Madhira Institute of Technology & Science, Kodad

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
The vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication platform is currently a popular research topic, with several different approaches. Many approaches exist, each with a slightly different focus. Traffic safety enhancement is the driving factor in many approaches, typically leading to a solution where sensor data from vehicles and roadside units is used for providing accident and/or weather warnings to roadside units and vehicles. Similarly, observations of and information on traffic are used to increase efficiency of road network usage. Also, the capability for continuous communication is an important goal. However, bringing together the competing goals of instant data delivery required by safety applications and bidirectional data access with relatively high capacity has not gained much attention. In the Car link project the aim was to build more comprehensive solution for vehicle-to infrastructure (V2I) and V2V communication purposes. The main challenges in our approach were to tackle the communication environment between fast and independently moving vehicles, efficient and fast delivery of critical data regardless of the location or presence of other vehicles, and generation of services that not only enhance traffic safety and efficiency, but also thoroughly exploit our platform capabilities. We have also considered the special cases of commercial platform deployment phase and operation in rural areas where there is no high density base station network in use, but we should still be able to provide an (almost) equal level of services. The ultimate goal of this concept is to allow V2I and V2V communication. By aiming at architecture for a commercial platform, we cannot expect any company to deploy a high-density network throughout the operating area instantly, but instead need to provide a solution that can provide a decent level of operability with minor installations (coarse base station network) and expand it based on commercial success. For this purpose we have employed hybrid communication of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and wireless networking. Wireless networking stands for the ultimate communication platform, while GPRS¶s primary purpose is to provide an alternate communication solution for cases of system failures or out-of-range locations.
Dept. of ECE 1 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication

Madhira Institute of Technology & Science, Kodad

Especially in the platform deployment phase and rural areas, GPRS plays an important role. In this article the concept of the Car link platform is presented. The simulations, pilot testing, and analysis evaluate the basic communication efficiency of the platform. The main motivation for vehicular communication systems is safety and eliminating the excessive cost of traffic collisions. According to World Health Organizations (WHO), road accidents annually cause approximately 1.2 million deaths worldwide; one fourth of all deaths caused by injury. Also about 50 million persons are injured in traffic accidents. If preventive measures are not taken road death is likely to become the third-leading cause of death in 2020 from ninth place in 1990 However the deaths caused by car crashes are in principle avoidable. US Department of Transport states that 21,000 of the annual 43,000 road accident deaths in the US are caused by roadway departures and intersection-related incidents. This number can be significantly lowered by deploying local warning systems through vehicular communications. Departing vehicles can inform other vehicles that they intend to depart the highway and arriving cars at intersections can send warning messages to other cars traversing that intersection. Studies show that in Western Europe a mere 5 km/hr decrease in average vehicle speeds could result in 25% decrease in deaths. Policing speed limits will be notably easier and more efficient using communication technologies. Although the main advantage of vehicular networks is safety improvements, there are several other benefits. Vehicular networks can help in avoiding congestion and finding better routes by processing real time data. This in return saves both time and fuel and has significant economic advantages.

1.2 Literature Review
Linkages between new transport technologies and analysis methods grow more strongly all the time. The development of a communications network on the roadway infrastructure and in the vehicles has the potential to improve transportation and quality of life in ways not imagined a generation ago.
Dept. of ECE 2 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication

