INTRODUCTION

Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines." The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence - the sapience of Homo sapiens - can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism, but has also suffered setbacks and, today, has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science. AI research is highly technical and specialized, and deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Subfields have grown up around particular institutions, the work of individual researchers, the solution of specific problems, longstanding differences of opinion about how AI should be done and the application of widely differing tools. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals.

HISTORY
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The history of artificial intelligence began in antiquity, with myths, stories and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen. The field of AI research was founded at a conference on the campus of Dartmouth College in the summer of 1956. The attendees including John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell and Herbert Simon, became the leaders of AI research for many decades. They and their students wrote programs that were, to most people, simply astonishing: computers were solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems and speaking English. By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U.S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defense and laboratories had been established around the world. AI's founders were profoundly optimistic about the future of the new field. Herbert Simon predicted that "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do" and Marvin Minsky agreed, writing that "within a generation the problem of creating 'artificial intelligence' will substantially be solved". In the early 1980s, AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems, a form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts.

By 1985 the market for AI had reached over a billion dollars. At the same time, Japan's fifth generation computer project inspired the U.S and British governments to restore funding for academic research in the field.
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However, beginning with the collapse of the Lisp Machine market in 1987, AI once again fell into disrepute, and a second, longer lasting AI winter began. On 11 May 1997, Deep Blue became the first computer chess-playing system to beat a reigning world chess champion, Garry Kasparov. In 2005, a Stanford robot won the DARPA Grand Challenge by driving autonomously for 131 miles along an unrehearsed desert trail. In February 2011, in a Jeopardy! quiz show exhibition match, IBM's question answering system, Watson, defeated the two greatest Jeopardy! champions, Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings, by a significant margin. AI applications are no longer the exclusive domain of Department of defense R&D, but are now common place consumer items and inexpensive intelligent toys. In common usage, the term "AI" no longer seems to apply to off-the-shelf solved computing-science problems, which may have originally emerged out of years of AI research.

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PROBLEMS The general problem of simulating (or creating) intelligence has been broken down into a number of specific sub-problems. neural net research attempts to simulate the structures inside human and animal brains that give rise to this skill. solving Reasoning. AI has made some progress at imitating this kind of "sub-symbolic" problem solving: embodied agent approaches emphasize the importance of sensor motor skills to higher reasoning. intuitive judgments rather than the conscious. most of algorithms can require enormous computational resources — most experience a "combinatorial explosion". These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers would like an intelligent system to display. Human beings solve most of their problems using fast. The amount of memory or computer time required becomes astronomical when the problem goes beyond a certain size. step-bystep deduction that early AI research was able to model. The search for more efficient problem solving algorithms is a high priority for AI research. The traits described below have received the most attention.  Deduction. 4 . Problem For problems.

 Planning Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them. sings. causes and effects. In classical planning problems. Almost nothing is simply true or false in the way that abstract logic requires. AI research has explored a number of solutions to this problem. if this is not true. John McCarthy identified this problem in 1969 as the qualification problem: for any commonsense rule that AI researchers care to represent. the agent can assume that it is the only thing acting on the world and it can be certain what the consequences of its actions may be. categories and relations between objects. states and time. None of these things are true about all birds. knowledge about knowledge and many other. properties. people typically picture an animal that is fist sized." For example. Among the things that AI needs to represent are: objects. there tend to be a huge number of exceptions. They need a way to visualize the future and be able to make choices that maximize the utility (or "value") of the available choices. situations. less well researched domains. it must periodically check if the world matches its predictions and it must change 5 . and flies. if a bird comes up in conversation. Knowledge Representation Many of the problems machines are expected to solve will require extensive knowledge about the world. However. Among the most difficult problems in knowledge representation are: Many of the things people know take the form of "working assumptions. events.

