INTRODUCTION For performance of every single activity, decision making is unavoidable.

Every small amount of work performed needs analysis of the options concerned. This is more so where the major activities are related to controlling and managing work force. Decision-making is that tool in the hands of a manager that renders him, either effective or ineffective, depending upon his judgmental skills. For a manager, it is necessary to understand that, a decision is a judgment or choice between two or more alternatives, and arises in an infinite number of situations, from the managers are to handle a number of issues at the same time, the need to be aware and careful is more intense. It is one activity that lies at the heart of management. A decision is a choice between a variety of alternatives, and a decision- maker is the one who makes such a choice. Though decisions are made in a spur of moment there is a long thought of future and guiding experience of the past, leading to that particular decision. Hence, Managers of people need to be able decision-makers. Decision is the key to transformation. It is one of the key character traits distinguishing high performers from the vast ranks of the mediocre. Decision is, by definition, behind every truly great achievement anyone ever makes. DEFINITIONS OF DECISION MAKING y Choice made between alternative courses of action in a situation of uncertainty. Although too much uncertainty is undesirable, manageable uncertainty provides the freedom to make creative decisions. y Decision making can be regarded as the mental processes resulting in the selection of a course of action among several alternatives. Every decision making process produces a final choice. The output can be an action or an opinion of choice. y y The cognitive process of reaching a decision; "a good executive must be good at decision making" A future-oriented perspective where foundation decisions are made based on an analysis of external and internal trends and data. y y The process of making choices or reaching conclusions, especially on important political or business matters. Decision making on the part of the property owners is one of the most crucial causes of delay and cost over-runs. Decisions have to made as early as possible, and confirm availability for the specified time. QUOTES ON DECISION MAKING Louis Pasteur: Chance favours only the prepared mind. Pythagoras: Choose always the way that seems the best, however rough it may be. Custom will soon render it easy and agreeable. H. L. Hunt: Decide what you want, decide what you are willing to exchange for it. Establish your priorities and go to work. George L. Morrisey: Developing the plan is actually laying out the sequence of events that have to occur for you to achieve your goal. Euripides: Do not plan for ventures before finishing what's at hand. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Each indecision brings its own delays and days are lost lamenting over lost days... What you can do

The difficult part is to pick one solution where the positive outcome can outweigh possible losses. DECISION MAKING ‡ Objectives must first be established. making your own decisions and accepting the consequences is the only way to stay in control of your time. by a cause. For boldness has magic. The concepts are completely separate from one another. and your life.because unless we stand for something. Some decisions are relatively straightforward and simple: Is this report ready . ‡ Problems are caused by some change from a distinctive feature. ‡ The decisive actions are taken. and genius in it. begin it. PROBLEM ANALYSIS ‡ Analyse performance. Decision making can be hard. Decision making skills are also a key component of time management skills. what should the results be against what they actually are ‡ Problems are merely deviations from performance standards. here are some decision making tips to get you started. ‡ The alternative must be evaluated against all the objectives. your success. If you want to learn more on how to make a decision. Problem analysis must be done first. Almost any decision involves some conflicts or dissatisfaction. Prepare prayerfully. ‡ Most likely cause to a problem is the one that exactly explains all the facts. ‡ Something can always be used to distinguish between what has and hasn't been effected ‡ Causes to problems can be deducted from relevant changes found in analysing problem. Peter Marshall: Give to us clear vision that we may know where to stand and what to stand for . All of us have to make decisions every day. Pursue persistently. Proceed positively. ‡ Alternative actions must be developed. William A. ‡ The alternative that is able to achieve all the objectives is the tentative decision. ‡ Problem must be precisely identified and described. ‡ Objectives must be classified and placed in order of importance. and additional actions are taken to prevent any adverse consequences from becoming problems and starting both systems (problem analysis and decision making) all over again. PROBLEM ANALYSIS Vs DECISION MAKING It's important to differentiate between problem analysis and decision making. ‡ The tentative decision is evaluated for more possible consequences. we shall fall for anything. power. Avoiding decisions often seems easier.or think you can do. Ward: Four steps to achievement: Plan purposefully. then the information gathered in that process may be used towards decision making. Yet. DECISION MAKING SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES We use our decision making skills to solve problems by selecting one course of action from several possible alternatives.

