Tons per day
Standard cubic meters per hour
Soumitro Nagpal is manager (R&D), Engineers Jnd1a Ltd (Ell), R&D Center.
He graduated in chemical engineering from BITS, Pil an1, and subsequently obtained
an MS degree and a PhD in chemical engineenng from the University of Utah; his
research topic was bio-catalyzed oxi dation. Later. as a research assoc1ate at 1m penal
College and the University of London, he worked on development of fluidized-bed
bioreactors. Or. Nagpal has been with Ell since 1994. He has been involved in several
areas of process development including: gas-sweetening and sui ur recovery, SOr
capture technologies, coaVpetcoke gasification, syngas-generatJOn technologies
and alumina precipitation. Dr. Nagpal has developed and commemalized several
advanced process simulation and design tools (s. nagpal@eil.co.ln).
P. K. Sen is general manager and head, R&D Divis1on, Eng1neers India L1m1ted (Ell).
He has been with Ell for the last 25 years. His areas of ac 1V1t1es include technology
development for solids processing, sea nodules, solvent extraction, adsorpti on and
gas sweetening. Dr. Sen's current interests include alternative energy resources such
as fuel cells. He has published several papers in the above areas and holds a number
of patents. He was nominated as a UNIDO expert on process1ng of poly-metallic
nodules. Dr. Sen has served as an expert in several national committees such as
for sea nodules processing, TIFAC nomi nated commit ees and Ministry of Mines
nomi nated committees.
Now available from HYDROCARBON
PROCESSING'
The 2005 Refining Processes Wall Chart
Tht 2005 Rpni11g Prowus

(/a{[ Chart is a flow chan of a
modern refinery showing a typical configuration with seven
representative processes (solvent deasphalting, delayed coking,
visbreaking, wee gas scrubbers, hydrogen generation, fluid
catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, alkylation and sulfur recovery)
in the style and.formar of the 2004 R.:fining l'roccss Handbook.
It will be mailed rolled and is 37.5'' wide by 24.25" tall , printed
on 70 lb. pape, suitable for mounting or framing. Single copies
are $44.95 ptus appropriate taxes and shipping and handling.
Multiple copies available at discount .
Order through our website www.HydrocarbonProcessing.com
or call our reprint department at 713-520-4426.
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING OCTOBER 2005 ,105

from 1. Simulation results for this SRU configuration allowed 92. In this case. 4 The technique allows accurate simulation of the Claus reaction furnace and catalvtic converters since both reactors operate close ro thermodynam-ic equilibrium. The main furnace exit temperature drops 109"C. S0 2 recycle to Claus furnace. The S0 2 recycle increases from 7. The accuracy of the RU model was tested for a variety of feed acid-gases with different impurities such as C0 2.·erters operate at much lower temperatures (200-400"C) but appl y highly effective catalysts to drive the main Claus reacrionb ro equilibrium at hort residence times within 2-3 sees. and higher in the fir t zone r mainrain a stable flame and for NH 3/hydrocarS0 2 recycle. the "dirty" gases. ulfur recovery in the furnace and catalytic stages. Case 1. The furnace waste-heatrecovery of99. Comparing the simulation results wirh the base case. In Case 1. kmollhr and 480 kmol/hr. and feed of SWS gas to rhe Claus furnace are used.11 0°C of furnace (with complete ai r feed} allows high-flame temperatures resulting from rhe reduced fraction of acid-gas com busted. we find that now total sulfur recovery has increased to 99. 195°C.9%. Adding an SRU-TGTU. At these temperatures. For example. The second converter temperature also increases by about 5"C 2 recycle. a small capaciry enhancement i po sible. this is a typical Claus SRU configucantly increase capacity of the RU depending on the volume of ration. two (or one) catalytic ing the SW gas ro the rail-gas furnace/incineraror is applied. and Table 2 lists a summary of the ture to below the sulfur dew point. the SW gas was fed to the rail-gas furnace. an so2 concentration unit allows simulation of recycle of all residual sulfur species as a concentrated S0 2 gas to rhe Claus main furnace. required to maintain the 315"C exit temperature. on SRU capacity enhancement was studied. which allows recycle of concentrated in the first convertet feed temperature from 271 "C to 257"C is S0 2 to the laus furnace. acid-gas flow increased by 35% over the base case leadThe gas-gas exchanger rehears the gas to the second catalytic stage. in Case 2 can enhance capacity. recycle of concentrated and (ii) gas from an WS. Removal of the second catalytic stage from the process WS gas co the laus furnace. and NH 3 destruction and H 2 formation in the furnace are examples of reactions that do not attain equilibrium. respectively. Partial feed of acid-gas to first zone The main furnace exit temperature drops fu~ther to 1. The first catalytic stage exit temperature is set at 315"CC by adjusting to an overall (acid-gas + SWS gas) sulfur feed of 131 tpd (as ing acid-gas flow to the line burner. The second catalytic stage exit compared to 100 tpd for the base case and Case 1). SWS gas to Claus furnace are applied. Fig. In this case. and a tail-gas furnace. or other rules-of-thumb based on opeming experience. no S0 2 recycle.400"C.38 tpd of sulfur from the TGTU reduces air flow to the furnace required to maintain the 2:1 H 2S:S0 2 ratio. Fig. A line-burner com busring a slip-stream' of the acid-gas tream to reheat the feed gas to the first catalytic stage was used. A drop treatment unit (TGTU).235"C. flow acid-gas feed to the furnace. The base case capacirywas taken at 100 tpd feedS (acid-gas+ WS gas). the feed sulfur was Case 2: 0 2 recycle to Claus furnace while feeding the SWS raised to 143 TPD by increasing acid-gas flow by 48. a line-burner. Case 2 with a single catalytic converter Case 1: laus furnace while also feeding the 2 recycle co is evaluated.57%. this can be addressed by partial bypass of acid-gas from the front to the middle of rhe furnace. com'erters. and hear recovery in the various hear exchangers.350"C in the furnace front-end allowing SWS gas H 3 destruction. Case 3. Simulations were conducted for an SRU comprising a .8%. comprising a furnace/incinerator. The gas flow in the furnace drops about 5% from 560 kmol/hr (base case) to 530 kmollhr. The model provided good results for total sulfur recovery. be processed in the furnace and converters without decreasing the gas residence time in these reactors.344"C to 1. condensers. Table 1 summarizes temperature at 315°C would require dropping the feed temperathe feed gas compo ition details. Higher acid-gas feed can We will discuss four cases to illustrate the effect of 0 2 recycle. The impact of installing a tail-gas feed gas to the first catalytic stage from 4. 