bus priority systems. vehicles will communicate with one another in a cooperative way in order to control speeds. In another development. From the literature review. Dept.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. state that V2V communications are the main object of research nowadays. V2I (vehicle-to-infrastructure) is the direct wireless exchange of information between vehicles and the fixed infrastructure. Kang et al. based on the concept of ubiquitous computing technologies which is the latest emerging technology which enables human-computer interaction in everyday objects and activities) and were more focused on the description of traffic operation and management under u-Transportation. V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) is a technology designed to allow vehicles to serve as data sensors and anonymously transmit traffic and road condition information from every major road within the transportation network. V2V is currently in active development by General Motors. Nevertheless. obtain traffic information and to improve safety (eSafety). More specifically. reported on the direction of a ubiquitous transportation system (u. which demonstrated the system in 2006. It is predicted that the urban infrastructure will have sensors that can communicate and interact with the vehicles. safety and traffic control. there is no apparent application of the proposed technology in terms of communicating with other vehicles or receiving signals from the infrastructure or. It could be also used to pay tolls (green lane or virtual tolling). of ECE 3 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . Honda. because V2I approximations are already being developed as commercial solutions. According to V2V is assumed to have a beneficial impact on traffic efficiency and road safety. give real-time information to the user about the vehicle performance / fuel use / emissions. Daimler. Santa et al. using traffic signals. Mercedes and Volvo. moreover. Kodad In the near future. ramp meters. the Portuguese Government intends to launch an identification chip in vehicles with information related to insurance and vehicle inspection status. traffic cameras. it appears that V2V and V2I communication systems research has mostly focused on crash prevention. In the reliability of inter-vehicle communication in traffic stream was discussed and the information propagation in a traffic stream via inter-vehicle communication was analyzed.Transportation. etc. Portugal is the first country to create and test such an electronic identification system for vehicles. Other automakers working on V2V include BMW.

in order to characterize the effect of V2V and V2I information on driving pattern and route change. the quantity of fuel use and emissions from mobile sources. This research will help identify the contribution of these new technologies as fundamental determinants of travel behavior. road grade. Traffic modeling will be developed. Dept. all of which can be determined from simulated vehicle trajectories in a microscopic simulation model. Kodad More recently. One of the major activities in the area of V2V communication is the Car-to-Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC) driven by major car manufacturers. of ECE 4 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . Rouphail and Hu have assessed the impact and benefits of uTransportation network using mesoscopic modeling. as well as their spatial and temporal patterns. but that is not specifically focused on V2X technologies. Vehicle Specific Power (VSP) is a methodology based in on-board emission measurements and is a function of vehicle speed. the macroscale approach may be too crude for this purpose.3 Objectives The fundamental goal of this research is to assess the value of new intelligent transportation system technologies in terms of their transportation impacts (such as traffic congestion and emissions) in order to test the hypothesis that the appropriate use of V2V and V2I communication technologies can positively influence the quality of urban travel. The closest contribution was the work of Ericsson et al. Changes in personal travel may change the total quantity of emissions. In particular. The assessment of the impacts of short range communication technologies requires a micro or mesoscale approach. and plan to evaluate both operational and safety benefits of such a system for many types of road facilities. The modeling system will forecast energy and emissions under each scenario and quantify the uncertainty in the emissions estimates. and acceleration.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. aiming to generate decentralized floating car data (FCD) communication capabilities between cars . The last step will be to compare scenarios and determine the statistical significance of the different levels of emissions. 1. vehicle activity and on-road emissions. where the additional information could improve the human-based traffic performance.

of ECE 5 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . closely related to C2C-CC except that it is government supported and coordinated. IEEE 1609). In the Car link project compatibility between WAVE standards and C2C-CC work has always been an essential issue. also allocated by the European Union.1 V2V Communication Applications Courtesy: Daimler 2009 In the United States the department of transportation is coordinating the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) program. such as broadcasting accident warnings from car to car and roadside information from the traffic infrastructure to cars.11 a/b/g.11p. Dept.9 GHz bandwidth.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. Figure 1. VII supports V2I and V2V communications in the federally allocated 5. IEEE 802. Kodad The objective in C2C-CC is to provide mainly broadcast services. In the field of telecommunications the aim is to support the standardization activities driven by IEEE (WAVE ² IEEE 802.