The mathematical analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is a branch of theoretical computer science known as computational learning theory. Classification is used to determine what category something belongs in. using concepts like utility.  Learning Machine learning has been central to AI research from the beginning. Natural language 6 . In 1956. requiring the agent to reason under uncertainty. Ray Solomonoff wrote a report on unsupervised probabilistic machine learning: "An Inductive Inference Machine". after seeing a number of examples of things from several categories.its plan as this becomes necessary. Regression takes a set of numerical input/output examples and attempts to discover a continuous function that would generate the outputs from the inputs. These can be analyzed in terms of decision theory. Supervised learning includes both classification and numerical regression. Unsupervised learning is the ability to find patterns in a stream of input. In reinforcement learning the agent is rewarded for good responses and punished for bad ones. at the Dartmouth AI summer conference.  Natural Language Processing ASIMO uses sensors and intelligent algorithms to avoid obstacles and navigate stairs.

mapping (learning what is around you) and motion planning (figuring out how to get there). with sub-problems of localization (knowing where you are).  Perception Machine perception is the ability to use input from sensors (such as cameras. Natural language understanding is sometimes referred to as an AI-complete problem because it seems to require extensive knowledge about the outside world and the ability to manipulate it. microphones. Many researchers hope that a sufficiently powerful natural language processing system would be able to acquire knowledge on its own. sonar and others more exotic) to deduce aspects of the world. Some straightforward applications of natural language processing include information retrieval (or text mining) and machine translation.processing gives machines the ability to read and understand the languages that humans speak.  Motion and Manipulation The field of robotics is closely related to AI. Natural language processing is a very attractive method of human–computer interaction. Computer vision is the ability to analyze visual input. A 7 . Intelligence is required for robots to be able to handle such tasks as object manipulation and navigation. by reading the existing text available over the internet.

it must be able to predict the actions of others. as well as the ability to model human emotions and the perceptual skills to detect emotions. facial recognition and object recognition. by understanding their motives and emotional states. for good human-computer interaction. First. A few believe that anthropomorphic features like artificial consciousness or an artificial brain may be required for such a project.  Social Intelligence Kismet. combining all the skills above and exceeding human abilities at most or all of them. A related area of computational research is Artificial Intuition and Artificial Imagination.) Also. At best. Emotion and social skills play two roles for an intelligent agent. it should have normal emotions itself. or systems that identify and assess creativity).  General Intelligence Most researchers hope that their work will eventually be incorporated into a machine with general intelligence (known as strong AI). At the very least it must appear polite and sensitive to the humans it interacts with. a robot with rudimentary social skills. decision theory. 8 .  Creativity A sub-field of AI addresses creativity both theoretically (from a philosophical and psychological perspective) and practically (via specific implementations of systems that generate outputs that can be considered creative. an intelligent machine also needs to display emotions.few selected sub-problems are speech recognition. (This involves elements of game theory.

know what is being talked about (knowledge). specific task like machine translation requires that the machine follow the author's argument (reason). 9 . therefore. For example.Many of the problems above are considered AIcomplete: to solve one problem. is believed to be AIcomplete: it may require strong AI to be done as well as humans can do it. and faithfully reproduce the author's intention (social intelligence). even a straightforward. you must solve them all. Machine translation.

A few of the most long standing questions that have remained unanswered are these: should artificial intelligence simulate natural intelligence. by studying psychology or neurology? Or is human biology as irrelevant to AI research as bird biology is to aeronautical engineering? Can intelligent behavior be described using simple. Grey Walter's turtles and the Johns Hopkins Beast. and cybernetics. Many of these researchers gathered for meetings of the Teleological Society at Princeton University and the Ratio Club in England. similar to words and ideas? Or does it require "sub-symbolic" processing? John Haugeland. although elements of it would be revived in the 1980s. Some of them built machines that used electronic networks to exhibit rudimentary intelligence. 10 .APPROACHES There is no established unifying theory or paradigm that guides AI research. such as W. who coined the term GOFAI. Cybernetics And Brain Simulation In the 1940s and 1950s. By 1960. information theory. this approach was largely abandoned. Researchers disagree about many issues. elegant principles (such as logic or optimization)? Or does it necessarily require solving a large number of completely unrelated problems? Can intelligence be reproduced using highlevel symbols. also proposed that AI should more properly be referred to as synthetic intelligence. a term which has since been adopted by some non-GOFAI researchers. a number of researchers explored the connection between neurology.

