Reciprocating Compressor Management Systems Provide

SoIid Return on Investment
Sary Diab
(1)
and Brian Howard
(2)
(1)
GE Energy Optimization Services, Abu Dhabi, UAE
¹971 (2) 699-7127 E-Mail: Sary.Diab¸ps.ge.com
(2)
GE Energy Optimization Services, Seattle, Washington, USA
¹1 (425) 557-3057 E-Mail: Brian.Howard¸ps.ge.com


Introduction

Reciprocating compressors have perhaps the
longest span of operational history of any
compressor configuration. The reciprocating
compressor has found service in industry,
commercial and home use for decades. As one of
the oldest compressor designs, the reciprocating
compressor dominated compressor design
through the 1950's. At this time centrifugal
compressor design improved to the point that they
began to offer competition to the reciprocating
compressors.

During the energy rich 50's and 60's, centrifugals
gained a large market share. Although no firm
numbers exist, it is probable that roughly equal
numbers of reciprocating compressors and
centrifugal compressors are in service.

Reciprocating compressors offer a broad range of
capacity control (from 0 to 100%), inter-stage
cooling (more efficient overall compression) and
the ability to efficiently compress the gas
regardless of mole weight or k value. Ìn addition,
reciprocating compressors can provide
extraordinarily high compression ratios. Ìn some
plants seven stages of compression boost
ethylene from 50 PSÌA to over 30,000 PSÌA.
Reciprocating compressors do not offer the
performance of centrifugals in high flow and low to
moderate compression ratios.

One drawback to reciprocating compressor
installations is the relatively large amount of
maintenance dollars they require compared to
centrifugal machines. Estimates vary greatly, and
reliable sources are extremely hard to find.
However ratios such as for each dollar spent on
centrifugal maintenance, five will be spent on
reciprocating compressor maintenance are not
uncommon
1
in the industry.

The goal of development and implementation of
reciprocating compressor management systems
(RCMS) is to bring this ratio of maintenance costs
closer to unity. The software for monitoring
reciprocating compressors has been produced for
decades. The hardware required for on-line
continuous monitoring is only just now maturing.
This paper describes how an on-line RCMS can
improve utilization rate and reduce maintenance
costs.
Transducer Technology and Data
Collection

Turbomachinery management systems have
become industry best practices. They focus,
primarily, on managing the largest force acting on
the machine - rotor dynamic effects including
unbalance, misalignment, etc. These systems
provide both maintenance and operations with
information about the level of stress and the
effects of the stress on the machine so that action
can be taken if there is a significant risk to the
people around the machine or if the machine has
deteriorated to the point where it must be taken
off-line for service.

Ìn contrast, rather than using dynamic effects to
boost the pressure of the gas, reciprocating
compressors use a piston to change the volume
inside a cylinder. High speeds are not required for
a reciprocating compressor to efficiently compress
gas and the reciprocating compressor has many
more moving parts than a turbocompressor.
Therefore, crankshaft speeds are very slow
compared to turbomachinery and rotor dynamic
effects do not produce the largest force on a
reciprocating compressor. Rather, it is the forces
acting on the compressor as a result of the gas

Figure 2 - Suction
VaIve AssembIy with
Indicator Port
(Courtesy France
Compressor
Products)

pressure inside the cylinder that produce the
largest forces on the machine. Therefore,
successful management of reciprocating
compressors begins with measuring and
understanding the pressures inside the
compressor cylinder.

Ìn order to measure cylinder pressure, a
transducer has to be installed in each active
chamber of the cylinder. For a typical double-
acting cylinder, two pressure transducers are
required (Figure 1). Nearly all reciprocating
compressor cylinders manufactured in the last
fifteen years will have cylinder pressure taps
machined in the side of the cylinder as shown in
Figure 1. For those compressor cylinders without
taps machined already in place, a valve assembly
on each end can be retro-fit with a ported valve, as
shown in Figure 2, that allow a pressure
transducer to be installed without machining.

