GSM Radio Network Engineering Fundamentals

Prerequisite: Introduction to the Alcatel GSM Network

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GSM RNE Fundamentals

Contents
w Introduction w RNP Process Overview w Coverage Planning w Traffic Planning and Frequency
Planning w Radio Interface / Quality of Service w Abbreviations

w w w w w w

P. 3 P. 39 P. 54 P.306 P.382 P.416

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GSM Radio Network Engineering Fundamentals

Introduction

Mobile Radio Network Planning

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GSM RNE Fundamentals

Contents
w Standardization w Documentation w Radio Network Architecture w Mobile Phone Systems

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Introduction

Standardization Documentation

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GSM RNE Fundamentals

www.3GPP.org organizational partners
w Project supported by
s ARIB Association of Radio Industries and Businesses (Japan) s CWTS China Wireless Telecommunication Standard group s ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institut s T1 Standards Committee T1 Telecommunication (US) s TTA Telecommunications Technology Association (Korea) s TTC Telecommunication Technology Committee (Japan)

w The Organizational Partners shall

determine the general policy and strategy of 3GPP and perform the following tasks: s Approval and maintenance of the 3GPP scope s Maintenance the Partnership Project Description s Taking decisions on the creation or cessation of Technical Specification Groups, and approving their scope and terms of reference s Approval of Organizational Partner funding requirements s Allocation of human and financial resources provided by the Organizational Partners to the Project Co-ordination Group

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GSM RNE Fundamentals

Technical Specification Group TSG

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GSM RNE Fundamentals

Specifications and Releases
w GSM/Edge Releases: http://www.3gpp.org/specs/releases.htm
s TR 41.103 GSM Phase 2+ Release 5
q Freeze date: March - June 2002

s TR 41.102 GSM Phase 2+ Release 4
q Freeze date: March 2001

s TR 01.01 Phase 2+ Release 1999
q Freeze date: March 2000

w For the latest specification status information please go to the 3GPP
Specifications database: http://www.3gpp.org/ftp/Information/Databases/Spec_Status/ w The latest versions of specifications can be found on ftp://ftp.3gpp.org/specs/latest/

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06 Signalling Transport Mechanism Specification for the Base Station System .06 Mobile Station .04 Abbreviations and acronyms s TS 03.Mobile Services Switching Centre (BSSMSC) Interface s TS 08.05 Radio Transmission and Reception s TS 05.30 Radio Network Planning Aspects s TS 04.08 Mobile-services Switching Centre .BSS) Interface Data Link (DL) Layer Specification s TS 04.08 Mobile radio interface layer 3 specification s TS 05.GSM RNE Fundamentals Specifications out of Release 1999 s TR 01.Base Stations System (MS .08 Radio Subsystem Link Control s TS 08.04 Layer 1 .Base Station system (MSC-BSS) Interface Layer 3 Specification Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 9 .22 Functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode and group receive mode s TR 03.General Requirements s TS 04.

Introduction Radio Network Architecture Mobile Phone Systems Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 10 .

BSC BSC .MSC LapDm (GSM specific) LapD (ISDN type) MSC MSC A B C D E F G H I PSTN ISDN (SS7 basic) + BSSAP (BSSAP = BSSMAP + DTAP) E B G VLR VLR C D HLR F H I AuC EIR GCR MSC-VLR (SM-G)MSC-HLR HLR -VLR (SM-G)MSC-MSC MSC-EIR VLR -VLR HLR -AuC MSC-GCR MSC-P STN MSC-ISDN (SS7 basic) + MAP PSTN / ISDN AuC (SS7 basic) + TUP or ISUP Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 11 .BTS BTS .GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM Network Architecture MS GSM Circuit-switching: BTS BSC BTS BSC Um (R adio) Abis MS .

GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM Packet-switching (GPRS/EDGE): BSS with PCU MS Um (Radio) MS .SGSN SGSN-SGSN SGSN-GGSN SGSN-HLR GGSN-HLR SGSN-EIR SGSN-MSC/VLR GGSN-Data Network BSSGP IP IP SS7 IP/SS7 SS7 SS7 IP 12 Gn GGSN Gs Gr Gc HLR EIR Gn Gf Gr Gc Gf Gs Gi Gn Data Network Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .BTS BSS with PCU LAPDm (GSM specific) SGS N SGS N MSC Gb BSS .

GSM RNE Fundamentals OMC-R BSS OMC-R SGSN Gb NSS Gn GGSN GPRS CN OMC-G MS BTS BTS A bis Mobile Radio Network Planning BSC Alcatel 9135 MFS TC A SSP + RCP A ter 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 13 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM Network Elements w Base Station System BSS s Base Transceiver Station BTS s Base Station Controller BSC w Terminal Equipment s Mobile Station MS w Operation and Maintenance Center-Radio OMC-R w Network Subsystem NSS s Mobile Services Switching Center MSC s Visitor Location Register VLR s Home Location Register HLR s Authentication Center AuC s Equipment Identity Register EIR Operation and Maintenance Center OMC Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server (GPRS) MFS Serving GPRS Support Node SGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node GGSN w w w w Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 14 .

4-457.GSM RNE Fundamentals RF Spectrum System GSM 450 GSM 480 GSM 850 GSM 900 E-GSM DCS 1800 (GSM) PCS 1900 (GSM) Mobile Radio Network Planning Total Bandwidth 2x7.6 488.8-486 824-849 890-915 880-915 1710-1785 1850-1910 Downlink frequency band /MHz 460.5MHz 2x7.2MHz 2x25MHz 2x25MHz 2x35MHz 2x75MHz 2x60MHz Uplink frequency band /MHz 450.6 478.4-467.8-496 869-894 935-960 925-960 1805-1880 1930-1990 Carrier Spacing 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 200 kHz 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 15 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Access Methods w FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) w TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) w CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 16 .

TACS. NMT etc. Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 17 .) w Each user is assigned a discrete slice of the RF spectrum w Permits only one user per channel since it allows the user to use the channel 100% of the time.GSM RNE Fundamentals FDMA w Used for standard analog cellular mobile systems (AMPS.

GSM RNE Fundamentals TDMA w Multiple users share RF carrier on a time slot basis w Carriers are sub-divided into timeslots w Information flow is not continuous for an user. it is sent and received in "bursts" Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 18 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) w Multiple access spread spectrum technique w Each user is assigned a sequence code during a call w No time division. all users use the entire carrier Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 19 .

I..) . E.. DK.... . Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 20 . . S.) NMT (SF..GSM RNE Fundamentals Analogue Cellular Mobile Systems w Analogue transmission of speech w One TCH/Channel w Only FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) w Different Systems s s s s AMPS (Countries: USA) TACS (UK. A. N.

older phones work on the newer systems Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 21 .Extended AMPS Current system: 832 channels (790 voice. 42 control).Narrowband AMPS New system that has three times more voice channels than EAMPS with no loss of signal quality w Backward compatible: if the infrastructure is designed properly. has replaced AMPS as the US standard w NAMPS .GSM RNE Fundamentals AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) w Analogue cellular mobile telephone system w Predominant cellular system operating in the US w Original system: 666 channels (624 voice and 42 control channels) w EAMPS .

GSM RNE Fundamentals AMPS .6 . (data) possible possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 22 .890 MHz 30 kHz 666 (832) 1 0.Technical objectives Technology RF frequency band Channel Spacing Carriers Timeslots Mobile Power Transmission HO Roaming FDMA 825 .4 W Voice.

01 0 0 0 0 845.GSM RNE Fundamentals AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone System Uplink Channel number Frequency of Channel (MHz) Downlink Channel number Frequency of Channel (MHz) Extended AMPS AMPS 991 102 1 3 666 667 799 824.01 0 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 23 .98 845.04 825.04 0 Extended AMPS AMPS 102 1 3 666 667 799 Duplex distance 45 MHz 870.01 0 991 869.98 0 0 0 890.03 844.03 889.98 893.

GSM RNE Fundamentals TACS Total Access Communications System w Analogue cellular mobile telephone system w The UK TACS system was based on the US AMPS system w TACS . 42 control channels) w RF frequency band: 890 .Original UK system that has either 600 or 1000 channels (558 or 958 voice channels.960 Uplink: 890-915 Downlink: 935-960 w Channel spacing: 25 KHz Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 24 .

(data) possible possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 25 .GSM RNE Fundamentals TACS .Technical objectives Technology RF frequency band Channel Spacing Carriers Timeslots Mobile Power Transmission HO Roaming FDMA 890 .6 .10 W Voice .960 MHz 25 kHz 1000 1 0.

International (E)TACS s Minor variation of TACS to allow operation outside of the UK by allowing flexibility in assigning the control channels w JTACS . 42 control) and has replaced TACS as the UK standard w ITACS and IETACS .Narrowband TACS s New system that has three times as many voice channels as ETACS with no loss of signal quality Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 26 .Japanese TACS s A version of TACS designed for operation in Japan w NTACS .GSM RNE Fundamentals Different TACS-Systems w ETACS .Extended TACS s Current UK system that has 1320 channels (1278 voice.

1320 Channels 1329 2047 0 11 23 1st Assignment in the UK (600 channels) 44 872.0125 (935.962 5) 889.GSM RNE Fundamentals TACS (Total Access Communications System) Original concept (1000 channels) Mobile Station TX (Base Station TX) Number of Channel Frequenc y of channel [Mhz] E-TACS .987 5) 890.012 5) Organisati on A 34 32 4 3 Organisati on B 60 0 100 0 Borders of channels [Mhz] 872 917 890 935 905 (95 0) 915 (96 0) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 27 .012 5 (917.9625 (934.9875 (934.012 5) 889.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Why digital mobile communication ? w w w w w w Easy adaptation to digital networks Digital signaling serves for flexible adaptation to operational needs Possibility to realize a wide spectrum of non-voice services Digital transmission allows for high cellular implementation flexibility Digital signal processing gain results in high interference immunity Privacy of radio transmission ensured by digital voice coding and encryption in favour of a digital solution w Cost and performance trends of modern microelectronics are Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 28 .

104 dBm Voice.Technical objectives Technology RF frequency band Channel Spacing Carriers Timeslots Mobile Power (average/max) BTS Power class MS sensitivity BTS sensitivity Transmission HO Roaming Mobile Radio Network Planning TDMA/FDMA 890 ...GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM .102 dBm . data possible possible 29 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . 40 W .960 MHz 200 kHz 124 8 2 W/ 8 W 10 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals DECT (Digital European Cordless Telephone) w European Standard for Cordless Communication w Using TDMA-System w Traditional Applications s Domestic use ("Cordless telephone") s Cordless office applications w Combination possible with s ISDN s GSM w High flexibility for different applications Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 30 .

Technical objectives Technology RF frequency band Channel Spacing Carriers Timeslots Mobile Power (average/ max) BTS Power class MS sensitivity BTS sensitivity Transmission HO Mobile Radio Network Planning TDMA/FDMA 1880 .1900 MHz 1.GSM RNE Fundamentals DECT .728 MHz 10 12 (duplex) 10 mW/250 mW 250 mW -83 dBm -83 dBm Voice. data possible 31 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

25 MHz) The CDMA channel can be re-used in every cell w Each user is addressed by s A specific code and s Selected by correlation processing w Orthogonal codes provides optimum isolation between users Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 32 .GSM RNE Fundamentals CDMA .Technical objectives w Spread spectrum technology (Code Division Multiple Access) w Several users occupy continuously one CDMA channel (bandwidth: 1.

Special Features w Vocoder allows variable data rates w Soft handover w Open and closed loop power control w Multiple forms of diversity w Data.GSM RNE Fundamentals CDMA . fax and short message services possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 33 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals CDMA .3 W / 6.Technical objectives Technology RF frequency band Channel Spacing Channels per 1250 kHz Mobile Power (average/max) Transmission HO ("Soft handoff") Roaming CDMA 869-894 / 824-849 or 1900 MHz 1250 kHz 64 1-6.3 W Voice. data possible possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 34 .

Features w Standard for a frequency efficient european digital trunked radio w w communication system (defined in 1990) Possibility of connections with simultaneous transmission of voice and data Encryption at two levels: s Basic level which uses the air interface encryption s End-to-end encryption (specifically intended for public safety users) Open channel operation "Direct Mode" possible s Communication between two MS without connecting via a BTS MS can be used as a repeater w w w Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 35 .GSM RNE Fundamentals TETRA .

w Railway.Typical Users w Public safety s Police (State. Traffic) s Fire brigades s Ambulance service s .GSM RNE Fundamentals TETRA ... transport and distribution companies Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 36 . Military. Custom.

3.25 W -103 dBm -106 dBm Voice. 10 W 0. data.6 . images. short message possible possible 37 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .5 KHz not yet specified 4 1.400 MHz 25 or 12.Technical objectives Technology RF frequency band Channel Spacing Carriers Timeslots Mobile Power (3 Classes) BTS Power class MS sensitivity BTS sensitivity Transmission HO Roaming Mobile Radio Network Planning TDMA/FDMA 380 .GSM RNE Fundamentals TETRA .

Video. CDMA etc.) and fixed telecommunications services w More capacity and bandwidth w More services (Speech. Multimedia etc.) w Worldwide roaming w "High" subscriber capacity Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 38 .GSM RNE Fundamentals UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) w Third generation mobile communication system w Combining existing mobile services (GSM. Audio.

GSM Radio Network Engineering Fundamentals RNP Process Overview Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 39 .

ping time Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 40 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Definition of RN Requirements w The Request for Quotation (RfQ) from the customer prescribes the requirements mainly w Coverage s Definition of coverage probability q Percentage of measurements above level threshold s Definition of covered area w Traffic s Definition of Erlang per square kilometer s Definition of number of TRX in a cell s Mixture of circuit switched and packed switched traffic w QoS s Call success rate s RxQual. throughput rates. voice quality.

w Network architecture design s Planning of BSC and MSC locations and their links w Frequency spectrum from license conditions Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 41 . when the roll out takes place.GSM RNE Fundamentals Preliminary Network Design w The preliminary design lays the foundation to create the Bill of Quantity (BoQ) s List of needed network elements w Geo data procurement s Digital Elevation Model DEM/Topographic map s Clutter map w Definition of standard equipment configurations dependent on s clutter type s traffic density w Coverage Plots s Expected receiving level w Definition of roll out phases s Areas to be covered s Number of sites to be installed s Date.

w This ramp up phase includes: s Geo data procurement if required s Setting up ‘general rules’ of the project s Define and agree on reporting scheme to be used q Coordination of information exchange between the different teams which are involved in the project s Each department/team has to prepare its part of the project s Definition of required manpower and budget s Selection of project database (MatrixX) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 42 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Project Setup and Management w This phase includes all tasks to be performed before the on site part of the RNP process takes place.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Initial Radio Network Design w Area surveys s As well check of correctness of geo data w Frequency spectrum partitioning design w RNP tool calibration s For the different morpho classes: q Performing of drive measurements q Calibration of correction factor and standard deviation by comparison of measurements to predicted received power values of the tool w Definition of search areas (SAM – Search Area Map) s A team searches for site locations in the defined areas s The search team should be able to speak the national language w Selection of number of sectors/TRX per site together with project management and customer w Get ‘real’ design acceptance from customer based on coverage prediction and predefined design level thresholds Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 43 .

grassland) information s Site plan w Site candidate acceptance and ranking s If the reported site is accepted as candidate. then it is ranked according to its quality in terms of q Radio transmission High visibility on covered area No obstacles in the near field of the antennas No interference from other systems/antennas q Installation costs Installation possibilities Power supply Wind and heat q Maintenance costs Accessibility Rental rates for object Durability of object Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 44 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Site Acquisition Procedure w Delivery of site candidates s Several site candidates shall be the result out of the site location search w Find alternative sites s If no site candidate or no satisfactory candidate can be found in the search area s Definition of new SAM s Possibly adaptation of radio network design w Check and correct SAR (Site Acquisition Report) s Location information s Land usage s Object (roof top. pylon.

position. bearing/orientation and tilt s Mast/pole or wall mounting position of antennas s EMC rules are taken into account s BTS/Node B location s Power and feeder cable mount s Transmission equipment installation s Final Line Of Site (LOS) confirmation for microwave link planning q E.GSM RNE Fundamentals Technical Site Survey w Agree on an equipment installation solution satisfying the needs of s RNE Radio Network Engineer s Transmission planner s Site engineer s Site owner w The Technical Site Survey Report (TSSR) defines s Antenna type.g. red balloon of around half a meter diameter marks target location w If the site is not acceptable or the owner disagrees with all suggested solutions s The site will be rejected s Site acquisition team has to organize a new date with the next site from the ranking list q Radio network engineer and transmission planner check electro magnetic compatibility (EMC) with other installed devices Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 45 .

micro.GSM RNE Fundamentals Basic Parameter Definition w After installation of equipment the basic parameter settings are used for s Commissioning q Functional test of BTS and VSWR check w Cell design CAE data to be defined for all cells are for example: s CI/LAC/BSIC s Frequencies s Neighborhood/cell handover relationship s Transmit power s Cell type (macro. umbrella. …) s Call tests w RNEs define cell design data w Operations field service generates the basic software using the cell design CAE data Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 46 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Design CAE Data Exchange over COF ACIE A9156 RNO OMC 1 A955 V5 /A9155 V6 RNP COF A9155 PRC Generator Module ACIE Conversion OMC 2 POLO BSS Software offline production 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3rd Party RNP or Database ACIE = PRC file 47 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Turn On Cycle w The network is launched step by step during the TOC w A single step takes typically two or three weeks s Not to mix up with rollout phases. which take months or even years w For each step the RNE has to define ‘TOC Parameter’ s Cells to go on air s Determination of frequency plan s Cell design CAE parameter w Each step is finished with the ‘Turn On Cycle Activation’ s Upload PRC/ACIE files into OMC-R s Unlock sites Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 48 .

Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 49 . w If coverage holes or areas of high interference are detected s Adjust the antenna tilt and orientation w Verification of cell design CAE data w To fulfill heavy acceptance test requirements. it is absolutely essential to perform such a drive measurement. w Basic site and area optimization reduces the probability to have unforeseen mysterious network behavior afterwards.GSM RNE Fundamentals Site Verification and Drive Test w RNE performs drive measurement to compare the real coverage with the predicted coverage of the cells.

GSM RNE Fundamentals HW / SW Problem Detection w Problems can be detected due to drive tests or equipment monitoring s Defective equipment q will trigger replacement by operation field service s Software bugs s Incorrect parameter settings q are corrected by using the OMC or in the next TOC s Faulty antenna installation q Wrong coverage footprints of the site will trigger antenna re-alignments w If the problem is serious s s s s Lock BTS Detailed error detection Get rid of the fault Eventually adjusting antenna tilt and orientation Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 50 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Basic Network Optimization w Network wide drive measurements s It is highly recommended to perform network wide drive tests before doing the commercial opening of the network s Key performance indicators (KPI) are determined s The results out of the drive tests are used for basic optimization of the network w Basic optimization s All optimization tasks are still site related s Alignment of antenna system s Adding new sites in case of too large coverage holes s Parameter optimization q No traffic yet -> not all parameters can be optimized w Basic optimization during commercial service s If only a small number of new sites are going on air the basic optimization will be included in the site verification procedure Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 51 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Network Acceptance w Acceptance drive test w Calculation of KPI according to acceptance requirements in contract w Presentation of KPI to the customer w Comparison of key performance indicators with the acceptance targets in the contract w The customer accepts s the whole network s only parts of it step by step w Now the network is ready for commercial launch Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 52 .

