Preparation of pH buffer solutions

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Preparation of pH buffer solutions
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Phosphate and Acetate buffers
The different names for phosphate salts. Standardization buffers pH 4 and pH 7. Ph range of some buffer systems. Making up buffer solutions by adding an adjuster solution (acid or base) to a known volume and concentration of a primary salt solution. Potassium hydrogen phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, potassium hydrogen phthalate, sodium acetate,sodium tetraborate, tris aminomethane.

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Analysis Buffers

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The preparation of pH buffer solutions acetate buffers phosphate buffers solid mixture buffers

Phosphates
Phosphate salts are known by several names and the correct phosphate must be used to prepare buffer solutions. One phosphate cannot be substituted for another phosphate. Check formula of salt to be certain.
Formula Name of salt Other names

potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate monobasic potassium phosphate potassium dihydrogen KH2PO4 monopotassium phosphate phosphate acid potassium phosphate potassium biphosphate dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate potassium hydrogen dipotassium hydrogen phosphate phosphate dibasic potassium phosphate dipotassium phosphate potassium phosphate tribasic potassium phosphate tripotassium phosphate

K2HPO4

K3PO4

Standardization buffers
For pH=7.00 : Add 29.1 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH to 50 ml 0.1 molar potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Alternatively : Dissolve 1.20g of sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 0.885g of disidium hydrogen phosphate in 1 liter volume distilled water. For pH= 4.00 : Add 0.1 ml of 0.1 molar NaOH to 50 ml of 0.1 molar potassium hydrogen phthalate . Alternatively : Dissolve 8.954g of disodium hydrogen phosphste.12 H2O and 3.4023g of potassium dihydrogen phosphate in 1 liter volume distilled water.

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00 8.6 4.2 8.2 2.5.0 5.11.3 .3.2 3.6.2 .9.1 .11.6 7.10.8.0 .0 .6 2.0 .13.2011 16:07 .6 .8.0 2 von 5 14.8 .50megs.9 12.60 .9.0 5.2.1 .00 6.0 .0 11.7 9.5.10.html Range of common buffer systems ¹ Buffering system Hydrochloric acid/ Potassium chloride Glycine/ Hydrochloric acid Potassium hydrogen phthalate/ Hydrochloric acid Citric acid/ Sodium citrate Sodium acetate/ Acetic acid Potassium hydrogen phtaalate/ Sodium hydroxide Disodium hydrogen phthalate / Sodium dihydrogen orthophospate Dipotassium hydrogen phthalate / Potassium dihydrogen orthophospate Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate / sodium hydroxide Barbitone sodium / Hydrochloric acid Tris (hydroxylmethyl) aminomethane / Hydrochloric acid Sodium tetraborate/ Hydrochloric acid Glycine/ Sodium hydroxide Sodium carbonate/ Sodium hydrogen carbonate Sodium tetraborate/ Sodium hydroxide Sodium bicarbonate / Sodium hydroxide Sodium hydrogen orthophosphate / Sodium hydroxide Potassium chloride/ Sodium hydroxide Useful buffering pH range @ 25°C 1.8 .8 .8.8 9.7 .6 9.9.com/moreinfo/buffers2.2 .07.Preparation of pH buffer solutions http://delloyd.8 .4.10.0 .2 .0 3.9 5.

4 13.00 .4 1.60 7.00 93.50 4.8 51.com/moreinfo/buffers2.4 12.2 1.10 .60 32.1 M potassium mls of 0.40 4.8 64.8 5.6 77.60 8.6 9.70 38.8 6.70 8.2 68.00 11.50 41.50 5.2 6.00 13.0 5.html Preparing a Buffer Solution ² This page gives tabulated info on the preparation of buffers by mixing adjusters with a known volume of the primary salt solution.80 8.20 8.2 84.70 26.6 31.2 M KCl + 100 ml 0.20 7.00 5.70 4.0 7.30 2.70 88.60 85. and made up to 200ml with distilled water.6 1.40 3.80 7.40 53.20 85.10 64.10 4.60 3.60 5.8 34.2 6.0 1.80 20.2 1.2.4 1.0 38.2 8.2 7.00 Buffer E : pH 7.90 92.4.20 2.07.4 pH mls of 0.0 1.4 77.6 7.2 17.70 7.6 81.10 10.00 50 ml 0.2 7.2 7.0 91.l0 8.4 22.90 4.2 6.4 86.70 3.4 89.0 57.1 (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane 0.10 13.0 .70 2. pH mls of 0.2 5.2 Buffer B : pH 2.2 100 ml 0.10 7.2 51.20 16. BUFFERS 1.20 5.0 73.2 27.90 9.30 74.50 2.40 5.8 39.50 82.6 63.30 5.8.2 73.60 4.2 .2 69.0 64.40 2.4 45.1M NaOH added 2. pH 4.90 Buffer D : pH 5.4 6.60 32.1 M HCl.8 0.0 1.00 58.4 25.8 .90 8.Preparation of pH buffer solutions http://delloyd.30 19.40 78.6 87.8 2.70 5.2 2.6 6.0 11.4 1.2 57.8 45.6 6.20 7.90 5.40 8.1 M tris hydrogen phthalate + mls of KH2PO4 + mls of 0.80 5.20 4.9.20 69.30 3.2 77.30 4.8 7.4 29.1 M NaOH M NaOH.80 2.90 16.00 mls of 0.6 70.2 M HCl hydrogen phthalate + mls of 0.0 58.50 7.8 84.80 3.80 4.5.2 6.90 51. + mls of 0.00 mls of 0.8 6.40 7.1 M potassium .6 7.40 23.9.2011 16:07 .90 3.0 9.10 5.4 44.2 33.8 16.8 6.80 7.00 7.4 24.0 14.10 105.4 20.0 2.2M HCl added pH 2.1M NaOH added pH 7.90 9.1M HCl added 99.0 .50 3.8 20.80 90.30 7.6 6.90 mls of 0.00 134. 100 ml 0.6 17.0 80.6 37.4 7.4 52.50megs.00 Buffer A : pH 1.2 7.1 M 100 ml 0.1 M HCl added 93.50 8.1 M HCl.00 3.20 3.10 3.60 2.30 8.2 91.4 1.50 27.30 67.4 7.6 84.00 8.4 3 von 5 14.00 Buffer C : pH 4.2 2.80 44.

