A

SEMINAR REPORT ON

By P.GOPALA KRISHNA, (1203108).

CONTENTS INTRODUCTION WHAT IS ROBOTICS?  LAWS OF ROBOTS  ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE  Acquiring Knowledge  Knowledge Representation  Goal Trees  Scientific  Nuclear reactors  Military  Industrial Medical ROBOT APPLICATIONS WORKING PERCEPTION ACTION  Vision  Speech recognition  Navigation Manipulation ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES CONCLUSION .

robotics and AI seem to be different branches and science.Introduction Any automatically operated machine that replaces human effort. The aim of robotics is to design an efficient robot . Robotics concerned with mechanical and electrical devices while AI is branch of computer science which is concerned with ways of programming and designing computers to simulate human intelligent thought robot is ordered to get target. though it may not resemble human beings in appearance or perform functions in a humanlike manner.U. The term is derived from the Czech word robota.(Rossums Universal Robots) written in 1920 by the Czech author Karel Capek. Robotics is science of designing building and application of robots. which depicts society as having become dependent on mechanical workers called robots that are capable of doing any kind of mental or physical work.R. . meaning "forced labour" Modern use of the term stems from the play R. robot will become efficient if it can think for thinking robotics uses AI technology For manufacturing robots ..

What are Robots Made Of? Robots have 3 main components: • • • Brain . The base for this word comes from the Czech word 'robotnik' which means 'worker'. touch. With these three components. gears Sensors . In his play. motion. wheels." or "Rossum's Universal Robots" back in 1921. For the most part. . the word "Robot" today means any manmade machine that can perform work or other actions normally performed by humans. sound. grippers. What Do Robots Do? Most robots today are used in factories to build products such as cars and electronics.R. etc. robots can interact and affect their environment to become useful.U. In the end these machines were used for war and eventually turned against their human creators.vision. light.motors. But even before that the Greeks made movable statues that were the beginnings of what we would call robots. Others are used to explore underwater and even on other planets. pistons. temperature.usually a computer Actuators and mechanical parts . machines modeled after humans had great power but without common human failings.What is Robotics? The word "robot' was coined by Karel Capek who wrote a play entitled "R.

A robot must always obey orders given to it by a human being. except where it would conflict with the first or second law. through inaction. through inaction. Later. Asimov added this "Zeroth Law" A robot must not injure a humanity or. allow a humanity to come to harm. 2. . A robot must not injure a human being or.Laws Of Robotics Popular science fiction writer Isaac Asimov created the Three Laws of Robotics: 1. except where it would conflict with the first law. 3. A robot must protect it's own existence. allow a human being to come to harm.

There changes according to their domain of field concerned like home. All possible ways that a problem can be solved constitutes a search space backtracking. an algorithm may have to try several before finding one that works. By using fundamental (primitive tasks) tasks only the goals is reached. This brings about a such problem. object identification. abstract view. What is meant by think is the capability of acquiring and applying knowledge. It is impossible to search all the search space . intrinsic images. planning. . To reach a goal we will use goal trees and plans. coordination.Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence is study of mental faculties (powers) through use of computational models. There are more than one method available. The aim of AI is to create machine which can think. Fundamental principles of AI is “what a brain does may be thought of at some level at kind of computation”.as the search space increases exponentially with the possible ways. A goal tree describes a situation in which a goal can be satisfied by solving sub goals. scientific. Acquired knowledge is done by through • vision • voice recognition • inferences Acquiring knowledge is represented in memory by using • • Predicated calculus techniques By bits.

Most of AI is concerned only with cognition. sounds. perception involves interpreting sights. Industrial. the idea being that an intelligent program or developed we will simply add sensors and effectors to them. Nuclear reactors. Home. A manufacturing of sensors and effectors involves electronically. intelligent agents. Military-intelligent radars. mechanical work. Medical. Perception Cognition Action Physical World The above figure shows design for a complete autonomous robot. Working The working of robot is combination of perception and action. touch. action includes ability navigate through the world and manipulate objects. smell. .Applications • • • • • • Scientific applications.

2. Signal. Robots must operate physical world. A video camera provides a computer with an image represented on a two-dimensional grid of intensity levels. Pattern recognition.The key difference between artificial intelligence and robotics is programs usually operate in computer simulated worlds. visually interpreting board positions and carrying on a host of other actions. . As a example. An AI program can search millions of nodes in game tree without ever having to sense or to touch anything to real world. Measurement analysis. complex manufacturing tasks. 3. analysis of satellite images and medical image processing. Then applications include mobile robot navigation. We perform the given four operations on order of increasing complexity. Here. A complete chess playing robot. Image under standing. concerned a move in chess. 1. It is through there two faculties that we gather almost all of the knowledge that drives our problem solving behaviors. we investigate how we can transform raw camera images into useful information about the world. Vision: Accurate machine vision opens of a new real of computer applications. Perception Two important sensory channels for humans or vision and spoken language. on the other hand must be capable of grasping pieces. 4.