In Japan a similar kind of traffic service communication platform is called VICS. Services provided are mainly related to traffic safety and control.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. Kodad The communication between vehicles and infrastructure is operated via dedicated shortrange communication (DSRC) as defined in IEEE 1609. the deployment rate of the solution is much higher than solutions in the United States and Europe The European COOPERS project is also developing a communication system for traffic environments. therefore. second/ third generation [2G/3G] Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM]-based communication. SAFESPOT combines the sensor information gathered from both vehicles and roadside units into traffic incident and accident warnings Dept. and infrared [IR] communication) into a single architecture. compatibility with VII is maintained as high as possible. While COMeSafety is acting merely as a coordinating forum for related research. The COOPERS solution uses multiple wireless technologies like CALMbased IR Wi-Fi communications and GSM/GPRS. VICS is a slightly older system. While the CVIS and COOPERS projects are mainly focused on increasing the efficiency of the road network in Europe. Primary applications and targets are advisory (usually safety-related) messaging from infrastructure to vehicles. probing anonymous data from vehicles to infrastructure and other vehicles in a secure manner In the Car link project the VII has been seen as a parallel and mainly mutually compatible approach with C2C-CC work. The goal is to provide continuous wireless communication via DSRC technology. positioning. The ultimate goal of parallel solutions is to provide an ³always connected´ system . bringing together different communication methods (IEEE 802. the main architecture concentrating only on communication between vehicles and infrastructure. and networking platform for both V2V and V2I communication. The European CVIS project generates an open standards-based communication. the e-Safety initiative of the European Union and the EU¶s COMeSafety project are tightly focused on road safety enhancement. However. The communication architecture is based on the CALM standard. mainly to generate services relying on V2I communication (although V2V communication is also supported). the SAFESPOT project represents a technical approach. for services like accident and weather warnings and traffic management. of ECE 6 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication .11p networking.

NOW. GST. Most of the European activities in this area are more or less related to the C2C-CC work. and COOPERS as a road operator interface to cooperative vehicular networking. and Sevecom. Other approaches also exist. SAFESPOT as cooperative systems to process highly critical (vehicular) tasks. the flexibility and scalability of the platform into different types of services and capacity/ communication requirements.. The main advantages of Car link are the open platform solution. braking without driver command to avoid an accident).CVIS is seen as the core cooperative technology (with concept proof of the CALM standard). A similar approach of cars distributing accident warning data V2V and even forwarding warnings car by car is presented in The LIWAS traffic warning system is designed to provide early warnings to vehicles about adverse road conditions like slippery road surfaces. the most important ones being Prevent (aiming to control vehicles directly for.g. Compared to the related work. The Car link project combines these elements in its own approach. Kodad A comparison of CVIS. of ECE 7 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . and operation reliability based on dual radio communications. Dept. and COOPERS is presented in . SAFESPOT. the Car link approach has many similarities and even common elements with all of the related approaches. e.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science.

1 Operational model of local RWS and incident warning service. On one hand. raising public interest and therefore commercial success. and necessity of the platform. proving its efficiency. The platform itself is the key element. usefulness. even with a low deployment rate is in our vision a so-called killer application.1 Design Issues The Car link platform is designed to provide an infrastructure to a wide community of commercial and governmental traffic and safety services. The (hybrid) platform. we had to have some key services interesting enough for consumers. Dept. the services are the platform¶s showcase toward consumers. We did not build up an extensive package of services. in order to interest consumers in purchasing the platform (and furthermore the vehicle industry in integrating platform equipment in vehicles). Kodad 2. But on the other hand. leading to large-scale deployment and generation of a wide spectrum of independent services. of ECE 8 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . PLATFORM & SERVICES 2.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. Figure 2. but the services created for the platform also have crucial roles. but just a couple of key services to prove the applicability. they generate different ways to use and exploit the platform.

turbulence. due to its practically complete coverage (especially in rural areas).2 Schematic of the road weather model. traffic. and presented in the figure. It is a one-dimensional Energy balance model that Calculates vertical heat transfer in the ground And at the ground-atmosphere interface. taking Into account the special conditions prevailing on the road surface and inside the ground below. ground heat Transfer and surface heat transfer are considered. critical emergency data is delivered with low delay The local RWS is derived from the Finnish Meteorological Institute¶s (FMI¶s) road weather model presented in Fig. and mobile end users (MEUs) with ad hoc connectivity and (non-continuous) backbone network connectivity. Kodad The Wireless Traffic Service Platform is divided into three parts: the traffic service central unit (TSCU). of ECE 9 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication .Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. This channel has limited capacity but. 2. Networking procedure can be bypassed with the parallel GPRS-based communication between the TSCU and the MEU. the base station network with traffic service base stations (TSBSs). Dept. The effects of Atmosphere.2. Figure 2.

