I.

Something that I have learned
I have learned more about ESP. ESP is used or taught to enable students to learn and communicate. Materials (Candlin & Been) – Refers to any published or unpublished data in any medium or collection of media used for the purpose of language teaching and learning. There are four (4) main issues to consider in materials. 1. In what ways should materials be appropriate to the teaching situation and to the curriculum in which they are use? 2. What should be the content of the materials? 3. What teaching learning activities should the materials promote? 4. What new directions are available for materials design? My answer to the questions: 1. We must evaluate the materials and make sure it is appropriate for the teaching situation and it should be affordable. 2. First, you must plan in order for you to know what’s the proper content you will going to put, and if you will going to look or get some information in books, or internet, you must look for other resources, and we must evaluate our students for us to know if they can cope up with the specific topic. 3. It should be interactive; there should be an interaction between the teacher and the students. 4. It should be accurate for the objectives, the materials should be reachable. Sub issues/ concerns that we also consider 1. Putting materials in their place – You have to understand what extent materials are sensitive to teaching situation in which they are to be use. 1. Make sure that the materials are appropriate to the particular language teaching curriculum within which they are supposed to serve as a resource. – Usefulness and applicability of the materials make sure that they are ideal unless they are adopted and situationalize. – Make sure that the materials are appropriate for the teaching situation. The materials will always undergo processes of reinterpretation by the different uses of the materials. Every language teaching situation reflects certain socio-cultural selected educational aims and ideas. Language teaching is used to serve the individual within the content of the state and the needs.

II. Something that I have questions about

. Otto Jespersen. III. because I’m satisfied on what we had discussed in our class. and David Nunan. I trust the source. What is General English? If there is difference between ESP and General English? What is the difference between syllabus and curriculum? I want to know more about the theory of Henry Allen. Dudley Evans. Something I still want to know • • • • I want to know where the ESP begins and was originated.I have no more further questions.

• Hutchinson and Waters (1987) – • "ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to content and method are based on the learner's reason for learning“ Strevens' (1988) Absolute characteristics: – Designed to meet specified needs of the learner .English for Specific Purpose “Reflection Journal” Submitted to: Mr.Something that I have learned I have understood that ESP is very important especially to us future educator to know and give what our students needs./Section: 3SED-3 I. Christian Hernandez Submitted by: Trisha Castillo Yr.

Science). ESP is centered on the language Variable Characteristics – – – – – ESP may be related to or designed for specific disciplines. Most ESP courses assume some basic knowledge of the language system. ESP makes use of the underlying methodology. ESP is likely to be designed for adult learners. ESP is not different in kind from any other form of language teaching. Variable characteristics: – – • Restricted as to the language skills to be learned Not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology. ESP makes use of the underlying methodology. Dudley-Evans & St.– – – What is ESP? Related in content Centered on the language appropriate to activities. in that it should be based on principles of effective and efficient learning. CATEGORIES OF ESP \ David Carter (1983) identifies three categories of ESP: • English as a restricted language . ESP is centered on the language Variable characteristics: – – • Restricted as to the language skills to be learned Not taught according to any pre-ordained methodology. In contrast with general English. What ESP is not • ESP is not a matter of teaching specialized varieties of English language.g. John (2001 revision) Absolute Characteristics – – – ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner. • • ESP is not just a matter of words and grammar used by a certain fields (e. Dudley-Evans & St. ESP is generally designed for intermediate or advanced students. John (2001 revision) Absolute Characteristics – – ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learner. ESP may use a different methodology from that of general English.

• Inclusion/Push-In – – ESOL teacher co-teaches in regular classroom Personalities must work together and must treat as equals • • Bilingual Education Immersion Education Bilingual Education • Early-Exit Transitional – Makes efficient use of limited bilingual teachers by concentrating them at early grades. Issues Addressed in ESP Program Planning • • • • • • Stakeholders in the Class or Project Available Teachers Authenticity Issues Assessment Students' Analysis Formulation of Goals and Objectives of the Course Preparing an ESP Program • • • • Conceptualizing the Content Selecting and Developing ESP Materials Course Planning Evaluating the Course PROGRAM MODELS • Submersion – – • No support given: Sink or Swim Likely a violation of students' civil rights Newcomers Programs – – Sometimes a separate facility May not have access to mainstream activities/social groups • Sheltered Instruction – – Can be for full-day (elementary) or separate classes May create “segregated” setting with little peer language interaction • Pull-Out ESOL – – Teachers should be ESOL endorsed.• • English for Academic and Occupational Purposes English with specific topics. . May marginalize students when pulled out of “fun” or helpful activities: ESOL teachers and classrooms often underfunded.

Students score at or above norm of English speakers in monolingual English programs in tests of reading and mathematics.g. • Submersion with Primary Language Support – Provides some support and access to comprehensible input. Supports bilingual students who have been mainstreamed. Students with different primary languages in the same class. • Canadian French Immersion – – Students achieve a high level of fluency in second language. Immersion Education • ELD (English Language Development)/ESL (English as a Second Language) PullOut – – • Students with different primary languages can be in the same class. Navajo) – Programs shaped and supported by local people with authority to mold social environment of the school . 1998). Late-Exit Transitional / Developmental or Maintenance – – Encourages proficient bilingual students Strong promotion of students’ primary language literacy skills not only develops a conceptual foundation for academic growth but also communicates clearly to students’ value of the cultural and linguistic resources they bring to school (Cummins. • Indigenous Language Immersion (e.– • Maintains native language oral fluency. Evaluations indicate effectiveness in promoting academic achievement and high levels of language proficiency for both groups of students. 1998). Teachers do not need to be fluent in primary language(s) of students. Structured Immersion – – Allows for English content instruction for intermediate ELLs. Integrated TBE – – Increases academic and social contact of minority and majority students through integrated classrooms. • Dual language Immersion (aka two-way bilingual) – – Students learn language and acquire positive cross-cultural attitudes from each other and teachers. Bilingual Education • Bilingual Immersion – • Appears to improve language arts achievement compared to transitional bilingual programs (Brisk.

II. I’m satisfied on how they execute the report. III. because I’m satisfied on what we had discussed in our class. I trust the source. Something that I have questions about I have no more further questions. Something I still want to know It’s a clear discussion. English for Specific Purpose “Reflection Journal” . for me.

/Section: 3SED-3 . Christian Hernandez Submitted by: Trisha Castillo Yr.Submitted to: Mr.