Alcatel is only involved during the first optimization activities directly after opening the network commercially Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 53 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Further Optimization w Network is in commercial operation w Network optimization can be performed w Significant traffic allows to use OMC based statistics by using A9156 RNO and A9185 NPA w End of optimization depends on contract and mutual agreement between Alcatel and customer s Usually.

GSM Radio Network Engineering Fundamentals Coverage Planning Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 54 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Contents w w w w w w w w w w w Introduction Geo databases Antennas and Cables Radio Propagation Path Loss Prediction Link Budget Calculation Coverage Probability Cell Range Calculation Antenna Engineering Alcatel BSS Coverage Improvement s Antenna Diversity s Repeater Systems s High Power TRX Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 55 .

Coverage Planning Geo Databases Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 56 .

g. UTM coordinates) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 57 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Why are geographical data needed for Radio Network Planning ? w Propagation models depend on geographical data w Geographical information for site acquisition s Latitude (East/West) / Longitude (North/South) s Rectangular coordinates (e.

buildings.g.GSM RNE Fundamentals Contents w Map Projection s Different Map Projections: conical. planar/ azimuthal s Geodetic Datum: e. coastline. cylindrical.g. border line. w Geocoordinate Transformation s Practical Applications q Converting one single point q Compare to different geodetic datums q Converting a list of points Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 58 . Morphostructure/ Clutter. UTM w Types of Geospatial Data s Creation of geospatial databases s Raster data: DEM /Topography. WGS 84 s Transverse Mercator Projection: e. Buildings s Vector data: airport. etc.

Geo Databases Map Projection Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 59 .

y Longitud e Problem: Earth is 3D.GSM RNE Fundamentals Maps are flat Latitude x. the maps are 2D Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 60 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Mapping the earth w The Earth is a very complex shape w To map the geography of the earth. a reference model (-> Geodetic Datum) is needed w The model needs to be simple so that it is easy to use w It needs to include a Coordinate system which allows the positions of objects to be uniquely identified w It needs to be readily associated with the physical world so that its use is intuitive Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 61 .

g.g.g. Lambert Conformal Conic Map Projection Geocoordinate System e.g. UTM 62 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . WGS84.GSM RNE Fundamentals Map Projection Ellipsoid e. Transverse Mercator (UTM). WGS84. International 1924 Geodetic Datum e. ED50 e.

The ellipsoid is chosen to best meet the needs of a particular map datum system design. Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 63 . Reference ellipsoids are usually defined by semi-major (equatorial radius) and flattening (the relationship between equatorial and polar radii).GSM RNE Fundamentals Geodetic Ellipsoid Definition: A mathematical surface (an ellipse rotated around the earth's polar axis) which provides a convenient model of the size and shape of the earth.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Global & Regional Ellipsoids w Global ellipsoids e. Krassovsky s Best fitting ellipsoid for a part of the world (“local optimized”) s Less local deviation Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 64 . GRS80 s Center of ellipsoid is “Center of gravity” s Worldwide consistence of all maps around the world w Regional ellipsoids e. WGS84. Bessel. Hayford.g. Clarke.g.

65 . rotation and scale factor of a Map Datum is relative to the “satellite map datum” 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 WGS84.GSM RNE Fundamentals Geodetic Datum w A Geodetic Datum is a Reference System which includes: s A local or global Ellipsoid s One “Fixpoint” Attention: Referencing geodetic coordinates to the wrong map datum can result in position errors of hundreds of meters Mobile Radio Network Planning Info: In most cases the shift.

GSM RNE Fundamentals w Cylindrical Map Projection s e. Gauss-Krueger w Conical s e.g.Lambert Conformal Conic w Planar/Azimuthal Mobile Radio Network Planning Info: In 90% of the cases we will have a cylindrical projection in 10% of the cases a conical projection 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 66 . UTM.g.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Geo-Coordinate System w To simplify the use of maps a Cartesian Coordinates is used w To avoid negative values a s False Easting value and a s False Northing value is added w Also a scaling factor is used to minimize the “projection error” over the whole area X = Easting Y = Northing Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 67 .

S. Department of Defense is defined by the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) w The Global Positioning System (GPS) system is based on the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS-84).GSM RNE Fundamentals WGS 84 (World Geodetic System 1984) w Most needed Geodetic Datum in the world today (“Satellite Datum”) w It is the reference frame used by the U. w Optimal adaption to the surface of the earth Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 68 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Transverse Mercator Projection w Projection cylinder is rotated 90 degrees from the polar axis (“transverse”) w Geometric basis for the UTM and the Gauss-Krueger Map Projection w Conformal Map projection Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 69 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Transverse Mercator Projection (e. UTM ) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 Middle-Meridian 70 .g.

each 6o (60 · 6o = 360o ) w ±3o around each center meridian w Beginning at 180o longitude (measured eastward from Greenwich) Zone number = (center meridian + 183o ) / 6o Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 71 .GSM RNE Fundamentals UTM-System (Universal Transverse Mercator System) w 60 zones.

GSM RNE Fundamentals UTM .9996 (used to minimize the “projection error” over the whole area) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 72 .Definitions False Easting: 500 000 m (Middle-meridian x = 500 000 m) False Northing: Northern Hemisphere: 0 m Southern Hemisphere: 10 000 000 m Scaling Factor: 0.

g.GSM RNE Fundamentals UTM Zones (e. Europe) UTM-Zones -6° -3° 3° 9° 15° 21° 27° 33° 39°Middle-Meridian 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 73 Mobile Radio Network Planning .

667 to 833.000 meters.5° overlap at each end of the zone (valid only at the equator) matching between zones w This allows for overlaps and Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 74 .000 meters w All eastings have a positive w Eastings range from 100. leaving about a 0.000 to w The 6 Degree zone ranges from 166.GSM RNE Fundamentals UTM-System (2) w False origin on the central meridian of the zone has an easting of 500.333 m. values for the zone 900.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 75 .

5'' East 7.GSM RNE Fundamentals UTM-System: Example "Stuttgart" Transformation: latitude / longitude → UTM system North 48o 45' 13.5'' 9o 11' y = 5 400 099 m x = 513 629 m UTM-Zone: 32 Middle meridian: 9o (9o = 500 000 m “False Easting”) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 76 .

g. NTF-System in France) Mobile Radio Network Planning Cutting edges of cone and ellipsoid => Two standard parallels (2SP) (e. Lambert-Projection in Austria) 77 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .g.GSM RNE Fundamentals Lambert Conformal Conic Projection w Maps an ellipsoid onto a cone whose central axis coincides with the polar axis Cone touches the ellipsoid => One standard parallel (1SP) (e.

Geo Databases Types of Geospatial Data Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 78 .

borders. ) w Buildings w Traffic data Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 79 . etc. coastlines.GSM RNE Fundamentals Geospatial data for Network Planning w DEM (Digital Elevation Model)/ Topography w Morphostructure / Land usage / Clutter w Satellite Photos / Orthoimages w Scanned Maps w Background data (streets.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Creation of geospatial databases Satellite imagery Digitizing maps Aerial photography Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 Geospatial data 80 .

1:100000 s microcell planning 1:500 -1:5000 w Thematic w Source w Date of Production Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 81 . Geodetic Datum) w Location of the map (Area …) w Scale: s macrocell planning 1:50000 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Parameters of a Map w Coordinate system w Map Projection (incl.

etc.y1) (streets.GSM RNE Fundamentals Raster.yn ) 82 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . coastlines. ) s Buildings (xn.and Vectordata w Raster data s DEM /Topography s Morphostructure / Land usage / Clutter s Traffic density y x w Vector data s Background data (x1. borders.

colour of a scanned map. elevation of a DEM) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 83 . morphoclass.GSM RNE Fundamentals Rasterdata / Grid data w Pixel-oriented data w Stored as row and column w Each Pixel stored in one or two byte w Each Pixel contents information (e.g.

g. rivers/lakes w Each vector contents (x s Info about kind of vector 1. highway.yn ) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 84 . in UTM System or as Long/Lat) s Info about Map projection and used Geodetic Datum (xn.g. coastline.GSM RNE Fundamentals Vectordata w Vector mainly used are: airport. street. secondary roads.y1 (e. main roads. coastline) ) s A series of several points Each point has a corresponded x / y -value (e. railway.

stereo satellite images.GSM RNE Fundamentals Digital Elevation Model (DEM) w Raster dataset that shows terrain features such as hills and valleys w Each element (or pixel) in the DEM image represents the terrain elevation at that location w Resolution in most cases: 20 m for urban areas 50-100 m for other areas w DEM are typically generated from topographic maps. or stereo aerial photographs Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 85 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Morphostructure / Land usage / Clutter (1) w Land usage classification according to the impact on wave propagation w In most cases: 7..14 morpho classes w Resolution in most cases: 20 m for cities 50…100m other areas for radio network planning Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 86 ..

GSM RNE Fundamentals Morphostructure (2) w Besides the topo database the basic input w for radio network planning Each propagation area has different obstacles like buildings. forest etc. Obstacles which have similar effects on propagation conditions are classified in morphoclasses Each morphoclass has a corresponding value for the correction gain The resolution of the morpho databases should be adapted to the propagation model Morpho correction factor for predictions: 0 dB (”skyscapers") … 30 dB (”water") w w w Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 87 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Morphoclasses Code 0 Mobile Radio Network Planning Morphostructure not classifi 88 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Morphoclasses Code 7 Mobile Radio Network Planning Morpho structur forest 89 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

borders etc.GSM RNE Fundamentals Background data (streets. borders. coastlines etc.) w All kinds of information data like streets. w Necessary for orientation in plots of calculation results w The background data are not needed for the calculation of the fieldstrength. power etc. Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 90 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Orthophoto w Georeferenced Satellite Image w Resolution: most 10 or 20 m w Satellite: e.g. SPOT. Landsat Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 91 .

g. a Radio Network Planning Tool Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 92 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Scanned Maps w Mainly used as background data w Not used for calculation but for localisation w Has to be geocoded to put it into a GIS (Geographic Information System) e.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Buildings w Vectordata s Outlines of q single buildings q building blocks s Building heights s Material code q not: roof shape Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 93 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Buildings (2) w Microcell radio network planning is mainly used in urban environment w The prediction of mircowave propagation is calculated with a ray-tracing/launching model w A lot of calculation steps are needed ² Optimum building database required (data reduction) to minimize the pre-calculation time Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 94 .

.GSM RNE Fundamentals Traffic density w Advantageous in the interference calculation.. thus for frequency assignment and in the calculation of average figures in network analysis w Raster database of traffic density values (in Erlangs) of the whole planning area w Resolution: 20.100 m Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 95 .

Geo Databases Geocoordinate transformation Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 96 .

Hemisphere: N (North) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 97 .5 sec Datum “WGE: World Geodetic System 1984”.5 sec Latitude: 48 deg 45 min 13. Projection: “Geodetic” Output: Values. which will Easting: 513629 m calculated by program Northing: 5400099 m Datum “WGE: World Geodetic System 1984” Projection: “Universersal Transverse Mercator (UTM)”Preset of this values necessary Zone: 32 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Converting one single point (1a) Example “Stuttgart” (Example 1) Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (WGS84) Exercise: Convert following example with the program “Geotrans”: Input: Longitude: 9 deg 11 min 7.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Converting one single point (1b) Example “Stuttgart” (Example 1) Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (WGS84) GEOTRANS (Geographic Translator) is an application program which allows you to convert geographic coordinates easily among a wide variety of coordinate systems. and datums. Source: http://164.html Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 98 . map projections.59/GandG/geotrans/geotrans.214.2.

GSM RNE Fundamentals

Converting one single point (2a)
Example “Stuttgart” (Example 2) Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (ED50)
(ED50 = EUR-A = European Datum 1950)

Input: Longitude: 9 deg 11 min 7.5 sec Latitude: 48 deg 45 min 13.5 sec Datum “WGE: World Geodetic System 1984”; Projection: “Geodetic”

Exercise: Convert following example with the program “Geotrans”:

Output: Values, which will Easting: 513549 m calculated by program Northing: 5403685 m Datum “EUR-A: EUROPEAN 1950, Western Europe” Projection: “Universersal Transverse Mercator (UTM)” Preset of this values necessary Zone: 32 ; Hemisphere: N (North)
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Converting one single point (2b)
Example “Stuttgart” (Example 2) Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (ED50)
(ED50 = EUR-A = European Datum 1950)

Diff. X (Ex.2 - Ex.1): 69 m Diff. Y (Ex.2 - Ex.1): 200 m
Difference because of different Geodetic Datums

Attention: For flat coordinates (e.g. UTM) as well as for geographic coordinates (Long/Lat) a reference called “Geodetic Datum” is necessary.
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Converting a list of points (3a)
Example “Stuttgart” (Example 3 ) Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (WGS84) Input: text-file with the values (list) of the longitude and latitude of different points (How to create the inputfile see on page 3c) Output: Datum: “WGE: World Geodetic System 1984” Preset of this Projection: “Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)” values necessary Zone: 32
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Converting a list of points (3b)
Example “Stuttgart” (Example 3 ) Long/Lat (WGS84) => UTM (WGS84)

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Converting a list of points (3c)
w Example “Stuttgart” (Example 3)
Geotrans V2.2.3

Long/Lat (WGS84)=> UTM (WGS84)
Geotrans V2.2.3

Optional: different error-infos, LatitudeLongitude UTM Hem Easti North depending on the input-data -Zo isp ng deg min sec deg min sec ne her (x) ing (y default: “Unk”=“unknown” e )
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Provider for Geospatial data
Geodatasupplier BKS ComputaMaps Geoimage Infoterra Istar RMSI Internet www.bks.co.uk www.computamaps.com www.geoimage.fr www.infoterra-global.com www.istar.fr www.rmsi.com

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Links for more detailed infos
w Maps Projection Overview
http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj.html http://www.ecu.edu/geog/faculty/mulcahy/mp/ http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Map_projection

w Coordinate Transformation (online)
http://jeeep.com/details/coord/ http://www.cellspark.com/UTM.html

w Map Collection

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/index.html

w Finding out Latitude/Longitude of cities etc.
http://www.maporama.com

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Coverage Planning

Antennas and Cables

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GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna Systems w Antennas w Power divider w Cables (jumper) w Feeder cables w Connectors w Clamps w Lightning protection w Wall glands w Planning Plugs 7/16“ Sockets 7/16“ Lightning rod Tx Antennas Rxdiv Mounting clamp Jumper cable Feeder installation clamps Rx Mechanical antenna support structure Jumper cable Earthing kit Earthing kit Feeder cable Wall gland Grounding Jumper cables 107 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna Theory w 50Ω is the impedance of the cable w 377Ω is the impedance of the air w Antennas adapt the different impedances w They convert guided waves. into free-space waves (Hertzian waves) and/or vice versa Z =50Ω Z =377Ω Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 108 .

cross-polarization) w Half power beam width (HPBW) s Related to polarization of electrical field s Vertical and Horizontal HPBW w Antenna pattern s Yields the spatial radiation characteristics of the antenna w Front-to-back ratio s Important for interference considerations Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 109 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna Data w Polarization s Specification due to certain wave polarization (linear/elliptic.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna Pattern and HPBW horizontal 0 dB -3 dB vertical 0 dB -3 dB -10 dB -10 dB sidelobe null direction HPBW main beam Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 110 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals EIRP Effective isotropic radiated power: EIRP = Pt+Gain = 56 dBm Isotropic radiated Power Pt V1 V2 = V1 Gain = 11dBi Pt = 45 dBm radiated power Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 111 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Linear Antennas: Monopole and Dipole w For the link between base station and mobile station. mostly linear antennas are used: s Monopole antennas q MS antennas. car roof antennas s Dipole antennas q Used for array antennas at base stations for increasing the directivity of RX and TX antennas Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 112 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Monopole Antenna Pattern w Influence of antenna length on the antenna pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 113 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Panel Antenna with Dipole Array w Many dipoles are arranged in a grid layout w Nearly arbitrary antenna patterns may be designed s Feeding of the dipoles with weighted and phase-shifted signals s Coupling of all dipole elements Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 114 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Dipole Arrangement w Dipole arrangemen t Weighted and phase shifted signals Typical flat panel antenna Dipole element Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 115 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Omni Antenna w Antenna with vertical HPBW for omni sites s Large area coverage w Advantages s Continuous coverage around the site s Simple antenna mounting s Ideal for homogeneous terrain w Drawbacks s No mechanical tilt possible s Clearance of antenna required Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 116 .

5m w Rural road coverage with mechanical uptilt w Antenna s RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna 872960 MHz s APX906516-T6 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 17.6 Horizontal Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 117 .5° s Electrical downtilt: 6° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 2475 x 306 x 120 s Weight in kg: 16.1 s Polarization: +/-45° s HBW: 65° s VBW: 6.GSM RNE Fundamentals X 65° T6 900MHz 2.

6 Vertical Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 118 .9m w Dense urban area w Antenna s RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna 872960 MHz s APX906515-T6 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 16.5 s Polarization: +/-45° s HBW: 65° s VBW: 9° s Electrical downtilt: 6° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1890 x 306 x 120 s Weight in kg: 16.GSM RNE Fundamentals X 65° T6 900MHz 1.

9 s Polarization: +/-45° s HPBW: 90° s VBW: 7° s Electrical downtilt: 6° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 2475 x 306 x 120 s Weight in kg: 15.5 Vertical Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 119 .GSM RNE Fundamentals X 90° T2 900MHz 2.5m w Rural area with mechanical uptilt w Antenna s RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna 872-960 MHz s APX909014-T6 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 15.

9 Vertical Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 120 .GSM RNE Fundamentals V 65° T0 900MHz 2.5 s Polarization: Vertical s HBW: 65° s VBW: 8.5° s Electrical downtilt: 0° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1977 x 265 x 130 s Weight in kg: 10.0m w Highway w Antenna s RFS CELLite® Panel Vertical Polarized Antenna 872-960 MHz s AP906516-T0 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 17.

5 Vertical Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 121 .0 s Polarization: Vertical s HBW: 65° s VBW: 8.0m w Rural Area w Antenna s RFS CELLite® Panel Vertical Polarized Antenna 872-960 MHz s AP909014-T0 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 16.GSM RNE Fundamentals V 90° T0 900MHz 2.5° s Electrical downtilt: 0° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1977 x 265 x 130 s Weight in kg: 9.

3m w Dense urban area w Antenna s RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz s APX186515-T6 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 17.GSM RNE Fundamentals X 65° T6 1800MHz 1.5 s Polarization: +/-45° s HBW: 65° s VBW: 7° s Electrical downtilt: 6° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x 198 x 50 s Weight in kg: 5.6 Vertical Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 122 .