1 shows a process flow here instead of the Claus main furnace. respectively. The Claus furnace typically operates at very high temperatures in the range of950-l . hydrocarbons and warer. the first converrer is now operated at a feed temperature of253°C and an exit temperature of imularion results. base case. Base case. tail-gas compo ition. H 2S concentration in the feed gas to the first catalytic bon destruction. ~' ' cs2 I • ' 102 \ OCTOBER 2005 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING .5% total sulfur recovery (nor optimized). SWS gas fed to Claus furnace. Claus SRU with nvo catalytic stages. In spite of the increased acid-gas feed. This option can signifidiagram of the RU-TGTU. a 30% bypass allows temperatures in excess of 1. a tail-gas waste-heat-boiler. In this case. most reactions attain equilibrium at short residence times (typically ~ 1 ec). everal key rea tions do not reach thermodynamic equilibrium in the rypical re idence times used in commercial Claus reactors. A two-zone Claus furnace was S0 2. However. the net boiler and three co ndenser temperatures are set to 31 0°C. This could lead to NH 3 destruction problems irt the furnace.5% over the gas to the tail-gas furnace/incinerator. 1 show this SRU-TGTU configuration. NH3.9%. Conversely. This allows evaluating a splitrpd in Case 1 to 19.9% to 5. 0 2 recycle to Claus furnace while feedfurnace . In the base case. Simulation results for this case allowed an rota! sulfur Case 3: ase 2 without second catalytic stage.5 rpd here. and a gas-gas hear exchanger in the Claus unit. Recycle of7. Result: Lower gas flows through the main Claus unit. Thi is possible due ro bypass Two feed sour-gas streams were considered: (i) an acid-gas stream. In this example. Thus. of the WS gasd to the tail-gas furnace. gas flow co the main furnace and first catalytic stage drop to 520 190"C and 130" . co and hydrolysis in the catalytic converters. The TGTU was assumed capable of reducing S02 stage increases further to 7.. rhus. Mainrenance of first converter exit concentration in the treated gas to 200 ppmv. Case 2. the catalytic con. stages. while the flow in the first catalytic stage drops from 540 kmollhr to 505 kmol/hr. 1 shows the base case without the TGTU. Claus SRU with two catalytic as a result of higher acid-gas concentrations and sulfur dew point.ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY early 1970s. Various details of the simulation are listed in Table 2. Fig. Conversion of rhese reactions is modeled using estimated reaction approach ro equilibrium.3 A detailed description of the Gibbs-FEM technique is given in mith and Van Ness. Simulation results for this case again allowed a total sulfur temperature is kept 5"C above sulfur dew point by adjusting the feed-ga temperature to the co nverter.38 simulated usi ng two furnace stages. wasteheat boiler and regenerative so2 The presence of an incinerator in the TGTU means that "dirty" gases such as the NHrcontaining W gas can be incinerated removal (RSR) unit in the TGTU. and reduced air feed. The option evaluated were: Base case: o 330°C. Recycling S0 2 can also increase H 2 co ncentration in the Impact of 50 2 recycle. waste-heat boiler.

00 24. The single catalytic converter is now operated at a feed temperature of255°C and an ex. A separate kinetic model for the catalytic converters was used co check the results of the Gibbs-FEM equilibrium model. capacity enhancement resulted primarily from rwo factors: I) SWS gas bypass co the TGTU furnace. 2 and 3.008 scmh/m3 of catalyst bed for the base case.00 0.9% total SRU recoveries and significant capacity enhancement can be achieved by applying a TGTU to allow S0 2 recycle co the Claus unit. in spire of the reduced furnace temperatures due to the higher acid-gas concentrations • Enhanced capacity due to reduced inert gas flows • Higher acid-gas concentration in the catalytic rages.67 recovery of99. as compared to Case 2. and chose of the COS and C5 2 hydrolysis reactions.5 Thus. and/or partial feed of main acid-gas stream to the tail-gas incinerator will result in capacity gains. and that in the first catalytic stage drops marginally to 470 kmol/hr.08 0. Low H 2S concentrations can drop furnace temperaHYDROCAR BON PROCESSING OCTOBER 2005 1103 ..20 0. kmol/hr kg/hr Acid gas SWS gas 4. to 33.32 137. The S0 2 recovered and recycled increases from 7.ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY TABLE 1. The kinetic model results were in agreement with the Gibbs-FEM model. Since the converter feed gas H 2S concentration increases from the base case co Case 3.30 33. T he Claus reaction kinerics were those reponed by Tong et al.20 0. The Case 3 recycled represents as much as 23% of the tOtal sulfur fed to the RU-TGTU system. resulting in a space velocity of 1.96 0.00 0. The higher SRU capacity also requires a larger TGTU. In these cases.00 0. The cases discussed above show that the 99.12 tpd from 19. In general.00 42.40 4. and reaction-rime perspective. and indicate that a converter designed to achieve equilibrium conversion for the base case will allow similar or bener approach to equilibrium in Cases 1. the reaction rate increases and net conversion calculated by the kinetic model increases. Heat of combustion offuel gas used in the tail-gas furnace has been included in estimation of the specific heat output. as shown in Table 2. and 2) S0 2 recycle.40 0. and the specific heat outpur (kg steam/kg sulfur) by almost 50%.73 0. Options. The model considered kinetics of the main Claus reaction.54 41. The gas flow to the main furnace is unchanged at 520 kmol!hr. 6 while the COS and CS 2 hydrolysis reactions were from Tong et aU A constant bed depth of I m and bed cross-section area of 12m2 was used for all cases. Recycle of the recovered 50 2 results in these changes in 5RU operation: • Reduced furnace temperatures. Composition and flows of feed acid-gas and SWS gas to the SRU Composition.20 1. This energy requirement reduces the net heat export from the R by abour 25%. as fraction of acid-gas combusted to is reduced • Higher furnace sulfur yield.12 tpd in Case 3.5 rpd in Case 2. to 840 kmol!hr in Case 3.it temperature of 350°C to ensure operations above the sulfUr dew point.699. This ensures adequacy of furnace and converters from hydraulic. The increased 0 2 recycle load for Case 2 and 3 lead ro significant TGTU solvenr regeneration energy requirement for these cases. % H20 H2S CH4 Hz NH 3 C0 2 Ethane Propane n-Butane Total flow.74 992. and increasing mean-gas residence rimes in rhe catalytic converters as S0 2 recycle is increased.00 9.00 84. The Claus fUrnace exit temperature drops to 932°C. H 2S concentration in the feed gas to the first catalytic srage increases to 10%.5 tpd in Case 2.38 tpd in a e 1.00 0. The increased feed gas 50 2 concentration co the TGTU will allow higher recovery efficiencie in the TGTU resulting in high total sulfur recoveries. Kinetic model simulation of catalytic converters.9%. feed oflow-concentration H 2S streams. The minimum flame temperature required for stable combustion in the fUrnace is known to be 926oC. which leads co • Higher temperature risee and higher exit temperarures in the catalytic stages • Lower catalytic stage feed gas hearing requirement • Reduced Claus furnace waste-hear-boiler steam generation • Increased tail-gas furnace steam generation.60 0. Feed acid-gases ro Claus SRU plants can have H 25 concentrations in the range of 10-95%. The 50 2 recycled increases to 33. to 800 kmollhr in Case 2. co 19. The TGTU feed gas flows increases from 606 kmol/hr in Case I. so2 so2 Acid-gas H2S concentration variation . more 50 2 recycle would require a feed stream pre-heat and/or partial acid-gas bypass.