An isolation valve is
commonly installed
between the pressure
transducer and the
cylinder chamber. The
internal geometry of the
isolation valve has the
potential to impact the
measurement and must be
designed with care.
Changes in direction or
channel size within the
valve can make the
measurement system
more susceptible to a
phenomenon known as
channel resonance.
Channel resonance
reduces the frequency
response of the system and distorts the pressure
data. For this reason an isolation valve with a
straight bore, such as the valve shown in Figure 3,
and full open internals should be selected for an
isolation valve.
Pressure transducer technology has been the
obstacle to continuous, on-line cylinder pressure
monitoring. Most transducers today use a piezo-
resistive technology that provides an absolute
pressure reading. A typical transducer includes
both a primary and a secondary diaphragm,
electronics to condition and drive the signal across
field wire and integrated transducer integrity
checking. To improve accuracy of the transducer
over temperature, the electronics are often
separate from the pressure-sensing element as
shown in Figure 4.

Figure 1 - TypicaI DoubIe Acting CyIinder (Cross-
Section, Looking Down Onto the CyIinder)

Figure 3 - Straight Bore, FuII Open IsoIation VaIve
(Courtesy Kiene DieseI Accessories)

Figure 4 - CyIinder Pressure Transducer
with Separate EIectronics

Measurement characteristics of the transducer
include a frequency response beyond 5KHz in
pressures as high as 675 bar (10,000 psi). The
pressure transducer is typically designed to
comply with NACE material selection for corrosive
environments, will include CSA/CENELEC/FM
agency approvals and include a warrantee to
withstand billions of cycles in service regardless of
gas composition.

Ìn addition to collecting accurate cylinder pressure
data, it will be seen that it is equally important to
correlate this pressure data accurately with
position of the piston inside the cylinder. As a
reciprocating compressor crankshaft turns, the
reaction force to the combined rod load varies
continuously through the revolution. The result is
a torsion forcing function acting on the crankshaft
system (including the driver rotor). As a result of
the system's torsional response to this forcing
function, the angular speed of rotation of the
crankshaft varies throughout the revolution.

Ìn defining a solution to the problem, the first step
was to try to quantify how badly torsional vibration
affects the crank position measurement. Data,
collected on integral reciprocating compressors
and synchronous motor driven rigidly coupled
separable compressors, showed that in the worst
case one can expect an error of approximately 2
to 3 degrees if crank position was only sampled
once per turn. Although 2-3 degrees may not
sound significant, this error can have a noticeable
impact on the performance of the system. The
table below shows the results of angular
uncertainty on an indicated horsepower
measurement:


Timing* IHP Error
3 748 4%
2 740 2%
1 731 1%
0 722 0%
-1 713 -1%
-2 704 -2%
-3 694 -4%
* Positive indicates mechanical crank
position leads indicated crank position.


For this reason, a multi-event wheel is
recommended for data collection systems on
reciprocating compressors. On separable, rigidly
coupled synchronous motor driven compressors
the wheel can be installed on the outboard motor
bearing and viewed with a proximity probe as
shown in Figure 5.


A complete RCMS will include other transducers
such as accelerometers, velocity transducers,
proximity probes and temperature transducers. A
complete description of the parameters managed
with these transducers is beyond the scope of this
paper. However, to illustrate the degree of
management available for a reciprocating
compressor, a fully instrumented compressor
throw is shown in Figure 6. Software tools provide
an interface to these transducers as well as an aid
for understanding the transducer data.

All of the transducers connect to data collection
and analysis hardware. The associated

Figure 5 - MuIti-Event WheeI InstaIIation
Figure 6 - CompIete Management System Instrumentation
electronics are packaged in an industrialized
enclosure with some level of modularization and
can usually accommodate 40+ channels in a
single rack. Figure 7 shows a typical rack and
monitor configuration. Several industry standards
exist describing minimum requirements for the
rack. Such standards include the American
Petroleum Ìnstitute Standard 670 and TÜV
certification and reliability data when specific
Safety Ìntegrity Levels must be met.