The research was centered in three institutions: CMU. progress in symbolic AI seemed to stall and many believed that symbolic systems would never be able to imitate all the processes of human cognition. rejected symbolic AI and focused on 1. learning and pattern recognition. Approaches based on cybernetics or neural networks were abandoned or pushed into the background. embodied. AI research began to explore the possibility that human intelligence could be reduced to symbol manipulation. 11 . Symbolic When access to digital computers became possible in the middle 1950s. especially perception.[92] By the 1980s. John Haugeland named these approaches to AI "good old fashioned AI" or "GOFAI" Types of symbolics are: • • • • Cognitive simulation Logic-based "Anti-logic" or "scruffy" Knowledge-based  Sub-Symbolic During the 1960s. such as Rodney Brooks. symbolic approaches had achieved great success at simulating high-level thinking in small demonstration programs. however. Bottom-up. behavior-based or nouvelle AI Researchers from the related field of robotics. Stanford and MIT. robotics. situated. and each one developed its own style of research. A number of researchers began to look into "subsymbolic" approaches to specific AI problems.

and they have been responsible for many of AI's recent successes. in the sense that their results are both measurable and verifiable. These and other sub-symbolic approaches. Computational Intelligence Interest in neural networks and "connectionism" was revived by David Rumelhart and others in the middle 1980s. Intelligent agent paradigm An intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions which maximizes its chances of success. economics or operations research). Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig describe this movement as nothing less than a "revolution" and "the victory of the neats. 2. such as fuzzy systems and evolutionary computation. The simplest intelligent agents are 12 . are now studied collectively by the emerging discipline of computational intelligence.the basic engineering problems that would allow robots to move and survive. These tools are truly scientific. AI researchers developed sophisticated mathematical tools to solve specific subproblems.  Statistical In the 1990s. The shared mathematical language has also permitted a high level of collaboration with more established fields (like mathematics.[93] Their work revived the nonsymbolic viewpoint of the early cybernetics researchers of the 50s and reintroduced the use of control theory in AI."  Integrating the Approaches 1. perception and visualization) are required for higher intelligence. This coincided with the development of the embodied mind thesis in the related field of cognitive science: the idea that aspects of the body (such as movement.

Agent architectures and cognitive architectures Researchers have designed systems to build intelligent systems out of interacting intelligent agents in a multiagent system. An agent that solves a specific problem can use any approach that works — some agents are symbolic and logical. More complicated agents include human beings and organizations of human beings (such as firms). where relaxed time constraints permit planning and world modelling. and its goals are all represented by sentences of some 13 . The paradigm also gives researchers a common language to communicate with other fields—such as decision theory and economics—that also use concepts of abstract agents. Rodney Brooks' subsumption architecture was an early proposal for such a hierarchical system 2. The paradigm gives researchers license to study isolated problems and find solutions that are both verifiable and useful.programs that solve specific problems. The intelligent agent paradigm became widely accepted during the 1990s. A hierarchical control system provides a bridge between sub-symbolic AI at its lowest. without agreeing on one single approach. TOOLS AND METHODS  Logical AI What a program knows about the world in general the facts of the specific situation in which it must act. reactive levels and traditional symbolic AI at its highest levels. A system with both symbolic and subsymbolic components is a hybrid intelligent system. some are sub-symbolic neural networks and others may use new approaches. and the study of such systems is artificial intelligence systems integration.

but new methods of non-monotonic inference have been 14 . it is often programmed to compare what it sees with a pattern. [McC89] is a more recent summary. a vision program may try to match a pattern of eyes and a nose in a scene in order to find a face. The first article proposing this was [McC59]. [Sha97] is an important text. or in the history of some event are also studied. e.g. Usually languages of mathematical logic are used. More complex patterns. For example. others can be inferred.  Search AI programs often examine large numbers of possibilities.g. These more complex patterns require quite different methods than do the simple patterns that have been studied the most. The program decides what to do by inferring that certain actions are appropriate for achieving its goals.  Inference From some facts. Mathematical logical deduction is adequate for some purposes. moves in a chess game or inferences by a theorem proving program. in a chess position. Discoveries are continually made about how to do this more efficiently in various domains.  Representation Facts about the world have to be represented in some way. in a natural language text.  Pattern Recognition When a program makes observations of some kind. [McC96b] lists some of the concepts involved in logical aI.mathematical logical language. e.

