TIme

period
(e.g., year)

1%

2%

3%

4%

5%

6%

7%

6%

9%

1
2
3
4
5

1.000
2.010
3.030
4.060
5.101

1.000
2.020
3.060
4.122
5.204

1.000
2.030
3.091
4.184
5.309

1.000
2.040
3.122
4.246
5.416

1.000
2.050
3.152
4.310
5.526

1.000
2.060
3.184
4.375
5.637

1.000
2.070
3.215
4.440
5.751

1.000
2.080
3.246
4.506
5.867

1.000
2.090
3.278
4.573
5.985

1.000
2.100
3.310
4.641
6.105

1.000
2.120
a.374
4.770
6.353

1.000
2.140
3.440
4.921
6.610

1.000
2.160
3.506
5.067
6.877

1.000
2.200
3.640
5.368
7.442

6
7
8
9
10

6.152
7.214
8.286
9.369
10.462

6.308
7.434
8.583
9.755
10.950

6.468
7.662
8.892
10.159
11.464

6.633
7.898
9.214
10.583
12.006

6.802
8.142
9.549
11.027
12.578

6.975
8.394
9.897
11.491
13.181

7.153
8.654
10.260
11.978
13.816

7.336
8.923­
10.637
12.488
14.487

7.523
9.200
11.028
13.021
15.193

7.716
9.487
11.436
13.579
15.937

8.115
10.089
12.300
14.776
17.549

8.536
10.730
13.23-3
16.085
19.337

8.978
11.413
14.240
17.518
21.321

9.930
12.915
16.499
20.798
25.958

11
12
13
14
15

11.567
12.683
13.809
14.947
16.097

12.169
13.412
14.680
15.974
17.293

12.808
14.192
15.618
17.086
18.599

13.486
15.026
16.627
18.292
20.024

14.207
15.917
17.713
19.599
21.579

14.972
16.870
18.882
21.051
23.276

15.784
17.888
20.141
22.550
25.129

16.645
18.977
21.495
24.215
27.152

17.560
20.141
22.953
26.019
29.361

18.531
21.384
24.523
27.975
31.772

20.655
24.138
28.029
32.393
37 .280

23.044
27.271
32 .089
37.581
43.842

25.732
30.850
36.786
43.672
51.659

32.150
39.580
48.496
59.195
72.035

16
17
18
19
20

17.258
18.430
19.615
20.811
22.019

18.639
20.012
21.412
22.841
24.297

20.157
21.762
23.414
25.117
26.870

21.825
23.698
25 .645
27.671
29.778

23.657 25.673
25.840 28.213
28.132 30.906
30.539 33 .760
33.066 36.786

27.888
30.840
33.999
37 .379
40.995

30 .324
33 .750
37.450
41.446
45.762

33 .003
36 .974
41.301
46.018
51.160

35.950
40.545
45.599
51.159
57.275

42.753
48.884
55.750
63.440
72.052

50.980
59.118
68.934
78.969
91.025

60.925
71.673
84.140
98.603
115.37

87.442
105.93
128.11
154.74
186.68

25

28.243

32 .030

36.459

41.646

47.727

54.865

63.249

73 .106

84.701

98.347

133.33

181.87

249.21

471.98

30

34.785 40.568

47.575

56.085

66.439

79.058

94.461

113.283

136.308

164.494

241 .333

356 .787

530.310

100/0

12'10

14%

16%

20'%

1181.8

080 4..276 1.783 2.628 6.943 1.TIme period (e.533 4.652 10.594 .n5 3.941 3.759 2.184 3.917.566 3.926 1.427 8.457 1.409 .n5 4.399 2.980 1.109 3 113 2.161 7.134 12.5n 3.181 6 7 8 9 10 5.981 2.031 4.373 13.332 1. .250 7.193 3.389 5.499 7. 10.467 4.452 .983 5.971 1.569 3.324 14.322 2.624 3.798 2.514 1~16~ .647 2.345 0.83810.096 2.001 3. 10% 12% 14% 16% 18% 20% 24% 28% 32% 38% 1 2 3 4 5 0.274 9.745 0.795 6.603 2650 11 12 13 14 15 10.055 7.578 1.893 1.103 7.561 -­ 13.206 5.33 6 13. i 10 .110 3.n6 3.230 7.942 2.194 6.660 5.605 1.890 0.020 7.786 6.076 3.532 0.453 5.365 9.122 2. ~ tHi.564 3.574 4.312 6.247 6.851 3.559 6.678 16.849 9.853 0.818 5. '9.002 6.l161l .092 4.292 15.575 11.402 3.351 12.772 22. 1.605 3.749 5.495 6.128 8 .160 3.353 4.244 8.{292 14.162 5.335 5.833 3.806 1.868 2 930 2.904 8.355 4.736 2.037 3.1.675 3.758 2 763 2767 2.910 5.463 7.274 '10 .516 3.218 3.639 4.459 3.833 2.8n 11.201 9.~2~ ' .498 3.111 5.611 5.605 0.273 5.488 5.240 3.170 3.059 13.952 1.917 5.812 4.' J" 12.078 4.100 0. 15. 6.669 5.023 19.003 6.029 5..870 .659 .061 3.735 1.197 5.652 8.483 2978 3.097 4.242 3.623 5.690 3.424 6.611 4.962 1.937 3.968 5.210 6.778 -v-r 30 25.328 5.938 8.127 0.212 0.950 6.546 4.787 10.802 7.699 10.465 4.111 4.966 10.097 3.269 2.808 22.060 6.873 6.539 3.104 3.601 6.566 2.013 3.733 7..455 2.682 2.487 3. year) 1% 2".523 17.085 lr1.4 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% .139 7.174 2.985 6.255 12.786 8.471 5.814 7.• 11.470" 10.544 . 4.' 9.909 1.837 4.387 7.992 15.002 6.076 2683 2708 2727 2.566 9.674 1.833 1.990 1. 17.829 3.962 4.059 4. .335 3.241 2.710 4.088 3.344 4.392 1.404 2.971 6.812 4.929 5.935 1.531 3.385 9.004 13.943 6.868 5.372 " 8.914 3.024 4.770 2.582 6.650 3.222 5.8n 5.373 6..312 3..380 7.808 4.550 6.265 6.346 12.988 6.851 :> ' 6.118 8.295 9.327 4.781 1.575 4. 14.759 2.970 2.580 0.685 4.274 3.106 9.462 ' 11.759 6.656 4.316 5.306 8.~2 '.722 4.039 4.589 2. 25" .g.108 7.106 2.747 .022 9.776 11.120 7.8n 1.242 6.0.387 4.902 4.358 8.843 6.868 2.147 3.728 7. 8. .766 2.394 9.948 4.517 4.56& 16.134 13.076 5.740 2.979 4.540 2.600 17.713 0.529 3.865 9.847 1.447 6.624 8.122 : ' 8.472 7.124 2.467 6.487 7. '.097 5.166 13.887 8.534 2678 2786 2.604 8.563 11.842 6.003 4.397 19.622 ~ • .288 4.246 2.033 5.360 4.' 6% 9% .793 4.469 .367 3.417 6.530 5.1n 5.675 9:823 9.760 9.805 7.008 5.886 2.750 16 17 18 19 20 14.421 3.991 0.258 10. 6.654 10.413 15.712 7.020 3.39'8 ' .108 7.329 0.954 10.435 8.607 4.765 12.7?6".418 4.325 8.754 14.384 6.145 4.0n 7.515 7.546 3. .635 11.226 18.690 2.326 3 .863 9.368 11.' 7.162 8.040 3.717 4.912 3.535 5.786 8.536 7.303 4.433 0.253 9.296 11.690 12.913 2.763" ..528 2.366 7.718 ' .503 3.948 5.7304.673 3.884 3.862 0..606 5.844 4.889 4..808 2.791 0.859 2.766 5.142 5.427 3.758 1.630 4.723 3.653 9.818 9.: ~ .342 5.046 13.106 12.439 4.974 7.745 9.966 2.993 0. 0.494 3.094 ' f~ :7 83 11 .486 5.477.623 5.