With the list of pros and cons.Many facts may not be known. disputes. y y The second step.It can be difficult to predict how other people will react.Members finally make a decision. there are four stages that should be involved in all group decision making. This step allows you to see what you did right and .The impact of the decision may be significant. The seventh step .Gather data. is important for the decision-making process to begin. Alternatives . the best way to make a complex decision is to use an effective process. This will able decision makers to see exactly what they are trying to accomplish and keep them on a specific path. Aubrey Fisher. High-risk consequences .Outline your goal and outcome. or sometimes called phases.This phase is where members meet for the first time and start to get to know each other. The third step-Brainstorm to develop alternatives. while justifying themselves that it was the right decision. With these difficulties in mind. But difficult decisions typically involve issues like these: y y y y y Uncertainty . These stages. Emergence stage. The process of corporate decision making is of the utmost importance for effective management. y The fifth step . there are several steps one can take to ensure the best possible solutions will be decided. Complexity . y The first step. you should implement it right away.Learn from. When in an organization and faced with a difficult decision. Coming up with more than one solution able you to see which one can actually work. Conflict stage. These steps are put into seven effective ways to go about this decision making process.You have to consider many interrelated factors.Each has its own set of uncertainties and consequences. Orientation stage.The group begins to clear up ambiguity in opinions is talked about. STEPS IN MAKING DECISION Decision making in management is an important skill . you can eliminate the solutions that have more cons then pros. DECISION MAKING STAGES Developed by B. you should pick the one that has many pros. Every manager should be looking to improve their decision making skills. high-quality results. and reflect on the decision making.and making the right decisions is essential. Simple decisions usually need a simple decision-making process. making your decision easier. Group members eventually work it out. and they can improve the quality of almost everything we do.Once group members become familiar with each other. The decision making process in management must be informed by expert knowledge and experience. Once the decision is picked. Interpersonal issues . little fights and arguments occur. Reinforcement stage.Make the decision. Clear processes usually lead to consistent. This will help decision makers have actual evidence to help them come up with a solution. y The fourth step-List pros and cons of each alternative. Once you analyse each send to my boss now? Others are quite complex: Which of these candidates should I select for the job?. y y The sixth step-Immediately take action. and the one that everyone agrees with.

By taking an organized approach. and you can build on the approach to make your decisions better and better. and making sure everyone is heard. . Choose the best alternative. Generate good alternatives. Where a group process is appropriate. debates. This is one of the best ways to avoid groupthink (member only). recognize that the objective is to make the best decision under the circumstances: it's not a game in which people are competing to have their own preferred alternatives adopted. ‡ Involve the right people . make sure you do the following: ‡ Establish the objective . ‡ Agree on the process . and analysis without any fear of rejection from the group. and you'll want to ensure that you've consulted stakeholders appropriately even if you're making an individual decision. Check your decision.Stakeholder Analysis is important in making an effective decision.wrong when coming up. The Stepladder Technique is a useful method for gradually introducing more and more people to the group discussion. and take action.typically a team of five to seven people .Encourage participants to contribute to the discussions.should have a good representation of stakeholders. A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO DECISION MAKING A logical and systematic decision-making process helps you address the critical elements that result in a good decision. The 5 Whys technique is a classic tool that helps you identify the real underlying problem that you face. ‡ Make sure you're asking the right question .Define what you want to achieve.Ask yourself whether this is really the true issue. Here are the steps in detail: Step 1: Create a constructive environment To create a constructive environment for successful decision making.Know how the final decision will be made. Explore these alternatives. There are six steps to making an effective decision: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Create a constructive environment. and putting the decision to use. the decision-making group . including whether it will be an individual or a team-based decision. you're less likely to miss important factors. The Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model (member only) is a great tool for determining the most appropriate way of making the decision. ‡ Allow opinions to be heard . Also. Communicate your decision.