yet more new ideas are needed. The simplest kind of non-monotonic reasoning is default reasoning in which a conclusion is to be inferred by default. but this conclusion can be reversed when we hear that it is a penguin. we man infer that it can fly. but the conclusion can be withdrawn if there is evidence to the contrary.g. It is the possibility that a conclusion may have to be withdrawn that constitutes the non-monotonic character of the reasoning. While there has been considerable progress. e. in developing systems of non-monotonic reasoning and theories of action. [Mit97] is a 15 . For example. Ordinary logical reasoning is monotonic in that the set of conclusions that can the drawn from a set of premises is a monotonic increasing function of the premises.  Common Sense Reasoning Knowledge And This is the area in which AI is farthest from humanlevel. Circumscription is another form of nonmonotonic reasoning. The approaches to AI based on connectionism and neural nets specialize in that. when we hear of a bird. The Cyc system contains a large but spotty collection of common sense facts. in spite of the fact that it has been an active research area since the 1950s.  Learning From Experience Programs do that. There is also learning of laws expressed in logic.added to logic since the 1970s.

 Ontology Ontology is the study of the kinds of things that exist. Emphasis on ontology begins in the 1990s. may be more useful. From these. Programs can only learn what facts or behaviors their formalisms can represent. constitutes an advance toward the goal.comprehensive undergraduate text on machine learning. i. and unfortunately learning systems are almost all based on very limited abilities to represent information. they generate a strategy for achieving the goal. 16 .  Heuristics A heuristic is a way of trying to discover something or an idea imbedded in a program. Heuristic functions are used in some approaches to search to measure how far a node in a search tree seems to be from a goal.  Epistemology This is a study of the kinds of knowledge that are required for solving problems in the world. Heuristic predicates that compare two nodes in a search tree to see if one is better than the other. the programs and sentences deal with various kinds of objects. The term is used variously in AI.e. In the most common cases. facts about the particular situation and a statement of a goal. the strategy is just a sequence of actions.  Planning Planning programs start with general facts about the world (especially facts about the effects of actions). In AI. and we study what these kinds are and what their basic properties are.

17 . It is being developed by John Koza's group and here's a tutorial. Genetic Programming Genetic programming is a technique for getting programs to solve a task by mating random Lisp programs and selecting fittest in millions of generations.

where AI plays a significant and decisive role in engineering automation. its image should be passed through three basic processes: low. The phonetic typewriter. medium and high level vision . and fundamental and harmonic frequencies of each syllable. we mention here a few applications.  Speech and Understanding Natural Language In speech analysis. which prints the words pronounced by a person. For interpretation of a scene. 18 . is another recent invention where speech understanding is employed in a commercial application.APPLICATIONS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Almost every branch of science and engineering currently shares the tools and techniques available in the domain of artificial intelligence. the main problem is to separate the syllables of a spoken word and determine features like amplitude. A robot capable of understanding speech in a natural language will be of immense importance. However.  Image Understanding and Computer Vision A digital image can be regarded as a two-dimensional array of pixels containing gray levels corresponding to the intensity of the reflected illumination received by a video camera. The words then could be identified from the extracted features by pattern classification techniques. for the sake of the convenience.