971 .139 ..~ 6% 7% 8% :'7 '.838 .804 .000 .080 .205 .244 .388 .915 .840 ~8 1 6 .003 ' .263 .570 .712 .179 .135 .980 '. .943 .066 .500 .853 . .857 .001 .497 .422 . ' ~.610 .906 .275 .000 .030 . '.60 1" '.000 .743 .855 .312 .547 .396 .583 .014 .893 .008 .002 .763 .046 .376 .1e:(..296' :276 .339 .018 .476 .014 .397 .614 .019 .140 .279 .239 -.292 .287 .513 .000 .002 ' .226 ..296 .007 .005 .530 .004 ...475 · .009 .541 .021 .524 .002. ":'.:.059 .322 .~ • .335 .006 .305 .123 .497 :862 .001 .218 .477 .178 .095 .544 . .001 .507 .017 .510 .004 .146 .630 .675 .008 .980 .227 .123 .061 .577 .215 .000 .836 .574 .350 .051 .063 ..683 .266 .180 .007 .926 .116 .041 .189 .130 .592 .361 .020 .502 .700 .435" .340 .572 .' .494 .162 .789 .163 :141 . ~.331 . .429 .781 · .000' " . .508 .001 ..627 .104 .701 ._ .582 .905 .260 ..132 .847 -71£ ..003 .068 .610 .168 .035 .758 .116 .863 .024 .116 . '..038 . .350 .000 .557 .519 .009 .093 .822 .756 .108 ' . ~ 'r ' " 10% 12% 14% 15% 16% 18% 20% 24% 28% 32% 36%.187 .828 .174 . ..016 .070 .769 .412 .751 .942 .085 . " .093 . .923 .004 .962 .000 .233 .708 .587 .596:564 .681 .237 .000 .198.003 ."" } 30 ..270 .003 .780 .64 1 .257 .833 .062 .000 .076 .888 .377 .023 .083 .002 .250 .029 .402 .082 .004 .036 .060 .':.844 .747 . ' :-" '~ \ .212 .694 .482 .475 .040 .070 '.215 ..437 .0 tO .060.460 .666 ..329 .032 .032 .116 ·.. ' '.001 .060 '.000 .016 .024 .291 .031 .327 .284 .813 .853 .000 .388 . .933 .315 .cn3 . 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 9% 1 2 3 4 5 ..~~7 .391 .~ .432 .444 .806 .194 .676 .095 .871 .792. ~ ' ! .034 .14~· ·E7· i092 '.295 .650 .026 ..002 .040 .171 .650 6 7 8 9 10 .001 .714 . .025 .108 .877 .823 .046 . ~ .924 .153 ..746 .037 . .-01.144 .158 .2S8 ." .505 .362 .250 .231 .125 .555 .951 .326 .131 .095 .925 .005 .386 11 12 13 14 15 .444 .837\.703 ..317 .458 ..~ : .~9 .037 .009 .012 .163 . 760 .766 .005 ..784 .000 .625 .222 .667 .346 .354 .084 .005 .059 .162 . ' TIme period (e.743 .015 .021 .661 .731 .047 .534 .0 11 .078 .314 ..308 .006 . .0 77 .145 .018 .094 .864 .045 .820 .909 :826 .007' .368 '.'" .0 17 .879 .263 .404 .025 .033 .06 1 ..040 .797 .728 .204 .436 .681 .673 .677 .889 .049 .555 .552 ..229 .308 .463 .35 1 .194 .526 .164 .356 .623 .247 . "J.917 ..658 .907 .252 .713 .370 .513 .005 .820 ..012 ' .143 .137 .299 .000 .006 .554 . .000 000 '.043 .952' .198 .00 1 .071 :054 . ..002 .191 .516 .00 1 .758 .914 .605 .227 .002 . ~ "''": :.788 .002 .005 ..108 .001 .. .4 15 .001 .178 25 .735 .567 ....000 ..890 .290 · .400 .:.146 .456 .002 .012 .014 .423.636 .309 .003 .527 .018 .705 .961 .686 .585 .133 .642 ..012 .442 .160 .215 0::: • . year) 1% • 2% "'3% .742 .373 .053 .794 72 .120 .416 . .424 .711 .942 .107 .588 .233 :L .650 .790 .000 .842 .001 .039 .195 .364 .469 .009 .081 .275 '16 17 18 19 20 .579 .015 . . .558 .481 .935 .099 .870 .000 . .073 .009 .943 .g.182 ..183 .592 .065 '.375 .057 .000 .099 .889 .038 .003 .410 .001 .010 .645 . .149 .088 .735.001 .552 .232 .002 .277 .417 .665 .075 .085 .744 .095' ..452 .609 .540 .873 .961 ...319 .025 .026 .208 .112 .005 .990 .621 .270 .108 .971 .623 .896 .861 .021 .052 .394 .027 ..887 ..456 .007 .001 .773 .625 .398 :292 .231 .478 .371 .714 .341 .002 .870 .186 .051 .026 .722 .003 .