split-flow of acid-gas to Zones 1 and 2 of Claus furnace was required 520 520 560 530 Claus furnace to maintain Zone 1 temperature above the 480 470 540 Converter-1 505 levels required for a stable flame. t:!:p..9 99.85 11 . and varying H 2S concentration using H 2S recycle.ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY TABLE 2.37 -5.2 1. and C0 2 concentration increases.5 276/271 Hz$ concentration in the gas fed co the first 501 cone. % 92.9 catalytic stage operation at 20-30°C higher Heat duties. The increase in plant size as the feed acid-gas H 2S concensplir-Aow schemes are adopted.85 Condensers -1.2 4. or split-flow configuration . Variation in SRU gas flow with feed acid-gas concentration 3 2 1 SWSgass::en~t~~------------~==~~~~~~----~~~------~~--­ to 143 131 100 100 Total sulfur in~:.2 2.84 +2.25 +3.6 4. Typical C0 2 rejection for regenerative shown in Table 1. MMkCal/hr · temperatures for the leaner feed acid-gases.: ... At feed acid-gas H 2S concentra73 70 68 62.357 1.85 11 . SRU capacity enhancement with 50 2 recycle Case No.85 11.458 1. °C 2711249 Thus.344 88. Claus furnace WHB -6.1 2.55 The variation in SRU molar gas flow Tail-gas furnace WHB -1.5 1.% 90 80 70 60 40 Relative flows without S0 2 with S0 2 recycte recycle 1. along with $0 2 produced by combu ting included in the study.0 4.74 -1 .75 -1. Thus. % 2.5 99. °C 315/289 3151295 330/300 perature drops in the furnace than would Converter-2 be encountered for conventional straightInlet HS cone. for feed acid-gases with H 2S concentration below with the reduction being higher at the lower acid-gas concentra50-55%.80% from 40% to 90%.8 H2S in acid gas.9 Inlet HS cone. kmollh 88. Typically.1. 2551246 2571245 255/245 Inlet temperature/sulfur dew pt. This the cases where $0 2 recycle is considered.15 208 3 ·131. gas streams in the Claus SRU. % 2 increasing 0 2 recycle load to the furnace.5/264. : Acid·gas.4%.38 -4. % Gas flow. ers.68 -1.12 tion in the Claus furnace necessitates first Net sulfur recovery. For an acid-gas of centration down ro 40% H 2S. and kg steam/kg sulfur recovered S0 2 recycle case.61 -5. As acid-gas H 2S concentration 1.235 Claus furnace Claus furnace Tail-gas furnace Tail-gas furnace 119. This stream is fed to the TGTU furnace for and concentrating the balance V3 acid-gas in the TGTU. An SWS Claus furnace results in direct feed of about 2/3 of the acid-gas to gas stream with composition and flow shown in Table 1 was also the first catalytic stage..5 1.0 1. % Furnace temperature. RU operation without the tion decrease . The acid-gas stream sulfur foedrate was kept constant at I 00 tpd for all cases. the Claus furnace temperature decreases.5 1.8 7.91 -3. This along with -·~--~----------------------------------------~-.5 2. of catalytic stages Base 2 2 2 TABLE 3.15 231 4..5 99.0 I I I I I decrea es. the feed gas and feed air pre-heat and various acid-gas tions. This will lead to a low C0 2 recycle ro the Ia us RU with nvo catalytic stages-with and without the TGTU.9 99.23 -5.110 932 1041 OCTOBER 2005 HYDROC ARBON PROCESSING ..85 11.0 1. The flows are relaNet specific heat exported. The furnace from the TGTU even when the SRU is fed acid-gases havfeed acid-gas cho en for the study had the same composition as ing high C02 concentration. 8•9 The study indicated that applying a TGTU with $0 2 recycle When acid-gas of high concentration is to be processed.2 2.3 7 catalytic stage increases slightly as feed acid50 1 recovery in TGTU. ·3. and is fed to the Claus mode of operation potentially allows maximum capacity enhancefurnace when the TGTU is absent.6 gas cohcentration decreases. tpd Acid-gas to line burner.0 1. the rotal feed acid-gas flow increases to maintain Claus furnace was examined with the model. o c Zone 1 Zone 2 Claus furnace sulfur yield.5 33.1 1.the fotentiaJ for higher COS/C 2 formaRecycled S. in TGTU absorber.5 A TGTU with 502 recycle can tration decreases was estimated to be relatively modest when 50 2 also provide benefits for processing such low-concentration acidrecycle is applied. tpd 7.38 19.02 with varying feed acid-gas Hz$ concentraTGTU 502 regenerator +0. as acid-gas H 2 S concentraSRU without Claus furnace.2 tive to that for the 90% H2S in acid-gas.:"fe d::. ment for retrofitting of existing Claus SRUs.6 1. 50 2 recycle will result in larger rem350/306 Exit temperature/sulfur dew pt.d------------------:-:-:-:::----~-::-.5 2 through. tpd 5 Air fed to Claus furnace. % 2.8 tion below 60%. The data show that using a TGTU with 50 2 recycle allows significant mres. while for MDEA based TGTUs tration held co nstant at 93. and lower sulfur yields in the furnace and catalytic convertreductions in the Claus SRU plant sizing. Eliminating the the sulfur feedrate .9% sulfur recovery for all cases with acid-gas constage having very high H 2S concentration. tpd S SWS gas.7 2. The drop 840 615 800 TGTU (pre-quench) in furnace temperatures is due to both the Converter-1 lower H 2S concentration as well as the 10 5. We did a simulation study to examRegenerative S0 2 removal processes allow high C0 2 rejection/ ine the impact ofH 2S concentration variation in a conventional slip in the TGTU.91 . % 98.15 179 2.81 tion is shown in Table 3.15 262 6 1. the above mode of operation results in feed gas to the first catalytic will allow 99.:e:. bur now with the total (Hz$ + C02) concen50 2 recycle processes is 95-99%. The Exit temperature/sulfur dew pt. typical C02 rejection levels are 70..9 99. oc 2681263 269.