Finding a sub-optimal solution is thus preferred for such scheduling problems. artificial neural nets and genetic algorithms have been employed to solve this problem.  Games Playing Programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers . the existing techniques for controller design no longer remain valid.  Intelligent Control In process control. Rule-based control is appropriate in such situations.while it is possible to instruct some computers using speech.  Scheduling In a scheduling problem. You can buy machines that can play master level chess for a few hundred dollars. 19 . To beat a world champion by brute force and known reliable heuristics requires being able to look at 200 million positions per second. When the dynamics of the plant is not completely known. Flowshop scheduling problems are a NP complete problem and determination of optimal scheduling (for minimizing the make-span) thus requires an exponential order of time with respect to both machine-size and job-size. to be discussed shortly. but they play well against people mainly through brute force computation looking at hundreds of thousands of positions. has also been used for handling this problem. Recently. There is some ai in them. the controller is designed from the known models of the process and the required control objective. The heuristic search. one has to plan the time schedule of a set of events to improve the time efficiency of the solution.

which diagnosed bacterial infections of the blood and suggested treatments. It did better than medical students or practicing doctors. When this turned out not to be so. manufacture and application of robots. How well this works depends on whether the intellectual mechanisms required for the task are within the present state of AI. biological nervous system is highly complex: artificial neural network algorithms attempt to abstract this complexity and focus on what may hypothetically matter most from an information processing point of view. One of the first expert systems was MYCIN in 1974. and software 20 . there were many disappointing results. mechanics. construction. Robotics is related to the sciences of electronics. or for solving artificial intelligence problems without necessarily creating a model of a real biological system. engineering. provided its limitations were observed. structural disposition. Expert Systems A ``knowledge engineer'' interviews experts in a certain domain and tries to embody their knowledge in a computer program for carrying out some task. operation.  Neural Networks Artificial neural networks may either be used to gain an understanding of biological neural networks. The real.  Robotics Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design.

Car have capability to park itself without driver’s help. 21 .. his record of payment and also about the item he is buying and about the establishment from which he is buying it (e.g. Driverless Car A driverless car is a vehicle equipped with an autopilot system. An example is advising whether to accept a proposed credit card purchase. which is capable of driving from one point to another without input from a human operator.  Heuristic Classification One of the most feasible kinds of expert system given the present knowledge of AI is to put some information in one of a fixed set of categories using several sources of information. Information is available about the owner of the credit card. about whether there have been previous credit card frauds at this establishment).

Expert systems differ from conventional programs both in the way problem knowledge is stored and used. or reasoning. and how the knowledge used to make those inferences will be represented inside the machine. problem-solving knowledge is encoded in program logic and programresident data structures.EXPERT SYSTEM Expert Systems are computer programs that are derived from a branch of computer science research called Artificial Intelligence (AI). especially if this knowledge and experience cannot be easily transferred. AI's scientific goal is to understand intelligence by building computer programs that exhibit intelligent behavior. Expert systems are especially important to organizations that rely on people who possess specialized knowledge of some problem domain. Artificial intelligence methods and techniques have been applied to a broad range of problems and disciplines. 22 . It is concerned with the concepts and methods of symbolic inference. by a computer. some of which are esoteric and others which are extremely practical. Expert systems aim to mimic human reasoning. The methods and techniques used to build these programs are the outcome of efforts in a field of computer science known as Artificial intelligence In conventional computer programs.

The help desk of a computer facility lends itself to implementation as an Expert Assistant.EXAMPLES OF PROBLEMS WHERE AN EXPERT ASSISTANT MAY HELP  Productivity Bottlenecks result where there is only one or a few experienced personnel who spend much of their time helping others rather than applying their expertise to future planning or higher level tasks. the knowledge will be made available in more than . all users in an organisation can have access to the knowledge. One location at a time. An Expert Assistant can reduce the demands on their time as well as raising the knowledge level of the junior employees.  Diagnosis Of Problems Many diagnostic systems have been implemented as Expert Systems. Manuals of policy.  Distribution of policy. Moreover. procedures or regulations are often daunting to many employees. and when and where needed. As the information 23 . Routinely occurring problems can have solutions suggested by the Expert Assistant. knowledge or information With an Expert Assistant. Relevant facts can be gathered about the problem by clerical staff and the system can recommend the person most able to cope with that type of problem.