The rack will incorporate two distinct functions in
the same physical box: machinery protection and
data collection. Catastrophic failures within the
compression system can place people and other
assets at risk. To mitigate that risk, the rack must
be capable of providing fast response (~100ms)
shutdown signals. The rack will typically
incorporate a number of features to reduce the risk
of false or missed trip. Ìntegrated transducer
integrity ("OK/NOT OK¨) checking allows the
system to bypass a transducer that is operating
outside of its linear range or not functioning
correctly. Ìn addition, the racks utilize a
proprietary operating system rather than the
commercial Windows® or public domain Linux
operating systems to reduce vulnerability to virus
and outside attacks.

Ìn addition to protection, the rack also provides
data acquisition capability. Although reciprocating
compressors are some of the oldest designs still in
service, these machines require advanced data
collection hardware for proper monitoring. Valve
events and impact/impulse events can have
frequency content beyond 20 kHertz. To avoid
aliasing the signal, the data sampling frequency
must be equal to or greater than (2.1*20)=42
kHertz. Typically, data collection hardware
sampling frequencies equal or exceed 65 kHertz.

Ìn addition to raw data sampling capability, the
rack must be capable of simultaneous data
collection across all channels. Ìf the signals are
multiplexed, phase shifts occur in the data which
may lead to false or missed diagnosis. Ìn addition,
the rack must be able to freeze data before, during
and after an alarm event. This requirement exists
to ensure that adequate information exists to
diagnose the root cause of the alarm.
Data Analysis

Combining the cylinder pressure data and the
crank angle position data, cylinder pressure can
be plotted in two ways. Either the cylinder
pressure can be plotted versus crank angle or
versus displaced volume.

Figure 8 shows four pressure versus crank angle
plots and a representation of both the piston
position inside the cylinder and valve state. Note
that most process compressors are double acting
and would have both the head end (shown) and
crank end curve on the same plot. For the
purposes of discussion, the crank end pressure
curve has been left off the plots.


The top left plot shows the pressure inside the
cylinder and the valve state at 1 degree after top
dead center (ATDC). At top dead center (TDC)
the piston stops. Just after TDC, the piston begins
to move away from the head end head. The
pressure inside the cylinder is slightly less than
discharge and greater than suction. Both suction
and discharge valves are closed.

Figure 7 - TypicaI rack and monitor configuration
Figure 8 - Pressure Versus Crank AngIe
As the piston moves away from the head end, the
volume increases and the gases trapped in the
clearance volume expand. The gases continue to
expand until the pressure inside the cylinder is
less than the pressure inside the suction manifold.
At this point the suction valve opens. Fresh gas
flows into the cylinder. The top right plot shows
the piston position and valve state after the suction
valve has opened.

The piston continues to move towards the crank
end and passes through bottom dead center
(BDC). Just after passing through BDC, pressure
inside the cylinder is slightly greater than suction
pressure, but less than discharge pressure. Both
suction and discharge valves are closed. Valve
states and piston position are shown in the lower
left of Figure 8.

Finally, as shown on the lower right plot, the piston
continues to move toward the head end head.
Pressure inside the cylinder rises above the
discharge pressure in the cylinder manifold and,
the discharge valve opens.

Ìf the crank angle, cylinder bore, piston rod
diameter and stroke are also known, the cylinder
pressure data can be plotted versus displaced
volume. Figure 9 shows the same four snapshots
of a crankshaft revolution, but with the data plotted
against displaced volume.

Of particular interest are the times when both
suction and discharge valves are closed. No gas
should be entering or leaving the cylinder. Ìf an
appropriate process can be selected, it should be
possible to construct a model of the expansion or
compression process and compare this model with
the actual data. Deviation would indicate a leak or
change in cylinder condition.

Compression of gases can be modeled as
isothermal (all heat is removed), isentropic (no
heat is lost and no friction) or polytropic (some
heat is lost). Real reciprocating compressors do
lose some heat during the compression process.
However, the compression process lasts only 10-
20% of a cycle that takes on average a total of
200ms to complete. Due to the short time period
of the compression process, very little of the total
heat is lost. As a result, the ideal compression
process is most commonly modeled as an
adiabatic isentropic process
2
.