147 11.173 1.367 10.488 22.328 4.153 7.149 1.186 26.392 1.159 1.661 3.160 6.436 5.346 1.208 1.665 1.230 1.061 1.104 6 7 8 9 10 1.428 1.040 1.518 2.457 1.874 62.851 1.688 95.276 10.319 1.527 2.40(' 1.521 1.126 1.1.427 6.105 2.848 8.993 2.948 1.818 5.693 2.629 1.316 1.360 1.322 1.672 19.835 17.826 3.606 1.129 16.072 1.502 2.332 2.177 3.427 4.g.265 1.477 1.040 1.090 1.449 29.980 2.583 4.749 2.551 1'.653 2.486 1.316 4.492 6.011 1.138 3.838 1.252 2.988 9.261 2.937 3.604 4.540 2.266 6.170 1.853 3.093 1.234 2.358 10.574 1.079 1.080 1.594 1.660 3.743 9.A 80 1.423 1.367 1. year) 1% 2% 1 2 3 4 5 1.936 6.054 5.026 3.866 7.125 1.986 3.188 1.430 8.896 4.811 2.211 2.184 1.375 14.322 5.074 2.041 1.083 1.369 1.970 4.436 2.803 4.501 1.886 7.137 9.886 1.828 1. • 1.195 1.207 2.743 7.967 1.396 30 1.243 1.412 1.212 85.673 23.476 2.342 3. ' I TIme period (e.462 32.138 1.295 1.558 1.337 25 1.145 1.689 1.292 5.000 26.718 1.488 1.142 5.216 1.030 1.397 2..539 1.346 1.773 .777 19.020 1.1 17 5.699 12.370 3.440 1.853 3.939 2.133 2.144 2.407 16 17 18 19 20 1.575 12.217 1.2671.373 1.653 1.~ j }' I '

f: .200 1.702 2.761 12.419 1.311 1.811 2.166 1.261 7..948 38.331 1..468 14.642 2.124 1.076 8.340 1.226 4.666 3.137 5.643 1.313 2.611 1.094 2.873 1.082 1.599 10.127 1.759 4.105 11 12 13 14 15 .051 1.161 1.158 1.513 1.149 1.697 3.150 1.210 1. 18% 20% .094 1.617 3.278 3.140 1.919 40.400 1.288 1.225 1.996 4.191 2.082 1.580 2.254 1.594 1..898 2.243 I .623 10.595 5. 3.370 237 .772 1.020 1.690 8.925 1.3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 12% 14% 15% 16% 1.010 1.195 2.130 6.717 5.063 13.' .950 66.061 1.732 1.613 9.714 1.710 1.062 1.646 8.300 5.539 1.916 10.839 15.219 1.276 1.070 1.463 16.728 6.350 6.116 6.120 1.605 1.066 3.579 2.474 4.410 2.801 1.358 2. L .707 2.870 3.100 1.999 2.172 1.214 27.172 2.762 1.300 1.012 2.612 10.960 50.159 3.813 3.192 1.172 2.754 2.720 2.232 16.949 2.393 18.587 1. .294 1.796 1.030 1.252 3.748 12.102 1.411 2.386 4.504 1.426 1.973 7.952 3.176 7.407 2.887 5.060 1.384 1.461 14.479 3.452 3.183 2.426 3.160 1.677 1.482 1.260 1.287 8.262 1.403 1.601 1.560 6.348 1.652 5.186 3.623 31.191 1.363 4.159 1.107 1.046 2.974 2.106 2..380 3.641 2.305 ' 1.056 13.344 .854 3.268 17.850 143.268 1.518 4.338 1.561 1.728 2.100 1.405 1.469 1..759 2.464 1.196 1.689 1.050 1.220 1.806 2.797: 4.194 1.126 1.059 3.791 1.469 1.700 3.138 4.180 1.026 1.116 1.292 2.282 1.