of 0.12.30 30.00 8.00 21.20 12. pH 9.00 Buffer I : pH 10.70 9.2 30.Preparation of pH buffer solutions http://delloyd.4 46.4 10.2 11.8 11.60 9.11.4 10.50 9.4 10.0 Buffer G : pH 9.8 mls 4 von 5 14.4 27.10H2O (borax) + mls of 0.025 M Na2B4O7.0 11.50megs.10 8.40 10.10H2O (borax) + mls of 0.90 6.0 41.0 12.00 10.30 8.2 9.2 14.80 12.0 mls 947.90 46.10 10.80 9.6 ³ Make up the following solutions (1) 0.20 8.4 33.50 22.6 35.6g / l) Mix in the following proportions to get the required ph ph 3 4 5 6 vol.4 11. pH 8.70 9.2 11.2 11.10 mls of 0.80 9. of 0.60 12.20 10.3 mls 847.1M NaOH added 10.40 12.90 9.0 .00 45.00 53.7 mls 153.4 15.0 100 mL 0.2 11.0 23.40 8.20 27.60 8.10 100 mL 0.40 33.0 20.2 M NaOH.60 38.30 9.025 M Na2B4O7.4 10.2M NaOH added 12.00 .40 18.2 12.50 35.90 mls of 0.0 mls 643.00 9.90 10.30 10.2011 16:07 .2 19.05 M NaHCO3 + mls of 0.00 mls of 0.2 pH mls of 0.80 42.00 8.9.2 26.6 47.05 M 100 mL 0.90 44.2 .4 Acetate buffer solutions pH 3 .00 Buffer J : pH 12.2 10.2 18.80 100 mL 0.60 27.0 12.50 10.1 M NaOH.2 mls vol.10 10.13.6 10.1 Na2HPO4 + mls of M NaOH.00 50 mL 0.5 Buffer H : pH 9.50 12.70 12.1 M NaOH.80 mls of 0.0 39.4 40.2 11.4 82.70 40.60 10.4 10.80 8.8 51.1M HCl added 41.1M sodium acetate (tri-hydrate) (13.30 12.6 11.2 4.80 38.6 22.1M acetic acid 982. pH 9.60 9.20 12.10 12.1M acetic acid (2) 0.00 12.2 30.2 M KCl + volume indicated (in mL) 0. pH 12.8 10.0 33.2 45.6 44.6 11.50 8.10 24.4 106.1 M HCl.0 10.1M NaOH added 1.0 132.40 9.6 32.70 32.70 8.0 mls 52.6 39.20 9.com/moreinfo/buffers2.4 37.0 mls 357.2 64.6 48.4 25.6 10.0 11.70 10.4 17.90 13.1M NaOH added 10.07.90 .13 Buffer F: pH 8.60 .1M sodium acetate 17.0 42.10.4 36. 0.html BUFFERS 08 .30 15.8 7.0 16.

Butterworths. A measured amount of 0. pdf file.07.77g sodium tetraborate and 46ml of 0. 3rd. of 0. delloyd.7 vol. The Physical and Theoretical Laboratory.1M NaOH Addition of acid or base to a salt pH 3 . A.html Phosphate buffer solutions ph 7 . Lambert and T. Augustine campus The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. pH 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Salt mixture Dilute each mixture to 1 liter solution with distilled water 10. and Stokes. Oxford University. rev. Dept.1M disodium hydrogen phosphate (14.10M HCl 10.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 226ml of 0. Heineman..10M HCl 10 4.11 Here. St. London.4 mls 965.2g / l) (2) 0.9 mls 45.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 1ml of 0.0 mls 33. R. of 0. 1968.1M HCl 244 mls 44.50megs. the primary salt is a solid and is weighed out in grams.21g potassium hydrogen phthalate and 223ml of 0. Copyright: delloyd2000© All rights reserved. "Practical chemistry" J.com/moreinfo/buffers2.77g sodium tetraborate and 183ml of 0.10M NaOH 1.50megs. 2nd ed.. Muir.10M NaOH 6. Ed. of phosphate 7 8 9 10 11 756. "Electrolyte solutions" Robinson. 4. R. The University of The West Indies. London.10M NaOH 6.1M HCl or NaOH is added.1 mls 955..0 mls 955.3 mls vol. Chem.81g potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 467ml of 0.10M NaOH 11 2. www.1M HCl (3) 0. 3.81g potassium dihydrogen phOsphate and 56ml of 0.Preparation of pH buffer solutions http://delloyd.6 34.bc. 4 then made up to 1 liter to give the relevant buffer solution .10M NaOH 6.10g sodium bicarbonate and 227ml of 0. 2.2011 16:07 .81g potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 291ml of 0.com Back to top Signature: Dhanlal De Lloyd.10M HCl 10.ca/bcsc/resources/ (Canadian Teachers Federation).1M NaOH Mix in the following proportions to get the required ph ph vol. 5 von 5 14.0 mls 966.10M NaOH 4.A. H.11 Make up the following solutions (1) 0.