Combining the adiabatic isentropic process with
an equation of state and measured
suction/discharge temperatures provides a way for
the software to generate theoretical curves.
These theoretical curves can be compared to the
measured or indicated cylinder pressure data. Ìn
addition, the expansion/compression curves will
be parallel lines if the cylinder pressure data is
plotted against displaced volume on log/log
scales. Figure 10 shows indicated cylinder
pressure data plotted against displaced volume
with theoretical overlays on both linear and log-log
scales.

Comparing the theoretical to the actual cylinder
pressure curve provides information about cylinder
condition. For example, in Figure 11 two distinct
malfunctions are shown. On the PV curve on the
left, it can be observed that the indicated pressure
during the compression stroke rises slower than
expected. The indicated pressure during the
expansion stroke falls faster than expected.
Pressure falling faster than expected is an

Figure 9 - CyIinder Pressure Versus DispIaced VoIume
Figure 10 - Pressure Versus VoIume (PV) With TheoreticaI
OverIay and Log-Log PIot
indication of gas leaking from the cylinder to a
lower pressure. Possible candidates include a
leaky valve, leaky cylinder head, etc. Most likely it
is a suction valve and this can be confirmed via
valve signature or valve temperature analysis. Ìn
the PV diagram on the right, indicated pressure
during the compression stroke rises faster than the
theoretical. Ìndicated pressure during the
expansion stroke falls slower than theoretical
pressure. This indicates a leak from a high
pressure source into the cylinder. The most likely
candidate is a leaky discharge valve which, as
with the suction valve, can be confirmed via valve
signature or valve temperature analysis.
Additional diagnostic patterns are provided in the
appendix.

Unlike turbomachinery, where horsepower is the
primary load rating measurement, reciprocating
compressors are rated for maximum allowable rod
load and allowable degrees of reversal
2
. The
crosshead pin is neither fully rotating (like the
crankshaft) nor fixed like the connection between
the piston and the crosshead yet, it requires full
annular lubrication. Sufficient lubrication is
obtained only if the combined forces acting on the
crosshead pin reverse during the crankshaft
rotation. Ìn a well designed application, the
minimum and maximum (compression and
tension) values would be roughly equal, and the
degrees of reversal would be near 180 degrees.

Ìn order to calculate the degrees of reversal both
the inertial loading and the gas loading must be
known at each measurement point - typically every
½ degree of revolution. The inertial curve can be
calculated from the crankshaft geometry and the
reciprocating masses. Gas loading derives from
the gas pressures acting on each face of the
piston. By measuring the cylinder pressure with a
DC-coupled fast-response pressure transducer,
the pressure at each ordinate can be measured,
multiplied by the respective areas of the piston
and summed to arrive at gas loading. Adding the
gas load and inertial load at each ordinate results
in the combined loading at the crosshead pin.
Figure 12 shows the gas rod load, inertial rod load
and combined rod load for the pressure data in
Figure 10.

Combining cylinder pressure and rod load with
other dynamic measurements, as shown in Figure
13, allows events in the other transducer
waveforms to be correlated with identified events
in the rod load or cylinder pressure data. Ìn Figure
13, the large displacement in the vertical probe
begins at approximately 40 degrees ATDC ÷ just
as the combined rod load goes to zero, and the
vertical forces on the crosshead go to zero,
indicating this motion is related to the movement
of the crosshead within the crosshead guide.


Figure 11 - VaIve MaIfunction PV diagrams

Figure 12 - Gas, InertiaI and Combined Rod Load Curves
Figure 13 - Rod Position, Crosshead AcceIeration, Rod
Load and CyIinder Pressure Versus Crank AngIe
VaIve FaiIure Case History

Unit Business Overview
The hydrocracker unit ranks as one of the most
important assets in a refinery. Ìn this case history,
the hydrocracker produces 60,000 barrels per day
(bpd or bbl/day) of finished product. Three (3) six-
throw make-up hydrogen compressors operate in
parallel and loss of one compressor results in a
17% reduction in output. Loss of two compressors
results in a 60% reduction in output. The unit
operates with a crack spread of $7.50/bbl. The
refinery is located in North America and has peak
production run during the summer for gasoline and
early winter for home heating oil. This case
history takes place in June, during the summer
gasoline production run.