Cash flow from assets = Oper atin g cash flow (OCF) ­ Net capital spending . Th e long-term debt ratio: a . Cash -flow to s tockho lders = D ividends paid . t' .! . [3.15J [3.Total equity Total assets [3.16J B-1 .4 J Interval measure Curr ent asse ts Average daily operating cost s I. Th e ave rage days' sales in inve ntory: 365 days Inventory turnover r· i i. QUIC ratio 1 7.8J i ha p t er 3 The cu rrent ratio : Curre nt assets C urr ent rat io = Cu rren t liabili ties The qui ck or acid-test ratio: = Curre nt assets .3] [3.14J .2 ] The cas h flow ide ntity: Cash flow from assets = Cash flow to creditors + Cash flow to stoc kho lders Total debt ratio .­ nterest ! fr Days ' sales in inventory ·The cash ratio: Cash Cash ra tio = . .15 .. Th e cash coverag e ratio: Cash coverage ratio EBIT + Depr eciation Intere st 12.6J Debt-equi ty ratio = Total deb t/Total eq uity [3. Cash flow to creditors = Interest paid .Inventory Current lia bilities ---------=-~"-- [3..-... Th e equity multiplier: [2.9] : I: j! [3.k . The day s' sale s in receivables: [3.3] where: Equ ity multiplie r = Total asse ts/Total equity s• i.5J Days' sales in receivables 365 days Receivables turn over 16. T he net working capital (NWC) turno ver ratio: Sale s NW C turnover = NWC i ' [3. The total debt ratio: The balance sheet identity or equ ation : Assets = Liabilities + Sh areh olders' equity [2. The debt-equity ratio: [2.11J : Ii f( I : .10J 11.I [3.1] [3. T he rece ivables turnover ratio : Th e ratio of net working ca pital to to tal asse ts: Net worki ng cap ital to total asset s = Net worki ng capi tal Total assets T he interval measure: 10.2 J " .Net new borrowing c. . Th e inventory turn over ratio: In ventory turnover Cost of goo ds sold Invent ory 13. Re ceiva ble s turno ver Sal es Accounts receivable [3.­ Curr ent liabilities Long-term debt ratio Long-term debt Long-term deb t + Total equi ty .IJ T he income state ment eq uation: Revenues .. 9.12J t i. I' " I.Expenses = Income I ! .Net new equity raised .13] :' ~.I~e y E u ations :hapter 2 6.7J i 8. II 14.Taxes (2) Net capital spe nding = End ing n et fixed assets ­ Beginning net fixed asse ts + Depreciation (3) Ch ange in net working capital = Ending NW C . The times interest earn ed (TIE) ratio : EBIT T imes interes t earned rat io = -1. I I I' i' fI" [3. Total assets .Beginnin g NWC b. [3.1' I.Change in net working capital (NW C) (l) Opera ting cash flow = Earn ings before interest and taxes (EBIT ) + Depreci ation . [3. [3.

Net inco me R eturn on equity = Total equi ty =C x Price per sh are PE ratio = --~---­ Earni ngs pe r sh are [3. Th e internal gro wth rate: = Ord inary annuity value [6. and (4) a y ield of r per period: Bon d value T he sustainable growth rate : = C X [ I ..: ..~.2 4] 4. 2.5] [6..19] 3.23] 24 .boo k ratio . Presen t value of the face amoun t The Fisher effec t: Tot al asset turno ver .ROE X b [4.. . (2) a co upon of C paid per perio d. ._ I . [5. Th e pr ice-ea rnings (PE) rati o: • r)' = F V. l ~4-? :~.B.2] 5. [3.6] [ Chapter 7 1.I [6. } [4. Return on equ ity (ROE): I + PV X ( I 20.~:~~" [ [ / (1 Chapter 6 22. Th e present value of $ [ to be receiv ed r periods in the futu re at a discount rate of r: [3..1] 1')' . : [ 1/.­ Net fixed asse ts [3.2) Sal es Tot al asset turnover = . Sales Fixed asset turnover = ...1/ (1 RO E X b Su stainable gro wth rate = .-..3] R ~ r+h [7.­ [ ..-. + EAR = [I C hapter 4 .. : ?:. The to tal asset turnover ratio: .21] ' ~· ·~ f.17] 1. .2 0] .. [5 . -:.) X (I + h) [7.3] + 1')') Annui ty present va lue [3. Th e relati onship betwe en future value and present value (the basic present value equat ion) : PV Net incom e Return on assets = . The fixed as set turn over ratio: ../( l + r)' = FV.4] _~~ . T he m arket -to -book ratio: = 2. :-.­ Total asset s [3.ROA X b ~i " [6. = FY.­ Tot al asse ts 3.1J Bond va lue T he ca pital intens i ty ra tio: ...I = eq - [6..3] + r)'Jlr + F/ O -/. EAR Dividend payout ratio = Cash divide nds /Net income [4._ . . Th e present value of an annuity of C dollars per period for r periods when the rate of re turn or interest rate is r: 21. " +R= (J + /. RO A X b Inte rnal growt h rate = . where 111 is the number of times the interest is compounded du ring the year : 6. Return on as sets (ROA): 4.Present value factor) ( The future va lue factor for an annuity: M arke t-to.-.\ Presen t value for a perpetuity: 1..3] 1') [6. :: • _ ~.r)' = Presen t value + of the coupons . -~ .Sa les 2.­ Sales [3. where q stands for the continuously compounded quoted rate: + (Quo ted rate/m)] '" .:~ ' '-. . P rofi t margIn = .. x 1. .:. Profit margin : Net income . [7.1] X PV for a perpet uity = C/ r = C X (I / r) Ret urn on assets ROE = Profi t margin X Total ass et turn over X Equi ty m ul tipl ie r '~'-'r . (3) (peri ods to ma turity.4] Effective ann ual rate (EAR). + .r1:~ ·:':~:· __ " :' :"'~.1J 2. To tal assets C apita mten srty ratio = ..[J/r [3. _ M arket value per share Book value per share 3. Future va lue = $1 X ( I 18.2 APPENDIX B Key Equat ions Chapter 5 17.-. I' . Th e d ividen d payout rati o: .. Th e future value of $ [ inves ted for r periods at rate of r per per iod: 19. . T he Du Pon t ident ity: 1 . • .2 J Bo nd value if bond has ( J) a face value of F paid at maturity.22 ] 23.2] R = I' +h+r Xh [7.. 1 + r)'J I An nuity due value X (I ROE = Net inco me X _Sale s X Asse ts Sales Assets Equity I' Annuit y FV factor = (Future value facto r . Effec tive ann ual rate (E AR). C (1 .I)/ r = [(I + r)' . + • •_ .18 ) PV = $ [ X [1/(1 + r)'J = $[ / (1 + 1')' [5.