5 s Polarization: +/-45° s HBW: 65° s VBW: 7° s Electrical downtilt: 2° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x 198 x 50 s Weight in kg: 5.GSM RNE Fundamentals X 65° T2 1800MHz 1.6 Vertical Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 123 .3m w Dense urban area w Antenna s RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz s APX186515-T2 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 17.

5° s Electrical downtilt: 2° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1855 x 198 x 50 s Weight in kg: 8.6 Vertical Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 124 .9m w Highway w Antenna s RFS Panel Dual Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz s APX186516-T2 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 18.3 s Polarization: +/-45° s HBW: 65° s VBW: 4.GSM RNE Fundamentals X 65° T2 1800MHz 1.

0 s Polarization: Vertical s HBW: 65° s VBW: 7.5° s Electrical downtilt: 2° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1310 x 198 x 50 s Weight in kg: 4.7 Horizontal Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 125 .GSM RNE Fundamentals V 65° T2 1800MHz 1.3m w Highway w Antenna s RFS CELLite® Panel Vertical Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz s AP186516-T2 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 17.

GSM RNE Fundamentals V 90° T2 1800MHz 1.5° s Electrical downtilt: 2° w Mechanical specification s Dimensions HxWxD in mm: 1855 x 198 x 50 s Weight in kg: 6.9m w Highway w Antenna s RFS CELLite® Panel Vertical Polarized Antenna 1710-1880 MHz s AP189016-T2 Series w Electrical specification s Gain in dBi: 17.0 Vertical Pattern Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 126 .0 s Polarization: Vertical s HBW: 90° s VBW: 5.

0 s Recommended clamp spacing: 0.GSM RNE Fundamentals 7/8" CELLFLEX® Low-Loss Coaxial Cable w Feeder Cable s 7/8" CELLFLEX® Low-Loss FoamDielectric Coaxial Cable s LCF78-50J Standard s LCF78-50JFN Flame Retardant q Installation temperature >-25°C w Mechanical specification s Cable weight kg\m: 0.65 w Electrical specification 1800MHz s Attenuation: 5.73dB/100m s Average power in kW: 1.53 s Minimum bending radius q Single bend in mm: 120 q Repeated bends in mm: 250 w Electrical specification 900MHz s Attenuation: 3.87dB/100m s Average power in kW: 2.79 s Bending moment in Nm: 13.8m Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 127 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals 1-1/4" CELLFLEX® Coaxial Cable w Feeder Cable s 1-1/4" CELLFLEX® Low-Loss FoamDielectric Coaxial Cable s LCF114-50J Standard s LCF114-50JFN Flame Retardant q Installation temperature >-25°C w Mechanical specification s Cable weight kg\m: 0.86 s Minimum bending radius q Single bend in mm: 200 q Repeated bends in mm: 380 w Electrical specification 900MHz s Attenuation: 3.56 w Electrical specification 1800MHz s Attenuation: 4.06dB/100m s Average power in kW: 3.0 s Recommended clamp spacing: 1.61dB/100m s Average power in kW: 2.36 s Bending moment in Nm: 38.0m Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 128 .

0 s Recommended clamp spacing: 1.57dB/100m s Average power in kW: 3.34dB/100m s Average power in kW: 4.26 s Bending moment in Nm: 46.2m Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 129 .GSM RNE Fundamentals 1-5/8" CELLFLEX® Coaxial Cable w Feeder Cable s 1-5/8" CELLFLEX® Low-Loss FoamDielectric Coaxial Cable s LCF158-50J Standard s LCF158-50JFN Flame Retardant q Installation temperature >-25°C w Mechanical specification s Cable weight kg\m: 1.97 w Electrical specification 1800MHz s Attenuation: 3.26 s Minimum bending radius q Single bend in mm: 200 q Repeated bends in mm: 508 w Electrical specification 900MHz s Attenuation: 2.

0.176dB and 0.108dB. 0. 2m.068db/m s Total losses with connectors are 0.238dB and 0.099dB/m s Total losses with connectors are 0.139dB. 3m w Mechanical specification s Minimum bending radius q Repeated bends in mm: 125 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 130 .244dB w Electrical specification 1800MHz s Attenuation: 0.GSM RNE Fundamentals 1/2" CELLFLEX® Jumper Cable w CELLFLEX® LCF12-50J Jumpers s Feeder Cable q LCF12-50J CELLFLEX® LowLoss Foam-Dielectric Coaxial Cable w Electrical specification 900MHz s Attenuation: 0.337dB s Connectors q 7/16” DIN male/female q N male/female q Right angle s Molded version available in 1m.

Coverage Planning Radio Propagation and Path Loss Prediction Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 131 .

Scattering s in the atmosphere s at a boundary to another material w Diffraction s at small obstacles s over round earth w Attenuation s Rain attenuation s Gas absorption w Fading Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 132 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Propagation effects w Free space loss w Fresnel ellipsoid w Reflection. Refraction.

∆ h) R h R v ϕ ε σ ∆ h ∆ horizontal reflection factor vertical reflection factor angle of incidence permittivity conductivity Pr surface roughness h ϕ P0 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 133 . ε . σ .GSM RNE Fundamentals Reflection w Pr = Rh/v ⋅ P0 w Rh/v = f(ϕ .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Refraction w Considered via an effective earth radius factor k k = 4 /3 k = ∞ k = 1 k = 2 /3 r a d i o p a th k = 2/3 k = 1 tru e e a rth k = 4/3 k = ∞ Ray paths with different k over true earth Radio path plotted as a straight line by changing the earth's radius Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 134 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Diffraction w Occurs at objects which sizes are in the order of the wavelength λ w Radio waves are ‘bent’ or ‘curved’ around objects s Bending angle increases if object thickness is smaller compared to λ s Influence of the object causes an attenuation: diffraction loss radio beam obstacle shadow zone diffracted radio beams Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 135 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals

Fading
w Caused by delay spread of original signal
s Multi path propagation s Time-dependent variations in heterogeneity of environment s Movement of receiver w Short-term fading, fast fading s This fading is characterised by phase summation and cancellation of signal components, which travel on multiple paths. The variation is in the order of the considered wavelength. s Their statistical behaviour is described by the Rayleigh distribution (for non-LOS signals) and the Rice distribution (for LOS signals), respectively. s In GSM, it is already considered by the sensitivity values, which take the error correction capability into account.
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Fading types
w Mid-term fading, lognormal fading
s Mid-term field strength variations caused by objects in the size of 10...100m (cars, trees, buildings). These variations are lognormal distributed. w Long-term fading, slow fading s Long-term variations caused by large objects like large buildings, forests, hills, earth curvature (> 100m). Like the mid-term field strength variations, these variations are lognormal distributed.

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Signal Variation due to Fading
0 Lognormal fading -10 Raleygh fading

-20 Received Power [dBm]

-30

-40

-50

Fading hole
-60

-70 0.1 2.8 5.4 8.0 10.6 15.9 21.1 23.7 26.3 29.0 34.2 39.4 44.7 47.3 49.9 13.2 18.5 31.6 36.8 42.1

Distance [m]
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Lognormal Fading

Lognormal fading (typical 20 dB loss by entering a village)

Fading hole Lognormal fading (entering a tunnel)

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Free Space Loss
w The simplest form of wave propagation is the free-space propagation w The according path loss can be calculated with the following formula w Path Loss in Free Space Propagation
s L free space loss s d distance between transmitter and receiver antenna s f operating frequency

L freespace
Mobile Radio Network Planning

d f = 32.4 + 20 ⋅ log + 20 ⋅ log km MHz
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Fresnel Ellipsoid
w The free space loss formula can only be applied if the direct line-ofsight (LOS) between transmitter and receiver is not obstructed w This is the case, if a specific region around the LOS is cleared from any obstacles w The region is called Fresnel ellipsoid

Transmitter LOS Receiver

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Fresnel Ellipsoid

d1 ⋅ d 2 ⋅ λ r= d1 + d 2
Fresnel zone Transmitter LOS

w The Fresnel ellipsoid is the set
of all points around the LOS where the total length of the connecting lines to the transmitter and the receiver is longer than the LOS length by exactly half a wavelength w It can be shown that this region is carrying the main power flow from transmitter to receiver
Receiver

LOS + λ /2
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Knife Edge Diffraction
path of diffracted wave line of sight h0

BTS
1st Fresnel zone

MS
d2

d1

h0 = height of obstacle over line of sight d1, d2 = distance of obstacle from BTS and MS

replaced obstacle (knife edge)

h0 r

d1
Mobile Radio Network Planning

d2
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GSM RNE Fundamentals Knife Edge Diffraction Function Knife-edge diffraction function 35 30 25 F(v) [dB] 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Clearance of Fresnel ellipsoid (v) Mobile Radio Network Planning Additional diffraction loss F(v) v: clearance parameter. v=-h0/r Note: h0 = 0 ⇒ v =0 ⇒ L = 6 dB 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 144 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Computers: the "Final Solution" for Wave Propagation Calculations? w Exact field solution requires too much computer resources! s Too much details required for input s Exact calculation too time-consuming ² Field strength prediction rather than calculation w Requirements for field strength prediction models s Reasonable amount of input data s Fast (it is very important to see the impact of changes in the network layout immediately) s Accurate (results influence the hardware cost directly) ² Tradeoff required (accurate results within a suitable time) ² Parameter tuning according to real measurements should be possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 145 .

5 m S Dashed line: free space w How to use this experience in field strength prediction models? ² Model which fits the curves in certain ranges → Hata's model was modified later by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST): COST 231 Hata/Okumura Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 146 .GSM RNE Fundamentals CCIR Recommendation w The CCIR Recommendations provide various propagation curves s Based on Okumura (1968) s Example (CCIR Report 567-3): Median field strength in urban area Frequency = 900 MHz hM = 1.

7 147 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Mobile Radio Propagation d Free-space propagation (Fresnel zone not obstructed) → L ~ d2 Mobile Radio Network Planning Fresnel zone heavily obstructed near the mobile station 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 → L ~ d3.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Terrain Modeling w Topography s Effective antenna height s Knife edge diffraction q single obstacles q multiple obstacles w Surface shape/Morphostructure s Correction factors for Hata-Okumura formula Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 148 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Effect of Morphostructure on Propagation Loss Open area Urban area Open area Fieldstrength open area urban area Distance 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 149 Mobile Radio Network Planning .

82 44.16 -13.30 33.55 Cost-Hata F>1500 MHz 46.55 26.90 -6. A3.90 -13. A2.82 44.55 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 150 . Default values are proposed in the table below: Parameters Okumura-Hata f< 1500 MHz 69.GSM RNE Fundamentals Hata-Okumura for GSM 900 w Path loss (Lu) is calculated (in dB) as follows: Lu= A1 + A2 log(f) + A3 log(hBTS) + (B1 + B2log(hBTS)) log d w The parameters A1. B1 and B2 can be user-defined.90 -6.

5m.4.7)hMS – (1. Lmodel1=Lu-a(hMS) for large city and urban environments Lmodel1=Lu-a(hMS) -2log² (f/28) -5.94 for rural area a(hMS) is a correction factor to take into account a receiver antenna height different from 1.56log(f) -0.97 te: When receiver antenna height equals 1.5m. a(hMS) is close to 0 dB regardless of freque Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 151 . the Hata formula is valid for urban environment and a receiver antenna height of 1. For other environments and mobile antenna heights.8) 3.2log² (11.33 log(f) – 40.75hMS) – 4.5m.78log² (f)+ 18.GSM RNE Fundamentals CORRECTIONS TO THE HATA FORMULA w As described above.4 for suburban area Lmodel1=Lu -a(hMS) . Environments A(hMS) Rural/Small city Large city (1.1log(f) – 0. corrective formulas must be applied.

0.200 m) Height of Mobile (1 .82 log (hBTS) .7) hMS .10m) Distance between BTS and MS (1 .16 log (f) .20 km) Power law exponent shown colored 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 152 f [MHz] hBTS [m] hM [m] S d [km] Mobile Radio Network Planning .1000 MHz) Height of BTS (30 .1 log (f) .6.(1.0.55 + 26.55 log (hBTS)) log (d) .Lmorpho a (hMS) = (1.GSM RNE Fundamentals COST 231 Hata-Okumura for GSM 900 LossHata = 69.56 log (f) .a(hMS) +(44.8) w Formula valid for frequency range: 150…1000 MHz Lmrpho o [dB] Morpho/surface shape-Correction factor 0 dB: ‘Skyscrapers’->27 dB: ‘open area’ Frequency (150 .9 .13.

2000 MHz w Hata’s model is extended for GSM 1800 s Modification of original formula to the new frequency range w For cells with small ranges the COST 231 Walfish-Ikegami model is more precisely Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 153 .6.0.56 log (f) -0..1 log (f) .3 + 33.13.9 .82 log (hBTS) .a(hMS) +(44.Lmorpho a (hMS) = (1.8) w Formula is valid for frequency range: 1500.55 log (hBTS)) log (d) .7) hMS .(1.9 log (f) .GSM RNE Fundamentals COST 231 Hata-Okumura GSM 1800 LossHata = 46..

d.GSM RNE Fundamentals Alcatel Propagation Model w Using of effective antenna height in the Hata-Okumura formula: heff = f(α . hBTS . hM ) S Τ Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 154 .

) f=1800MHz w 2.) Morpho class ‘open area’ Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 155 .5m s D (BTS to MS) = 2000m w 1.GSM RNE Fundamentals Exercise ‘Path Loss’ w Scenario s Height BTS = 40m s Height MS = 1.) Morpho class ‘open area’ w 3.) Morpho class ‘skyscraper’ s B. Calculate the path loss for f = 1800MHz s A. Calculate the path loss for f = 900MHz s A.) f=900MHz s B.) Morpho class ‘skyscraper’ s B. Calculate free space loss for s A.

Coverage Planning Link Budget Calculation Coverage Probability Cell Range Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 156 .

0 dBm ALCATEL EvoliumTM MS RX Sensitivity -102 dBm Internal Losses Lint = 2 dB Maximum allowed downlink propagation loss: Lprop.5 dBm BTS Antenna Gain GantBS = 16.m .mx a = EIRPBTS .GSM RNE Fundamentals Maximum Propagation Loss (Downlink) Effective Isotropic Radiated Power EIRPBTS = 59.M in S = 161.5 dBi Propagation Loss Lprop Minimum Received Power PRX.M = -102 dBm in S MS Antenna Gain GantM = 2 dBi S Feeder Cable Loss Lcable = 3 dB Output Power at antenna connector 46.PRX.5 dB Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 157 .m .

TM = EIRPM .m .5 a A S in dB Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 158 .m .5 dBm in Propagation Loss Lprop EIRPM = 33 dBm S MS Antenna Gain GantM = 2 dBi S Feeder Cable Loss Lcable = 3 dB Receiving sensitivity at ant.BTS + GAD + GTMA = 163.PRX. allowed uplink propagation loss: Lprop.PRX.BTS = -124.5 dB a S in With antenna diversity gain of 3dB: Lprop.BTS = 157. -111 dBm ALCATEL EvoliumTM MS TX Power 33 dBm Internal Losses Lint = 2 dB Max.AD = EIRPM . conn.5 dB a S in With TMA compensating cable loss: Lprop.5 dBi Minimum Received Power PRX.m .GSM RNE Fundamentals Maximum Propagation Loss (Uplink) BTS Antenna Gain GantBS = 16.BTS + GAD = 160.mx = EIRPM .m .PRX.AD.mx.mx.

Pathloss Mobile Radio Network Planning 133.0 2.0 8.0 0.0 11.0 46.0 3.0 dB 159 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .0 3.0 33.Link Budget (1) GSM900 Macro Evolium Evolution A9100 BTS GSM RNE Fundamentals MS to BS TX Internal Power Comb+Filter Loss.0 dBm dB dBm dB RX Rec.0 dBm dB dBi dB dB dB dB dB dBm Downlink -102.0 2.0 3.0 0.0 4.0 dBm dB dB dBi dB dB dB dBm Max.0 dBm dB dBm dB dB dBi dBm 11.9% Degradation (no FH) Antenna Pre-Ampl. Output Power Cable.0 2. Isotr. Power: Uplink -104.0 2.0 dB 133.0 -104.0 3.0 29.0 8. Connectors Loss Antenna Gain Diversity Gain Interferer Margin Lognormal Margin 50%→ 90.0 3.0 3.0 38. Rec. Sensitivity Body/Indoor Loss Cables.0 0.0 dBi dBm BS to MS Downlink 41. Tol.0 -87.0 0.0 4.Connectors Loss Body/Indoor Loss Antenna Gain EIRP Uplink 33.

GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM1800 Link Budget Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 160 .

.8dB) human body Both signal-to-noise ratio and C/ I low 3 dB Receiving the minimum field strength According to with a higher probability probability Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 161 .10dB) Electrical properties of wall material 20dB (3..GSM RNE Fundamentals Additional Losses Overview Loss type Indoor loss Incar loss Body loss Interferer margin Lognormal margin Reason Brass influencing radio waves Value 7dB (4.30dB) Absorption of radio waves by the 3dB (0.....

GSM RNE Fundamentals Indoor propagation aspects w Penetration Loss w Multiple Refraction w Multiple Reflection w Exact modeling of indoor environment not possible w Practical solution: empirical model! Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 162 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Indoor propagation: empirical model ϕ d Additional Loss in [dB] relative to loss at vertical incidence 35 Power relative to power at d=0 Additional attenuation in dB 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 66 72 78 84 Angle of incidence in degree d 163 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 90 0 6 .

100th floor) Incident wave Lindoor = 3 .. 25 dB Mobile Radio Network Planning Lindoor = 17 . 15 dB -2.... 18 dB (ground floor) Lindoor = 13 .. 10th floor) Incident wave Lindoor = 7 ...7 dB / floor (1st ... 28 dB Lindoor = ∞ dB (deep basement) 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 164 ....GSM RNE Fundamentals Indoor Penetration w Depending on environment w Line-of-sight to antenna? w Interior unknown ² general assumptions -0.3 dB / floor (11th .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Body Loss (1) Measured attenuation versus time for a test person walking around in an anechoic chamber Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 165 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Body Loss (2) Near field of MS antenna •without head •with head Calculation model Head modeled as sphere Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 166 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Body Loss (3) Test equipment for indirect field strength measurements Indirect measured field strength penetrated into the head (horizontal cut) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 167 .

the defined system threshold for the BTS of -111dBm is approached. this is done by taking into account a correction of 3 dB. Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 168 . w According to GSM. a higher value of C/I is required in order to maintain the speech quality.g. the defined minimum carrier-to-interferer ration (C/I) threshold of 9 dB is only valid if the received server signal is not too weak. w In the case that e.GSM RNE Fundamentals Interference Margin w In GSM.

Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 169 . which can improve the situation for slow mobiles again. w In such a case. w For lower mobile speed or stationary use. The margin depends on the mobile speed and the usage of slow frequency hopping. w Under defined conditions. this frame correction works successfully and copes even with fast fading types as Rayleigh or Rician fading.GSM RNE Fundamentals Degradation (no FH) w GSM uses a frame correction system. the fading has a bigger influence on the bit error rate and hence the speech quality is reduced. a degradation margin must be applied. which works with checksum coding and convolutional codes.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Diversity Gain w This designates the optional usage of a second receiver antenna. w The second antenna is placed in a way. w In a suitable combiner. w Depending on the receiver type. the signal correlation. the signals are processed in order to achieve a sum signal with a smaller fading variation range. a diversity gain from 2…6 dB is possible. Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 170 . which provides some decorrelation of the received signals. and the antenna orientation.

. lognormal distribution with median power value Fmd and standard deviation σ (sigma) Without any margin.3 1.5 0 1 1.7 % 99% 100 % Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 171 . The fading margin is calculated by multiplying the value of k (in the table) with the standard deviation: w Lognormal/Fading Margin = kσ . which is not a sufficient value in order to provide a good call success rate. w w A typical design goal should be a coverage probability of 90.95%.GSM RNE Fundamentals Lognormal margin w Lognormal margin is also called fading margin w Due to fading effects.33 +∞ C overage Probability 0% 30% 50% 84% 90% 95% 97. the minimum isotropic power is only received with a certain probability e s Signal statistics.65 2 2. the probability is 50%. k -∞ -0. The following normalised table can be applied to find fading margins for different values of σ ..

GSM RNE Fundamentals Consideration of Signal Statistics (1) Field strength at location x lognormally distributed arround Fmdian e 10 0 m x 100 m BS Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 172 .

2 0.1 0.05 0 σ Area representing the coverage probability Fthreshold Fmdian e received signal level F [dBm] Local coverage probability: Mobile Radio Network Planning Pcov = P [ F > Fthreshold ] 173 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .25 0.15 0.3 0.GSM RNE Fundamentals Consideration of Signal Statistics (2) PDF 0.

f. th c r 0 R r R = f (hBS . Frec. EIRP.95 <Pcov (R)> = 0 π R² R σ F re . r) + Kmr S o Frec.thr ) 2 ∫ Pcov (r) dr! π = 0.thr ) S o Mobile Radio Network Planning r = distance between BTS and MS Frec = received power σ = Standard deviation 174 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .md e (r) Pcov (r)= P(Frec (r) > Frec. f.LossHata (r) H ta a F re c = f(hBS .md e Loss (r) = EIRP . hM . hM . Kmr .GSM RNE Fundamentals Calculation of Coverage Radius R For what Radius R is the average coverage probability in the cell area 95% ? Frec.

5 0 R Mobile Radio Network Planning r 175 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Coverage Probability Pcov 0.95 (r) 1 Pcov = P ( Frec > Frec.thr ) 0.

5 3.GSM RNE Fundamentals Coverage Ranges and Hata Correction Factors Clutter type Area Coverage Probability 100% Cor [dB] σ [dB] 0 2 4 6 8 10 8 20 15 27 27 6 6 7 7 6 10 8 6 8 5 6 95% Reference Pathloss [dB] 90% 155 150 Pcov 85% 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 Skyscrapers Dense urban Medium urban Lower urban Residential Industrial zone Forest Agricultural Low tree density Water Open area 80% 75% Calculation conditions: 70% 0.0 7.5 d [km] Correction = 3.0 4.5 9.5 6.0 1.0 10. Sigma = 7 hBS = 30 m. hM = 1.7m. f = 900 Mhz S 176 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Conventional BTS Configuration TX and RX w w ² ² 1 BTS Omnidirectional antenna for both TX and RX Coverage Range R0 Coverage Area A0 ALCATEL EvoliumTM TX TX → 45.4 dBm RX → -109dBm R0 A0 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 177 .

4 dBm RX → -109dBm RDiv A0 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 ADiv 178 ..23 · R0 ² Coverage area ADiv = 1.5 · A0 RXDIV ALCATEL EvoliumTM R0 TX → 45..6 dB) s Example: 3 dB ² Coverage range RDiv = 1.GSM RNE Fundamentals Coverage Improvement by Antenna Diversity TX RX and TX w 1 BTS w Omnidirectional antennas s one for both RX and TX s one for RXDIV w Antenna diversity gain (2.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Radiation Patterns and Range sector omni 3 antennas at sector site. HPBW: 65° Mobile Radio Network Planning Resulting antenna footprint ("cloverleaf") compared to an 11 dBi omni antenna 179 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . Gain: 18 dBi.

div = 1.div Asec.div = 3 · A0 TX RXDIV ALCATEL EvoliumTM ALCATEL EvoliumTM ALCATEL EvoliumTM R0 Rsec.GSM RNE Fundamentals Improvement by Antenna Diversity and Sectorization w w w ² 3 BTS Directional antennas (18 dBi) Antenna diversity (3 dB) Max.95 · R0 ² Coverage area Asec. coverage range Rsec.div Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 180 .

div.pre Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 181 .22 · R0 ² Coverage area Asec.pre ALCATEL EvoliumTM ALCATEL EvoliumTM ALCATEL EvoliumTM Asec.pre = 3.9 · A0 w w w w ² TX w General: Asec = g · A0 g: Area gain factor RXDIV R0 Rsec.GSM RNE Fundamentals Improvement by Antenna Preamplifier 3 BTS Directional antennas (18 dBi) Antenna diversity (3 dB) Antenna preamplifier (3dB) Max.pre = 2. coverage range Rsec.div.div.div.

Coverage Planning Antenna Engineering Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 182 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Omni Antennas w Application s Large area coverage s Umbrella cell for micro cell layer w Advantages s Continuous coverage around the site s Simple antenna mounting s Ideal for homogeneous terrain w Drawbacks s No mechanical tilt possible s Clearance of antenna required s Densification of network difficult Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 183 .

90° or 65° w Advantages Coverage can be focussed on special areas Low coverage of areas of no interest (e.g. forest) Allows high traffic load Additional mechanical downtilt possible Wall mounting possible w Drawbacks s More frequencies needed per site compared to omni sites s More hardware needed s Lower coverage area per sector s s s s s Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 184 .g.GSM RNE Fundamentals Sector Antenna w Antenna with horizontal HPBW of e.

90°) s For areas with few reflecting and scattering objects (rural area) s Area coverage for 3-sector sites s Sufficient cell overlap to allow successful handovers w Small horizontal beam width (e. 65°) s For areas with high scattering (city areas) s Coverage between sectors by scattering and by adjacent sites (mostly site densification in urban areas) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 185 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Typical Applications w Wide horizontal beam width (e.g.g.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna Tilt w Downtilting of the Antenna main beam related to the horizontal line w Goals: s Reduction of overshoot s Removal of insular coverage s Lowering the interference s Coverage improvement of the near area (indoor coverage) s Adjustment of cell borders (handover zones) w Mechanical / Electrical or Combined downtilt Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 186 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Mechanical Downtilt w Advantages s Later adjustment of vertical tilt possible s Antenna diagram is not changed. i. nulls and side lobes remain in their position relative to the main beam s Cost effective (single antenna type may be used) s Fast adjustments possible w Drawbacks s Side lobes are less tilted s Accurate adjustment is difficult s Problems for sites with difficult access Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 187 .e.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Electrical Downtilt w Advantages s Same tilt for both downtilt angle main and side lobes s Antenna mounting is more simple → no adjustment errors τ τ τ τ =0 =t =2t =3t τ = delay time w Drawbacks s Introduction of additional antenna types necessary s New antenna installation at the site if downtilting is introduced s Long antenna optimization phase s Adjustment of electrical tilt mostly not possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 188 .

8°) and apply mechanical uptilt installation for optimum coverage range in main beam direction Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 189 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Combined Downtilt w Combination of both mechanical and electrical downtilt s High electrical downtilt: Distinct range reduction in sidelobe direction (interference reduction) s Less mechanical uptilt in main beam direction w Choose sector antennas with high electrical downtilt (6°...

GSM RNE Fundamentals Assessment of Required Tilts w Required tilt is estimated using Geometrical Optics w Consideration of s s s s s Vertical HPBW of the antenna Antenna height above ground Height difference antenna/location to be covered Morpho-structure in the vicinity of the antenna Topography between transmitter and receiver location w Tilt must be applied for both TX and RX antennas! Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 190 .

w The inter site distance calculation factor depends on s Type of antenna s Type of morpho class q Multi path propagation q Scattering q Sigma (fading variations) X A B R2 0. s This is a reduction of cell range to 50%.GSM RNE Fundamentals Inter Site Distance in Urban Area w Using sectorized sites with antennas of 65° horizontal half power beam width s The sidelobe is X approximately reduced by 10dB.5* R2 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 191 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Downtilt in Urban Area Site A Tilt 2 Tilt 2 Site B M ai n be am de Si lo be Cell range R2 Inter Site Distance A-B = 1.5* R2 0.5* R2 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 192 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Downtilt in Urban Area w The upper limit of the vertical half power beam width is directed towards the ground at maximum cell range s Upper –3dB point of the vertical antenna pattern w To be used in areas with s Multi path propagation condition s Good scattering of the beam w Aim s Reduction of interference w Optimization s Coverage Optimization in isolated cases using less downtilt s Interference Reduction in isolated cases using more downtilt Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 193 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Downtilt in Suburban and Rural Area w Downtilt planning for s Suburban s Rural s Highway Coverage w The main beam is directed towards the ground at maximum cell range Tilt 1 Tilt 1 Site C Ma in b eam Site D in Ma m bea Cell range R1 Inter Site Distance C-D = 2* R1 Mobile Radio Network Planning Cell range R1 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 194 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna configurations w Application of Duplexer s Consists of a TX/RX Filter and a combiner ² one antenna can be saved w Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA) s Increase Uplink Sensitivity s TMA needs to have TX bypass => in case of duplexer usage w Diversity s Space diversity s Polarization diversity Rx/Tx Duplex Filter Tx Rx To BTS 195 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals w Antenna Configurations for Omni and Sector Sites Pole mounting for roof-top mounting Rx div Rx Tx Pole mounting for wall or parapet mounting Tower mounting for omni antennas Tower mounting for directional antennas Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 196 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Three Sector Antenna Configuration with AD Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 197 .

g.RX antennas dependent on antenna configuration (e. duplexer or not) w Diversity gain s Required antenna separation for space diversity Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 198 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna Engineering Rules w Distortion of antenna pattern: No obstacles within s Antenna near field range s HPBW Rule plus security margin of 20° s First fresnel ellipsoid range (additional losses!) w TX-RX Decoupling to avoid blocking and intermodulation s Required minimum separation of TX .

α = 2° .5 2. 3m) s => Rmin = 60 / 120m for GSM / DCS w HPBW Rule with securtiy margin of 20° and tilt α ϕ H ϕ = HPBW/2 + 20° + α 1 5 10 0.g.5 5 199 D[m] Roof Top = Obstacle H[m] D Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 HPBW = 8°.GSM RNE Fundamentals Distortion of antenna pattern w Antenna Near Field Range: Rmin = 2D²/λ s D = Aperture of antenna (e.

21) s GSM 900 = +8 dBm s GSM 1800 = 0 dBm w Required Decoupling (n = number of transmitters) s TX-TX = 20 dB s TX-RX GSM = 30 + 10 log (n) dB s TX-RX DCS = 40 + 10 log (n) dB P [dBm] -13 Receiver Pout Characteristic fuse fint TX RX Pblock Pin 200 P1dB -101 n*200kHz fuse Mobile Radio Network Planning fint f[MHz] 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . 11.GSM RNE Fundamentals Tx-Rx Decoupling (1) w Out of Band Blocking Requirement (GSM Rec.

8 13 .4 12 .6 12 12 . 7 7. 7 10 .4 10 .omni 11dBi 45 dH Isolation [dB] 40 35 30 25 20 15 9. 7 8. 7 GSM1800 GSM900 I =22+20log(dλ )-(G +G ) [dB] / H H T R Separation [m ] Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 201 .6 14 14 .2 1.8 15 . 7 3.2 13 .GSM RNE Fundamentals TX-RX Decoupling (2) w Horizontal separation (Approximation) Isolation for Horizontal Separation .2 11 .4 14 .8 11 . 7 5. 7 4. 7 2. 7 6.

5 0.3 0.GSM RNE Fundamentals TX-RX Decoupling (3) w Vertical separation (Approximation) Iso la tion fo r V e rtica l S e p a ra tio n 70 dv Mast Isolation [dB] 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.9 1 Se p ar atio n [m ] GSM1800 GSM900 dm IV =28+40log(d / [dB] λ) V Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 202 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Space Diversity w Required separation for max.25m Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 203 .7: dH = 20λ => GSM 900: 6m / GSM1800: 3m dV = 15λ => GSM 900: 4. diversity gain = F(λ ) RXA dH RXA RXB dV RXB For a sufficient low correlation coefficient ρ < 0.5m / GSM1800: 2.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Quasi-Omni Configuration Power Divider w Power dividers connect several antennas to one feeder cable w For combination of individual antenna patterns for a requested configuration s Quasi-omni configuration s Bidirectional configuration (road coverage) 4-to-1 Power splitter (6 dB loss) To BTS: Duplexer output (TX plus RX diversity) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 To BTS: Receiver input 204 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals w Power divider s Also called "power splitter" or "junction box" s Passive device (works in both (transmit and receive) direction) Pin 2 3 dB Pin 2 Pin 3 Pin 3 Pin 3 Pin 4 Pin 4 6 dB Pin 4 Pin 4 4.5 dB Pin Pin Pin Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 205 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Example: Power Splitter Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 206 .

575 m Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 207 . mast radius = 0.GSM RNE Fundamentals Panel Configurations (1) w Radial Arrangement of 6 Panel Antennas with horizontal beamwidth = 105 ° gain = 16. mounting radius = 0.425 m.5 dBi.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Panel Configurations (2) w Example 2: Quasi Omni Arrangement of 3 antennas with horizontal beamwidth = 105 °. mounting radius = 4 m Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 208 . gain =13.5 dBi.

5 dBi.615 m Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 209 . mounting radius = 1. gain = 12. mast radius = 1 m.GSM RNE Fundamentals Panel Configurations (3) w Example 3: Skrew Arrangement of 4 Panel Antennas with horizontal beamwidth = 65 °.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Feeders w Technical summary w Inner conductor: Copper wire w Dielectric: Low density foam PE copper tube Polyethylene (PE) black Dielectric Jacket Inner conductor uter conductor O w Outer conductor: Corrugated w Jacket: Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 210 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals

Feeder Installation Set and Connectors

1 Cable Clamps 2 Antenna Cable 3 Double Bearing 4 Counterpart 5 Anchor tape
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7/16 Connector: Coaxial Connector Robust Good RF-Performance
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Feeder Parameters
Type Minimum bending radius Jacket (outer diameter) Weight (m) Recommended clamp spacing Single bending LCF 1/2’’ LCF 7/8’’ LCF 1 5/8’’ 70 mm 120 mm 300 mm Repeated bending 210 mm 360 mm 900 mm 16 mm 28 mm 49.7 mm 0.35 kg 0.62 kg 1.5 kg 0.6 m 0.8 m 1.2 m

GSM 900
Type

GSM 1800

GSM 1900

Attenuation Recommended Attenuation Recommended Attenuation Recommended / 100 m [dB] max length [m] /100 m [dB] max length [m] /100 m [dB] max length [m] LCF 1/2“ 6.6 45 10.3 30 10.6 28 LCF 7/8“ 4.0 75 6.0 50 6.3 47 LCF 1_5/ 8“ 2.6 115 4.0 75 4.2 71

These values are based on feeder types with an impedance of 50 ohms
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Feeder attenuation (1)
w Main contribution is given by feeder loss
s Feeder Cable 4dB/100m => length 50m Loss =2.0dB s Jumper Cable 0.066dB/1m => 5m Loss =0.33dB s Insertion Loss of connector and power splitter < 0.1dB s Total Loss 2.0dB+2x0.33dB+5x0.1dB+0.1dB=3.26dB w Cable type is trade off between s Handling flexibility s Cost s Attenuation

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Radiating Cables
w Provide coverage in Tunnels, buildings, along side tracks or lines w Principle: Radiate a weak but constant electromagnetic wave w Suitable for coverage over longer distances (Repeater) w Fieldstrength distribution more constant as with antennas
Repeater Terminating Load

F F
Thr

F F
Thr

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Components of a radiating cable w Components are shown with black lines system
Nconnections
Tx BTS Rx

Radiating cable

Termination load

Jumper cabel

Mounting clips Earthing with50 mm wall standoffkit

1-leg radiating cable system

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Comparison of field strength: Radiating cable and standard antenna
-40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 -100 -110 Distance
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[dBm]

Cable attenuation between the antennas

Radiating cable field strength Antenna field strength

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w Example of a radiating cable in a tunnel

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w Microwave point to point systems use highly directional antennas w Gain 4π A e
G = 10 lg

Microwave antennas, feeders and accessories
λ 2

with

G = gain over isotropic, in dBi A = area of antenna aperture e = antenna efficiency

w Used antenna types s parabolic antenna s high performance antenna s horn lens antenna s horn antenna
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GSM RNE Fundamentals Parabolic antenna w Parabolic dish. illuminated by a feed horn w w w w w w at its focus Available sizes: 1’ (0.8 m) Sizes over 4’ seldom used due to installation restrictions Single plane polarized feed vertical (V) or horizontal (H) Also: dual polarized feeder (DP).3 m) up to 16’ (4. with separate V and H connections (lower gain) Front-to-back ratios of 45 dB not high enough for back-to-back configuration on the same frequency Antenna patterns are absolutely necessary for interference calculations 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 219 Mobile Radio Network Planning .

w w w w except for attached cylindrical shield Improvement of front-to-back ratio and wide angle radiation discrimination Available in same sizes as parabolic. single or dual polarized Substantially bigger.GSM RNE Fundamentals High performance antenna w Similar to common parabolic antenna. heavier. and more expensive than parabolic antennas Allow back-to-back transmission at the same frequency in both directions (refer to interference calculation) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 220 .