‡ Use creativity tools from the start .The basis of creativity is thinking from a different perspective. break old thought patterns. Do this when you first set out the problem. you force yourself to dig deeper. However. The more good options you consider. it starts by asking people to brainstorm how to achieve the opposite outcome from the one wanted. and then reversing these actions. use a Concept Fan to take a step back from the problem. irrespective of the person's position or power within the organization. If you don't have reasonable alternatives. ‡ The Charette Procedure is a systematic process for gathering and developing ideas from very many stakeholders. or ask existing participants to adopt different functional perspectives (for example. and approach it from a wider perspective. works similarly. ‡ If you have very few options. This is an extremely effective way to make sure that everyone's ideas are heard and given equal weight. If you use the mind-set µthere must be other solutions out there. Our article Generating New Ideas will help you create new connections in your mind. Step 2: Generate Good Alternatives ‡ This step is still critical to making an effective decision. ‡ ‡ Generating Ideas Brainstorming is probably the most popular method of generating ideas. . This often helps when the people involved in the decision are too close to the problem. and consider new perspectives. ‡ When you generate alternatives. ‡ Use the Crawford Slip Writing Technique (member only) to generate ideas from a large number of people. or an unsatisfactory alternative. Reverse Brainstorming.' you're more likely to make the best decision possible. and look at the problem from different angles. planning. and then continue it while generating alternatives. ‡ Another approach. and people) as the basis for gathering different perspectives. then there's really not much of a decision to make! Here's a summary of some of the key tools and techniques to help you and your team develop good alternatives. You can also ask outsiders to join the discussion. the more comprehensive your final decision will be. have a marketing person speak from the viewpoint of a financial manager). potential. ‡ Considering Different Perspectives ‡ The Reframing Matrix uses 4 Ps (product.

Here. also known as a decision matrix. these tools will help: ‡ Grid Analysis. ‡ Decision Trees are also useful in choosing between options. It's invaluable because it helps you bring disparate factors into your decision-making process in a reliable and rigorous way. To assess pros and cons of each option. ‡ Implications Another way to look at your options is by considering the potential consequences of each. ‡ Use Paired Comparison Analysis to determine the relative importance of various factors. and implications of each choice. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Star bursting helps you think about the questions you should ask to evaluate an alternative properly. if the solution matches your objectives. then you'll need to evaluate the feasibility. and if the decision is likely to work in the long term. and decide which ones should carry the most weight in your decision. ‡ Use Affinity Diagrams to organize ideas into common themes and groupings. is a key tool for this type of evaluation. Cost-Benefit Analysis looks at the financial feasibility of an alternative. Step 4: Choose the Best Alternative After you have evaluated the alternatives. ‡ Risk Analysis helps you look at risks objectively. It uses a structured approach for assessing threats. and bring the likelihood of project success or failure into the decision making process. risks.‡ Appreciative Inquiry forces you to look at the problem based on what's µgoing right. Sometimes separate ideas can be combined into one comprehensive alternative. Training session on Project Evaluation and Financial Forecasting helps you evaluate each alternative using the most popular financial evaluation techniques. ‡ Validation Determine if resources are adequate. if it isn't. These help you lay out the different options open to you. and for evaluating the probability of events occurring . ‡ Impact Analysis (member only) is a useful technique for brainstorming the µunexpected' consequences that may arise from a decision. . use Force Field Analysis. The choice may be obvious. we discuss some of the most popular and effective analytical tools. or use the Plus-Minus-Interesting approach. Step 3: Explore the Alternatives When you're satisfied that you have a good selection of realistic alternatives. This helps you compare unlike factors. However.' ‡ Organizing Ideas This is especially helpful when you have a large number of ideas. the next step is to choose between them.and what they might cost to manage.' rather than what's µgoing wrong.