v) = Sto ck value [11. Rel ationship between operating cas h flow (OC F) a nd sales vo lume : Q = (FC + OCF)/ (P . 2.1] . C 1 = S.RtJ X f3i Valu e of a call option at maturi ty : = 0 if (S.--="---.­ Cos t of inves tme nt [E(RM) .) = Rf P V of cas h flo ws P rofitabili ty index = . Top-down approach to op eratin g ca sh flo w (OCF) : OCF = S ale s .Pre sent value of the e xe rci se price Co = So .4] [14.R)- + .E /(l + Rf ) A.. Chapt e r I I [14. Required ret urn: R = D1 /Po + g B-3 Q = (FC + OCF"') /( P . . So = Co + E /(l + Rf ) .3] [1 4.E if (SI . So [10 . The capita l asse t pricing model (CAP M): 6.. Co = So . Ca sh break-even level: Q = FC / (P - + i-) [11.v) 3.2J [14.v) 1. [13. = DJ/P o + g [15. Risk premi um = Ex pec ted return ..E/ (l + ~-r 2. .­ Average book value [13.Investment cos t YareR) = T _I + 2.4] FC /OC F C h apte r 9 Chapter 12 1. Req uired return o n equ ity.5] Value of a call that is ce rtain to finish in-the-money: Ca ll o ption value 1.g Financial break-even level: where [8.3] OCF * = Zero N PV ca sh flow 5. D isco unted pay back period : D iscounted payback pe riod = N umber of yea rs tha t pa ss be fore the su m o f an investme nt's discounted ca sh flo w s eq ual s the cos t o f the inv es tmen t 1.? I [(R . The div ide nd gr owt h m odel: Po = Do x (l Key Equati ons De gre e of o perating leverage (DO L) : DO L = I [8.Costs) X ( I . SD(R) or <J: Payback period = N umber of years that pass befo re the sum o f an in vestment's ca sh flows eq ual s the co st of the inv estme nt SD( R) = VVar(R) Chapte r 13 3.E ) ::. Bottom-up app roa c h to operating ca sh flow (OC F): OC F = Ne t income + De preciat ion [10.. Lowe r bound : Co 2: 0 if So ..C os ts . Var(R) o r u ": NPV = Present value of future cas h flows . 4. Accounting break-e ven le ve l: Q = (FC + D)/ (P .E < 0 Co 2: So . Paybac k per iod: .E ) > 0 a.1] 2. [1 2. + g) ~~ R -g R.E 2: 0 3.1] 2. 6 ] C ha pter 15 1.2J 3. Tax s hield app roach to o pe rating ca sh flow (OC F) : OCF = (Sales .APPENDIX B Chapter 8 4.2] 3. Inte rnal rate of return (IR R) : Re ward-to-risk ratio = E [R. Ne t prese nt va lue (NPV) : 1. Standa rd dev iatio n of ret urns.1) .3] b.R)2] 2. Uppe r bou nd : [10. Profit abil ity index: E(R.3] [14 . (divide nd gro w th model ): RE.Risk-free rate 2.T ) + D epreciatio n x T [13. Variance of returns.5] + [11. Bounds on the va lue of a call option : a. .7] C h a p t e r 14 1. The average accounting return (A A R) : Ri sk premium : E xpected return on a portfolio: E(Rp) = Average net income AAR = .] . .E if So ..-. 0 b. C 1 1. RE. The reward-to-r isk ratio : 5.Rf IRR = Discount rate of req uir ed re turn suc h that the net present value of an inves tmen t is ze ro f3i 4.Taxes Co::..3] (Rr . 1J E(R 1) + X2 X E(Ru ) x + X" XI x E(R 2 ) + . Chapter 10 [14.

.~-4 " APPEND IX B Chapter 20 Requ ired return on eq uity.2 ] = '!C x D b .1) N um be r (If rights needed to buy a share of stoc k Old shares Th e Baumol-A llais-Tob in (B AT ) mo del: a.4] Th e cas h cycl e: Ca sh cycle = Ope rati ng cycle . With repea t b usiness : N PV = ..: : /.'" 1. b. " .RD) X (DIE) X( I . Valu e of a rig ht: Value of a right = Rights-on pr ice . [2Ll] . Th e size of receiv ables: "u Mod igl ian i-M il!er prop osition s (w ith taxes ): a.RD ) X (DI E) X [16.v) X (Q' . Pr oposit ion I: VL = b. " [21.8] R igh ts o fferings: a. ' '.4 J Chapte r 19 2.si :. Th e o ptimal ini tial cash balance: C* = V(2 T b. : r. ". [19.111 .. .' - ' .' PV = [(P . T he upper limit: U* = 3 X C* . [20A. N umber of ne w sha res : N umber of new shares Fun ds to be ra ised S ubsc ription pri ce .' a.Q) c. .Accounts payab le pe riod ". Average daily float: Weighted av erage flotation co st.81 [21.rig hts pr ice l.If " [20A.3] [17." I • .7C ) [17. Opp ortunity cos ts: Opportu nity costs = (C/2 ) X R b.[PQ + v(Q' .3] I.2 X L . [15.6.Q)I R [19.' I ~ Chapter 21 :hapter 17 ~. Value of the interest tax sh ie ld: Val ue o f the interest ta x shield = ('!C X R D X D)I RD F)I R . . Trad ing co sts: Tr ad ing cos ts = (Ti C) X F c. Ave rage daily float: Requ ired return on preferred stoc k.Q)J + (P .6] :hapte r 16 I. Key Equatio ns ~E X (R M - Rf) [15.2] Average dai ly floa t = [15.-rr )(P .1: 3. Propo s itio n I: VL = Vu + '!C X D c. With no rep eat busi ness : 1.v)I R 4. Prop o sition II: R£ = R u + (R u . • . . RE (C APM ): Rt = Rf + t.31 . Tot al cost: To ta l cost = Oppo rtuni ty cos ts + Tradin g cos ts d. T he Miller -Orr mode l: a. R»: R p = DIP o I. Acco unts receivable = Aver age dail y sa les X ACP 2. NPV of gr an ting credit: a. To tal restockin g cos ts: Total restockin g co sts = Fixed cos t per o rder X Nu mb er o f orders = F X (TI Q) . NP V o f sw itching credit term s: a. Th e opt imal cas h balan ce : I C" = L + (3/4 X F X a 2I R)I /3 b. To ta l carry ing cos ts: Tot al carry ing cos ts = Aver age inve nto ry X C arryin g co sts per unit = (QI2) X CC b. " [20l\ AY'" [20K.9j [21. Numb er of righ ts needed: New shares -r0ta l float Total days -2-:. M odi gli ani -M iller Pro posi tions (no taxes): a.101 [21. T he weight ed av er age co st o f cap ital (WACC): WAC C = (EI V) X ( 1 .1] [17.v)(Q' . Present value of swi tc hing : [ 17.v + ( I . [:ioj]\ [16. . ".v + (1 . .4] [2i4 r " [21.Tc) x R E + (DI V ) X RD 2.'~. Float mea sure men t: [21.5 ] NPV = .-rr )PI ( 1 + R) b. Th e operating cycl e : O pe rating cy cle = Invento ry period + Acc o unts rece ivable peri od 3. D JA= \iX f£ + V X fD ..fA : E . .Q) J/R b..Ex.~':'::"::"::': Average dail y float = Average daily receip ts X Weigh ted averag e dela y [15. . Cost of sw itching : Cos t of sw itching = PQ + v(Q' .2) c. NPV of switch ing : NPV of switching = . T he eco no m ic o rde r quantity (EOQ) model : a. Propo sition II : R£ = RA + (RA .~ 1.