MSC-MSC interconnections) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 221 . but higher front-to-back ratios > 70 dB sBig and heavy. but easier to install due to size and weight w Horn reflector antenna s Large parabola. energy from the feed horn is reflected at right angle (90°) s Gain like 10’ parabolic antenna (60 dBi).g.GSM RNE Fundamentals Horn antennas w Horn lens antenna s For very high frequencies > 25 GHz s Replacement for small parabolic antennas (1’) s Same electrical data. requires a complex installation procedure sOnly used on high capacity microwave backbones (e.

typical value: better than 35 dB w Return loss (VSWR) s Quality value for the adaption of antenna impedance to the impedance of the connection cable s Return loss is the ratio of the reflected power to the power fed at the antenna input (typical> 20 dB) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 222 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Specific Microwave Antenna Parameters (1) w Cross polarization discrimination (XPD) s highest level of cross polarisation radiation relative to the main beam. should be > 30 dB for parabolic antennas w Inter-port isolation s isolation between the two ports of dual polarised antennas.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Specific Microwave Antenna Parameters (2) w Radiation pattern envelope (RPE) s Tolerance specification for antenna pattern (specification of antenna pattern itself not suitable due to manufacturing problems) s Usually available from manufacturer in vertical and horizontal polarisation (worst values of several measurements) w Weight w Wind load Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 223 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals

Data sheet 15 GHz
B an d w id th M odel num ber N o m in a l d iam e te r (G H z ) (m ) (ft) 1 4 .4 - 1 5 .3 5 4 .4 - 1 5 .3 5 4 .4 - 1 5 .3 5 1 1 PA 2 - 144 PA 4 - 144 PA 6 - 144 0 .6 1 .2 1 .8 2 4 6 2 .3 3 6 .2 3 6 .5 3 6 .7 42 28 26 19 + /- 5 1 .2 4 2 .3 4 2 .5 4 2 .8 48 30 26 43 + /- 5 0 .8 4 5 .8 4 6 .0 4 6 .3 52 30 28 73 + /- 5 B a n d w id th M odel num ber N o m in a l d ia m e te r (G H z ) 1 4 .4 - 1 5 .31 4 .4 - 1 5 .31 4 .4 - 1 5 .3 5 5 5 D A 2 - 1 4 4D A 4 - 1 4 4D A 6 - 1 4 4 (m ) 0 .6 1 .2 1 .8 (ft) 2 4 6 2 .3 3 6 .2 3 6 .5 3 6 .7 65 28 26 28 + /- 1 2 1 .2 4 2 .3 4 2 .5 4 2 .8 68 30 26 55 + /- 1 2 0 .8 4 5 .8 4 6 .0 4 6 .3 68 30 26 130 + /- 1 2

H a lf-p o w e r b ea m w id th (d e g ) G a in lo w b a n d (d B i) G a in m id b a n d (d B i) G a in h ig h b an d (d B i) F ro n t-to -b a ck ra tio (d B ) C ro ss p o la r d iscrim in a tio n(d B ) R etu rn lo ss (d B ) W e ig h t W in d lo ad E le v atio n a d ju stm e n t (k g ) (d e g )

H a lf-p o w e r b e a m w id th (d e g ) G a in lo w b a n d (d B i) G a in m id b a n d (d B i) G a in h ig h b a n d (d B i) F ro n t-to -b a c k ra tio (d B ) C ro ss p o la r d isc rim in a tio n(d B ) R e tu rn lo ss (d B ) W e ig h t W in d lo a d E le v a tio n a d ju stm e n t (k g ) (d e g )

Parabolic antenna 15 GHz
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High performance antenna 15 GHz
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Radiation pattern envelope

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Feeders (1)
w Coaxial cables or waveguides (according to frequency) w Most important characteristic: loss and return loss w Coaxial cables
s Used between 10 MHz and 3 GHz s Dielectric material: foam or air s Parameters of common coaxial cables:
type
LCF 1/ 2’ CU2Y LCF 7/ 8’ CU2Y LCF 1 5/ 8’ CU2Y
Mobile Radio Network Planning

dielectric
foam foam foam

diameter (mm)
16.0 28.0 49.7

loss (dB/100m)
10,9 / 2 GHz 13.8 / 3 GHz 6.5 / 2 GHz 8.5 / 3 GHz 4.4 / 2 GHz 5.6 / 3 GHz

power bending rating (kW) radius (mm)
0.47 0.95 1.7 200 360 380
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Feeders (2)
w Waveguides
s Used for frequency bands above 2.7 GHz s Three basic types available: circular, elliptical and rectangular w Rigid circular waveguide s Very low loss s Supports two orthogonal polarisations s Capable to carry more than one frequency band s Usually, short components of this type are used s Disadvantages: cost, handling and moding problems

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GSM RNE Fundamentals

Feeders (3)
w Elliptical semiflexible waveguides
s Acceptable loss, good VSWR performance s Low cost and easy to install s Various types optimised for many frequency bands up to 23 GHz s Used for longer distances (easy and flexible installation) s Can be installed as a "single run" (no intermediate flanges)
type
EW 34 EW 52 EW 77 EW 90 EW 220
Mobile Radio Network Planning

loss /100 m
2.0 4.0 5.8 10.0 28.0
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Frequency
4 GHz 6GHz 8GHz 11 GHz 23 GHz
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Feeders (4)
w Solid and flexible rectangular waveguides w Solid rectangular waveguides
s Combination of low VSWR and low loss s High cost and difficult to install s Used for realising couplers, combiners, filters

type
WR 229 WR159 WR112 WR 90 WR 75

loss /100 m
2.8 4.5 8.5 11.7 15.0

Frequency
4 GHz 6GHz 8GHz 11 GHz 13 GHz

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Feeders (5)
w Flexible rectangular waveguides
s Worse VSWR and losses than for solid waveguides s Often used in short lengths (<1 m), where position between connection points depends on actual installation place s Common applications: connection of microwave system to antenna (close together on rooftops or towers) for frequencies >13 Ghz
type
PDR140 PDR180 PDR220
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loss / m
0.5 1 2
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Frequency
15GHz 18 GHz 23 GHz
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Antenna feeder systems (1)
w Direct radiating system
s Most commonly used for frequencies up to 13 Ghz s Depending on accepted feeder loss/length, higher frequencies may be possible s Excessive attenuation and costs in long runs of wave guide s Occurence of echo distortion due to mismatch in long runs of waveguide possible
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because reflector size is prohibitive for lower frequencies Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 232 . distance and frequency s Used above 4 GHz .GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna feeder systems (2) w Periscope antenna system s Used for q considerable antenna heights q waveguide installation problems s Negligible wave guide cost and easy installation s System gain is a function of antenna and reflector size.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Antenna feeder systems (3) w Combined antenna with transceiver s Antenna and transceiver are combined as a single unit to cut out wave guide loss (higher frequencies) s Units are mounted on top of a mast and connected to multiplex equipment via cable Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 233 .

Alcatel BSS (Examples) BSS BSS BSC BSC B T S B T S B T S B T S B T S BSS B T S BSC Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 234 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Architecture of BTS .Evolium Evolution A9100 s 3 levels Antenna coupling level Combiner stage (ANy) Antenna network stage ANc Air interface Antenna network stage ANc Combiner stage (ANy) TRX level TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX TRX BCF level Station unit module Abis interface Abbreviations BCF Base station Control Function TRX Transceiver Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 235 .

combining mode Antenna A Antenna B TX A.GSM RNE Fundamentals EVOLIUMTM A9100 Base Station (1) w The Antenna network Combiner (ANc). RX Bdiv TX B. RX Adiv Duplexer Filter Filter LNA Splitter Duplexer Filter Filter LNA Splitter WBC Splitter Splitter Splitter Splitter WBC TX RX RX div TX RX RX div Rx div RX TX Rx div RX TX TRX 1 Mobile Radio Network Planning TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 236 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . RX B. RX A.

RX A.bypass mode Antenna A TX A. RX Bdiv Antenna B TX B. RX B.GSM RNE Fundamentals EVOLIUMTM A9100 Base Station (2) w The Antenna network Combiner (ANc). RX Adiv Duplexer Filter Filter LNA Duplexer Filter Filter LNA Splitter By-pass function WBC Splitter By-pass function WBC Splitter Splitter Splitter Splitter TX RX RX div Rx div RX TX TRX 1 Mobile Radio Network Planning TRX 2 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 237 .

up to four high-power TRX 238 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . up to two high-power TRX Up to four standard TRX.GSM RNE Fundamentals EVOLIUMTM A9100 Base Station (3) wANy: Twin Wide Band Combiner Stage TXA RXA RXAdiv RXBdiv RXB TXB WBC Splitter Splitter Splitter Splitter WBC TX RX RXdiv TX RX RXdiv Rxdiv RX TX Rxdiv RX TX TRX 1 TRX 2 TRX 3 TRX 4 w2 types of Any For GSM 900 and GSM 1800. up to four high-power TRX Up to four standard TRX. up to two high-power TRX Up to four standard TRX. two versions each are available: Band GSM 900 Variant 3BK 07237 AAxx 3BK 07237 ABxx GSM 1800 3BK 07245 AAxx 3BK 07245 ABxx Mobile Radio Network Planning Function Up to four standard TRX.

EFR (Enhanced Full Rate coder). GSM 900. HW provisions done w Standard Features due to new Architecture and new SW Releases s SUS (Station Unit Sharing) Only one central control unit (SUM) for all BTS per cabinet s Multiband BTS (GSM 900/1800) in one cabinet s Static (Release 4) and statistical (Release 6) submultiplexing on Abis q Better use of Abis-interface capacity: More BTS/TRX to be supported in a multidrop loop s Introduction of GPRS and HSCSD without HW changes s EDGE compatible TRX Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 239 .GSM RNE Fundamentals EVOLIUMTM BTS Features (1) w Standard Features according to GSM s DR (Dual Rate). GSM 1800 and GSM 1900 bands s Multi Band Capabilities (supporting of 850/1800 TRX. 850/1900TRX. AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) requires that the BSS software release and the other network elements also support these codecs s HW supports GSM 850. 900 /1800 can be located in the same cabinet) s All known A5 algorithms to be supported. and. E-GSM.

GSM RNE Fundamentals EVOLIUMTM BTS Features (2) w Features specific to Radio Performance s TX Output Power s RX Sensitivity: -111 dBm certified (GSM request: -104 dBm) s Synthesized Frequency Hopping as general solution q Standard RF hopping mode q Pseudo baseband RF hopping mode s Antenna Diversity in general q Two antennas per sector q One cross-polarized antenna s Duplexer (TX and RX on one antenna) as general solution Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 240 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Generic Configurations for A9100 G4 BTS w The configurations for indoor (MBI) and outdoor (MBO) cabinet are presented in the next slides w larger configurations with more than one cabinet can be derived from the tables w configurations are valid for EDGE capable TRX (Evolution step 2) w availability of multiband configurations other than GSM 900 / GSM 1800 must be checked with product management (authorization required) w Notation: s BBU .Small Battery Backup s LBBU .Large Battery Backup Unit Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 241 .Battery Backup Unit s BATS .

8+ 1 x 1x ..6 1 1.8 2x 1. but possible (ch w S or pro ct m ag en before use) eck ith D du an em t Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 242 .12 2x 1.4 4x … 1 3 2x +2x 4 2 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X A w C ith B T AS X A w C ith LB BU GM S 850 (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2) X (2) (2) X (2) (2) X X X T E in M I3 1 Rs B ....4 3x 1 3x 1.....GSM RNE Fundamentals Generic configurations for cabinets MBI (1) R C A K C N IG R T NT P O F U A IO Y E D C A w C /o BU B 1x 1.8 1x 9.. 0 GM S 900 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X GM S 1800 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X T E in Rs Pm x – 2 a X (1) (1) (1) GM S 1900 X (1) X (1) X X X (1) X (1) S d rdcon ration tan a figu s M I3 B M I3 B M I3 B M I3 B M I3 B M I3 B M I5 B M I5 B M I5 B M I5 B M I5 B M I5 B M I5 B M I5 B M I5 B (1 R strictio s fo G M1 0 : ) e n r S 90 (1 ) U to + 5 a b n te p ra re p ssib if m xim m6 p 4 ºC m ie t m e tu o le a u M I5 B (2 ) L ita n to + 0 o e ise (+ 5 p ssib if p w r is re u e to 2 W( im tio 4 ºC th rw 4 ºC o le o e dcd 8 d )) B (2) N ingen ot eric list.4 2x 1....2 1x 1.4 1x 1......2 2x 1....4 3x 1..2 3x 1......

8 1x9.4LL/1x1....4 1x1....3 1x1...4/1x1....6 2x1 1x1.4 2x1..4 with TMA X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X AC with BATS X X X X AC with LBBU GSM 850 (2) (2) (2) (2) GSM 900 X X X X X X X X X X GSM GSM 1800 X X X X X X X X 1900 X X (1) (1) Low Losses configurations MBI3 MBI5 MBI5 MBI5 MBI3 MBI5 MBI5 MBI5 MBI5 MBI5 High Power configurations Extended Cells configurations (1) Restrictions for GSM 1900: (1) Up to +45ºC ambient temperature possible if maximum 6 TREs in MBI3...GSM RNE Fundamentals Generic configurations for cabinets MBI (2) RAC K CONFIGURATION TYPE DC AC w/o BBU 1x3. 10 TREs in MBI5 (2) Limitation to +40ºC otherwise (+45ºC possible if power is reduced to 28W ( Pmax –2 dB)) (2) Not in generic list.4 3x1...12 2x3.. but possible (check with SD or product management before use) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 243 ..4 1x3.....

GSM RNE Fundamentals Generic configurations for cabinets MBO (1) RAC K CONFIGURATION TYPE DC AC w/o BBU 1x1…2 2x1 1x1.4 4x1…3 AC with BBU X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X GSM 850 (1) (1) GSM 900 X X GSM GSM 1800 (2) (2) 1900 (1) (1) X Standard configurations CBO CBO MBO1 MBO1 MBO1 MBO1 MBO1 MBO2 MBO2 MBO2 MBO2 MBO2 MBO2 2x4 + 2x2 X X X X X (1) CBO for GSM 850 and GSM 1900 are planned for 2004. For availability.12 2x1.2 1x9......8 2x1.. check with SD or the product management (authorization required)..4 3x1.6 1x1.6 1x1..3 2x1....4 3x1....8+1x1....... (2) CBO for GSM 1800 planned for Q4 2003 (check with SD) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 244 .

check with SD or the product management (authorization required)... For availability...2 3x1...GSM RNE Fundamentals Generic configurations for cabinets MBO (2) RAC K CONFIGURATION TYPE DC AC w/o BBU 1x5.4 2x1.6 3x3.4 1x1…2 2x1 1x1.8 2x3..2 2x1…4 AC with BBU X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X (2) (2) X X X X X X GSM 850 GSM 900 GSM GSM 1800 1900 X Low Losses configurations MBO1 MBO1 MBO2 MBO2 CBO CBO MBO1 MBO1 MBO1 MBO2 MBO2 High Power configurations 3x1…4 X X X (1) CBO for GSM 850 and GSM 1900 are planned for 2004. (2) CBO for GSM 1800 planned for Q4 2003 (check with SD) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 245 ......6 1x5...

78 45.78 dB m 46.78 46.53 dB m dB m dB m dB m dB m dB m 15 W t at s 15 W t at s 25 W t at s 12 W t at s 25 W t at s 25 W t at s 41.76 dB m 41.98 dB m 40.98 dB m 8P K S Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 246 .44 47.44 dB m 47.53 47.44 dB m 45.76 dB m 43.53 46.GSM RNE Fundamentals TRX Types w This slide is referring only to Evolium macro BTS A9100 w Overview on TRX types of A9100 Evolium Evolution BTS (G4) M odu le nam e E olu ion S ep 1 v t t T GM R T DM R T DH R E olu ion S ep 2 v t t T AL R T AG R T AGH T AD R T ADH T AP R Ou pu pow t t er GM K S GS 900 M GS 1800 M GS 1800 M GS 850 M GS 900 M GS 900 M GS 1800 M GS 1800 M GS 1900 M 35 W t at s 35 W t at s 60 W t at s 45 W t at s 45 W t at s 60 W t at s 35 W t at s 60 W t at s 45 W t at s 45.79 dB m 43.98 dB m 43.

GSM RNE Fundamentals BTS Output Power w What is monitored during validation is the BTS output power at antenna connector w The individual losses for duplexer. combiner and internal cabling are not systematically measured w for detailed info consult the BTS product description Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 247 .

w Consequence: All TRX connected to one ANc are automatically adjusted to the GMSK output power of the weakest TRX (required for BCCH recovery) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 248 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Feature Power Balancing w G4 BTS it is allowed to use TRXs of different power within the same sector. w Reason: the G4 BTS is able to detect unbalanced losses/powers within a sector and automatically compensate it for GMSK modulation. or to use of different combining path for TRX belonging to the same sector.

The cabinets must be synchronized w Benefits s Same number of TRX in fewer racks s No need to touch/modify the configuration of existing BTS (cabling) s Take full benefit of 12 TRX per cabinet w Drawback: more complex antenna system w Applications s Multi-band cells s Configuration extension of sites by adding TRX s Large configurations w Condition: BTS must be synchronized Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 249 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Split Feature w Principle s Cell Split allows to provide one logical cell with one common BCCH over several BTS cabinets.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Influence of Cell Split feature on BTS configurations w One slave cabinet can only have one master w One master can control three slave cabinets Cabinet 1 4 TRX GSM 900 4 TRX GSM 900 4 TRX GSM 900 Master Master Master Cabinet 2 4 TRX GSM 1800 4 TRX GSM 1800 4 TRX GSM 1800 Slave Slave Slave Cabinet 3 4 TRX GSM 1800 4 TRX GSM 1800 4 TRX GSM 1800 Slave Slave Slave Cabinet 1 6 TRX GSM 1800 Master 6 TRX GSM 900 Master Cabinet 2 6 TRX GSM 1800 Master 6 TRX GSM 900 Master Cabinet 4 2 TRX GSM 1800 Slave 2 TRX GSM 1800 Slave Possible cell split configuration Not allowed cell split configuration Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 250 .

change change Without cell split: Without cell split: . during radio conf.-Connection to Connection to the first BTS the first BTS while the BTS is while the BTS is working working .-No TRX moving No TRX moving .GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Split Example: Deployment of multi-band cells With cell split: With cell split: BTS 1 BTS 1 BTS 2 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX GSM 900 BTS 1 cell1 4TRX cell2 4TRX cell3 4TRX Mobile Radio Network Planning cell1 cell2 cell3 4TRX 4TRX 2TRX 2TRX cell1 cell2 4TRX 2TRX cell3 GSM 900 GSM1800 BTS1 BTS 2 cell1 4 TRX 900 2TRX 1800 .-Short service Short service interruption interruption during radio conf.-No antenna reNo antenna recabling cabling .-Complete reComplete reconfiguration configuration 4 TRX 900 2TRX 1800cell3 4 TRX 900 2TRX 1800 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 GSM 900 cell2 251 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Split Example: Migration to multiband cells w Example: Migration from multiband BSS (single BCCH) to multiband cells (dual BCCH) w No more limitation to have the 900 and the 1800 TRX‘s installed inside the same cabinet BTS 1 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX Cell 3 Cell 1 Cell 2 4TRX 4TRX Cell 6 BTS 2 BTS 1 Cell 4 4TRX Cell 5 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX BTS 2 Cell 1 Cell 2 4TRX 4TRX Cell 3 GSM 900 Mobile Radio Network Planning GSM 1800 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 GSM 900 GSM1800 252 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Split Example: High Power Configuration Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 253 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Split Example: Configuration extension w 3x4 sector cells extended to cell 1(6 TRX). cell 2 (4 TRX). cell 3 (8 TRX) BTS 1 (with 900 or 1800 TRX) 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX cell1 cell2 cell3 BTS 1 (with 12 TRX 900 or 1800) BTS 2 (with 6 TRX 900 or 1800) 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX Linked BTS 2 TRX cell1 cell2 cell3 Two shared sectors Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 254 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Split Example: Large configurations w 3x8 TRX with 2 racks: BTS 1 BTS 2 Without cell split: Without cell split: -3 racks with 8 -3 racks with 8 TRX/sector. empty TRX/sector. -2 racks with 12 TRX. empty space space With cell split: With cell split: -2 racks with 12 TRX. 8 TRX per sector 8 TRX per sector 4TRX 4TRX BCCH 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX 4TRX w 16 TRX’s per cell Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 255 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Indoor BTS Rack Layout Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 256 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Outdoor BTS Rack Layout Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 257 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals 3 Level Architecture Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 258 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Micro BTS types w EVOLIUM A910 Micro Base Station (internal reference M4M) s still operational in a large number s is being out phased s up to 6 TRX-es w M5M EVOLIUM A9110 Micro-BTS (M5M) s Introduced in Q3 2003 s up to 12 TRX-es s site configurations can mix older A910 with newer A9110-E s support for GPRS and EDGE (release dependent) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 259 .