Soumitro Nagpal is manager (R&D). Vol. F. P K. ll). Dalla Lana. T. Dr. for large-capacity SRU plantS required to operate at recovery levels . I. visbreaking. wee gas scrubbers." Canadian}oumal of Chanica/ Enginuri11g. Introduction to Chtmical Engineering Thmnodynamics. and GTI. GtJJ Purification. delayed coking. H has been involved in several e areas of process development including: gas-sweetening and sui ur recovery.9% and/or seeking spare capacity. 5 Kohl. He has been with Ell for the last 25 years. 51 . Website: www.. was assumed at this temperature. G. Meisen. 9 Hatcher.0-99. hydrogen generation. 720. while mean bed temperatures increase from 293°C to 30ZOC. 7 Tong. October 1995. Thus. &D He graduated in chemical engineering from BITS. The well-established SCOT type process applying H 2 recycle is reported to have similar costs to the 502 recycle option 10. March 1998. "Effecr of catalyst shape on the hydrolysis of OS and Cs2 in a simulated Claus converter. 39. "Advanced Process Simulation Tools for Gas Sweetening and Sulfur Recovery. operation in a conventional adiabatic catalytic stage is not feasible due to excessive heat generation.105 . The subdew point.ln).co. and A." Chtmicai Enginuring.nagpal@eil. 70% fed ro furnace Zone 1 along with complete ai r and SWS gas (in cases base and l). van ess. Later." Offihort World. He has published several papers in the above areas and holds a number of patents. "Kinetic Modeling of the Hydrolysis of Carbon Disulfide Catalyzed by Either Titania or Alumina. fluid catalytic cracking.. "Assessment of Recovery Capabiliries and Cosrs ofTailgas Cleanup Processes... sea nodules.. 8 Eaglsson. Chan. HYDROCARBON PROCESSING OCTOBER 2005 ." Ind. N.95 ptus appropriate taxes and shipping and handling. 4 Smith. Multiple copies available at discount . For such a high-concentration gas. the 50 2 recycle option is definitely worth consideration. Balance 30% fed into furnace Zone 2. adsorption and gas sweetening..9+% is desired. Engineers Jnd1a Ltd (E R Center. 3rd Eclirion.ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY composition shown in Table 1. Pedersen." Perrotech. Gulf Publishing Co. However. • Order through our website www.. · Bennerr. alkylation and sulfur recovery) in the style and. Res. 4087. Nagpal has been with Ell since 1994. It will be mailed rolled and is 37.99. A. His areas of ac 1V1t1es include technology development for solids processing. the H 2S concentration in feed to first catalytic stage will be about 55%. 36.gasprocessors. T. A." Canadian }o. Sen. and en. d The SWS gas represents about 25% of rhe roral (acid-gas + SWS gas) base case flow. Chicago. hydrocracking.. 1997. Oklahoma. J. Pilan1. Nielsen. Chuang. p. + 2H20 c cos and cs2 hydrolysis of 50% and 30%. HP NOTES ' Sometimes special burners operating under reducing conditions are added to the Incinerator for NH 3 destruction without NO. New Delhi." Laurence Rl=id Gas Conditioning Co nference. Confuorro. L. January 200 l. adopting technology is dictated by process economics. S. b 2H 2S + S02 = 35. Single co pies are $44.HydrocarbonProcessing. R&D D . Sen's current interests include alternative energy resources such as fuel cells. and I~ K." Report by KBR. pape. M and H. solvent extraction. and direct H 2S oxidation to sulfur. S. McGraw Hill . Or. Dalla Lana. "Labsorb: A regenerable wer scrubbing process for co ntrolling S0 2 emissions. coaVpetcoke gasification. acid-gases with low H 2S concentration (20-50% H 2S) could be processed in this mode. J. Dr. T~as. 220.. as a research assoc1ate at 1m penal College and the University of London. Houston. N.5%. 1997. p.5'' wide by 24. d Bed temperature rise is 44•C in base case and 95•c in Case 3. 2 Nagpal. . and subsequently obtained an MS degree and a PhD in chemical engineenng from the University of Utah. NOMENCLATURE SRU TGTU Sulfur recovery unir Tail-gas treating unit Regenerative sulfur dioxide remol'al Process flow diagram Free energy minimization Sour-water stripper Tons per day Standard cubic meters per hour RSR PFD FEM sws tpd scmh Application potential. Nagpal has developed and commemalized several advanced process simulation and design tools (s. and rypically have lower capital and operating costs. 73. suitable for mounting or framin g. et al. and K. Illinois. . Now available from HYDROCARBON PROCESSING' The 2005 Refining Processes Wall Chart Tht 2005 Rpni11g Prowus

Related Interests

(/a{[ Chart is a flow chan of a modern refinery showing a typical configuration with seven representative processes (solvent deasphalting. B. Vol. f Resulting from higher feeed gas C0 2 levels. respectively. " Tong. TIFAC nominated commit ees and Ministry of Mines nominated committees.rnal of Chtmical Enginuring. Chuang. tail-gas treatment technologies allow Claus sulfur recovery in the range 99. The advantages of$0 2 recycle based Claus SRU tail-gas treatment are clearly significant. August 2003.:fining l'roccss Handbook. K. Eng. · B.com or call our reprint department at 713-520-4426. 1984. for large-capacity plants where sulfur recovery efficiencies approaching 99. g Feed acid-gas to Claus furnace was split. 10 Strickland. er al. Sen has served as an expert in several national committees such as for sea nodules processing. but does not provide the capacity addition/ debotdenecking advantage of the 0 2 recycle route. 2004.com.. p. Houston. Sen is general manager and head. 1(4). However. I. especially since this route can provide capacity addition. his research topic was bio-catalyzed oxidation. A. he worked on development of fluidized-bed bioreactors. and upset the converter feed H 2S-S02 ratio. H. Vol. Norman. "Selecting rhe Solvem for 502 Removal by Absorption. S. syngas-generatJOn technologies and alumina precipitation . S. P..25" tall.. and K. formatio n. "Hydrogen Sulfide-Air Equilibria under Claus Furnace Conditions. Dr. and R. T. the 502 recycle route must be carefully considered.10 However.formar of the 2004 R. ivis1on. Eng1neers India L 1m1ted (Ell). He was nom inated as a UNIDO expert on process1ng of poly-metallic nodules. p. Another problem for this mode of operation is ~hat the direct feed of acid-gases containing hydrocarbons and other gas impurities such as NH 3 and cyanides can cause catalyst-fouling problems. G. SOr capture technologies. December 1973. printed on 70 lb. "Integrating ansolv system technology inro your sour gas treating/sulfur recovery plant. Texas. LITERATURE CITED 1 Nagpal.