Scenario Overview
Early one morning, plant operations increased
loading on one of the compressors. A few hours
later at the middle of the day the high discharge
temperature triggered a software alarm (Figure
14). During the review of the alarm, maintenance
noted crank end (CE) discharge valve temperature
labeled "LP Stg 1 Disch W¨ elevated (Figure 14).
As a result of the alarm, staff performed an audit
of the cylinder, with an emphasis on the crank end
chamber.



Audit Results
Prior to the load change (Figure 15) and after the
load change (Figure 16) cylinder condition was
good as evidenced by the good agreement
between the theoretical and indicated pressure
curves. However, as expected from the
temperature trends the PV curve at the middle of
the day indicated a small leak in the discharge
valve (Figure 17). Having diagnosed the problem,
the next step was to assess the effect of the valve
failure on the rod load on the stage in distress and
the stages downstream of this cylinder. Rod load
on LP Stage 1, Stage 2 and Stage 3 were audited
and are shown in Figure 18. Reversal and Load
are acceptable across all three stages. Given that
the valve malfunction was not stressing the
machine and there was adequate capacity in the
remaining cylinders to allow hydrocracker through-
put to remain at 100% the plant decided to
continue to operate the compressor.

Result
Managing discharge valve failure allowed the plant
to run the compressors until more opportune
outage time. One of the concentric rings had
failed in the valve. Figure 19 shows a failed ring
typical of such leaks. This decision avoided an
unscheduled outage that would have lasted
approximately 8 hours and forced the unit to
reduce capacity by 10,000bbl/day resulting in a
net savings of $25,000 to the plant.

Figure 14 - Discharge and Discharge VaIve Skin
Temperature Trends

Figure 20 - FaiIed VaIve Ring









Figure 15 - PV Curves Prior To Load Increase
Figure 16 - PV Curve After Load Change
Figure 17 - PV at middIe of the day
Figure 18 - Rod Load on Stage 1, Stage 2 and Stage 3
Piston Ring Case History
Unit Business Overview
Same as the previous case history except that the
unit is now producing heating oil for the winter.

Scenario Overview
Later that same year, during a routine audit, plant
operations noted a minor leak across piston rings
(Figure 20). The plant confirmed that leak was not
reducing degrees of reversal at the crosshead pin
(Figure 21) and that measured discharge
temperature was within acceptable limits (Figure
22).



Interim Audit Results
Seven days later, discharge temperature
exceeded a software setpoint (Figure 23).
Compared to adiabatic or predicted temperature,
measured discharge temperature increased
(Figure 23). Ìncreased discharge temperature is
often an indication of a leak inside the cylinder.
Evaluation of the cylinder pressure data, (Figure
24) showed a moderate leak on one of the crank
end discharge valves. The plant verified that with
leaking crank end discharge valve and leaking
piston rings rod reversal still acceptable (Figure
25). Valve leak was confirmed via valve
temperature (Figure 26) and "HP Stg 1 Disch SE¨
was isolated as the valve in distress. With
stresses still low, reversal okay and temperature
within allowable limits, the plant decided to
Figure 20 - PV Curves Indicating Piston Ring Leak
3

Figure 21 - CyIinder Pressure and Rod Load Curve
3

Figure 22 - Indicated and TheoreticaI Discharge Temperature
Trend
Figure 23 - Indicated and TheoreticaI Discharge Temperature
continue to operate the compressor and avoid an
unscheduled outage.