These documents are easily represented as a knowledge base. Having the knowledge captured in a central location improves the ease and speed with which these manuals can be updated. there is an increased probability of incorrect information being given to clients because the information is so difficult or time consuming to locate.  Loss of expertise from employee turnover or retirement Long serving employees take expertise from the company when they retire. 24 .becomes more complex. Developing an Expert System can retain this expertise which would otherwise be lost.

Provide a high potential payoff or significantly reduced downside risk Capture and expertise preserve irreplaceable human 2. 3.WHEN TO USE AN EXPERT SYSTEM 1. Provide expertise needed at a number of locations at the same time or in a hostile environment that is dangerous to human health 4. Develop a solution faster than human experts can 6. Provide expertise that is expensive or rare 5. Provide expertise needed for training and development to share the wisdom of human experts with a large number of people 25 .

If there is a maze of rules (e. but human experts may  Many copies of an expert system can be made.g. Development and maintenance costs can be spread over many users. It is Cost savings: -Wages (elimination of a room full of clerks) -Other costs (minimize loan loss)  Consistency With expert systems similar transactions handled in the same way.ADVANTAGES OF EXPERT SYSTEMS  Permanence Reproducibility but and and the Expert systems do not forget. tax auditing). then the expert system can "unravel" maze  Efficiency Expert system can increase throughput and decrease personnel costs.  Documentation permanent An expert system can provide documentation of the decision process 26 . they are inexpensive to operate. Although expert systems are expensive to build and maintain. The system will make comparable recommendations for like situations. The overall cost can be quite reasonable when compared to expensive and scarce human experts. training new human experts is time-consuming expensive. Humans are influenced by recency effects and primacy effects.

an expert system can differentiate a product or can be related to the focus of the firm. a human expert can only review a sample  Timeliness Fraud and/or errors can be prevented. Information is available sooner for decision making  Breadth The knowledge of multiple human experts can be combined to give a system more breadth that a single person is likely to achieve  Entry barriers Expert systems can help a firm create entry barriers for potential competitors  Differentiation In some cases. Computer programs are best in those situations where there is a structure that is noted as previously existing or can be elicited 27 . Completeness An expert system can review all the transactions.

expert systems updated. human experts have common sense.  Degradation Expert systems are not good at recognizing when no answer exists or when the problem is outside their area of expertise. 28 .  Creativity Human experts can respond creatively to unusual situations. Human experts automatically environments.  Learning adapt to changing must be explicitly and neural networks learning. expert systems cannot. It is not yet known how to give expert systems common sense. Case-based reasoning are methods that can incorporate  Sensory Experience Human experts have available to them a wide range of sensory experience. expert systems are currently dependent on symbolic input.DISADVANTAGES OF EXPERT SYSTEMS  Common Sense In addition to a great deal of technical knowledge.

The business applicability of AI techniques is spread across functions ranging from finance management to forecasting and production. etc. customer buying habits. unknown patterns/relationships in sales data. 29 . within the corporate world. Business applications utilise the specific technologies to try and make better sense of potentially enormous variability (for example. The field of ecommerce can be classified as B2C e-commerce and B2B e-commerce. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence. but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable.APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL IN BUSINESS AND COMMERCE WORLD Are e-commerce and e-business having relation with Artificial Intelligence or AI? AI is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines. solving real-world scheduling problems and enhancing servers’ scalability. and decisions on bundling and pricing of goods. However. AI is used primarily for product selection and recommendation. generating automated responses. auctions. AI is widely used for complex problem-solving and decision-support techniques in real-time business applications. Then. in terms of AI techniques involved in this field. what about the relation between e-business. In B2C e-commerce. negotiation. especially intelligent computer programs. e-commerce. AI is used mainly for supply chain management. and so on). and AI? AI techniques are extensively used in the development of e-commerce systems. In B2B e-commerce.