and deciding the best way forward. inside and outside the organization. The more information you provide about risks and projected benefits. After all. 2. Recognition of the need for a decision is triggered by information. for example loss of a important customer. DEVELOPMENT : The greatest amount of activity is concentrated in the developmental phase of the decision process. 3. It includes such situations which generate opportunities. where as in other types the decision may be recognized after a long period of time. also elaborates the choice of ways that are available for exploring an opportunity. A search routine for locating ready-made solutions and a design routine to modify either found solutions or elaborate custom-made solutions. and thoroughly reviewing and exploring any doubts you might have. A decision maker is more likely to act if there appears to be a solution to the problem or the opportunity promises to help with a difficulty. to make sure that your process has been thorough. Talk about why you chose the alternative you did. At times the decision-making originates just by a single stimulus.Step 5: Check Your Decision With all of the effort and hard work that goes into evaluating alternatives. the more likely people are to support the decision. ‡ A third part involves using a technique like the Ladder of Inference (member only) to check through the logical structure of the decision with a view to ensuring that a well-founded and consistent decision emerges at the end of the decision-making process. SELECTION : Selection is not the single and final step in the decision process. It leads to the development of one or more possible solutions to meet the problem or crisis. but that may not necessarily lead to decision±making activity. IDENTIFICATION : It is the phase of decision recognition. ‡ A second part involves using a technique like Blind spot Analysis to review whether common decision-making problems like over-confidence. and Move to Action! Once you've made your decision. and to ensure that common errors haven't crept into the decision-making process. problems. crises. it's important to explain it to those affected by it. FOUR MAIN FACTORS INFLUENCING MAKING OF DECISIONS 1. and other decision-making errors have wrought on the world economy. It is a multistage process involving progressive deepening . which has been triggered by a number of stimuli. Step 6: Communicate Your Decision. originating both. and involved in implementing it. groupthink. escalating commitment. we can all now see the catastrophic consequences that over-confidence. but that information forms a part of the ongoing flow of communications. This is where you look at the decision you're about to make dispassionately. it's easy to forget to µsense check' your decisions. This development phase is divided into two basic routines. Individuals receive information that indicates the need to make a decision. or groupthink (member only) may have undermined the decision-making process. which involves quietly and methodically testing the assumptions and the decisions you've made against your own experience. ‡ The first part of this is an intuitive step.

The decision takes place in the context of an organization that exists in a changing environment with new priorities emerging. It is useful and effective when correct move is unclear but there is a clarity regarding general direction of action. 7. At the end. overcome. Such types of decisions allows one to acknowledge a mistake early in the process rather than perpetuate it. 5. during or after the agreed action begins. It commits one irrevocably when there is no other satisfactory option to the chosen course. It can be effectively used for changing circumstances where reversal is necessary. TYPES OF DECISION MAKING 1. Although this may also limit the final gains. It requires positive feedback before one can decide on a course of action.IRREVERSIBLE This are those type of decisions. 4. slowed or even delayed as new issues are presented to the organization and other decisions start to be developed.REVERSIBLE This are the decisions that can be changed completely. knowledge is derived out of past mistakes.EXPERIMENTAL This types of decisions are not final until the first results appear and prove themselves to be satisfactory.TRIAL AND ERROR In this type of decisions.comes and obstacles at every stage. if the results appear negative. A screening routine is appropriate to the extent that search has provided more ready-made alternatives than can be intensively evaluated. Till the night combination this continues. A certain course of action is selected and is tried out. 2.making. It allows the manager to adopt and adjust plans continuously before the full and final commitment. It helps to limit the risks that are inherent to decision.CAUTIOUS It allows time for contingencies and problems that may crop up later at the time of implementation. It uses both. if possible.CONDITIONAL . if made once cannot be unmade. 3. Problems are encountered along the way that have to be explored and. 6. the action is carried further.MADE IN STAGES Here the decisions are made in steps until the whole action is completed. It allows one to scale down those projects which look too risky in the first instance. 4. A manager should never use it as an all-or-nothing instant escape from general indecision. It permits feedback and further discussion before the next stage of the decision is made. It allows close monitoring of risks as one accumulates the evidence of out. The decision-makers hedge their best of efforts to adopt the night course. The progress of a particular decision may need to be speeded. which. the ready-made alternatives are either accepted or rejected. the positive and negative feedback before selecting one particular course of action. either before. TIME : Decisions do not develop along a path of steady and undisturbed progress. if the results are positive. another course is adopted and so on and so forth a trial is made and an error is occurred. Whatever is decided would than have its repercussions for a long time to come.of the investigation of alternatives.

COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS (CBA) CBA is known since 1808. It may.DELAYED Such decisions are put on hold till the decision±makers feel that the time is right.NET PRESENT VALUE (NPV): It is given by the sum of discounted net benefits.MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS (MCA) MCA takes simultaneously into account several and conflicting objectives and values that may have different units of measurement. It enables one to react quickly to the ever changing circumstances of competitive markets. 3.INTERNAL RATE OF RETURN (IRR): It is given by the discount rate for which the NPV is equal to zero. It aims at finding the cheapest alternative. It shows to which extent the decision can generate benefits. A number of Multi-criteria methods with different degrees of sophistication can be applied. It is based on the assessment and comparison of the costs and the benefits involved in a choice. . SOME TOOLS FOR DECISION MAKING 1.BENEFIT COST RATIO (BCR): It is given by the ratio between discounted benefits and discounted costs. Each method is based on philosophical assumptions about individual preference structure modeling. 8. It implies the comparison of the risks to the expected benefits. 2. It shows to which extent the benefits exceed the costs. The aim is to find alternatives where benefits outweigh risks. is related to certain algorithms and ways of processing data including making use of software packages. 4.RISK-BENEFIT ANALYSIS (RBA) RBA is applied in projects that involve a great deal of risk which can be translated into monetary terms. It may be used when considering projects/programs that have the same expected benefits or where the benefits cannot be measured.Such types of decisions can be altered if certain foreseen circumstances arise. at times result into forgoing of opportunities in the market that needs fast action. it can be useful to make a sensitivity analysis to take into account the uncertainty related to the analysis. social and cultural aspects and effects are translated into monetary terms. It shows the maximum acceptable discount rate. It implies that the environmental. As CBA may imply several assumptions. It is an µeither / or¶ kind of decision with all options kept open. 3. 2. It prepares one to react if the competition makes a new move or if the game plan changes radically. A go-ahead is given only when required elements are in place.COST EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS (CEA) CEA looks only at the costs involved. Very common measures within CBA are: 1. It prevents one from making a decision at the wrong time or before all the facts are known.

In some cases the assessed impacts can be valuable inputs for a CBA. The significance of the impacts is expressed through a score or a weight. it may be necessary in emergencies and also occasionally desirable for other reasons. Learning to recognize the implications of taking each type of different decisions leads to error minimization. SEA would consider entire programs of investments or policies instead of single projects or policies. and for measuring the impacts. SOME QUALITIES OF A DECISION MAKER BEING DECISIVE The ability to take timely. IDENTIFYING ISSUES It is crucial to diagnose problems correctly. MAKING FAST DECISIONS It is important to be able to assess whether a decision needs to be made quickly or it can wait. This also means deciding who else needs to be involved in the issue. A true leader approaches the decisions confidently. Good decision-makers often do make instant decisions ± but they then assess the long-term implications.STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (SEA) SEA is similar to EIA. and analyzing what their involvement means.LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS (LCA) LCA identifies the environmental impacts of a policy or project and tries to measure them. clear and firm decisions is an essential quality of leadership.5. The goal of SEA is to look for the synergies between individual policies and projects and to evaluate alternatives in a more comprehensive manner. The main objective of the EIA is to identify alternative means of minimizing the environmental impacts without altering the benefits of the project or policy. It looks not only at the impacts directly arising from a project or policy but at the whole µlife cycle¶ of impacts. BEING POSITIVE Taking decisive action does not mean making decisions on the spur of the moment. Before any decision is made identifying and defining the issue removes the criticality. 7. but the type of decision needed varies according to the circumstances. Although. However it tends to operate at a higher level of decision-making. .ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) EIA is systematic procedure for collecting information about the environmental impacts directly arising from a project or a policy. 6. being aware of what must be taken into account and fully in command of the decision±making process.