Related Interests

f: .200 1.702 2.761 12.419 1.311 1.811 2.166 1.261 7..948 38.331 1..468 14.642 2.124 1.076 8.340 1.226 4.666 3.137 5.643 1.313 2.611 1.094 2.873 1.082 1.599 10.127 1.759 4.105 11 12 13 14 15 .051 1.161 1.158 1.513 1.149 1.697 3.150 1.210 1. 18% 20% .094 1.617 3.278 3.140 1.919 40.400 1.288 1.225 1.996 4.191 2.082 1.580 2.254 1.594 1..898 2.243 I .623 10.595 5. 3.370 237 .772 1.020 1.690 8.925 1.3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10% 12% 14% 15% 16% 1.010 1.195 2.130 6.717 5.063 13.' .950 66.061 1.732 1.613 9.714 1.710 1.062 1.646 8.300 5.539 1.916 10.839 15.219 1.276 1.070 1.463 16.728 6.350 6.116 6.120 1.605 1.066 3.579 2.474 4.410 2.801 1.358 2. L .707 2.870 3.100 1.999 2.172 1.214 27.172 2.762 1.300 1.012 2.612 10.960 50.159 3.813 3.192 1.172 2.754 2.720 2.232 16.949 2.393 18.587 1. .294 1.796 1.030 1.252 3.748 12.102 1.411 2.386 4.504 1.426 1.973 7.952 3.176 7.407 2.887 5.060 1.384 1.461 14.479 3.452 3.183 2.426 3.160 1.677 1.482 1.260 1.287 8.262 1.403 1.601 1.560 6.348 1.652 5.186 3.623 31.191 1.363 4.159 1.107 1.046 2.974 2.106 2..380 3.641 2.305 ' 1.056 13.344 .854 3.268 17.850 143.268 1.518 4.338 1.561 1.728 2.100 1.405 1.469 1..759 2.464 1.196 1.689 1.050 1.220 1.806 2.797: 4.194 1.126 1.059 3.791 1.469 1.700 3.138 4.180 1.026 1.116 1.292 2.282 1.

Cash flow from assets = Oper atin g cash flow (OCF) ­ Net capital spending . Th e long-term debt ratio: a . Cash -flow to s tockho lders = D ividends paid . t' .! . [3.15J [3.Total equity Total assets [3.16J B-1 .4 J Interval measure Curr ent asse ts Average daily operating cost s I. Th e ave rage days' sales in inve ntory: 365 days Inventory turnover r· i i. QUIC ratio 1 7.8J i ha p t er 3 The cu rrent ratio : Curre nt assets C urr ent rat io = Cu rren t liabili ties The qui ck or acid-test ratio: = Curre nt assets .3] [3.14J .2 ] The cas h flow ide ntity: Cash flow from assets = Cash flow to creditors + Cash flow to stoc kho lders Total debt ratio .­ nterest ! fr Days ' sales in inventory ·The cash ratio: Cash Cash ra tio = . .15 .. Th e cash coverag e ratio: Cash coverage ratio EBIT + Depr eciation Intere st 12.6J Debt-equi ty ratio = Total deb t/Total eq uity [3. Cash flow to creditors = Interest paid .Inventory Current lia bilities ---------=-~"-- [3..-... Th e equity multiplier: [2.9] : I: j! [3.k . The day s' sale s in receivables: [3.3] where: Equ ity multiplie r = Total asse ts/Total equity s• i.5J Days' sales in receivables 365 days Receivables turn over 16. T he net working capital (NWC) turno ver ratio: Sale s NW C turnover = NWC i ' [3. The total debt ratio: The balance sheet identity or equ ation : Assets = Liabilities + Sh areh olders' equity [2. The debt-equity ratio: [2.11J : Ii f( I : .10J 11.I [3.1] [3. T he rece ivables turnover ratio : Th e ratio of net working ca pital to to tal asse ts: Net worki ng cap ital to total asset s = Net worki ng capi tal Total assets T he interval measure: 10.2 J " .Net new borrowing c. . Th e inventory turn over ratio: In ventory turnover Cost of goo ds sold Invent ory 13. Re ceiva ble s turno ver Sal es Accounts receivable [3.­ Curr ent liabilities Long-term debt ratio Long-term debt Long-term deb t + Total equi ty .IJ T he income state ment eq uation: Revenues .. 9.12J t i. I' " I.Expenses = Income I ! .Net new equity raised .13] :' ~.I~e y E u ations :hapter 2 6.7J i 8. II 14.Taxes (2) Net capital spe nding = End ing n et fixed assets ­ Beginning net fixed asse ts + Depreciation (3) Ch ange in net working capital = Ending NW C . The times interest earn ed (TIE) ratio : EBIT T imes interes t earned rat io = -1. I I I' i' fI" [3. Total assets .Beginnin g NWC b. [3.1' I.Change in net working capital (NW C) (l) Opera ting cash flow = Earn ings before interest and taxes (EBIT ) + Depreci ation . [3. [3.