3 of this standard is approved .11p is an extension to 802.2 Technical Specifications Two categories of draft standards provide outlines for vehicular networks. of ECE 10 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . Output from a numerical Weather prediction (NWP) model is typically Used as a forcing at the upper boundary. Dept. y 1609. 802. 1609 is a family of standards which deals with issues such as management and security of the network: y 1609. y y 1609. The Basic horizontal resolution of FMI¶s present Road weather model was 10 km. in principle. if required. There is a third type of communicating nodes called Public Safety OBU (PSOBU) which is a vehicle with capabilities of providing services normally offered by RSU.1 -Resource Manager: This standard provides a resource manager for WAVE.11 for vehicular networks called Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE). A vehicular communication networks which complies with the above standards supports both vehicular on-board units (OBU) and roadside units (RSU). RSU acts similar to a wireless LAN access point and can provide communications with infrastructure. These standards constitute a category of IEEE standards for a special mode of operation of IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN medium access layer (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specification. allowing communication between remote applications and vehicles. 802. Also. Kodad The model also accounts for the effect of traffic Volume on the road. 2. The current state of these standards is trial-use.11p aims to provide specifications needed for MAC and PHY layers for specific needs of vehicular networks. fire trucks. and ambulances in emergency situations. the model cannot resolve Meteorological features beyond this spatial scale. which meansthat. RSU must be able to allocate channels to OBUs.3 -Networking Services: This standard addresses network layer issues in WAVE.2 -Security Services for Applications and Management Messages 1609. As of November 2006 Draft 1. These units are mainly utilized in police cars.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science.4 -Multi-channel Operation: This standard deals with communications through multiple channels.

Systems with users moving at speeds up to 60 Km/h has been reported.4 GHz bandwidth and capable of up to 54 Mb/s (. Dept.5 GHz. 802. IEEE 802.11g Standards operating in the 2. In North America DSRC devices operate over seven 10 MHz channels. While OBUs and RSUs are allowed to broadcast messages in the control channels. The most common versions nowadays are the 802.11p and 1609 drafts specify baselines for developing vehicular networks. There is no scanning and association as there is in normal 802. The WiMAX is capable of supporting fast moving users in a mesh network structure. The most popular wireless high-speed communication approaches nowadays are wireless local area networks (WLANs).3 GHz. and 3.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. Although DSRC devices are allowed to switch to a service channel.11b and 802. Kodad As mentioned before DSRC provides several channels (seven 10 MHz channels in North America) for communications. Standards divide the channels into two categories: a control channel and service channels. WiMAX has licensed worldwide spectrum allocations in the 2. they must continuously monitor the control channel. 2. respectively.5 GHz frequency bands and is capable of up to 31.11g) or 11 Mb/s (. 3. The air interface of both the fixed and mobile broadband wireless access (BWA) systems for Supporting multimedia services.16-2004 for fixed and IEEE 802.3 GHz. Two of the channels are used solely for public safety applications which mean that they can only be used for communications of message with a certain priority or higher.68 Mb/s data rates with a single antenna system and up to 63. Control channel is reserved for broadcasting and coordinating communications which generally takes place in other channels.36 Mb/s with a multiple-antenna system.11 standard families.Although 802.11b) data speeds. only RSUs can send beacon messages. many issues are not addressed yet and more research is required.16e for Mobile accesses are the IEEE standards that define the current structures of the WiMAX system.11. All such operations are done via a beacon sent by RSUs in the control channel. The IEEE 802.16 family of standards specifies. The WiMAX System is based on these technologies. also known as Wi-Fi. of ECE 11 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication .

2. which is essentially IEEE 802.9 GHz spectrum . In the United States the 75 MHz channel is allocated for DSRC in the 5. Kodad The IEEE standardization activity for the V2V communication environment is named WAVE (IEEE 802.The underlying Technology in this standardization work is DSRC.11a adjusted for low-overhead operations.3 Service Specifications The wide range of services provided by this V2V/ V2I interface is listed below: Table 2.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. of ECE 12 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . The primary purpose of DSRC is to Enhance public safety applications in order to save lives and improve traffic flow by V2V and Infrastructure-to-Vehicle communications.1 Car link services Dept.Presented in IEEE 1609.11p).

responsible for forwarding this data to the vehicles through the platform. local traffic weather service. and incident/emergency warning service. ARCHITECTURE & SYSTEM REVIEW 3. a push of the emergency button in the car. all of them including the GPS location of the observed issue. the TSCU selects the appropriate path for the warning data distribution. returned to the TSCU. The RWS Core includes a weather forecast model generating local road weather outlook based on FMI¶s operational Measurements. The incident/emergency warning service Parameters are an airbag blast. Figure 3.1 Operational model of local RWS and incident warning service layout. Similarly.1 System Description The Car link platform structure is illustrated in Fig. Kodad 3. The TSCU is on the top with connections to the Underlying service cores.1. The resulting local road weather information is delivered to the TSCU. and the car stopping suddenly. Dept. This model is supplemented with car measurements (temperature and GPS location of observations) to complement the weather information. the incident/ emergency warning service collects vehicle data to build up warnings for exact locations.. car throwing. 2. As a central unit of the system. the TSCU maintains the Interdependencies of all platform elements.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. The TSCU takes care of user management. of ECE 13 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . It also Stores all data gathered from the platform and forwards the appropriate data to services. Depending on the significance of the warning.

while more informative warnings can be distributed through the BSs The network of TSBSs below the TSCU (Fig. accident location) are delivered through the GPRS connection as rapidly as possible. of ECE 14 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication .. Kodad The most critical warnings (e. Figure 3.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science.1) mainly act as data transmitters from theTSCU to the MEUs and vice versa. The TSBS also collects weather data itself and delivers it to the TSCU.g.2 connectivity models Dept.2.

of ECE 15 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . car throwing indicator. In the wireless communication between the TSBS and the MEUs. but the traffic speed (up to 100 km/h in our scenario) generates an extremely challenging element to our platform. gathering data along the roads they are driving.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. and. The parameters gathered from the vehicle are the temperatures. car sudden braking indicator. Figure 3. The WLAN/WiMAX and GPRS interfaces are used for communication With the TSBSs and TSCU.3 connectivity models-web 3. Dept. We do not require handoff of the connection. delivering it up to the TSCU and the underlying services. Kodad The MEUs in vehicles are the users of the Car link platform. airbag blast notification. finally. push of emergency Button notification and the GPS location for each data source. consuming Weather and warning information derived from the vehicle-based data.2 Technical Requirements The communication between the TSCU and TSBS occurs straightforwardly in the fixed network. posing no challenges.