a manager needs to prioritize on important factors.Decision-maker. DELEGATING ACTION : Some decisions. the Pareto rule concentrates on the significant 20 percent and gives the less important 80 percent lower priority. IMPLEMENTING A DECISION Decisions are valueless until they are translated into positive action. But more complex decisions involve a number of tasks and the work of a team. An analysis of the overall task. which in turn involves the decision±maker in making a series of operational decisions and choices. ensures that people understand exactly what has been decided and why. In making collective decisions. The release of information if done properly. must then use authority to ensure that the final decision is seen through. everybody needs to fully understand the reason for that specific decision. it is advisable to consult the relevant authority ± not just for the final go. having weighed the advice of experts & experienced hands. determining what actions need to be taken and the manner in which the decision shall be implemented. removes doubts and objections from the mind of the concerned parties. encouraging their support. USING ADVISERS It is advisable to involve as many people as are needed in making a decision. the top people are likely to lend their cooperation well if they have been kept fully informed all the way along the decision path. specific expertise as well as experience of a person both can be used simultaneously . makes the performance easier. 1. The use of Pareto¶s rule of Vital few and trivial many helps in setting up of the priorities. Even if there is no need to get the decision sanctioned. but also for the input. While communicating the decision explanation of the alternative course of action and why a particular course has been adopted. 3. Breaking each task into manageable chucks and delegating responsibility for planning to individuals within the team. VETTING DECISIONS If one does not have the full autonomy to proceed. should be provided in detail.PRIORITIZING FACTORS While making a decision. MAKING AN ACTION PLAN : A plan of action will begin to evolve naturally as options are narrowed and their feasibility is studied during the decision-making process. Giving every factor affecting a decision equal weight makes sense only if every factor is equally important. which are simple can be handled single handedly. When developing a plan to implement a decision. It is always in the interest of the subordinate to have the plans vetted by a senior colleague whose judgment is trusted and is experienced. COMMUNICATING A DECISION : Once a decision is taken and planned. The manager may delegate trivial matters to be decided by the subordinates. . Some factors in a process are more important than others. 2. leaving more time for more important things. it needs to be relayed to the colleagues who are directly or indirectly affected by it.

In fact. so what people end up doing is comparing the consequences. This is all well and good. ENHANCING DECISION MAKING SKILLS 1. some you may not. you can do one of two things. you can say that you are well informed! 2. Most people really do know what the right thing is. you can say that you are well informed! 5.CLEAR UP THOSE UNCLEAR DECISIONS These articles on decision making skills will enhance your ability to view any unclear decisions in a different light. You can spend a lot of time. It doesn't actually get anything done. Or you can spend that time. In truth. 5. within the frame you choose. ranging from mild dissent to outright resistance. Even if there is a need to push a decision through.CLEAR UP THOSE UNCLEAR DECISIONS Decision making skills will enhance ability to view any unclear decisions in a different light. At least when you come to implement a decision. Every decision will have consequences.DO THE RIGHT THING Many people want to do the thing right. People in critical situations quickly learn this decision making skill. Some are even contrary to popular opinion. Avoid wasting of time. effort and energy on making your decision work. disagreeable or uncomfortable. The consequence is misery. DISCUSSING THE PROGRESS OF A DECISION: Many meetings have no purpose but to discuss and inform.4.COMMIT! When you make a decision. Peter Drucker. but it makes for an unclear decision. they choose not to make that decision. effort and energy considering what it would have been like if you had made a different decision and searching the internet for more tips on decision making processes. the management guru. some you may not. At least when you come to implement a decision. It's much more useful to consider whether a particular decision will be effective or not. They want to get it right. Some of these tips you may know. opposition should be viewed as valuable part of decision-making. simply ignoring objections or brushing them aside results into misunderstandings. OVERCOMING OBJECTIONS : Decisions are likely to attract varying degrees of opposition. Rather than feeling aggrieved. it is one of the major reasons for delaying decisions. 4. insists that it is much more important to do the right thing. Meetings are specifically held to discuss progress in the implementation of a decision. having read these tips for decision making. They choose something different. Some of these tips you may know. Gary Klein has studied firefighters and medical personnel.THE BEST Here's another great barrier in decision making to help you delay some more: The desire to make the best decision. Some are even contrary to popular opinion. Only the amount and duration varies. While choosing a team for action the skills and personalities of the individual should be taken into account. having read these tips for decision making. . 3. there really is no way to know which is the best decision. But because it's difficult.