classifying the object in a category drawn from a finite set of possibilities. the source of the light . Measurement analysis: For images containing a single object. classifying them and building a three-dimensional model of the scene. either for human consumption or an input to another program. Some information is necessary loosen when an image is created. while the world is threedimensional.1. Signal processing: Enhancing the image. • An image in two-dimensional. • • One image may contain several objects and some object s may partially overlap others. determining the twodimensional extent of the object depicted. 2.the angle and distance of the camera. The problem in understanding an image are 2D image of 3D objects. The value of a single pixel is affected by many different phenomena. locating the objects in the image. 4. Pattern recognition: For single-object images . including the color of the object. It is hard to disentangle these effects. 3. . the pollution in the air etc. Image under standing: For images containing many objects.

These are critical to for interpreting visual scenes. . reflectance and color to interpret images. For ex: consider the object at the center of (fig*) while no lowlevel image features can sell as what the object is the objects surroundings provide us with top down expectations.By using low-level image features such as shadows and texture we can interpret the image. Having multiple images of the same of object can also be helpful for recovering 3D structure. 12 A13C 14 fig a. SHADOW VISION High level knowledge is also important for interpreting. intensity. fig b. visual data. Other image factors we might want to consider are shading.

• • • . But the ability to recognize continuous speech is very important.A speaker independent system can linker to any speaker and translate the sounds to written text. speaker independence: . Large vs. it is permissible to spend minutes in computation. since humans have difficulty speaking in isolated words. • Speaker dependence vs.Recognizing utterances that are confirmed to small vocabulary words is easier than working with large vocabularies. however. off time processing: .In interactive applications a sentence be translated in to text on it in being spoken.Speech Recognition: Spoken language is a more natural form of communication in many human computer interfaces. Speaker independence in difficult to achieve. while in other situations. Design issues concerned with speech systems.Interpreting isolated speech is easier one. Continuous vs. small vocabulary: . isolated word speech: . Real time vs.

There are two main tasks. the problem can be solved stright forwardly by constructing a visibility graph. on in figure. and so forth. To form the visibility graph. as shown in the figure. but these robots are highly task-specific.Action Intelligence puts mobility to effective use. The problem of path planning is to plot a continuous set of points connecting the initial position f the robot to its desired position. If in a Lang slading goal in Robotics to built robots that can be programmed to carry out a wide variety of tasks. Grasping 2. The general manipulation problem addressed by Robot is pick and place. in which a robot must grasp an object and move it to a specific location. 1. Manipulation (To operate or control by skilled use of hands): Robots have simple repetitive tasks like bolting and fitting automobile parts. We can then search the graph to find the optimal path for the robot. Let S be the set consisting of the initial and find positions as well as the vertices of all obstacles. If the robot in to small as to be considered a point. reaching desired destinations with out bumping in to things. Placing. we connect every pair of points in S that are visible from one another. Navigational problems are complex. Navigation: Navigation means moving around the world: Planning router. . Here we investigate the nature of mobility (ability to move) in terms of how robots navigate through the world and manipulate objects. For example suppose that there are obstacles in the robots path.

If humans perform their aggressive acts by sending machines out to fight other machines. . Advantages Of Robotics The advantages are obvious . robots can break and even cause disaster. Of course. this is rare because robotic systems are designed with many safety features that limit the harm they can do.Grasping:. Disadvantages of Robotics Yes there are problems. When something goes wrong. There's also the problem of evil people using robots for evil purposes. Placing it can be done by using two ways Navie and Clever. Either way. terrible things can happen. This is true today with other forms of technology such as weapons.Some of path planning can be used to move he arm towards the object. They are powerful machines that we allow to control certain things. that would be better than sending humans out to fight other humans. and biological material. human nature is the flawed component that's here to stay. and usually do it cheaper. Teams of robots could be used to defend a country against attacks while limiting human casualties. Luckily. As with any machine. Robots can do things more precise than humans and allow progress in medical science and other useful advances. robots could be used in future wars. Then we wide the gripper as in fig and graph it. This could be good or bad.robots can do things we humans just don't want to do.

The net affect of advanced technology such as robots (or cars. All estimates suggest that robots will play an ever-increasing role in modern society. This is almost never the case. Conclusion Some people are concerned that robots will reduce the number of jobs and kick people out of their jobs. repetition. The research of Robotics and AI would lead to a manufacturing of Robots that will be used in every industry. cost. In future. This growth is lead by Japan that has almost twice as many robots as the USA. which uses AI techniques to build intelligent robots for the purpose of efficiency. . Robotics is an engineering field. if the robotics will be used in constructive way than in destructive way then it needs very peaceful to mankind.The Future Of Robotics The population of robots is growing rapidly. They will continue to be used in tasks were danger. and precision prevents humans from performing. electric drills and other machines) is that humans become more productive.