GSM 1900 1900 Up to 4.) Max. E-GSM.5 Tx output power (at antenna connector) Rx sensitivity Radio FH Temperature range (max.GSM RNE Fundamentals Technical Data Frequency band A910 A9110 (2 TR X) (2 TR X) GSM 850. GSM 850. GSM 1800. GSM900. connection box) -110 dBm yes 55 °C 145 W 54 litres 32.5 W 7W -107 dBm Yes 55 °C 130 W 54 litres 39.6 kg (incl. power consumption Size (volume) Weight Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 260 . E-GSM. GSM 1800. GSM GSM900.

100% Alcatel s No BSC internal recabling for network extensions/modifications w Compactness s Maximum BSC configuration in three standard Alcatel 1000 S12 cabinets (90 cm width.5 erl/BTS traffic capacity w Flexibility s 6 Abis interfaces per SM module with integrated cross connect function s Integrated in BSC subracks (no cabling).GSM RNE Fundamentals Evolium™ BSC Characteristics w Capacity s Maximum physical capacity: 352 FR TRX or 176 DR TRX in 255 BTS s Traffic and signalling capacity: up to 1500 erlang->∅13. 52 cm depth) w Technology s Two stage Alcatel 1000 S12 switching technology s Distributed processing in trunk control units and processing resources s Same application SW running on both BSC generations Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 261 .

703 Ater muxed I/F TSL Q1 bus AS TSCA CPRC CPRC CPRC CPRC CPRC CPRC CPRC CPRC Broadcast bus Common Functions TSU 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 262 Mobile Radio Network Planning .703 Abis I/F BIUA TCUC TCUC TCUC TCUC TCUC TCUC ASMB AS AS DTCC ASMB 2x G.GSM RNE Fundamentals BSC Architecture Abis TSU TCUC TCUC Group Switch 8 Planes 2 Stages self-routing. non-blocking Ater TSU DTCC DTCC DTCC DTCC DTCC DTCC DTCC 6x G.

GSM RNE Fundamentals BSC Rack Layouts w 6 Configurations possible Group Switch Stage 2 A-TER TSU A-BIS TSU GS Stage 2 GS Stage 2 A-BIS TSU A-BIS TSU Group Switch Stage 2 A-TER TSU A-BIS TSU GS Stage 2 GS Stage 2 A-BIS TSU A-BIS TSU A-TER TSU A-BIS TSU A-BIS TSU A-BIS TSU AIRBAFFLE A-TER TSU GS Stage 1 TSCA A-TER TSU A-BIS TSU COMMON TSU Clock GS Stage 2 AIRBAFFLE A-TER TSU GS Stage 1 TSCA A-TER TSU A-BIS TSU A-BIS TSU Clock GS Stage 2 AIRBAFFLE A-TER TSU GS Stage 1 TSCA A-TER TSU A-BIS TSU A-BIS TSU Clock Cabinet #1 Mobile Radio Network Planning Cabinet #2 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 Cabinet #3 263 .

Coverage Planning Coverage Improvement Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 264 .

Coverage Improvement Antenna Diversity Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 265 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Diversity w Purpose s Improvement in fading probability statistics s  leads to a better total signal level or better total S/N ratio w Principle s Combining signals with same information from different signal branches w Demands s correlation between different signal branches should be low w Combining methods s Selection Diversity s Maximum Ratio Combining s Equal Gain Combining Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 266 .

3 Time [sec] Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 267 .1 0.2 0.GSM RNE Fundamentals Selection Diversity (1) Fieldstrength [dBm] -80 w Principle s selection of the highest baseband signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) or of the strongest signal (S+N) w Correlation of signal levels s a lower correlation between signal levels of different branches 0.4 improves the total signal level w  Correlation of signal levels should be low -90 -100 Antenna 1 Antenna 2 0.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Selection Diversity (2) Fieldstrength [dBm] w Difference in signal level -80 -90 -100 Antenna 2 s a high difference in signal levels of two branches doesn’t improve the total signal level w  Difference in signal levels should be low Antenna 1 0.2 0.4 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 268 .3 0.1 Time [sec] 0.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Selection Diversity (3) w Theoretical diversity gain s 10dB for two-branch diversity at the 99% reliability level s 16dB for four branches at the 99% reliability level w  The theoretical diversity gain doesn’t improve linear with the number of branches Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 269 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Equal Gain Combining (1) w Principle s cophase signal branches s sum up signals w  Coherent addition of signals and incoherent addition of noises w Theoretical diversity gain s 11dB for two-branch diversity at the 99% reliability level Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 270 .

the higher is the loss of S/N ratio of the better signal branch after summation w  Difference in signal levels should be low Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 271 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Equal Gain Combining (2) w Correlation of signal levels s a lower correlation between signal levels of different branches improves the total S/N ratio w  Correlation of signal levels should be low w Difference in signal level s Assuming equal noise in the branches. the higher the difference in signal levels is.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Maximum Ratio Combining (1) w Principle s weight signals proportionally to their S/N ratios s cophase signal branches s sum up the weighted signals w  Coherent addition of signals and incoherent addition of noises w  Improved S/N Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 272 .

this combining reduces influence of worse signal branches w  Difference in signal levels should be low Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 273 . the higher is the loss of S/N ratio of the better signal branch after summation s comparing to equal ratio combining. the higher the difference in signal levels is.GSM RNE Fundamentals Maximum Ratio Combining (2) w Correlation of signal levels s a lower correlation between signal levels of different branches improves the total S/N ratio w  Correlation of signal levels should be low w Difference in signal level s Assuming equal noise in the branches.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Comparison of combining methods w Improvement of average SNR from a diversity combiner compared to one branch s (a) Maximum Ratio Combining s (b) Equal Gain Combining s (c) Selection Diversity w  The maximum ratio combining. gives the best statistical reduction of any known linear diversity combiner. which is used in the ALCATEL BTS. Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 274 .

step 2 (internal name: G3 resp.2 onwards s For a maximum gain: antenna engineering rules respected q Correct antenna choice for the considered environment q Correct antenna spacings and orientations (in case of space diversity) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 275 . w Requirements to benefit from this feature: s Hardware: G4 TRE (Edge capable TRX) installed in Evolium Evolution BTS step1 resp.GSM RNE Fundamentals Enhanced Diversity Combining (1) w Principle: s 2 algorithms q Beam forming algorithm (available also for MRC) q Interference reduction algorithm (new) s best efficiency when the useful signal and the interfering signals come from different directions. G4) s Software release: from B6.

tp se t p2 E olut v ion s e inc s e 2 up tp B 6.5 dB 5 dB R ral (horizontal spac div rsit ) u e e y 3 dB 3. bu 3.GSM RNE Fundamentals Enhanced Diversity Combining (2) Ant nna div rs y gain re om endat for link budget e e it c m ion E ironm nv ent E olut v ion E olut v ion s e 1. Selective Beam-forming Combining Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 276 .2 t B o 5 Urban. de e u ns rban 5 dB 6 dB R sident su rban e ial.5 dB w The values in the right column are due to the feature Enhanced Diversity Combining.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Diversity systems in Mobile Radio Networks w Two diversity systems are used in Mobile Radio Networks : s Space Diversity dH RXA RXB q horizontal q vertical s Polarization Diversity +45° -45° RXA RXB Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 277 .

Roof Top) antennas Vertical separation (e.g.5m GSM1800 = 3m 2.GSM RNE Fundamentals Space Diversity Systems gain depends on spatial separation of s Diversity Horizontal separation (e.25m Mobile Radio Network Planning dV = 15λ GSM900 GSM1800 = 278 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .g. Mast) RXA dV dH RXA RXB RXB For Optimum Diversity Gain dH = 20λ GSM900 = 6m = 4.

rule: d > h/10 w Highest diversity gain from the "broadside” w  Select orientation of diversity setup according to orientation of cell / traffic h Optimum diversity Gain Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 279 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Space Diversity .General Rules w The larger the separation the higher the diversity gaind w Prefer horizontal separation (more effective) w The higher the antenna the higher the required separation.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Achievable Diversity Gain w Depends on fading conditions s Varies in between 2.5 .6dB s Higher diversity gain in areas with multipath propagation (urban and suburban areas) w General rule: consider diversity gain with 3dB in the link budget Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 280 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Polarization Diversity w Diversity gain in using orthogonal orientated antennas Horizontal / vertical polarization: Hor/Ver Antenna Polarization of +/.45°: cross polarized antenna or Slant antenna V H RXA RXB +45° -45° RXA RXB Big Advantage: Only one panel antenna is required to profit from diversity gain using this configuration Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 281 .

diffraction EX1 Ex2 or Eh reception with a X-polarised antenna EX2 Ex1 or Ev Time [sec] Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 282 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Principle of Polarization Diversity reception with a hor / ver polarised antenna EV EH Diversity Gain G = f( ρ .∆ ) multipathpropagation reflection.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Air Combining w Features s only one TX per antenna s combining signals "on air" and not in a combiner s 3dB combiner loss can be saved to increase coverage w Can be realized with s two vertical polarized antennas s one cross polarized panel antenna TX1 TX2 TX1 TX2 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 283 .

) V DUPL TX RXA H BF RXB DUPL DUPL TX1 RX1 TX2 RX2 RX2D RX1D Air combining Recommended for Evolium BTS No Air combining Bandfilter if Decoupling too low Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 284 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Air Combining with Polarization Diversity 1 TRX or 2 TRX w One antenna system s cross polarized antennas recommended for urban/suburban area (less space req.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Air Combining with Space Diversity w Two antenna system or or RXA RXB RXA RXB TX TX s Vertical or horizontal spacing (recommended for rural area) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 285 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Decoupling of Signal Branches w One antenna system: TX / RX decoupling cannot be achieved by spatial separation w Decoupling between both polarization branches needs to be sufficiently high to avoid s blocking problems s intermodulation problems w Required decoupling values s G2 BTS: 30 dB s Evolium A9100 BTS: 25dB (Integrated duplexer Anx) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 286 .

5 .6dB) s negligible polarization diversity gain in rural areas (not recommended) s accordingly consider polarization diversity gain with 3dB in the link budget Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 287 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Cross Polarized or Hor/Ver Antenna? (1) w Receiving Application s same diversity gain for cross polarized and hor/ver antennas s in urban and suburban area polarization diversity gain equal to space diversity gain (2.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Cross Polarized or Hor/Ver Antenna? (2) w Transmission Application: Air combining s 3dB loss when transmitting horizontal/vertical polarized (use of combiner) s 1-2dB losses when transmitting at 45° (optimum antenna is straighten vertically) s Air combining only recommended with cross polarized antenna 3dB 2dB Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 288 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Conclusion on Antenna Diversity w Rural Areas s installation space not limited s apply Space Diversity (higher gain) w Urban and Suburban Area s apply space or polarization diversity s use cross polarized antennas for air combining w Diversity Gain s consider diversity gain in link budget with 3dB Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 289 .

Coverage Improvement Repeater Systems repeater BTS (donor cell) area covered by repeater original service area Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 290 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater Application repeater BTS (donor cell) area covered by repeater original service area Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 291 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater Block Diagram Required Isolation > 70…90 dB Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 292 .

) q man made obstacles w Provision of tunnel coverage s street.GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater Applications w Coverage Improvement of Cells (‘Cell Enhancer’) s removal of coverage holes caused by q topography (hills. .. ravines.. railway tunnels s underground stations w Provision of indoor coverage at places of low additional traffic Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 293 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater Types w Channel selective repeaters s high selectivity of certain channels s high traffic areas. small cell sizes w Band selective repeaters s adjustment to operator’s frequency band s no (accidental) usage by competitors w Broad band repeaters s low cost solution for low traffic areas (rural environment) s medium to high repeater gain w Personal repeaters s low gain s broad band s indoor coverage improvement for certain rooms Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 294 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater for Tunnel Coverage Antenna to donor cell w Choice of repeater type due to s tunnel dimensions s wall materials w feeding by s directional antennas s leaky feeder cables w long tunnels s chains of several repeaters s fiber optic backbone for repeater feeding Radiating cable Repeater Tunnel Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 295 .

window losses (heat insulated windows) s Low cost personal repeaters installed in certain rooms w For larger buildings (shopping malls.GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater for Indoor coverage w For smaller buildings s Compensation for wall losses. convention centers. sport centers) s multispot transmission using q co-axial distribution network q fiber-optic distribution network Personal repeater Antenna to donor cell Master unit Remote units Fiber optic distribution Radiating cable Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 296 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Planning Aspects w Repeater does not provide additional traffic capacity s risk of blocking if additional coverage area catches more traffic s  possible carrier upgrading required w Repeater causes additional signal delay s delay: 4.... cell range of 35 km reduced by 1 to 2km s special care needed for total delay of repeater chain! s delayed signal and original signal could cause outage in urban environment if total delay exceeds 16 . 22µ s Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 297 .8µ s ¡ max.

amplifier goes into saturation Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 298 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater Gain Limitation (1) w Intermodulation products should be low s when amplifier reaches saturation point. signal to noise ratio is getting worse w Antenna isolation between transmission and receiving antenna should be high s if signal feedback from transmission antenna to receiving antenna is too high. intermodulation products go up w Signal to noise ratio should be high s when amplifier reaches saturation point.

Repeater -M M (Margin) ~ 12 dB Pin gain 78 dB Pout Pback = Pin .GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater Gain Limitation (2) s Repeater gain limited by antenna isolation: GRepeater < IDonor.12 dB isolation 90 dB Measure isolation after installation Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 299 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Intermodulation Products w A Non-linear system s produces higher-order intermodulation products as soon as output power reaches the saturation point w Parameter s 1 dB compression point s 3rd order intercept point (ICP3) s Intermodulation reduction (IMR) s Amplifier back-off w GSM900/GSM1800 requirements s IM products ≤ -36 dBm or s IM distance > 70 dBc whichever is higher Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 300 .

and Downlink if the sensitivity of the repeater is worse than the sensitivity of the BTS Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 301 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Repeater Link Budget ! Uplink Loss = Downlink Loss ⇒ Uplink Gain = Downlink Gain Downlink Path Received power at repeater Link antenna gain Cable loss Repeater input power Repeater gain Repeater output power Cable loss Repeater antenna gain EIRP Unit dBm dBi dB dBm dB dBm dB dBi dBm Value -65 +19 -2 -48 +78 30 -2 +18 46 ! Different gains may be needed in Up.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Example: Repeater MR 402 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 302 .

8 dBm 60 W = 47.8 dBm TX output power. GMSK 60 W = 47. 8-PSK (EDGE) 25 W = 44.0 dBm 25 W = 44.0 dBm Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 303 .GSM RNE Fundamentals High Power TRXs w High Power TRXs: solution for coverage improvement w HP must be used together with TMA: due to unbalanced Link Budget w A9100 BTS supports s High Power TRX s Medium Power s TRX type is chosen by: q environment conditions q required data throughput (GPRS/EDGE) TX power of EVOLIUM™ Evolution step 2 TRX : Frequency band GSM 900 HP GSM 1800 HP TX output power.

GSM RNE Fundamentals 3x6 TRXs High Power Configuration w Configuration made with EVOLIUM™ A9100 Base Station w Obs: s All TRX are HP s The configuration is using cell split feature Combining ANc Cabinet1 (High power 3x3TRX) No-combining Combining ANc No-combining Combining ANc No-combining HPTRX1 HPTRX 2 MPTRX 3 HPTRX1 HPTRX 2 MPTRX 3 HPTRX1 HPTRX 2 MPTRX 3 Cabinet2 (High power 3x3TRX) Combining ANc No-combining Combining ANc No-combining Combining ANc No-combining HPTRX1 HPTRX 2 MPTRX 3 HPTRX1 HPTRX 2 MPTRX 3 HPTRX1 HPTRX 2 MPTRX 3 Sector1: 1x6 TRX Sector2: 1x6 TRX Sector3: 1x6 TRX Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 304 .

supports GSM/GPRS and EDGE s EVOLIUM™ Evolution step 2 TRX (TRA) with Medium Power s EVOLIUM™ Evolution step 2 TRX (TRA) with High Power Hardware configuration T R A HP T R A MP T R E T R E Logical cell TRX1 (BCCH) TRX2 (1 SDCCH) TRX3 TRX4 Allocation Packet Voice Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 305 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Mixed TRX Configuration w BTS EVOLIUM™ supports a mix of: s EVOLIUM™ TRX (TRE) .

GSM Radio Network Engineering Fundamentals Traffic Planning & Frequency Planning Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 306 .

Frequency Planning w Interference Probability w Carrier types w Multiple Reuse Pattern MRP w Intermodulation w Manual Frequency Planning w BSIC Planning w Capacity Enhancement Techniques Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 307 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Contents w Traffic Capacity w Network evolution w Cell structures w Frequency Reuse w Cell Planning .

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Traffic Capacity λ λ λ λ 0 1 k n-1 n µ kµ (k+1)µ nµ Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 308 .

main busy hour (MBH) blocked call attempts Parameters: λ : µ : 1/µ : arrival rate [1/h] "offered" traffic = # of calls arriving in MBH × release rate [1/h] mean holding time mean holding time [sec] ρ = λ × 1/µ [Erlang] 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 309 Mobile Radio Network Planning .g. e.GSM RNE Fundamentals Telephone System subscriber 1 2 3 4 automatic switch line to PSTN sub 1 sub 2 sub 3 sub 4 time observation period.

T < n Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 310 . Traffic Capacity: T w Blocking Probability.e. Grade of Service (GoS): pblock = R / ρ w System load: τ = T / n. i.GSM RNE Fundamentals Offered Traffic and Traffic Capacity Offered Traffic (ρ ) Loss System (n slots) Handled Traffic (T) T=ρ -R Rejected Traffic (R) w Handled Traffic.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Definition of Erlang w ERLANG : Unit used to quantify traffic T= (resource usage duration) /(total observation duration) [ERLANG] Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 311 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Call Mix and Erlang Calculation w CALL MIX EXAMPLE q q q q 350 call/hour 3 LU/call TCH duration : 85 sec SDCCH duration : 4.26 ERLANG q SDCCH = [ (350 + 350*3) * 4.75 ERLANG Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 312 .5 ] / 3600 = 1.5 sec w ERLANG COMPUTATION q TCH = (350 * 85)/3600 = 8.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Definition of Erlang B w ERLANG B LAW w Relationship between q Offered traffic q Number of resources q Blocking rate Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 313 .