Net inco me R eturn on equity = Total equi ty =C x Price per sh are PE ratio = --~---­ Earni ngs pe r sh are [3. Th e internal gro wth rate: = Ord inary annuity value [6. and (4) a y ield of r per period: Bon d value T he sustainable growth rate : = C X [ I ..: ..~.2 4] 4. 2.5] [6..19] 3.23] 24 .boo k ratio . Presen t value of the face amoun t The Fisher effec t: Tot al asset turno ver .ROE X b [4.. . (2) a co upon of C paid per perio d. ._ I . [5. Th e pr ice-ea rnings (PE) rati o: • r)' = F V. l ~4-? :~.B.2] 5. [3.6] [ Chapter 7 1.I [6. } [4. Return on equ ity (ROE): I + PV X ( I 20.~:~~" [ [ / (1 Chapter 6 22. Th e present value of $ [ to be receiv ed r periods in the futu re at a discount rate of r: [3..1] 1')' . : [ 1/.­ Net fixed asse ts [3.2) Sal es Tot al asset turnover = . Sales Fixed asset turnover = ...1/ (1 RO E X b Su stainable gro wth rate = .-..3] R ~ r+h [7.­ [ ..-. + EAR = [I C hapter 4 .. : ?:. The to tal asset turnover ratio: .21] ' ~· ·~ f.17] 1. .2 0] .. [5 . -:.) X (I + h) [7.3] + 1')') Annui ty present va lue [3. Th e relati onship betwe en future value and present value (the basic present value equat ion) : PV Net incom e Return on assets = . The fixed as set turn over ratio: ../( l + r)' = FV.4] _~~ . T he m arket -to -book ratio: = 2. :-.­ Total asset s [3.ROA X b ~i " [6. = FY.­ Tot al asse ts 3.1J Bond va lue T he ca pital intens i ty ra tio: ...I = eq - [6..3] + r)'Jlr + F/ O -/. EAR Dividend payout ratio = Cash divide nds /Net income [4._ . . Th e present value of an annuity of C dollars per period for r periods when the rate of re turn or interest rate is r: 21. " +R= (J + /. RO A X b Inte rnal growt h rate = . where 111 is the number of times the interest is compounded du ring the year : 6. Return on as sets (ROA): 4.Present value factor) ( The future va lue factor for an annuity: M arke t-to.-.\ Presen t value for a perpetuity: 1..3] 1') [6. :: • _ ~.r)' = Presen t value + of the coupons . -~ .Sa les 2.­ Sales [3. where q stands for the continuously compounded quoted rate: + (Quo ted rate/m)] '" .:~ ' '-. . P rofi t margIn = .. x 1. .:. Profit margin : Net income . [7.1] X PV for a perpet uity = C/ r = C X (I / r) Ret urn on assets ROE = Profi t margin X Total ass et turn over X Equi ty m ul tipl ie r '~'-'r . (3) (peri ods to ma turity.4] Effective ann ual rate (EAR). + .r1:~ ·:':~:· __ " :' :"'~.1J 2. To tal assets C apita mten srty ratio = ..[J/r [3. _ M arket value per share Book value per share 3. Future va lue = $1 X ( I 18.2 APPENDIX B Key Equat ions Chapter 5 17.-. I' . Th e d ividen d payout rati o: .. Th e future value of $ [ inves ted for r periods at rate of r per per iod: 19. . T he Du Pon t ident ity: 1 . • .2 J Bo nd value if bond has ( J) a face value of F paid at maturity.22 ] 23.2] R = I' +h+r Xh [7.. 1 + r)'J I An nuity due value X (I ROE = Net inco me X _Sale s X Asse ts Sales Assets Equity I' Annuit y FV factor = (Future value facto r . Effec tive ann ual rate (E AR). C (1 .I)/ r = [(I + r)' . + • •_ .18 ) PV = $ [ X [1/(1 + r)'J = $[ / (1 + 1')' [5.