11 standard family.11g in the simulations developed in the NS-2 tool. even if the capacity may be too low for all platform Services.11g stands for an existing communication product. Dept.11g with carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is not especially tailored for the quick connection creation of high-speed nodes. This solution guarantees the reliability required in this particular scenario. in parallel with field measurements of Wi-Fi communication and pilot system analysis. during our project pilot definition components were not yet available. The use of this system at traffic speeds is a challenging task.b. of ECE 16 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . Kodad However. Also. Hence. In order to ensure platform operability we require at this point that the MEUs are only able to exchange their packed up-to-date data in an encounter.11p represents the ultimate future solution. The 802. from the vehicle receiving the TSBS transmission to a vehicle out of TSBS range. especially in the 802. while IEEE 802. IEEE 802. This way we extend the TSBS range by implementing one hop in the ad hoc network.11 standardization forum has noted that existing 802. In this we have analyzed 802. based on the IEEE 1609 standard family. One step further is wireless ad hoc communication between vehicles. In our research Wi-Fi based on IEEE 802.11p standardization work. instead of true ad hoc networking.11g.g) are not optimal for fast nodes and is tackling the issue of vehicular communication. However.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. The time a vehicle stays in the area of the base station is rather short for initiating the connection and carrying out data exchange. capable of 54 Mb/s data speed and with a coverage up to at least 100 m (maximum range allowing only 1 Mb/s data speed).11 standards (a. we need to ensure that the most crucial data will also be exchanged in the platform without any delay when there are no TSBSs nearby. For this purpose we use a standard GPRS data service. it is hard to enable fullscale ad hoc networking. Finally. to be adapted as soon as available. ad hoc networking with handoff and seamless continuation of communication are important issues required in the final operative system. The latest version of the standard is IEEE 802. which is based on the IEEE 802. The most popular solution for Wireless communication is the Wi-Fi system. The technical challenges here are basically the same as in BS-oriented Wi-Fi communication except that the encounter speed is doubled (and the communication time halved) because in the extreme situation both counterparts are moving in opposite directions.

Omnidirectional antennas with 500 m range are used throughout the simulations. we have the data source in the fixed network. It can be seen that the connection availability percentage during the simulation is slightly improved when the amount of nodes is increased.The price of improved connectivity is decreased throughput as the packet forwardingalso uses the precious data capacity. The simulation system is a combination of V2I and V2V. based on IEEE 802. The throughput saturates as 54 Mb/s data channel capacity is not sufficient to support large amounts of simultaneous connections with high data volumes. the average connection availability decreases compared to the case of eight one way vehicles. in the case of (bidirectional) 8 + 8 vehicles. due to additional vehicles¶ capability to forward data from vehicle to vehicle. The focus has been on rural areas with low BS density. and all vehicles and BSs have similar (single) transceiver units. and vehicles forward the data V2V to the destination node. even if connection availability is increased due to forwarding nodes. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 4.1 Performance The platform¶s operability has been analyzed in simulations with the NS-2 tool and parallel field measurements. The main results of the simulations are gathered in Table 4. The maximum throughput is defined to 54 Mb/s. Therefore. since that is the challenging area in the deployment phase. The distances between consecutive vehicles were fixed to 100 m. In one one-way traffic scenario. at a certain point the capacity limitations will ultimately also have a negative effect on connectivity. Opposite to the former analysis. delivering the data to the vehicles through BSs (V2I).11g. of ECE 17 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . Dept. while in the bidirectional traffic scenario there are two sets of either four or eight vehicles.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. The supporting field measurements tested the data throughput limits of IEEE 802.11g when a vehicle is passing by either the BS (V2I) or another vehicle moving at the same speed (V2V). We have defined two main simulation scenarios in the road containing four BSs with 1 km distance between each other. Kodad 4. four or eight vehicles are traveling at 100 km/h speed through the road in one direction.1.

two TSBSs. consisting of two vehicles. but due to extremely low density of BSs.98 Mb/s in V2I communications and 3. respectively. The appropriate performance was achieved with all speeds used. The connection establishment time increased and connection uptime decreased when the vehicle speed was increased. we relied on GPRS data communication most of the time. The measurements showed capacities up to 4. Therefore. Table 4. and underlying assumptions built into the ns-2 simulation environment (operation with low-mobility nodes) remain valid.59 Mb/s in V2V after the connection was established.11g Wi-Fi and GPRS communications to provide the pilot system services listed in Table 4. Kodad The field test goal was to prove the simulated conditions for a simple case. while simulations themselves emulate the scenario with more vehicles. Dept.1. and a TSCU. We defined the appropriate performance in our case as reached when the set of pilot/developed services can be provided in such a way that a system user receives data fast enough to exploit the safety benefits. The ultimate test of the platform was conducted in the pilot platform. the performance decrease due to fastmoving vehicles is not very dramatic. of ECE 18 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . and were found to operate adequately.1 Main results of the simulations. and traffic in general. varying between 60 km/h and 104 km/h. The main data channel was Wi-Fi. as we were concentrating on showing pilot services operability in general. using IEEE 802.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. BSs. The specific pilot services were tested one by one. For communication between vehicles we used GPRS communication only.