Related Interests

(/a{[ Chart is a flow chan of a
modern refinery showing a typical configuration with seven
representative processes (solvent deasphalting, delayed coking,
visbreaking, wee gas scrubbers, hydrogen generation, fluid
catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, alkylation and sulfur recovery)
in the style and.formar of the 2004 R.:fining l'roccss Handbook.
It will be mailed rolled and is 37.5'' wide by 24.25" tall , printed
on 70 lb. pape, suitable for mounting or framing. Single copies
are $44.95 ptus appropriate taxes and shipping and handling.
Multiple copies available at discount .
Order through our website www.HydrocarbonProcessing.com
or call our reprint department at 713-520-4426.
HYDROCARBON PROCESSING OCTOBER 2005 ,105

from 1. Simulation results for this SRU configuration allowed 92. In this case. 4 The technique allows accurate simulation of the Claus reaction furnace and catalvtic converters since both reactors operate close ro thermodynam-ic equilibrium. The main furnace exit temperature drops 109"C. S0 2 recycle to Claus furnace. The S0 2 recycle increases from 7. The accuracy of the RU model was tested for a variety of feed acid-gases with different impurities such as C0 2.·erters operate at much lower temperatures (200-400"C) but appl y highly effective catalysts to drive the main Claus reacrionb ro equilibrium at hort residence times within 2-3 sees. and higher in the fir t zone r mainrain a stable flame and for NH 3/hydrocarS0 2 recycle. the "dirty" gases. ulfur recovery in the furnace and catalytic stages. Case 1. The furnace waste-heatrecovery of99. Comparing the simulation results wirh the base case. In Case 1. kmollhr and 480 kmol/hr. and feed of SWS gas to rhe Claus furnace are used.11 0°C of furnace (with complete ai r feed} allows high-flame temperatures resulting from rhe reduced fraction of acid-gas com busted. we find that now total sulfur recovery has increased to 99. 195°C.9%. Adding an SRU-TGTU. At these temperatures. For example. The second converter temperature also increases by about 5"C 2 recycle. a small capaciry enhancement i po sible. this is a typical Claus SRU configucantly increase capacity of the RU depending on the volume of ration. two (or one) catalytic ing the SW gas ro the rail-gas furnace/incineraror is applied. and Table 2 lists a summary of the ture to below the sulfur dew point. the SW gas was fed to the rail-gas furnace. an so2 concentration unit allows simulation of recycle of all residual sulfur species as a concentrated S0 2 gas to rhe Claus main furnace. required to maintain the 315"C exit temperature. on SRU capacity enhancement was studied. which allows recycle of concentrated in the first convertet feed temperature from 271 "C to 257"C is S0 2 to the laus furnace. acid-gas flow increased by 35% over the base case leadThe gas-gas exchanger rehears the gas to the second catalytic stage. in Case 2 can enhance capacity. recycle of concentrated and (ii) gas from an WS. Removal of the second catalytic stage from the process WS gas co the laus furnace. and NH 3 destruction and H 2 formation in the furnace are examples of reactions that do not attain equilibrium. respectively. Partial feed of acid-gas to first zone The main furnace exit temperature drops fu~ther to 1. The first catalytic stage exit temperature is set at 315"CC by adjusting to an overall (acid-gas + SWS gas) sulfur feed of 131 tpd (as ing acid-gas flow to the line burner. The second catalytic stage exit compared to 100 tpd for the base case and Case 1). SWS gas to Claus furnace are applied. Fig. In this case. and a tail-gas furnace. or other rules-of-thumb based on opeming experience. no S0 2 recycle.400"C.38 tpd of sulfur from the TGTU reduces air flow to the furnace required to maintain the 2:1 H 2S:S0 2 ratio. Fig. A line-burner com busring a slip-stream' of the acid-gas tream to reheat the feed gas to the first catalytic stage was used. A drop treatment unit (TGTU).235"C. flow acid-gas feed to the furnace. The base case capacirywas taken at 100 tpd feedS (acid-gas+ WS gas). the feed sulfur was Case 2: 0 2 recycle to Claus furnace while feeding the SWS raised to 143 TPD by increasing acid-gas flow by 48. a line-burner. Case 2 with a single catalytic converter Case 1: laus furnace while also feeding the 2 recycle co is evaluated.57%. this can be addressed by partial bypass of acid-gas from the front to the middle of rhe furnace. com'erters. and hear recovery in the various hear exchangers.350"C in the furnace front-end allowing SWS gas H 3 destruction. Case 3. Simulations were conducted for an SRU comprising a .8%. comprising a furnace/incinerator. The gas flow in the furnace drops about 5% from 560 kmol/hr (base case) to 530 kmollhr. The model provided good results for total sulfur recovery. be processed in the furnace and converters without decreasing the gas residence time in these reactors.344"C to 1. condensers. Table 1 summarizes temperature at 315°C would require dropping the feed temperathe feed gas compo ition details. Higher acid-gas feed can We will discuss four cases to illustrate the effect of 0 2 recycle. The impact of installing a tail-gas feed gas to the first catalytic stage from 4. 1 shows a process flow here instead of the Claus main furnace. respectively. The Claus furnace typically operates at very high temperatures in the range of950-l . hydrocarbons and warer. the first converrer is now operated at a feed temperature of253°C and an exit temperature of imularion results. base case. Base case. tail-gas compo ition. H 2S concentration in the feed gas to the first catalytic bon destruction. ~' ' cs2 I • ' 102 \ OCTOBER 2005 HYDROCARBON PROCESSING .5% total sulfur recovery (nor optimized). SWS gas fed to Claus furnace. Claus SRU with nvo catalytic stages. In spite of the increased acid-gas feed. This option can signifidiagram of the RU-TGTU. a 30% bypass allows temperatures in excess of 1. a tail-gas waste-heat-boiler. In this case. most reactions attain equilibrium at short residence times (typically ~ 1 ec). everal key rea tions do not reach thermodynamic equilibrium in the rypical re idence times used in commercial Claus reactors. A two-zone Claus furnace was S0 2. However. the net boiler and three co ndenser temperatures are set to 31 0°C. This could lead to NH 3 destruction problems irt the furnace.5% over the gas to the tail-gas furnace/incinerator. 