v) = Sto ck value [11. Rel ationship between operating cas h flow (OC F) a nd sales vo lume : Q = (FC + OCF)/ (P . 2.1] . C 1 = S.RtJ X f3i Valu e of a call option at maturi ty : = 0 if (S.--="---.­ Cos t of inves tme nt [E(RM) .) = Rf P V of cas h flo ws P rofitabili ty index = . Top-down approach to op eratin g ca sh flo w (OCF) : OCF = S ale s .Pre sent value of the e xe rci se price Co = So .4] [14.R)- + .E /(l + Rf ) A.. Chapt e r I I [14. Required ret urn: R = D1 /Po + g B-3 Q = (FC + OCF"') /( P . . So = Co + E /(l + Rf ) .3] [1 4.E if (SI . So [10 . The capita l asse t pricing model (CAP M): 6.. Co = So . Ca sh break-even level: Q = FC / (P - + i-) [11.v) 3.2J [14.v) 1. [13. = DJ/P o + g [15. Risk premi um = Ex pec ted return ..E/ (l + ~-r 2. .­ Average book value [13.Investment cos t YareR) = T _I + 2.4] FC /OC F C h apte r 9 Chapter 12 1. Req uired return o n equ ity.5] Value of a call that is ce rtain to finish in-the-money: Ca ll o ption value 1.g Financial break-even level: where [8.3] OCF * = Zero N PV ca sh flow 5. D isco unted pay back period : D iscounted payback pe riod = N umber of yea rs tha t pa ss be fore the su m o f an investme nt's discounted ca sh flo w s eq ual s the cos t o f the inv es tmen t 1.? I [(R . The div ide nd gr owt h m odel: Po = Do x (l Key Equati ons De gre e of o perating leverage (DO L) : DO L = I [8.Costs) X ( I . SD(R) or <J: Payback period = N umber of years that pass befo re the sum o f an in vestment's ca sh flows eq ual s the co st of the inv estme nt SD( R) = VVar(R) Chapte r 13 3.E ) ::. Bottom-up app roa c h to operating ca sh flow (OC F): OC F = Ne t income + De preciat ion [10.. Lowe r bound : Co 2: 0 if So ..C os ts . Var(R) o r u ": NPV = Present value of future cas h flows . 4. Accounting break-e ven le ve l: Q = (FC + D)/ (P .E < 0 Co 2: So . Paybac k per iod: .E ) > 0 a.1] 2. [1 2. + g) ~~ R -g R.E 2: 0 3.1] 2. 6 ] C ha pter 15 1.2J 3. Tax s hield app roach to o pe rating ca sh flow (OC F) : OCF = (Sales .APPENDIX B Chapter 8 4.2] 3. Inte rnal rate of return (IR R) : Re ward-to-risk ratio = E [R. Ne t prese nt va lue (NPV) : 1. Standa rd dev iatio n of ret urns.1) .3] b.R)2] 2. Uppe r bou nd : [10. Profit abil ity index: E(R.3] [14 . (divide nd gro w th model ): RE.Risk-free rate 2.T ) + D epreciatio n x T [13. Variance of returns.5] + [11. Bounds on the va lue of a call option : a. .7] C h a p t e r 14 1. The average accounting return (A A R) : Ri sk premium : E xpected return on a portfolio: E(Rp) = Average net income AAR = .] . .E if So ..-. 0 b. C 1 1. RE. The reward-to-r isk ratio : 5.Rf IRR = Discount rate of req uir ed re turn suc h that the net present value of an inves tmen t is ze ro f3i 4.Taxes Co::..3] (Rr . 1J E(R 1) + X2 X E(Ru ) x + X" XI x E(R 2 ) + . Chapter 10 [14.

.~-4 " APPEND IX B Chapter 20 Requ ired return on eq uity.2 ] = '!C x D b .1) N um be r (If rights needed to buy a share of stoc k Old shares Th e Baumol-A llais-Tob in (B AT ) mo del: a.4] Th e cas h cycl e: Ca sh cycle = Ope rati ng cycle . With repea t b usiness : N PV = ..: : /.'" 1. b. " .RD) X (DIE) X( I . Valu e of a rig ht: Value of a right = Rights-on pr ice . [2Ll] . Th e size of receiv ables: "u Mod igl ian i-M il!er prop osition s (w ith taxes ): a.RD ) X (DI E) X [16.v) X (Q' . Pr oposit ion I: VL = b. " [21.8] R igh ts o fferings: a. ' '.4 J Chapte r 19 2.si :. Th e o ptimal ini tial cash balance: C* = V(2 T b. : r. ". [19.111 .. .' - ' .' PV = [(P . T he upper limit: U* = 3 X C* . [20A. N umber of ne w sha res : N umber of new shares Fun ds to be ra ised S ubsc ription pri ce .' a.Q) c. .Accounts payab le pe riod ". Average daily float: Weighted av erage flotation co st.81 [21.rig hts pr ice l.If " [20A.3] [17." I • .7C ) [17. Opp ortunity cos ts: Opportu nity costs = (C/2 ) X R b.[PQ + v(Q' .3] I.2 X L . [15.6.Q)I R [19.' I ~ Chapter 21 :hapter 17 ~. Value of the interest tax sh ie ld: Val ue o f the interest ta x shield = ('!C X R D X D)I RD F)I R . . Trad ing co sts: Tr ad ing cos ts = (Ti C) X F c. Ave rage daily float: Requ ired return on preferred stoc k.Q)J + (P .6] :hapte r 16 I. Key Equatio ns ~E X (R M - Rf) [15.2] Average dai ly floa t = [15.-rr )(P .1: 3. Propo s itio n I: VL = Vu + '!C X D c. With no rep eat busi ness : 1.v)I R 4. Prop o sition II: R£ = R u + (R u . • . . RE (C APM ): Rt = Rf + t.31 . Tot al cost: To ta l cost = Oppo rtuni ty cos ts + Tradin g cos ts d. T he Miller -Orr mode l: a. R»: R p = DIP o I. Acco unts receivable = Aver age dail y sa les X ACP 2. NPV of gr an ting credit: a. To tal restockin g cos ts: Total restockin g co sts = Fixed cos t per o rder X Nu mb er o f orders = F X (TI Q) . NP V o f sw itching credit term s: a. Th e opt imal cas h balan ce : I C" = L + (3/4 X F X a 2I R)I /3 b. To ta l carry ing cos ts: Tot al carry ing cos ts = Aver age inve nto ry X C arryin g co sts per unit = (QI2) X CC b. " [20l\ AY'" [20K.9j [21. Numb er of righ ts needed: New shares -r0ta l float Total days -2-:. M odi gli ani -M iller Pro posi tions (no taxes): a.101 [21. T he weight ed av er age co st o f cap ital (WACC): WAC C = (EI V) X ( 1 .1] [17.v)(Q' . Present value of swi tc hing : [ 17.v + ( I . [:ioj]\ [16. . ".v + (1 . .4] [2i4 r " [21.Tc) x R E + (DI V ) X RD 2.'~. Float mea sure men t: [21.5 ] NPV = .-rr )PI ( 1 + R) b. Th e operating cycl e : O pe rating cy cle = Invento ry period + Acc o unts rece ivable peri od 3. D JA= \iX f£ + V X fD ..fA : E . .Q) J/R b..Ex.~':'::"::"::': Average dail y float = Average daily receip ts X Weigh ted averag e dela y [15. . Cost of sw itching : Cos t of sw itching = PQ + v(Q' .2) c. NPV of switch ing : NPV of switching = . T he eco no m ic o rde r quantity (EOQ) model : a. Propo sition II : R£ = RA + (RA .~ 1.

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