 ARTIFICIAL BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE (AI) IN Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been used in business applications since the early eighties. However. using fixed programmed rules. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human 30 . things get more difficult. finds solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. computers have trouble understanding specific situations. the application of AI techniques in real-time business applications has picked up substantially in the recent past. As with all technologies.  IMPORTANCE INTELLIGENCE OF ARTIFICIAL (AI) Enterprises that utilize AI-enhanced applications are expected to become more diverse. Artificial Intelligence aims to improve machine behavior in tackling such complex tasks. which humans are ill-suited to. with the advent of web-enabled infrastructure and rapid strides made by the AI development community. AI initially generated much interest. Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines. For more complex problems. Unlike humans. but failed to live up to the hype. fraud detection and customer relationship management emerge as key business drivers to gain competitive advantage. Computers are fundamentally well suited to performing mechanical computations. and adapting to new situations. This allows artificial machines to perform simple monotonous tasks efficiently and reliably. as the needs for the ability to analyze data across multiple variables.

At this point. 31 . and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendly way. Increase productivity by eliminating downtime due to unpredictable changes in the schedule.  ADVANTAGES 1. Compared to a biological mind. an artificial mind is only capable of taking in a small amount of information.intelligence. Because we feel what is going on with our own bodies.  DISADVANTAGES Limited sensory input. 2. This is because of the need for individual input devices. The most important input that we humans take is the condition of our bodies. 3. it is unclear whether that would be possible with a computer-system. we can maintain them much more efficiently than an artificial mind. Artificial Intelligence can optimize your schedule beyond normal human capabilities. Increase efficiency and quality by using optimal settings from past production.

This is not always the best way to make decisions. 32 .  Unemotional problems.  Copied very easily Once an artificial mind is trained in a task. compared to the training of multiple people for the same task. here are some advantages Artificial intelligence would not need any sleep.ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Without getting into too many technical specifics. that mind can then be copied very easily. sometimes those decisions are based on emotion rather than logic. This would be an advantage because it would not be interrupted from its tasks for sleep. as well as other issues that plague biological minds like restroom breaks and eating. it would be better for performance if it were programmed for unemotional reasoning. When people make decisions. consideration of While an artificial mind could theoretically have emotions.

most biological systems can continue normally with only a small drop in performance. For minor conditions. we will have to deal with serious issues like unemployment in turn leading to mental depression.  Replacement of Human If robots start replacing human resources in every field. At this point. Because we feel what is going on with our own bodies. we can maintain them much more efficiently than an artificial mind. The most important input that we humans take in is the condition of our bodies. it is unclear whether that would be possible with a computer system. an artificial mind is only capable of taking in a small amount of information. 33 . often need to be shut down for maintenance. on the other hand.  The Inability to Heal.There are some disadvantages to the artificial mind as well –  Limited Sensory Input Compared to a biological mind. Human beings deprived of their work life may not find any means to channelize their energies and harness their expertise. poverty and crime in the society. Biological systems can heal with time and treatment. This is because of the need for individual input devices. Human beings will be left with empty time. Most computer systems.

But will we be able to make them feel? 34 . There are many jobs that require the human touch. We might be able to make them think.  Cannot Be ‘Human’ One of the major disadvantages of intelligent machines is that they cannot be ‘human’. Intelligent machines will surely not be able to substitute for the caring behaviour of hospital nurses or the promising voice of a doctor. Intelligent machines may not be the right choice for customer service. Absence of Human Touch Replacing human beings with robots in every field may not be a right decision to make.

AI. Indeed. Artificial Intelligence is a common topic in both science fiction and projections about the future of technology and society. Thus. and adding voicerecognition capabilities to applications all employ AI theories and methods. these concepts are verging on ubiquity in software applications programming. they have found more receptive audiences among corporate decision-makers and private investors for their Al-inspired technologies. flexible software. Such disparate objectives as building a customer order system." As a result. designing a sophisticated search engine. in name.THE FUTURE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In spite of its great advances and strong promise. has suffered from low esteem in both academic and corporate settings. many developers of Al theories and applications consciously shun the moniker. while the practices and ideas known as Al are hardly dead. the name itself is drifting toward obscurity. In avoiding the label Al. it has lost many of its distinctions from software generally. Furthermore. and data-mining tools. Ford Motor Company was slated to implement an engine-diagnostic neural network in its car computers beginning in the 2001 model year. implementing a self-diagnostic manufacturing system.AI unfavourably associated with impractical chess playing computers and recluse professors trying to build a "thinking machine. but also as a consequence of the diversity and heterogeneity of ways in which Al concepts have been implemented. This is true not only because of the perceived stigma. preferring instead to use the newer jargon of fuzzy applications. The existence of an artificial intelligence that rivals human intelligence raises 35 . With Al so entrenched in modern software development.