1 show this SRU-TGTU configuration. NH3.9%. Conversely. This allows evaluating a splitrpd in Case 1 to 19.9% to 5. 0 2 recycle to Claus furnace while feedfurnace . In the base case. Simulation results for this case allowed an rota! sulfur Case 3: ase 2 without second catalytic stage.5 rpd here. and a gas-gas hear exchanger in the Claus unit. Recycle of7. Result: Lower gas flows through the main Claus unit. Thi is possible due ro bypass Two feed sour-gas streams were considered: (i) an acid-gas stream. In this example. Thus. of the WS gasd to the tail-gas furnace. gas flow co the main furnace and first catalytic stage drop to 520 190"C and 130" . co and hydrolysis in the catalytic converters. The TGTU was assumed capable of reducing S02 stage increases further to 7.. rhus. Mainrenance of first converter exit concentration in the treated gas to 200 ppmv. Case 2. the catalytic con. stages. while the flow in the first catalytic stage drops from 540 kmollhr to 505 kmol/hr. 1 shows the base case without the TGTU. Claus SRU with two catalytic as a result of higher acid-gas concentrations and sulfur dew point.ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY early 1970s. Various details of the simulation are listed in Table 2. Fig. Conversion of rhese reactions is modeled using estimated reaction approach ro equilibrium.3 A detailed description of the Gibbs-FEM technique is given in mith and Van Ness. Simulation results for this case again allowed a total sulfur temperature is kept 5"C above sulfur dew point by adjusting the feed-ga temperature to the co nverter.38 simulated usi ng two furnace stages. wasteheat boiler and regenerative so2 The presence of an incinerator in the TGTU means that "dirty" gases such as the NHrcontaining W gas can be incinerated removal (RSR) unit in the TGTU. and reduced air feed. The option evaluated were: Base case: o 330°C. Recycling S0 2 can also increase H 2 co ncentration in the Impact of 50 2 recycle. waste-heat boiler.

00 24. The single catalytic converter is now operated at a feed temperature of255°C and an ex. A separate kinetic model for the catalytic converters was used co check the results of the Gibbs-FEM equilibrium model. capacity enhancement resulted primarily from rwo factors: I) SWS gas bypass co the TGTU furnace. 2 and 3.008 scmh/m3 of catalyst bed for the base case.00 0.9% total SRU recoveries and significant capacity enhancement can be achieved by applying a TGTU to allow S0 2 recycle co the Claus unit. in spire of the reduced furnace temperatures due to the higher acid-gas concentrations • Enhanced capacity due to reduced inert gas flows • Higher acid-gas concentration in the catalytic rages.67 recovery of99. as compared to Case 2. and chose of the COS and C5 2 hydrolysis reactions.5 Thus. and/or partial feed of main acid-gas stream to the tail-gas incinerator will result in capacity gains. and that in the first catalytic stage drops marginally to 470 kmol/hr.08 0. Low H 2S concentrations can drop furnace temperaHYDROCAR BON PROCESSING OCTOBER 2005 1103 ..20 0. kmol/hr kg/hr Acid gas SWS gas 4. to 33.32 137. The S0 2 recovered and recycled increases from 7.ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY TABLE 1. The kinetic model results were in agreement with the Gibbs-FEM model. Since the converter feed gas H 2S concentration increases from the base case co Case 3.30 33. T he Claus reaction kinerics were those reponed by Tong et al.20 0. The Case 3 recycled represents as much as 23% of the tOtal sulfur fed to the RU-TGTU system. resulting in a space velocity of 1.96 0.00 0. The higher SRU capacity also requires a larger TGTU. In these cases.00 0. The cases discussed above show that the 99.12 tpd from 19. In general.00 42.40 4. and reaction-rime perspective. and indicate that a converter designed to achieve equilibrium conversion for the base case will allow similar or bener approach to equilibrium in Cases 1. the reaction rate increases and net conversion calculated by the kinetic model increases. Heat of combustion offuel gas used in the tail-gas furnace has been included in estimation of the specific heat output. as shown in Table 2. and 2) S0 2 recycle.40 0. and the specific heat outpur (kg steam/kg sulfur) by almost 50%.73 0. Options. The model considered kinetics of the main Claus reaction.54 41. The gas flow to the main furnace is unchanged at 520 kmol!hr. 6 while the COS and CS 2 hydrolysis reactions were from Tong et aU A constant bed depth of I m and bed cross-section area of 12m2 was used for all cases. Recycle of the recovered 50 2 results in these changes in 5RU operation: • Reduced furnace temperatures. Composition and flows of feed acid-gas and SWS gas to the SRU Composition.20 1. This energy requirement reduces the net heat export from the R by abour 25%. as fraction of acid-gas combusted to is reduced • Higher furnace sulfur yield.12 tpd in Case 3.5 rpd in Case 2. to 840 kmol!hr in Case 3.it temperature of 350°C to ensure operations above the sulfUr dew point.699. This ensures adequacy of furnace and converters from hydraulic. The increased 0 2 recycle load for Case 2 and 3 lead ro significant TGTU solvenr regeneration energy requirement for these cases. % H20 H2S CH4 Hz NH 3 C0 2 Ethane Propane n-Butane Total flow.74 992. and increasing mean-gas residence rimes in rhe catalytic converters as S0 2 recycle is increased.00 9.00 84. The Claus fUrnace exit temperature drops to 932°C. H 2S concentration in the feed gas to the first catalytic srage increases to 10%.5 tpd in Case 2.38 tpd in a e 1.00 0. The increased feed gas 50 2 concentration co the TGTU will allow higher recovery efficiencie in the TGTU resulting in high total sulfur recoveries. Kinetic model simulation of catalytic converters.9%. feed oflow-concentration H 2S streams. The minimum flame temperature required for stable combustion in the fUrnace is known to be 926oC. which leads co • Higher temperature risee and higher exit temperarures in the catalytic stages • Lower catalytic stage feed gas hearing requirement • Reduced Claus furnace waste-hear-boiler steam generation • Increased tail-gas furnace steam generation.60 0. Feed acid-gases ro Claus SRU plants can have H 25 concentrations in the range of 10-95%. The 50 2 recycled increases to 33. to 800 kmollhr in Case 2. co 19. The TGTU feed gas flows increases from 606 kmol/hr in Case I. so2 so2 Acid-gas H2S concentration variation . more 50 2 recycle would require a feed stream pre-heat and/or partial acid-gas bypass.