Makro or Table Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 314 .GSM RNE Fundamentals w call request arrival rate (and leaving) is not stable s number of resources = average number of requests mean duration s is sometime not sufficent => probability of blocking w => Erlang B law s Pblock : blocking probability s N : number of resources s E : offered traffic [Erlang] s Calculated with Excel .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Erlang´s Formula w How to calculate the traffic capacity T? w Basics: Markov Chain (queue statistics) λ λ p0 p1 µ p2 2µ 3µ pi pn nµ no call establish ed i channels occupied all channels occupied w Calculation of the blocking probability using Erlang´s formula (Erlang B statistics): ρn p block = n! ρi ∑ i = 0 i! n w Varation of ρ until pblock reached: ρ → T Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 315 .

638 29.368 12.857 12.656 11.491 12.901 23.651 14.142 46.194 0.146 1.738 4.165 49.763 17.077 6.072 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 316 .551 8.454 4.036 13.109 6.173 36.793 11. of channels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 35 40 45 50 Blocking Probability Erlang B 0.783 4.591 6.900 1.200 9.230 7.351 10.901 2% 0.057 2.967 8.544 12.279 5.249 0.965 14.498 7.311 2.284 23.730 10.108 8.501 8.652 10.666 5.501 3.557 3.059 11.522 15.796 1.610 5.320 16.315 15.216 7.031 0.548 16.876 0.222 14.748 5.525 2.960 3.990 28.411 10.381 0.031 24.437 10.176 0.424 21.997 19.437 11.111 0.867 12.051 2.000 2.010 19.031 19.964 6.691 10.950 8.416 14.092 11.289 17.627 4.533 10% 0.633 11.113 33.046 8.141 7.1% 0.997 35.088 88.761 16.581 16.685 10.930 2.389 12.597 6.322 58.635 22.316 5% 0.512 0.250 3.578 10.238 24.500 17.500 14.378 8.349 0.727 7.249 16.657 2.169 27.153 0.961 4.432 37.000 1.838 13.613 18.273 20.345 5.034 23.647 20.182 14.113 68.298 10.153 42.946 8.899 1.108 10.005 0.076 7.439 0.230 12.137 48.333 13.651 19.245 54.720 33.579 17.461 5.238 13.650 10.212 28.445 5.842 6.524 12.631 17.GSM RNE Fundamentals Blocking Probability (Erlang B) Nr.001 0.216 20.615 7.157 2.470 11.543 5.525 12.204 14.470 15.259 1.596 39.446 6.099 78.270 5.182 34.511 8.721 7.582 7.499 27.656 35.425 18.869 1.5% 0.132 1.295 16.896 15.684 20.550 44.933 4% 0.413 15.223 0.385 14.159 40.535 0.352 8.434 38.369 8.218 2.361 1.773 21.487 9.053 0.250 1.115 13.701 1.475 48.164 25.855 3.663 7.068 15.607 40.985 46.562 15% 0.011 13.430 9.132 58.353 19.711 32.461 6.919 6.778 16.099 8.2% 0.602 1.399 2.435 30.834 9.294 18.508 50% 1.007 33.080 5.787 44.265 13.724 9.045 2.522 9.427 4.875 9.176 16.281 26.575 38.755 14.282 0.737 21.160 5.254 22.065 0.803 9.765 3.622 2.995 36.166 38.895 6.174 11.351 14.828 10.517 24.665 15.484 13.651 4.559 25.474 10.483 23.473 12.969 16.637 5.692 20.509 4.608 16.405 18.708 33.447 32.382 31.243 12.909 2.328 7.147 44.271 2.860 12.064 25.105 0.599 29.010 9.031 12.068 10.802 29.062 27.147 52.579 2.333 0.606 21.276 2.997 14.935 3.525 19.132 18.850 13.730 3.461 13.595 1.501 3.985 24.798 2.762 1.298 30.455 0.412 37.036 14.092 3.577 18.987 4.084 5.283 5.333 3.723 42.128 3.430 43.982 1% 0.231 4.376 8.546 7.092 1.875 2.881 3.529 6.201 30.840 39.812 11.885 15.677 34.831 5.325 1.022 4.191 32.732 4.444 28.758 33.833 28.945 4.080 19.224 26.644 9.607 7.010 0.029 20% 0.675 17.331 11.543 3.042 0.835 9.952 12.932 26.876 6.715 1.079 98.807 18.002 0.635 13.848 24.020 0.370 6.505 11.402 8.573 8.505 21.776 11.255 3% 0.010 5.812 1.602 2.337 24.046 0.784 22.189 17.155 41.258 7.616 9.125 20.758 4.

258 8.379 28.701 2.176 20.678 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 317 .64 32.487 21.2% 0.243 13.73 13.73 6.1% 0.501 2.7 42.051 2.721 7.557 39.099 12.533 46.833 26.011 14.051 2.5% 0.311 2.559 Signalling Traffic (Erlang B) 0.204 18.935 3.011 14.205 19.721 7.311 2.243 13.204 12.258 8.132 19.039 48.352 8.896 17.738 7.GSM RNE Fundamentals BTS Traffic Capacity (Full Rate) Number of TRX SDCCH 1 4 2 8 3 8 4 16 5 16 6 24 7 24 8 32 TCH 7 14 22 29 37 44 52 59 Speech Traffic (Erlang B) 1% 2% 5% 2.124 46.543 34.439 0.682 38.651 14.2 9.254 31.099 6.535 0.039 23.7 53.73 2.

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Network Evolution Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 318 .

Coverage Approach w The roll out of a network is dedicated to provide coverage w Network design changes rapidly w Planning method must be flexible and fast (group method) w Manual frequency planning possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 319 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Network Evolution .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Network Evolution .Capacity Approach (1) installed capacity is rising w With the growing amount of subscribers. the need for more w Possible Solutions: s Installing more TRXs on the existing BTS s Implementing additional sites w Discussion! Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 320 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Network Evolution .Disadvantages s More antennas on roof top (Air combining) s Additional losses if WBC has to be used q Less (indoor) coverage s More frequencies per site needed s Tighter reuse necessary ³ decreasing quality Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 321 .Capacity Approach (2) w Installing more TRXs .Advantages s No site search/acquisition process s No additional sites to rent (saves cost) s Trunking efficiency ³ Higher capacity per cell w Installing more TRXs .

Advantages s Reuse can remain the same (smaller cell sizes) s Needs less frequency spectrum q higher spectrum efficiency w Implementing additional sites .GSM RNE Fundamentals Network Evolution .Disadvantages s Additional site cost (rent) s Re-design of old cells necessary (often not done) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 322 .Capacity Approach (3) w Implementing additional sites .

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Cell Structures Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 323 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Structures and Quality w Frequency re-use in cellular radio networks s allow efficient usage of the frequency spectrum s but causes interference ² Interdependence of s Cell size s Cluster size s Re-use distance s Interference level s Network Quality interferer region Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 324 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals 7 Cell Re-use Cluster (Omni Sites) 2 7 6 R D 1 5 3 4 7 6 2 1 5 3 4 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 325 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals 12 Cell Re-use Cluster (Omni Sites) 1 4 7 10 11 5 2 6 8 12 3 D 9 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 326 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals 3x3 Cell Re-use Cluster (Sector Site) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 327 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals 4x3 Cell Re-use Cluster (Sector Site) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 328 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Irregular (Real) Cell Shapes 5 1 2 3 5 4 6 Coverage Hole 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 Network Border Mobile Radio Network Planning 7 Island 329 .

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Frequency Reuse Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 330 .

251 1800 s DL: 1805-1880 MHz UL: 1710-1785 MHz s 200 kHz channel spacing ´ 374 channels s ARFCN 512 .124 w E-GSM s DL: 925-935 MHz UL: 880-890 MHz s 200 kHz channel spacing ´ Additional 50 channels s ARFCN 0.1023 w GSM 850 s s s w GSM DL: 869-894 MHz UL: 824-849 MHz 200 kHz channel spacing ´ 124 channels ARFCN: 128 . 975 .885 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 331 Mobile Radio Network Planning .GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM Frequency Spectrum w GSM 900 s DL: 935-960 MHz UL: 890-915 MHz s 200 kHz channel spacing ´ 124 channels s ARFCN 1 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Impact of limited Frequency Spectrum w Bandwidth is an expensive resource w Best usage necessary w Efficient planning necessary to contain good QoS when the traffic in the network is increasing s smaller reuse s MRP usage s implementation of concentric cells / microcells/dual band s implementation of Frequency Hopping q Baseband q Synthezised Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 332 .

frequencies have to be reused to provide enough capacity w The more often a frequency is reused within a certain amount of cells.GSM RNE Fundamentals What is frequency reuse? w As the GSM spectrum is limited. the smaller the frequency reuse w Aim: Minimizing the frequency reuse for providing more capacity w REUSE CLUSTER: Area including cells which do not reuse the same frequency (or frequency group) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 333 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals RCS and ARCS (1) w Reuse Cluster Size . the reuse per TRX layer can be calculated: B RCS = # TRX / cell w Average Reuse Cluster Size .ARCS s If the cells are different equiped.RCS s If all cells within the reuse cluster have the same amount of TRXs. the average number of TRXs has to be used for calculating the average reuse cluster size: B ARCS = # TRX / cell Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 334 .

w Each cell has only one BCCH. we have to use the dedicated bandwidth and the average number of non hopping TCH TRXs per cell to get the ARCS of this layer type.GSM RNE Fundamentals RCS and ARCS (2) w The ARCS is giving the average reuse of the network when using the whole bandwidth and all TRXs per cell w E. Therefore the BCCH reuse is an RCS and not an ARCS! Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 335 .g: if we want to have the reuse of all non hopping TCH TRXs.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Reuse Cluster Size (1) w Sectorized sites w 4 sites per reuse cluster w 3 cells per site w REUSE Cluster Size: 4X3 =12 1 3 7 9 8 2 4 6 10 11 1 3 5 7 9 8 2 4 6 10 11 5 12 12 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 336 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Reuse Cluster Size (2) w Sectorized sites w 3 sites per reuse cluster w 3 cells per site w REUSE Cluster Size 3X3 = 9 1 3 7 9 8 2 4 6 1 3 7 9 8 2 4 6 5 5 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 337 .

sectorized cells reu se cell A dis tan ce interferer region cell B Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 338 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Reuse Distance D = f ⋅ R ⋅ 3 ⋅ RCS 1  f = 2 3  omnidirectional cells three .

A 3 RCS f=2/3 Received Power Examples (omni): RCS = 7: D/R = 4. i. sector cells: Frec Frec. B site B σ 0 Mobile Radio Network Planning R distance 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 D 339 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Frequency Reuse Distance D = distance between cell sites with the same frequencies R = service radius of a cell B = number of frequencies in total bandwidth RCS = reuse cluster size.6 RCS = 9: D/R = 5.2 RCS =12:D/R = 6.0 site A C/I Frec. one cell uses B/RCS frequencies In hexagonal cell geometry: D/R = f · omni cells: f=1.e.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Frequency Reuse: Example w No sectorization w 7 cells per cluster s BCCH RCS = 7 w TCH Reuse: Depending on BW and Number of installed TRXs per cell w Example: s B= 26 s 4TRXs per cell BCCH RCS interferer region TCH RCS TCH RCS = Mobile Radio Network Planning 26 − 7 BCCH − 1Guard =6 3 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 340 .

Frequency Planning Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 341 .Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Cell Planning .

Frequency Planning (1) w Can frequency planning be seen independently from cell planning? Discussion Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 342 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Planning .

Frequency Planning (2) w Bad cell planning s Island coverage s Big overlap areas ³ disturbing the reuse pattern ³ bigger reuse necessary w Good cell planning s Sharp cell borders frequency s Small overlap areas ³ good containment of ³ tighter reuse possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 343 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Cell Planning .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Influencing Factors on Frequency Reuse Distance w Topography s Hilly terrain ³ Usage of natural obstacles to define sharp cell borders ³ tighter frequency reuse possible s Flat terrain ³ Achieveable reuse much more dependent on the accurate cell design w Morphology s Water distance s City distance ³ low attenuation ³ high attenuation ³ high reuse ³ low reuse Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 344 .

cell sizes and shapes are irregular due to s Variation in traffic density s Topography s Land usage ² Engineering formulas allow the assessment of the network quality and worst-case considerations. but the real situation must be proved! Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 345 . the frequency reuse pattern has a direct influence on the interference and hence the network quality w Regular hexagonal patterns allow the deduction of engineering formulas w In real networks.GSM RNE Fundamentals Conclusion w In cellular mobile networks.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Examples for different frequency reuses w Big city in the south of Africa: s BCCH reuse 26 q q q q Irregular cell design Mixed morphology Lots of water Flat terrain plus some high sites w Big city in eastern Europe s BCCH reuse 12 q Regular cell design q Flat area q Only urban environment Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 346 .

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Interference Probability Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 347 .

B C/ I σ 0 Mobile Radio Network Planning R 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 dista nce D 348 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Interference Theory (1) w C/I restrictions s 9dB for co-channel interference s -9 dB for adjacent channel interference P rec Prec. A Received Power Prec.

0 Pint[%] 10 7.0 2.5 8.0% Margin ARCS 6.5 5.5..0% 1.GSM RNE Fundamentals Interference Theory (2) w Interference probability s C/Imed is the calculated carrier to interference ratio at a certain location (pixel) Probability density function [%] 5.9.0.5 Interferer probability [%] 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% C/Ithr C/Imed C/I [dB] → 0% -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 C/I .0% 0.11.0 12..0% 4.0% 3..0.5.9.0 7.C/I thr [dB] 349 .0% 2..16.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Interference Probability Pint = P ( C/I < C/I P in t th r ) CPDF .6 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.3 0.Cumulative Probability Density Function 1 0.8 0.2 0.1 0 Mobile Radio Network Planning R 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 D Distance from serving cell 350 .5 0.

5 12...9 7.5 5 8...16 [%] 12 9 6 3 0 5 10 15 ARCS 20 25 ARCS 351 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .11 2.5.9.GSM RNE Fundamentals Interference Probability dependent on Average Reuse Cluster Size (ARCS) ARCS = Pint # of frequencies in used bandwidth average # of carriers per cell Examples: Pint [%] 10 6.5...5 7...

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Carrier Types Multiple Reuse Pattern Intermodulation Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 352 .

BCCH carrier w BCCH frequency is on air all the time w If there is no traffic/signaling on TS 1 to 7 ³ dummy bursts are transmitted w PC (Power Control) and DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) are not allowed w Important for measurements of the mobile Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 353 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Carrier Types .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Carrier Types . nothing is transmitted s Generation of comfort noise at receiving mobile w TCH not in use ³ no signal is transmitted w Special case: Concentric cells s Different re-uses for inner and outer zone are possible Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 354 .TCH carrier w PC allowed and recommended for UL and DL s Reduction of transmit power according to the actual path loss s Careful parameter tuning for DL necessary w DTX allowed and recommended for UL and DL s Discontinuous Transmission s If there is no speech.

different interference potential is expected w As the BCCH carrier has the highest interferer potential because of being on air all the time and the BCCH channel itself is accepting only low interference.GSM RNE Fundamentals Multiple reuse pattern (1) w For different types of carriers. the REUSE on the BCCH layer is higher then on other layers w TCH layers can be planned with a smaller REUSE w Inner zones of concentric cells are able to deal with the smallest reuse in non hopping networks Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 355 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Multiple reuse pattern (2) w REUSE clusters for s INNER ZONE layer s TCH layer s BCCH layer Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 356 .

fx3.f C .fCx.f C 2 .f B 2 Mobile Radio Network Planning ..f B 3 ...… must have at least 2 channels spacing Frequencies fx1.… must have at least 3 channels spacing f C1 .. 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . 357 . but with Alcatel EVOLIUM capabilities this value can be set to 2) s constrains: fA1 . q Uplink power control enabled q Intra cell interference handover enabled Frequencies fAx... 3 fB 1 ..fBx.GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM restrictions w Intra site minimum channel spacing ³ 2 w Intra cell minimum channel spacing ³ 2 (ETSI recommends 3.fA2 .fx2. .fA3 .

r q 3 * f1.t – 2 * f1.t – f1.r s Frequency planning must avoid fulfilling these equations s Both frequencies must be on the same duplexer s To avoid intra band IM inside GSM900 the following frequency separations shall be avoided: q 75/112/113 channels IM5 Mobile Radio Network Planning IM3 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 358 .t = f1.GSM RNE Fundamentals Intermodulation problems (1) w IM Products GSM900 s In a GSM 900 system intermodulation products of 3rd and 5th order can cause interference q 2 * f1.t = f2.t = f1.t = f2.t – f2.t – 2 * f2.r / 3 * f2.r / 2 * f2.

t = f900.t = f2.t – f900.t – f1.g.r s Decoupling between the GSM 1800 TX path and the GSM 900 RX path is less than 30 dB (e.r / 2 * f2.r s Frequency separations to be avoided q 237/238 channels w IM Products Dual Band (GSM900/GSM1800) s f1800.t – f2.t = f1. only intermodulation products of 3rd order can cause measurable interference s 2 * f1.GSM RNE Fundamentals Intermodulation problems (2) w IM Products GSM1800 s In a GSM 1800 system. same antenna used!) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 359 .

r) 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 360 .t) .f(900.t) .t) = f(900.t) = f(900.f(900.GSM RNE Fundamentals Intermodulation problems (3) Summary INSIDE Problem: IM3 / IM5 carrier/antenna G3 900 1 G3 900 2 ore more G3 1800 1 G3 1800 2 or more carrier/antenna G2 900 w/o dupl 1 2 or more G2 900 with dupl 1 2 or more G2 1800 w/o dupl 1 2 or more G2 1800 with dupl 1 2 2 Problem can be solved by hopping over more than 10 frequencies restriction no 112/113 (IM3) and 75 (IM5) no 237/238 (IM3) no IM5 quality degradation measurable no no no 112/113 (IM3) and 75 (IM5) no no no dud2(high Power) -> no dupd -> 237/238 OUTSIDE Problem: Dual Band Colocated BTSs G3 900 G2/G3 1800 G2 900 w/o dupl G2 900 with dupl G2/G3 1800 Problem only for non hopping and BCCH carriers f(1800.r) no Mobile Radio Network Planning G2/G3 1800 f(1800.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Treating “neighbor” cells w Cells. must not use co or adjacent frequencies s If an adjacent frequency is used. thus have HO relationships. but no co channel frequencies w Cells which are declared as neighbors. the HO will be risky and at least audible by the user Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 361 . which are not declared as neighbor cells but are located in the neighborhood may use adjacent frequencies if it is not avoidable.

the HO will be performed towards the best neighbor Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 362 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Where can I find neighbor cells? w At the OMC-R for each cell a list of neighbor cells is defined w Maximum number of neighbors: 32 w The list of neighbors and their frequencies is transmitted to the mobile to be able to perform measurements on these frequencies w In case of a HO cause.