Result
Prior to year-end, unit went down for a brief
outage and the maintenance team took the
opportunity to replace the failed valve. The
following month, the unit went down for long term
scheduled maintenance. The piston assembly
was pulled and inspected. Figure 27 shows the
piston assembly. The design specification for the
piston assembly included both the face relief
grooves and the edge relief of the rider bands to
ensure that in the event of pressure ring failure,
the rider bands do not carry the pressure load.
However, the rider bands installed on the piston
were not properly machined and did not include
the face relief grooves. As a result, when the
pressure rings began to fail, the rider bands began
to carry the pressure load and masked the effect
of leaking pressure rings on the PV curve. As the
rider bands were not designed to carry both
pressure load and piston weight load, one of the
rider bands was also damaged.

Managing the piston ring and valve failures on this
compressor allowed the plant to run the
compressors until a more opportune time for
outage. This decision avoided two unscheduled
outages. The valve outage would have lasted
approximately 8 hours and the piston ring
replacement approximately 24 hours and forced
the unit to reduce capacity by 10,000bbl/day.
Managing the compressors to avoid these outages
resulted in a net savings of $100,000 to the plant.

Figure 24 - PV Curve at high discharge temperature
Figure 26 - Discharge and VaIve Temperature Trends
Figure 27 - Piston AssembIy
3

Figure 25 - CyIinder Pressure and Rod Load Curves
ConcIusion

Ìn recent years technology for monitoring and
managing reciprocating compressors has matured
to the point where continuous, on-line systems can
provide real improvement to a unit's operation and
to a plant's, bottom line.

Windows is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation
in the United States and/ or other countries.
BibIiography

1. Ìngersoll-Rand. Compressed Air and Gas
Data, Third Edition. Woodcliffe Lake, New
Jersey: Ìngersoll-Rand. 1980.
2. Hanlon, Paul C., editor. Compressor
Handbook. Hanlon, Paul C., editor. New-
York: McGraw-Hill. 2001.
3. "Compressor Monitoring.¨ Hydrocarbon
Engineering, August 2004.
Appendix

Plotting cylinder pressure versus displaced volume
(PV) data provides a very useful indication of
compressor cylinder health. Assuming the timing
of the system has been optimized correctly and a
multi-event wheel (M.E.W.) is installed, cylinder
condition can be assessed by viewing the actual
cylinder pressure data with respect to the
theoretical curve data. This appendix provides a
legend showing how malfunctions typicaIIy
manifest themselves in this plot format. There is
no such thing as a one size fits all solution and
supporting evidence, from temperature,
acceleration or ultrasonic transducers, should
always be used to confirm the diagnosis. Further,
even a cylinder with a perfect PV curve can be in
enormous distress if the rod load is beyond the
frame limits. AIways use rod load to determine
how the malfunctions, or lack of malfunctions, are
affecting the stresses on the reciprocating
compressor. These plots also assume the timing
on the compressor is perfect. No diagnostics
should be attempted on the compressor until it is
certain that correct timing has been established.

Ìn addition, on multi-stage compressors, failure on
one cylinder can have a dramatic impact on the
rod loading on conditions on the other cylinders in
the process gas stream. Always check the
stresses of cylinders upstream and downstream of
a distressed chamber regardless of their condition.



Legend (Red is TheoreticaI, BIack is ActuaI)

PÌSTON RÌNG
LEAKÌNG
Suction
Discharge Discharge
Suction
DÌSCHARGE
PASSAGE TOO
SMALL
Suction
Discharge
PERFECT
DÌAGRAM
Suction
Discharge
SUCTÌON
VALVE SPRÌNG
TOO STÌFF



Legend Continued (Red is Theoretical, Black is Actual)
Suction
Discharge
SUCTÌ ON
VALVE
LEAKAGE
Discharge
DÌSCHARGE
VALVE
LEAKAGE
Suction
Suction
Discharge
Discharge
DÌSCHARGE
VALVE
CHATTERS
SUCTÌ ON
PASSAGE TOO
SMALL
Suction





Legend Continued (Red is Theoretical, Black is Actual)
Discharge
DÌSCHARGE
VALVE SPRÌNG
TOO STÌFF
Suction
Discharge
SUCTÌON
VALVE
CHATTERS
Suction



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