split-flow of acid-gas to Zones 1 and 2 of Claus furnace was required 520 520 560 530 Claus furnace to maintain Zone 1 temperature above the 480 470 540 Converter-1 505 levels required for a stable flame. t:!:p..9 99.85 11 . and varying H 2S concentration using H 2S recycle.ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY TABLE 2.37 -5.2 1. and C0 2 concentration increases.5 276/271 Hz$ concentration in the gas fed co the first 501 cone. % 92.9 catalytic stage operation at 20-30°C higher Heat duties. The increase in plant size as the feed acid-gas H 2S concensplir-Aow schemes are adopted.85 Condensers -1.2 4. or split-flow configuration . Variation in SRU gas flow with feed acid-gas concentration 3 2 1 SWSgass::en~t~~------------~==~~~~~~----~~~------~~--­ to 143 131 100 100 Total sulfur in~:.2 2.84 +2.25 +3.6 4. Typical C0 2 rejection for regenerative shown in Table 1. MMkCal/hr · temperatures for the leaner feed acid-gases.: ... At feed acid-gas H 2S concentra73 70 68 62.357 1.85 11 . SRU capacity enhancement with 50 2 recycle Case No.85 11.458 1. °C 2711249 Thus.344 88. Claus furnace WHB -6.1 2.55 The variation in SRU molar gas flow Tail-gas furnace WHB -1.5 1.% 90 80 70 60 40 Relative flows without S0 2 with S0 2 recycte recycle 1. along with $0 2 produced by combu ting included in the study.0 4.74 -1 .75 -1. Thus. % 2.5 99. °C 315/289 3151295 330/300 perature drops in the furnace than would Converter-2 be encountered for conventional straightInlet HS cone. for feed acid-gases with H 2S concentration below with the reduction being higher at the lower acid-gas concentra50-55%.80% from 40% to 90%.8 H2S in acid gas.9 Inlet HS cone. kmollh 88. Typically.1. 2551246 2571245 255/245 Inlet temperature/sulfur dew pt. This the cases where $0 2 recycle is considered.15 208 3 ·131. gas streams in the Claus SRU. % 2 increasing 0 2 recycle load to the furnace.5/264. : Acid·gas.4%.38 -4. % Gas flow. ers.68 -1.12 tion in the Claus furnace necessitates first Net sulfur recovery. For an acid-gas of centration down ro 40% H 2S. and kg steam/kg sulfur recovered S0 2 recycle case.61 -5. As acid-gas H 2S concentration 1.235 Claus furnace Claus furnace Tail-gas furnace Tail-gas furnace 119. This stream is fed to the TGTU furnace for and concentrating the balance V3 acid-gas in the TGTU. An SWS Claus furnace results in direct feed of about 2/3 of the acid-gas to gas stream with composition and flow shown in Table 1 was also the first catalytic stage..5 1.0 1. % Furnace temperature. RU operation without the tion decrease . The acid-gas stream sulfur foedrate was kept constant at I 00 tpd for all cases. the Claus furnace temperature decreases.5 1.8 7.91 -3. This along with -·~--~----------------------------------------~-.5 2. of catalytic stages Base 2 2 2 TABLE 3.15 231 4..5 99.0 I I I I I decrea es. the feed gas and feed air pre-heat and various acid-gas tions. This will lead to a low C0 2 recycle ro the Ia us RU with nvo catalytic stages-with and without the TGTU.9 99.23 -5.110 932 1041 OCTOBER 2005 HYDROC ARBON PROCESSING ..85 11.0 1. The flows are relaNet specific heat exported. The furnace from the TGTU even when the SRU is fed acid-gases havfeed acid-gas cho en for the study had the same composition as ing high C02 concentration. 8•9 The study indicated that applying a TGTU with $0 2 recycle When acid-gas of high concentration is to be processed.2 2.3 7 catalytic stage increases slightly as feed acid50 1 recovery in TGTU. ·3. and is fed to the Claus mode of operation potentially allows maximum capacity enhancefurnace when the TGTU is absent.6 gas cohcentration decreases. tpd Acid-gas to line burner.0 1. the rotal feed acid-gas flow increases to maintain Claus furnace was examined with the model. o c Zone 1 Zone 2 Claus furnace sulfur yield.5 33.1 1.the fotentiaJ for higher COS/C 2 formaRecycled S. in TGTU absorber.5 A TGTU with 502 recycle can tration decreases was estimated to be relatively modest when 50 2 also provide benefits for processing such low-concentration acidrecycle is applied. tpd 7.38 19.02 with varying feed acid-gas Hz$ concentraTGTU 502 regenerator +0. as acid-gas H 2 S concentraSRU without Claus furnace.2 tive to that for the 90% H2S in acid-gas.:"fe d::. ment for retrofitting of existing Claus SRUs.6 1. 50 2 recycle will result in larger rem350/306 Exit temperature/sulfur dew pt.d------------------:-:-:-:::----~-::-.5 2 through. tpd 5 Air fed to Claus furnace. % 2.8 tion below 60%. The data show that using a TGTU with 50 2 recycle allows significant mres. while for MDEA based TGTUs tration held co nstant at 93. and lower sulfur yields in the furnace and catalytic convertreductions in the Claus SRU plant sizing. Eliminating the the sulfur feedrate .9% sulfur recovery for all cases with acid-gas constage having very high H 2S concentration. tpd S SWS gas.7 2. The drop 840 615 800 TGTU (pre-quench) in furnace temperatures is due to both the Converter-1 lower H 2S concentration as well as the 10 5. We did a simulation study to examRegenerative S0 2 removal processes allow high C0 2 rejection/ ine the impact ofH 2S concentration variation in a conventional slip in the TGTU.91 . % 98.15 179 2.81 tion is shown in Table 3.15 262 6 1. the above mode of operation results in feed gas to the first catalytic will allow 99.:e:. bur now with the total (Hz$ + C02) concen50 2 recycle processes is 95-99%. The Exit temperature/sulfur dew pt. typical C02 rejection levels are 70..9 99. oc 2681263 269.

