# Electrical and Electronics Measuring Instruments The measurement of any quantity plays very important role not only

in science but in branches of engineering, medicine and in almost all the human day to day activities. The technology of measurement is the base of advancement of science. The operation, control and the maintenance of such equipments and the processes is also one important function of the science and engineering branches. The measurement means, to monitor a process or operation and using an instrument, expressing the parameter, quantity or a variable in terms of meaningful numbers with well define set of units and standards system. The measurement of a given parameter or quantity is the act or result of a quantitative comparison between a predefined standard and an unknown quantity to be measured and it should be accurately accepted. The major problem with any measuring instrument is the error but it can minimize by applying appropriate measuring instruments and procedures. Nowadays, measuring instrument can be either in analog or digital functions which have a lot of comparisons such as the accuracy, resolution, power, cost, frictional errors, range and polarity, input impedance, speed and programming facility. (Bakshi, U.A., et. al. Fist edition. 2009) Foreign Studies The Global Spec (The Engineering Search Engine), a company which produced Electrical Inductance Sensors that are non-contact devices that measure the inductance of an electrical component or system. They consist of a wire loop or coils and are relatively inexpensive. Inductance, the property of a circuit or circuit element to oppose a change in current flow, refers to the capacity of a conductor to produce a magnetic field. The standard unit of inductance is the Henry (H). Because the Henry is a large unit, electrical inductance sensors often measure inductance in microhenry (µH) or millihenry (mH) levels. Electrical inductance sensors contain a nickel-iron core shaft that rotates within the coil around the material. The inductance measured by an electrical inductance sensor depends on the number of turns in the coil, the type of material around which the coil rotates, and the radius of the coil. With the rotation of the shaft, displacement occurs within the coil and generates inductance. This displacement produces signals that can be measured by an inductance meter and recorded. Most inductance meters are digital, hand held devices suitable for measuring inductance of very low value. The results of the inductance calculation can be plotted as a graph for future study. Selecting electrical inductance sensors requires a careful analysis of product specifications and application requirements. Most electrical inductance sensors have a standard accuracy variance of less than 0.5% when measured on full scale. For best results, an electrical inductance sensor should be able to generate an output signal of at least 4-20 mA. Typically, a sensor s measurement range is approximately 30% of the coil diameter. For high precision measurements, the thickness of the coil should be at least 0.025 inches (in.). Electrical inductance sensors are used in many different applications. Some electrical sensors are used in the automotive industry and the power industry. Other electrical sensors are used in constructing planar transformers, generating electrical magnetic fields, and monitoring the inductance of an electrical component. Electrical sensors such as electrical inductance sensors are widely used for detecting the presence of electrical voltage in equipments, and defective grounds.

the self-inductance.meter A method of measuring the Q. measured in farads or convenient sub-multiple of this unit. will be influenced quite of the electrodes or the characteristic of the dielectric. primarily of inductors. the input impedance at the port is obtained. the mutual inductance between two circuits is the constant by which the time rate of change of current in either circuit must be multiplied to give emf thereby induced in the other circuit. is the a In inductance measurements. such as impedance instrument is the HP4291A analyser.terminal measurements are performed. the number of turns. The capacitance measurements between two electrodes may be defined for measurements purposes as the charge stored per unit potential difference between them. By dividing the voltage bu the current. Self-induced and mutual inductances depend upon the shape and dimensions of the circuits. which affected by the electric field between them. The value of a capacitor. The Q. or coefficient of self-induction. 2009) Impedance of LCR analyzer For the measurement of an impedance. spacing and the character of the dielectric materials. Teh . The instrument delivers a time-harmonic voltage over the access port of the device under test and measures the amplitude and phase of the current in the port. four.globalspec. To reduced inaccuracies.com/learnmore/sensors_transducers_detectors/electrical_electromagnetic _sensing/electrical_inductance_sensors.(http://www. and the inner pair can be rotated about a vertical axis. of a circuit is the constant by which time the time rate of change of the current in the circuit must be multiplied to give the self induced counter emf. It depends on the area. One example of inductance measuring instrument is the Inductometer by Ayrton-Perry that are uses pairs of coaxial coils wound on zones of spheres: the outer pair is fixed. and the nature of the surrounding medium. The dielectric constant of a material is defined as the ratio of the capacitances of a pair of electrodes. Similarly.