There is an idea that we actually make our decisions emotionally. If they think it'll work. assess as you go along. Why? Because it works! They know they can make more money using this particular sales model. A classic example is where all the evidence is that there's a career change needed. They improve their decision making skills with experience in their area of expertise. and then justify it with reasons and explanations.NEED TO BE 100% SURE Again.WHAT IF THIS IS ACTUALLY THE WAY IT WORKS? Wouldn't it make sense to know your own emotional signals that let you know how to make good decisions? Not only would you be able to make more effective decisions. Enough said.NOT MAKING A DECISION It is sometimes thought that by not making a decision. of course. But not. and change the decision later if indicated. And the future. . they go for it. but nothing happens. so their first option is not random. it is suggested that you actually use your intuition. 9. DECISION MAKING TIPS & SECRETS HOW TO MAKE FASTER DECISIONS Here are some decision making tips for you to consider before you even make a decision. It's usually much more effective and useful to make a decision. well. but it would look great in my room and the great sound would allow me to work more effectively". you cannot go wrong. Humans are complex. By considering these ideas. The difficulty here.SOUND FAMILIAR? Some of the newer sales training programs use this as the basis for their sales models. 7. And. They just don't have time to weigh up the pros and cons. They are asking themselves about the effectiveness of a particular option. 6. they choose a different route that they think will work. dynamic creatures. at the expense of logic and rationality. this concept is one to pay attention to. Period. 8. It is the one most likely to work. however. is that not making a decision is often a very poor decision. that's an unknown quantity.GIVE IT LOTS OF THOUGHT . this is a great one for delaying making that decision.NOT! Most of the decision making models and processes available are organized around assessing and understanding the issues at hand. but others would not have the power to manipulate you! 10. but rather you reason and think your way to making good decisions. even excuses! An example would be making a decision to buy something that you cannot really afford. Then they do that. They will cycle one option at a time. The idea is to build your decision making skills so that you are not engaged in decision making without critical thinking. Delayed decisions are a primary cause of disorganization. act. If at any point along the line they realize it is not working. To develop your decision making skills. Occasionally. but somehow you find a reason that it would be useful to you. And not making a decision may actually be a decision to not take action. "The stereo costs more than my budget.people who make decisions in life or death situations. of course. it's a myth that you can be 100% sure with people. until they find one that works. Life itself is messy and unpredictable. So it's much more useful to be effective and get the job done than to spend endless hours trying to determine the best decision. Another example might be not making those decisions that are needed to keep yourself organized.

The decision should allow you to maintain who you are. then do just this. without compromise. It's much more useful to take things one step at a time. ‡If things don't go according to plan (as they sometimes don't!) you're never a victim ‡You immediately consider what you can do differently and you act on it ‡You are free to make a different decision at any time ‡You are prepared for the consequences. And not just in the result that you get. you're giving them control and you are living the life they think you should have. MAKE YOUR OWN DECISIONS If you allow others to make decisions for you instead of making your own decisions. you only need to know what the single next step is that will get you closer to your outcome. In order to take responsibility for your own decision making. it's useful to have a strong sense of self and be comfortable in your own skin. The world is chaotic. Whatever decision you make. The typical example is to say they are working long hours so that the family can have money. This is a decision mistake and is usually counter-productive. as a person. whatever they are ‡Other people respect you ‡It makes it easier for them to take responsibility for their own decisions Most people want to know how things will pan out before they make a decision. If you prefer working to spending time with your family. there would be a major shift in people's understanding of how to make great decisions and how to make faster decisions. you make your next decision. use this as an excuse for continuing as they are. having taken this step. put yourself first. this is often the one that people are most reluctant to take on. unpredictable. then they are running your life. you and your family should benefit in the short-term and in the long-term. As above. and the one that has the most impact! When you do take responsibility many things become available to you.when it comes time to decide. More . want to be spending time with this person. The family. YOU ARE NO. Of the decision making tips. It's important that you're better off as a result of making the decision. however. YOUR FAMILY If you consider your family important to you. This is the first and most important of these decision making tips if you want to be yourself and live your own life. To make a decision. and unexpected things happen. In effect.. TAKE RESPONSIBILITY This is a big one.. of course. demonstrate this by creating work-life balance in your decision making. And don't compromise yourself or them by pretending anything else. but more especially. Perhaps if more people adopted these decision making tips.1 When making your decisions. you will know how to make faster decisions. APPLY 80/20 PRINCIPLE The 80/20 Principle tells you that you should choose an option that produces 80% of outputs from 20% of inputs. Some of these ideas may be contrary to popular opinion. Many people. it's important not to compromise your family either. and gather 80% of the data and perform 80% of the relevant analyses in the first 20% of time available. Then. But they are used by effective decision makers.