robotics and other forms of automation will ultimately result in significant unemployment as machines begin to match and exceed the capability of workers to perform most routine and repetitive jobs. Joseph Weizenbaum wrote that AI applications can not. and the potential power of the technology inspires both hopes and fears. "Knight Rider").I. an assassin (Terminator). an extension to human abilities (Ghost in the Shell) and the savior of the human race (R. a law enforcer (K. could it also feel? If it can feel. Blade Runner and A. a comrade (Lt. making it more feasible to outsource knowledge work. although many critics believe that the discussion is premature. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein considers a key issue in the ethics of artificial intelligence: if a machine can be created that has intelligence.[155] The subject is profoundly discussed in the 2010 documentary film Plug & Pray. AI-based applications may also be used to amplify the capabilities of low-wage offshore workers. a dictator (With Folded Hands). in which humanoid machines have the ability to feel human emotions. Commander Data in Star Trek: The Next Generation). a sentient race (Battlestar Galactica/Transformers). In fiction. a conqueror/overlord (The Matrix).: Artificial Intelligence. for example. now known as "robot rights". Daneel Olivaw in the Asimov's Robot Series). successfully simulate genuine human empathy and that the use of AI technology in fields such as customer service or psychotherapy was 36 . Artificial Intelligence has appeared fulfilling many roles. California's Institute for the Future.difficult ethical issues. does it have the same rights as a human? The idea also appears in modern science fiction. including a servant (R2D2 in Star Wars).T. Ford predicts that many knowledge-based occupations and in particular entry level jobs will be increasingly susceptible to automation via expert systems and other AI-enhanced applications. is currently being considered by.T. by definition.I.[156] Martin Ford and others argue that specialized artificial intelligence applications. including the films I Robot. This issue.

called transhumanism. as she calls it. Ray Kurzweil has used Moore's law which describes the relentless exponential improvement in digital technology." an idea first proposed by Samuel Butler's "Darwin among the Machines" (1863). has been illustrated in fiction as well. Many futurists believe that artificial intelligence will ultimately transcend the limits of progress.deeply misguided. and expanded upon by George Dyson in his book of the same name in 1998. cyberneticist Kevin Warwick and inventor Ray Kurzweil have predicted that humans and machines will merge in the future into cyborgs that are more capable and powerful than either. to calculate that desktop computers will have the same processing power as human brains by the year 2029. for example in the manga Ghost in the Shell and the sciencefiction series Dune. Robot designer Hans Moravec. which has roots in Aldous Huxley and Robert Ettinger. 37 . Pamela McCorduck writes that all these scenarios are expressions of the ancient human desire to. He also predicts that by 2045 artificial intelligence will reach a point where it is able to improve itself at a rate that far exceeds anything conceivable in the past. To Weizenbaum these points suggest that AI research devalues human life. Edward Fredkin argues that "artificial intelligence is the next stage in evolution. "forge the gods". This idea. a scenario that science fiction writer Vernor Vinge named the "singularity". Weizenbaum was also bothered that AI researchers (and some philosophers) were willing to view the human mind as nothing more than a computer program (a position now known as computationalism).

INDEX S. no 38 . No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Particulars Introduction History Problems Approaches Tools And Methods Applications Of Artificial Intelligence Expert System Examples Of Problems Where An Expert Assistant May Help When To Use An Expert System Advantages Of Expert Systems Disadvantages Of Expert Systems Application Of Artificial In Business And Commerce World Advantages And Disadvantages Of Artificial Intelligence The Future Of Artificial Intelligence Pg.