Soumitro Nagpal is manager (R&D). Vol. F. P K. ll). Dalla Lana. T. Dr. for large-capacity SRU plantS required to operate at recovery levels . I. visbreaking. wee gas scrubbers." Canadian}oumal of Chanica/ Enginuri11g. Introduction to Chtmical Engineering Thmnodynamics. and GTI. GtJJ Purification. delayed coking. H has been involved in several e areas of process development including: gas-sweetening and sui ur recovery.9% and/or seeking spare capacity. 5 Kohl. He has been with Ell for the last 25 years. 51 . Website: www.. was assumed at this temperature. G. Meisen. 9 Hatcher.0-99. hydrogen generation. 720. while mean bed temperatures increase from 293°C to 30ZOC. 7 Tong. October 1995. Thus. &D He graduated in chemical engineering from BITS. The well-established SCOT type process applying H 2 recycle is reported to have similar costs to the 502 recycle option 10. March 1998. "Effecr of catalyst shape on the hydrolysis of OS and Cs2 in a simulated Claus converter. 39. "Advanced Process Simulation Tools for Gas Sweetening and Sulfur Recovery. operation in a conventional adiabatic catalytic stage is not feasible due to excessive heat generation.105 . The subdew point.ln).co. and A." Chtmicai Enginuring.nagpal@eil. 70% fed ro furnace Zone 1 along with complete ai r and SWS gas (in cases base and l). van ess. Later." Offihort World. He has published several papers in the above areas and holds a number of patents. "Kinetic Modeling of the Hydrolysis of Carbon Disulfide Catalyzed by Either Titania or Alumina. fluid catalytic cracking.. "Assessment of Recovery Capabiliries and Cosrs ofTailgas Cleanup Processes... sea nodules.. 8 Eaglsson. Chan. HYDROCARBON PROCESSING OCTOBER 2005 ." Ind. N.95 ptus appropriate taxes and shipping and handling. 4 Smith. Multiple copies available at discount . For such a high-concentration gas. the 50 2 recycle option is definitely worth consideration. Balance 30% fed into furnace Zone 2. adsorption and gas sweetening..9+% is desired. Engineers Jnd1a Ltd (E R Center. 3rd Eclirion.ENVIRONMENT/PROCESS TECHNOLOGY composition shown in Table 1. Pedersen." Perrotech. Gulf Publishing Co. However. • Order through our website www.. · Bennerr. alkylation and sulfur recovery) in the style and. Res. 4087. Nagpal has been with Ell since 1994. It will be mailed rolled and is 37.99. A. His areas of ac 1V1t1es include technology development for solids processing. the H 2S concentration in feed to first catalytic stage will be about 55%. 36.gasprocessors. T. A." Canadian }o. Sen. and en. d The SWS gas represents about 25% of rhe roral (acid-gas + SWS gas) base case flow. Chicago. hydrocracking.. 1997. Oklahoma. J. Pilan1. Nielsen. Chuang. p. + 2H20 c cos and cs2 hydrolysis of 50% and 30%. HP NOTES ' Sometimes special burners operating under reducing conditions are added to the Incinerator for NH 3 destruction without NO. New Delhi." Laurence Rl=id Gas Conditioning Co nference. Confuorro. L. January 200 l. adopting technology is dictated by process economics. S. b 2H 2S + S02 = 35. Single co pies are $44.HydrocarbonProcessing. R&D D . Sen's current interests include alternative energy resources such as fuel cells. and I~ K." Report by KBR. pape. M and H. solvent extraction. and direct H 2S oxidation to sulfur. S. McGraw Hill . Or. Dalla Lana. "Labsorb: A regenerable wer scrubbing process for co ntrolling S0 2 emissions. coaVpetcoke gasification. acid-gases with low H 2S concentration (20-50% H 2S) could be processed in this mode. J. Dr. T~as. 220.. as a research assoc1ate at 1m penal College and the University of London. Houston. N.5%. 1997. p.5'' wide by 24. d Bed temperature rise is 44•C in base case and 95•c in Case 3. 2 Nagpal. . and subsequently obtained an MS degree and a PhD in chemical engineenng from the University of Utah. NOMENCLATURE SRU TGTU Sulfur recovery unir Tail-gas treating unit Regenerative sulfur dioxide remol'al Process flow diagram Free energy minimization Sour-water stripper Tons per day Standard cubic meters per hour RSR PFD FEM sws tpd scmh Application potential. Nagpal has developed and commemalized several advanced process simulation and design tools (s. and rypically have lower capital and operating costs. 73. suitable for mounting or framin g. et al. and K. Illinois. . Now available from HYDROCARBON PROCESSING' The 2005 Refining Processes Wall Chart Tht 2005 Rpni11g Prowus 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(/a{[ Chart is a flow chan of a modern refinery showing a typical configuration with seven representative processes (solvent deasphalting. B. Vol. f Resulting from higher feeed gas C0 2 levels. respectively. " Tong. TIFAC nominated commit ees and Ministry of Mines nominated committees.rnal of Chtmical Enginuring. Chuang. tail-gas treatment technologies allow Claus sulfur recovery in the range 99. The advantages of$0 2 recycle based Claus SRU tail-gas treatment are clearly significant. August 2003.:fining l'roccss Handbook. K. Eng. · B.com or call our reprint department at 713-520-4426. 1984. for large-capacity plants where sulfur recovery efficiencies approaching 99. g Feed acid-gas to Claus furnace was split. 10 Strickland. er al. Sen has served as an expert in several national committees such as for sea nodules processing. but does not provide the capacity addition/ debotdenecking advantage of the 0 2 recycle route. 2004.com.. p. Houston. Sen is general manager and head. 1(4). However. I. especially since this route can provide capacity addition. his research topic was bio-catalyzed oxidation. A. he worked on development of fluidized-bed bioreactors. and upset the converter feed H 2S-S02 ratio. H. Vol. Norman. "Selecting rhe Solvem for 502 Removal by Absorption. S. syngas-generatJOn technologies and alumina precipitation . S. P..25" tall.. and K. formatio n. "Hydrogen Sulfide-Air Equilibria under Claus Furnace Conditions. Dr. and R. T. the 502 recycle route must be carefully considered.10 However.formar of the 2004 R. ivis1on. Eng1neers India L 1m1ted (Ell). He was nom inated as a UNIDO expert on process1ng of poly-metallic nodules. p. Another problem for this mode of operation is ~hat the direct feed of acid-gases containing hydrocarbons and other gas impurities such as NH 3 and cyanides can cause catalyst-fouling problems. G. SOr capture technologies. December 1973. printed on 70 lb. "Integrating ansolv system technology inro your sour gas treating/sulfur recovery plant. Texas. LITERATURE CITED 1 Nagpal.

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