Dept.Service data (incident/accident warning. Table 4. With our pilot relying on GPRS most of the time this is not possible. of ECE 19 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication .2 Estimated effect of Carlink pilot system to the number of fatal accidents based on accident statistics in Finland Wi-Fi communication clearly sped up data delivery to ³nearly instant´ response. this is the ultimate objective. and for the example of danger in a chain accident of vehicles. the delay must be limited to³less than a second in order to avoid (the main part of) chain accidents. the delay is too long. With GPRS. weather data) is delivered to all vehicles/devices in the network within 5 s. Kodad We defined service operation as adequate when: The service response to ³impulse´ (e. it took several seconds from initiating a warning condition to see the warning on the screen.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. In the operational system on a crowded highway. but in the expected final system relying on a dense BS network and WiFi-based ad hoc networking between vehicles.g. vehicle throwing is noted when a driver turns the wheel roughly) is reliable (at least 90 percent success rate expected)..

of nodes Dept. Based on the pilot system operability. We find this result truly meaningful in the area of improving traffic safety. we estimated the effect of our pilot system on traffic fatalities. As a result.2. and estimated the effect of our services on each type of traffic fatality. Kodad As a final statement. and assuming a dense network of TSBSs in use. we have estimated a 10± 30 percent decrease of lives lost in traffic.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. Figure 4. We used the statistics of fatalities in Finland for 2007. which at its best would have been almost 100 persons in Finland for 2007. of ECE 20 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication .1 simulation results for various no. based on the estimation shown in Table 4.Obviously. only the operative final system will eventually prove the quality of the estimations. the pilot system provided satisfactory performance (based on our adequate service operation definition above) in its limited scale.

Vehicles who discover an imminent danger such as an obstacle inform others. of ECE 21 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . will most probably remain the most important applications). Kodad 5.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. APPLICATIONS 5. Electronic sensors in each car can detect abrupt changes in path or speed and send an appropriate message to neighbors. The classifications of applications is not unique and many institutions involved in intelligent transportation systems propose their own set of applications and classifications. In more advanced systems. a more advanced version of turn signals. a list of such applications is speculative and apt to change in the future (However safety. Vehicles can notify close vehicles of the direction they are taking so the drivers can make better decisions. somewhat similar to autopilot. As these networks have not yet been implemented. Warnings on departing the highways Obstacle discovery Sudden halts warnings Reporting accidents Lane change warnings Dept. Ultimately we would like to delegate the full handling control of our cars to the vehicles themselves.1 Applications Vehicular communication networks will provide a wide range of applications with different characteristics. which is the main purpose of these networks. We classify the possible applications in the following categories: Safety Providing safety is the primary objective of vehicular communication networks. Some of the immediate applications are: y y y y y y Warnings on entering intersections. at intersections the system can decide which vehicle has the right to pass first and alert all the drivers. Furthermore some of these applications require technologies that are not available now.

small transmitters may be able to issue warnings such as bridge or tunnel height or gate width: y y y y Parking a vehicle Cruise control Lane keeping assistance Road sign recognition Policing and enforcement Police can use vehicular communications in several ways: y y y y Surveillance Speed limit warnings Restricted entries Pull-over commands Dept. and police cars Driver assistance systems Roadside units can provide drivers with information which help them in controlling the vehicle. of ECE 22 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . Even in the absence of RSUs. Authorities may change traffic rules according to a specific situation such as hot pursuits and bad weather.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. fire trucks. Kodad Traffic management Traffic management is utilized by authorities to ease traffic flow and provide a real time response to congestions. Applications include: y y y Variable speed limits Adaptable traffic lights Accommodating ambulances.