This is an excellent method for group decisions. provide subtle hints and nudges when the participants get stuck and thus help to make effective and creative group decisions. people are divided into thinkers and feelers: A)A Thinker tends to use reason and logic B)A Feeler tends to use values and subjective judgment MAKING DECISIONS IN DISCUSSION WITH OTHER PEOPLE Your ability to communicate is the most important skill you can develop to get on to the fast track in your career. This method however does not value the individual opinion of each and every participant in the group. which is convenient to use when the group has certain set of defined options before it and needs to pick out the optimum solution. We tend to notice 'facts' that reinforce our beliefs. There can be a facilitator to facilitate the entire discussion just to ensure that the people don¶t digress. about others in the world and about how we expect things to be. There are several methods of group decision-making. This style of decision-making is applicable in the presence of a powerful person who dictates the entire process of decision-making and has the final authority on the outcome. The facilitator can merely help to start off the conversation. Some are proactive groups while there are other groups. both by yourself and with other people. A voting system allows every participant to cast his/her vote for the option that he/she thinks is the best.RECOGNIZE IMPACT OF YOUR BELIEFS AND VALUES Beliefs are the assumptions we make about ourselves. They are often based on emotions rather than facts.. This style. According to the widely used Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The option that gathers the maximum number of votes is selected.. although in use at various places. METHODS OF GROUP DECISION MAKING No two groups will ever function in the same way while involved in the process of decision making. in which the decision ultimately rests in the hands of one person. Perhaps the most important thing you do in business is to solve problems and make decisions."7. Here are some of the common methods employed in the process of decision-making: AUTHORITARIAN STYLE The authoritarian style is like a dictatorship. which need a driving force or a facilitator to facilitate the process. More UNDERSTAND & PRACTICE DIFFERENT STYLES OF DECISION-MAKING There are many models for understanding and characterizing the styles of interaction different people prefer to employ. which is very popular owing to the complete creative freedom it offers to all the participants. "These assumptions determine the way we behave and shape our decision-making process. which means creating the various options and then weighing them. A variation of this method is the majority method wherein a majority . A variation of this method is the minority control method wherein the group discusses the issues but the power of decision-making rests not in the hands of one but a small group of people within the group. tends to have more disadvantages than advantages because the people whose opinions are disregarded might have negative feelings about the entire process. The positive aspect of this method is that it values the opinion of every individual member and the final decision is reached by consensus. VOTING BASED METHOD This is a group decision-making process. BRAINSTORMING This group decision-making method is best when the decision-making has to be started from scratch.

In case of authoritarian or minority group decision making. the process of taking group decisions has its own sets of advantages and disadvantages. . ‡ Individual opinions can be biased or affected with pre-conceives notions are restricted perspectives. ‡ ‡ A group decision gains greater group commitment since everyone has his/her share in the decision making. group decision help to get a broader perspective owing to differences of perception between individual in the group.of people within the group has the power to pass the final decision. DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISIONS: ‡ One of the major disadvantages of group decision making is that it is more time consuming than the process of individual decision making. ‡ ‡ Group decisions take longer to be finalized since there are many opinions to be considered and valued. ‡ The responsibility and accountability of the decisions are not equally shared in some cases which leads to a split in the group and hence hamper the overall efficiency of the group. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GROUP DECISIONS Like any other process. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of group decisions: ‡ Group decisions help to combine individual strengths of the group members and hence has a set of varied skill sets applied in the decision making process. Group decisions imbibe a strong sense of team spirit amongst the group members and helps the group to think A group decision always means enhanced collective understanding of the course of action to be taken after the together in terms of success as well as failure. the people whose opinions are not considered tend to be left out from the decision making process and hence the team spirit ceases to grow. ‡ decision is taken.