# SOLUTIONS TO DIFFFERENTIATION OF FUNCTIONS USING THE CHAIN RULE

SOLUTION 1 : Differentiate

.

( The outer layer is ``the square'' and the inner layer is (3x+1) . Differentiate ``the square'' first, leaving (3x+1) unchanged. Then differentiate (3x+1). ) Thus,

SOLUTION 2 : Differentiate

. . unchanged. Then

( The outer layer is ``the square root'' and the inner layer is Differentiate ``the square root'' first, leaving differentiate . ) Thus,

. ( The outer layer is ``the one-third power'' and the inner layer is Differentiate ``the one-third power'' first. Click HERE to return to the list of problems. SOLUTION 4 : Differentiate . unchanged. . Then . ) Thus. SOLUTION 3 : Differentiate . ) Thus. Then ( The outer layer is ``the 30th power'' and the inner layer is Differentiate ``the 30th power'' first. unchanged. leaving differentiate .Click HERE to return to the list of problems. leaving differentiate .

(At this point. leaving the final answer with no negative exponents. we will continue to simplify the expression.) .

leaving the final answer with no negative exponents. (At this point. SOLUTION 5 : Differentiate . begin by simplifying the expression before we differentiate it. we will continue to simplify the expression..) unchanged. ( The outer layer is ``the negative four-fifths power'' and the inner layer is . ( First. leaving Then differentiate . Click HERE to return to the list of problems. Differentiate ``the negative four-fifths power'' first. ) Thus.) .

. Then differentiate (5x) . Click HERE to return to the list of problems. leaving (5x) unchanged. ( The outer layer is ``the sine function'' and the inner layer is (5x) . SOLUTION 6 : Differentiate . Differentiate ``the sine function'' first.. ) Thus.

Click HERE to return to the list of problems. . Differentiate ``2 raised to a power'' first. . SOLUTION 8 : Differentiate . Then differentiate . ) Thus. SOLUTION 7 : Differentiate . . ) Thus.. unchanged. Differentiate ``the exponential function'' first. Recall ( The outer layer is ``2 raised to a power'' and the inner layer is that . Click HERE to return to the list of problems. leaving unchanged. Then differentiate . ( The outer layer is ``the exponential function'' and the inner layer is Recall that leaving . .

Click HERE to return to the list of problems. ( Since 3 is a MULTIPLIED CONSTANT.) unchanged. the constant 3 just ``tags along'' during the differentiation process. Click HERE to return to the list of problems. leaving differentiate . It is NOT necessary to use the product rule.. where c is a constant . ( Now the outer layer is ``the tangent function'' and the inner layer is Differentiate ``the tangent function'' first. . ) Thus. SOLUTION 9 : Differentiate . Hence. Then . . we will first use the rule .

Recall that . Click HERE to return to the list of problems. Then differentiate ( 17-x ). . Click HERE to return to the list of problems.SOLUTION 10 : Differentiate . . ( The outer layer is ``the common logarithm (base 10) function'' and the inner layer is . leaving ) Thus. Differentiate ``the natural logarithm function'' first. Differentiate ``the common logarithm unchanged. Recall that . leaving ( 17-x ) unchanged. ( The outer layer is ``the natural logarithm (base e) function'' and the inner layer is ( 17-x ) . SOLUTION 11 : Differentiate . ) Thus. (base 10) function'' first. . Then differentiate .

Finish with the derivative . and the third layer is ``the square'' first. SOLUTION 12 : Differentiate . Differentiate unchanged. which makes ``the square'' the outer layer. SOLUTION 13 : Differentiate . Then unchanged. ) Thus. . NOT ``the cosine function''. leaving of . Click HERE to return to the list of problems. leaving ``the cosine function'' and differentiate ``the cosine function''.Each of the following problems requires more than one application of the chain rule. The first layer is ``the square''. In fact. ( Recall that . this problem has three layers. the second layer is ``the cosine function''. .

NOT ``the secant function''. Then differentiate ``the secant function''. ( Recall that . where c is a constant. SOLUTION 14 : Differentiate . ) Thus. the second layer is ``the secant function''. Differentiate ``the negative four power'' first. we will first use the rule . Differentiate them in that order. the third layer is ``the cosine function''. Finish with the derivative of . and the third layer is function'' and leaving . Hence. this problem has three layers. leaving ``the secant unchanged. ) Thus. unchanged. which makes ``the negative four power'' the outer layer. The first layer is ``the negative four power''. The first layer is ``the natural logarithm (base e) function''. In fact.( Since is a MULTIPLIED CONSTANT. ( There are four layers in this problem. the constant just ``tags along'' during the differentiation process. Click HERE to return to the list of problems. . It is NOT necessary to use the product rule. and the fourth layer is . the second layer is ``the fifth power''.) .

. ( There are four layers in this problem. Differentiate them in that order. The first layer is ``the square root function''. the third layer is `` 7x plus the natural logarithm (base e) function''. the second layer is ``the sine function''. Click HERE to return to the list of problems. SOLUTION 15 : Differentiate . and the fourth layer is (5x) . ) Thus. .

we will first use the rule . It is NOT necessary to use the product rule. Differentiate them in that order. the second layer is ``1 plus the third power ''. the constant 10 just ``tags along'' during the differentiation process. ) . where c is a constant. and the fourth layer is . the third layer is ``2 minus the ninth power''. SOLUTION 16 : Differentiate . ( Since 10 is a MULTIPLIED CONSTANT. ( Now there are four layers in this problem. The first layer is ``the fifth power''.. ) Thus. Click HERE to return to the list of problems. Hence.

the constant 4 just ``tags along'' during the differentiation process. Hence. and the fourth layer is Differentiate them in that order. SOLUTION 17 : Differentiate . . where c is a constant. ) Thus. the second layer is ``the natural logarithm (base e) function''. we will first use the rule . The first layer is ``the natural logarithm (base e) function''. ( Since 4 is a MULTIPLIED CONSTANT. It is NOT necessary to use the product rule. ) . . ( There are four layers in this problem. the third layer is ``the natural logarithm (base e) function''.. Click HERE to return to the list of problems. Click HERE to return to the list of problems.

the second layer is ``the tangent function''. SOLUTION 19 : Assume that h(x) = f( g(x) ) .SOLUTION 18 : Differentiate . Click HERE to return to the list of problems. ) Thus. and f'(2)=-4 . and the fifth layer is (7x) . the third layer is ``the square root function''. what is the value of h'(-1) ? Recall that the chain rule states that . Thus. The first layer is ``the third power''. the fourth layer is ``the cotangent function''. ( There are four layers in this problem. . The following three problems require a more formal use of the chain rule. If g(-1)=2. g'(-1)=3. where both f and g are differentiable functions. Differentiate them in that order. .

Click HERE to return to the list of problems. Click HERE to return to the list of problems.so that . . where f is a differentiable function. . SOLUTION 20 : Assume that If and of h at x=0 . The chain rule gives us that the derivative of h is . determine an equation of the line tangent to the graph The outer layer of this function is ``the third power'' and the inner layer is f(x) . an equation of this tangent line is . . the slope of the line tangent to the graph of h at x=0 is . Using the or . SOLUTION 21 : Determine a differentiable function y = f(x) which has the properties and . Thus. This line passes through the point point-slope form of a line.

Since . Thus. Now think about ``reversing'' the process of differentiation. .Begin with and assume that f(x) is not identically zero. Thus. This is called finding an antiderivative. and . where C is any constant . iff iff . Then iff Note that . we have so that and C = 2 . .