of ECE 23 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . expenses (such as toll and fuel). « Travel-related information In an unfamiliar town drivers may be assisted to find relevant information about available services: y y y y Maps Business locations Car services Gas stations General information services As with many other communication networks. Dept. In this respect there are numerous applications. virtually every application that is currently used in the Internet will find its way to vehicular networks as well. Kodad Pricing and payments Electronic payment results in convenient payments and avoiding congestions caused by toll collection and makes pricing more manageable.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. In the case that wireless vehicular networks are integrated to the Internet. By collecting relevant information system can find the best paths in terms of travel time. For instance tolls can be variable for weekdays and weekends and during rush hours: y y Toll collecting Parking payments Direction and route optimization For reaching a destination there are usually many different routes. vehicular networks can be used to obtain various content and services (not directly related to traveling). which is very likely.

of ECE 24 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication .Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. Because automated highways are not limited by human response time. This application is virtually impossible without utilizing vehicular networks. In these highways the vehicles are able to cruise without help of their drivers. The status is updated frequently. For example each vehicle knows the speed and direction of travel of its neighboring vehicles through communication with them. This is done by cooperation between vehicles. therefore each vehicle can predict the future up to some necessary time and is able to make appropriate decisions in appropriate time. Dept. Kodad However applications with lower bandwidth requirements are likely to become widespread sooner. Some applications can be: y y y y Web surfing File downloads Email Gaming Automated highways Automated highway is not yet realizable but nevertheless is an important application. much higher speeds will be possible.

Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. FUTURE SCOPE & CHALLENGES This project can be extended further to make accident free roads and automated teller vehicles. The spectrum of data communications will also be challenging in still developing countries like India. The voice calling protocols from the vehicles can be replaced with Voice over IP (VoIP) protocol which is fast efficient and the most reliable. Kodad 6. The bandwidth and signal strengths of the spectrum in rural areas are still poor. of ECE 25 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . The vehicles can be very easily tracked so the target becomes simple for anti social elements. By extending this project the traffic diversion will be feasible task which ensures less inconvenience for the public. The remote location of the vehicles becomes easier. Dept. However this project has many challenges.

the Car link solution Showcases a true bidirectional communication entity for a variety of traffic and safety services. of ECE 26 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . Compared to competitive solutions presented in related work. CONCLUSION The Car link concept of a Hybrid wireless traffic service platform between cars. with clear potential to decrease accidents and lives lost in traffic. Kodad 7. This information is delivered back to the vehicles as analyzed (and forecast) information about road weather conditions and immediate incident Warnings. Dept.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science. The ultimate goal was to create an intelligent Communication platform for vehicles where they can deliver their own observations of traffic and weather conditions to the platform core. It has been shown that Car link presents a substantial Candidate solution for a comprehensive Vehicular communication entity.

IEEE P1609. New York.. ³IEEE Trial-Use Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) {Resource Manager}. Sukuvaara et al.Madhira Institute of Technology & Science.wikipedia. IEEE P1609.org Dept. REFERENCES 1. ³Wireless Access for Vehicular Environments. Kodad 8.ieeexplore.3. 3... ³IEEE Trial-Use Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) {Networking Services}. 2008.in www. 16± 20.google. of ECE 27 Wireless Service Platform For V2V Communication . Nov. DC.org www.´ Web References y y y www.co. 2007 2.11p.´ 2nd IEEE Wksp. Washington. T. ³Wireless Traffic Service Communication Platform for Cars. 4. T..´ 15TH World Congress on ITS. IEEE 802.30.1. Nov. ³Advanced Wireless Vehicle Networking Platform for Real-Time Incident and Weather Information. Sukuvaara et al. Automotive Networking and Applications.´ draft standard.