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Manual Frequency Planning Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 363 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Manual frequency planning (1) w No fixed method w Free frequency assignment possible. 2TRX per cell ¶ ARCS 9 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 364 . but very time consuming for larger networks w For easy and fast frequency planning: use group assignment w Example: 18 channels.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Manual frequency planning (2) 1 A1 B1 A2 B2 A3 B3 A4 B4 A5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 w GSM restrictions are automatically fulfilled. if on one site only groups A* or only B* are used Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 365 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Exercise: Manual frequency planning (3) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 366 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Exercise: Manual frequency planning (4) A1 A2 B2 B1 B1 A3 A2 A5 A1 A1 A2 B4 B2 B3 B2 A4 A5 A3 A2 B4 B1 A4 A3 A2 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 367 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Discussion: Subdivide Frequency Band? w Any subdivision of the frequency band is reducing the spectrum efficiency! w Separations should be avoided if possible! w As the BCCH has to be very clean. it is nevertheless recommended to use a separated band and select a bigger reuse Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 368 .

it is very difficult to implement new sites in the future! w New sites would make a complete re-planning of the surrounding area or the whole frequency plan necessary w To avoid replanning every time when introducing new sites. it is recommended to keep some Joker frequencies free w These Joker frequencies can be used for new sites (especially BCCH TRXs) unless it is impossible to implement new sites without changing a big part of the frequency plan ² New frequency plan necessary! Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 369 . using all available frequencies in the most efficient way.GSM RNE Fundamentals Hint for creating a future proofed frequency plan w If a frequency plan is implemented.

the changes can be done at the OMC-R s Disadvantage: Every cell has to be modified separately  Downtime of the cell approx.GSM RNE Fundamentals Implementing a frequency plan w If only a few frequencies have to be changed.2 the complete frequency plan can be uploaded from the OMC s the uploaded file can be modified by the tool (A9155 PRC Generator) s the the new plan is downloaded into the network and activated at once Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 370 . 5 minutes w If lots of changes have to be done. it is of advantage to use external tools s Since B6.

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning BSIC Planning Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 371 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals BSIC allocation w Together with the frequencies the Base Transceiver Station Identity Code (BSIC) has to be planned w The BSIC is to distinguish between cells using the same BCCH frequency w BSIC = NCC (3bits) + BCC (3bits) w NCC Network (PLMN) Colour Code BCC .Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Colour Code w BSIC planning is supported by the A9155 (Alcatel Radio Network Planning Tool) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 372 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals BSIC Planning Rules w The same combination BCCH/BSIC must not be used on cell influencing on each other (having a mutual interference <>0) w BSIC allocation rules: s Avoid using same BCCH/BSIC combination of: q neighbours cells q second order neighbour cells (the neighbours of neighbour cell (OMC limitation)) B C Neighbour Cell BCCH:24 Neighbour Cell BCCH:24 BSIC:36 A Serving Cell BCCH:10 BSIC: any BSIC: must NOT be 36 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 373 .

also known as “Ghost RACH” w This problem occurs.GSM RNE Fundamentals Spurious RACH w Bad BSIC planning can cause SDCCH congestion cause by the spurious RACH problem. when a mobile sends an HO access burst to a TRX of cell A using the same frequency as a nearby cell B uses on the BCCH w Both cells using the same BSIC and Training Sequence Code TSQC. the HO access burst is understood by the cell B as a RACH for call setup w Therefore on cell B SDCCHs are allocated everytime a HO access burst is sent from the mobile to the cell A Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 374 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Summary w For optimal usage of your frequency spectrum a good cell design is essential w Use larger reuse for BCCH frequencies w Use spectrum splitting only when necessary Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 375 .

Traffic Planning Frequency Planning Capacity Enhancement Techniques Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 376 .

direction and down tilt q This is a check of cell size. border and orientation s Check of proper cabling q Is TX and RX path on the same sector antenna? s Check of the frequency plan q Introduction of a better frequency plan Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 377 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Capacity enhancement by planning w Interference reduction of cells s Check of antenna type.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Capacity enhancement by adding feature w Frequency hopping s Base band hopping s Synthesized frequency hopping w Concentric cells w Half rate Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 378 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Capacity enhancement by adding TRX w Adding TRX to existing cells w Multi band cells w Concentric cells Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 379 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Capacity enhancement by adding cells w Adding of cells at existing site locations w Adding new cell = adding new BCCH w Dual band s Adding cells using another frequency band w Cell splitting s Reduction of cell size s Change of one omni cell into several cells/sector cells Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 380 .

adding micro cells for outdoor coverage w Indoor coverage s Adding micro cells indoor coverage s Adding macro cells indoor coverage Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 381 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Capacity enhancement by adding sites w Dual band/multi band network s Adding of new sites in new frequency band w Multi layer network s Adding of new sites in another layer q E.g.

GSM Radio Network Engineering Fundamentals Radio Interface Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 382 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Contents w GSM Air Interface w Channel Coding w Performance Figures Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 383 .

Quality of Service GSM Air Interface Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 384 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Radio Resources Radio Spectrum Allocation Frequency (FDMA) Time (TDMA) TDMA Frames 0<FN<FN_MAX Frequency division multiple access Time division multiple access Absolute radio frequency channel number Timeslot number Frame number 385 Carrier Frequencies (ARFCN) Timeslot 0<TN<7 Cell Allocation (CA) Mobile Radio Network Planning Mobile Allocation (MA) FDMA TDMA ARFCN TN FN 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

.2 + 0..2 · n MHz 890 + 0...512) with 1 ≤ n ≤ 124 with 0 ≤ n ≤ 124 with 975 ≤ n ≤ 1023 MHz with 512 ≤ n Mobile Radio Network Planning (E)GSM: Fupper (n) = Flowr (n) + 45 MHz e 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 DCS: Fupper (n) = Flowr (n) + 95 MHz e 386 .. 1880 MHz Downlink w 200 kHz bandwidth w Number of carriers: 124 (GSM)..2 · n MHz 890 + 0.. 960 MHz Downlink (BS → MS) s GSM1800: 1710 ..GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM Transmission Principles (1) w FDMA and TDMA with 8 time slots per carrier w RF frequency band (880) 890 .2 · (n .2 · (n -1024) MHz 1710. 49 (E-GSM) s (E)GSM: GSM: Flowr e E-GSM: Flowr e Flowr e DCS : Flowr e ≤ 885 (n) (n) (n) (n) = = = = 890 + 0. 915 MHz Uplink (MS → BS) (925) 935 . 1785 MHz Uplink 1805 . 374 (DCS).

GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM Transmission Principles (2) w Channel types s Traffic Channels (TCH) q Full rate q Half rate s Control Channels (CCH) q Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH) q Common Control Channel (CCCH) q Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) w TDMA frame cycles s 26 cycle for traffic channels s 51 cycle for control channels Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 387 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Advantages of Signal Processing Spectrum limitations Operator Bad propagation conditions P t Good spectrum efficiency Good transmission quality Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 388 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Signal Processing Chain stealing bit and FACCH speech input speech coding error protection interleaving encryption modulation Loss Noise Interference Fading speech output speech decoding radio channel error correction de-interleaving decryption demodulation stealing bit and FACCH Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 389 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Speech Coding wCoding algorithm: RPE-LTP s Pre-computation s RPE = Regular Pulse Excitation q Model of human voice generation 20 ms of coded speech 260 bits speech block s LTP = Long Term Prediction q Reduction of bit rate ²Bit rate: 13 kBit/s 182 class 1 bits sensitive to bit errors must be protected 78 class 2 bits robust to bit errors wCoding at fixed network: PCM A-law ²Bit rate: 64 kBit/s Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 390 .

K = 5 456 = 24 x 19 Convolutional Code r = 1/2.GSM RNE Fundamentals Error Protection Messages (signalling data) 184 bits Speech (full rate) 260 bits Class 1a 50 bits Class 1b 132 bits Class 2 78 bits Fire Code 18 4 4 4 0 Parity check Tail bits Cyclic code Convolutional Code r = 1/2.8 kbit/s Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 391 . K = 5 37 8 5 0 3 13 2 4 Tail bits 78 = 456 = 8 x 57 456 bits in 20 ms = 22.

.. .GSM RNE Fundamentals Interleaving and TDMA Frame Mapping Block n-1 (456 57 bits Block n (456 bits) bits) 01234 567 0123456 7 2 x 57 bits Block n+1 (456 bits) 012345 67 Interleavi ng . . 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits 116 bits ...... .. Mapping onto bursts . . Addition of stealing flags . ...... 392 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 . .... 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits 114 bits .. burst n-3 burst n-2 burst n-1 burst n 1 time slot burst n+1 burst n+2 burst n+3 burst n+4 ..

GSM RNE Fundamentals Encryption Network Algorithm A3 Ki Random number generator Authentica tion yes/no + SRES (32 bit) Mobile station Algorithm A3 Ki RAND RAND AuC IMSI Ki RAND (128 bit) SIM Card Algorithm A8 Kc (64 bit) Algorithm A8 Kc Algorithm A5 original data + encrypt ed data encrypt ed data Algorithm A5 + original data Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 393 .

577 ms Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 394 .615 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 Data GP 3 tail bits 57 bits Training Sequence 1 26 bits 1 stealing flags Data 57 bits 3 GP tail bits 156.GSM RNE Fundamentals Burst Structure w A burst contains one data "portion" of one timeslot w TDMA frame: time between two bursts with same timeslot number w The burst also consists of: s Guard period (GP): allows for transition and settling times s Tail bits: allow for small shifts in time delay (synchronisation) s Stealing flags: to indicate FACCH (control channel) data s Training sequence: for equalization purposes Normal Burst TDMA frame = 4.25 bit periods = 0.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Synchronisation 1 0 1 2 3 1 2 0 1 2 TT TT transmitted from BTS0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 (downlink) received at BTS (uplink) received at MS (downlink) TT 3 TS delay 4 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 TT MS delay line setting 3 RACH 1 2 transmitted from MS (uplink) non-synchronized synchronized w Transmitted bursts need a travelling time (TT) to the receiver w For network access. the MS sends a (non-synchronized) shortened RACH burst w The BSS measures the TT and generates a timing advance value TA which is transmitted to the MS Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 395 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Modulation w Gaussian minimum shift keying s Based on phase shift keying s Reduction of required bandwidth q Maximum phase change during one bit duration q Baseband filtering to achieve continuous phase changes cos Data x + 90° ∫ ϕ ≈ sin x to RF modulator Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 396 .

05. 11. 11.GSM RNE Fundamentals Propagation Environment w Radio propagation is characterised by dispersive multipath caused by reflection and scattering w Moving MS causes Doppler spectrum → Definition of propagation models in the time domain to allow channel simulations s TUxx (Typical Urban) s RAxx (Rural Area) s HTxx (Hilly Terrain) s xx = speed in km/h see also GSM 05.20.21 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 397 .

1 BER 0.001 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Delay of second path [chips] Equalizer none Alcatel MLSE Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 398 .01 s w Equalizer takes advantage from multipath propagation (path diversity) 0.GSM RNE Fundamentals Equalizing w Purpose: equalize distortions in transmission spectrum ² Adaptive filtering required s Filter parameters determined out of the training sequence Filter parameters change from burst to burst 0.

RBER2 see also GSM 05.GSM RNE Fundamentals Definition of Bit Error Rates w FER = Frame Erasure Rate s Ratio of corrupted frames. 11.05. RBER1b. 11.21 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 399 .g.20. indicated by a wrong CRC (cyclic redundancy checksum) and BFI (bad frame indicator) w RBER = Residual Bit Error Rate s considering corrupted frames not recognized as bad frames w BER = total bit error rate w Consideration of class 1 or 2 bits → e.

0001 Quality Thresholds: 9 dB no communicationC/I: Ec/No: 8 dB “bad” BTS (GSM900): -104 dBm “marginal” HH (GSM900): -102 dBm “good” BTS (GSM1800): -104 dBm “excellent” HH (GSM1800): -100 dBm Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 400 .0003 <0.01 <0.GSM RNE Fundamentals Speech Quality BER >0.005 <0.0025 <0.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Dependence of BER on Noise and Interference (1) BER1 → w Variation of BER1 over C/I w Parameter: Ec/N0 w How to find a quality figure? s BER1 for marginal speech quality: 0.25% ² required C/I ≈ 9 dB for TU50 environment s but: signal must not be close to noise floor! TU50 C/I [dB] → Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 401 .

0 31.0 10.8 39.8 5.5 21.6 13.4 42.6 34.7 26.7 47.GSM RNE Fundamentals Frequency Hopping (1) w Problem: specific fading w w ² pattern for each used frequency Fast MS cope with the situation (due to signal processing) Slow MS suffer from fading holes Solution: change the fading pattern by frequency hopping 0 Lognorm al fading -10 Raleygh fading -20 Received Power [dBm] -30 -40 -50 -60 Fading holes -70 0.9 402 D istance [m ] Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .1 44.3 49.3 29.4 8.1 23.2 36.1 2.9 18.2 15.

GSM RNE Fundamentals Frequency Hopping (2) = 0 km/h (worst case) w Parameter: number of hopping frequencies BER → w Variation of BER1 over Ec/N0 w TU environment. flat fading. v ² Compensation with 4 hopping frequencies possible Ec/N0 [dB] → Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 403 .

.. Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 404 .Quality of Service Channel Coding 0 12 3 4 5 6 70 12 3 4 5 6 7 0 12 3 4 5 6 7 0 12 3 4 ....

05/06 08.56 04.04 08.0 8 04.GSM RNE Fundamentals The OSI Reference Model Application layer 7 Presentation layer 6 Session layer 5 Transport layer 4 Network layer 3 Data link layer 2 Physical layer 1 End system Transportation system 04.58/4.54 End system w Definition in GSM recommendations: layers 1 to 3 ² Notion of "Physical" channels and "Logical" channels Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 405 .07/08 08.

GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM Burst Types (1) w Normal Burst w w w w s For regular transmission Frequency Correction Burst s Contains 142 zeros (0) → pure sine wave ² Allows synchronisation of the mobile's local oscillator Synchronisation Burst s Consists of an enlarged unique training sequence code (TSC) s Contains the actual FN → time synchronisation Access Burst s Shortened burst (unique TSC and enlarged guard period) ² Timeslot overlapping avoided at BTS when MS accesses network Dummy Burst s "Filler" for unused BCCH timeslots → BCCH permanently on air s Similar to normal burst (defined mixed bits for data. no stealing flag) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 406 .

25 Synchronisation burst TB 3 39 data bits 64 bit training sequence 39 data bits TB GP 3 8.25 bit 407 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .25 Frequency correction burst TB 3 142 fixed bits (pure sine wave) TB GP 3 8.25 Access burst TB41 bit synchronisation 8 sequence Mobile Radio Network Planning 36 data bits TB 3 enlarged GP 68.GSM RNE Fundamentals GSM Burst Types (2) Normal burst TB 3 57 data bits 26 bit training 1 1 sequence 57 data bits TB GP 3 8.

4 TCH/H4.8 TCH/F2.8 TCH/H2.4 Broadcast channel FCCH SCH BCCH CCCH RACH PCH AGCH Associated Dedicated channel channel FACCH SACCH SDCCH CBCH Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 408 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Logical Channels Traffic channel Control channel Speech TCH/FS TCH/HS Data TCH/F9.6 TCH/F4.

1)+SACCH/TH(0.1)+TCH/H(1.1) 3 TCH/H(0.1)+SACCH/TH(0.1) 4 FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH 5 FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4(0. or TS6 of the BCCH carrier Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 409 .1)+FACCH/H(0.3)+SACCH/C4(0.7)+SACCH/C8(0.GSM RNE Fundamentals Possible Channel Combinations 1 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF 2 TCH/H(0. TS4..3) 6 BCCH+CCCH 7 SDCCH/8(0...0)+FACCH/H(0..7) w CCCH = PCH+RACH+AGCH w Combination 4 and 5 is only possible on TS0 of the first (BCCH) carrier w Combination 6 is possible on TS2.

616 ms) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 410 ...GSM RNE Fundamentals Channel Mapping (1) 0 12 3 4 5 6 70 12 3 4 5 6 7 0 12 3 4 5 6 7 0 12 3 4 .... time one TDMA frame = 4.616 ms w Information packages are always related .......... . Presentation of consecutive TDMA frames on the vertical axis to the same timeslot number! w Bursts are transmitted and received every TDMA frame duration (4.....

GSM RNE Fundamentals not combined BCCH combined BC CH downlink FCCH SCH FCC H SCH SDCC H3 SDCCH3 TC H up/downlink 0 TCH TCH TCH TCH SDCCH downlink 0 SDCC H0 SDCC H0 SACCH5 SACCH1 Channel Mapping (2) w Control channels s Follows a 51-cycle s Duration: 235.4 msec s Consists mostly of four consecutive blocks s Synchronisation with FCCH and SCH w Traffic channels s Follows a 26-cycle s Duration: 120 msec downlink 0 FCCH SCH uplink RAC H RAC H RAC H uplink uplink BCCH RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H BCCH BCCH RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H TCH TCH TCH SDCC H1 SDCC H1 SACCH6 SACCH2 CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H CCC H CCCH SACCH0 SACCH2 TCH TCH TCH 10 FCCH SCH RAC H RAC H RAC H FCCH SCH FCC H SCH SACCH1 SACCH3 TCH TCH 10 SDCC H2 SDCC H2 SACCH7 SACCH3 12 SACCH TCH SDCC H3 SDCC H3 CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H CCC H CCCH RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H CCC H CCCH RAC H RAC H RAC H SDCC H0 SDCC H4 SDCC H4 SDCCH0 20 FCCH SCH RAC H RAC H RAC H FCCH SCH FCC H SCH RAC H RAC H RAC H 20 SDCC H1 SDCC H5 SDCC H5 SDCCH1 CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H SDCC H0 SDCCH0 RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H 25 0 TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH TCH 12 SACCH TCH TCH TCH SACCH1 SACCH5 SACCH0 SACCH4 SDCC H6 SDCC H6 SDCC H2 SDCCH2 CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H SDCC H1 SDCCH1 RAC H RAC H RAC H SDCC H3 SDCCH3 30 FCCH SCH RAC H RAC H RAC H FCCH SCH FCC H SCH RAC H RAC H RAC H 30 SDCC H7 SDCC H7 CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H SDCC H2 SDCCH2 RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H SDCC H4 SDCCH4 CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H SDCC H5 SDCCH5 SDCC H3 SDCCH3 SDCC H0 SDCCH0 40 FCCH SCH RAC H RAC H RAC H FCCH SCH FCC H SCH SDCC H1 SDCCH1 40 SDCC H6 SACCH2 SACCH6 SDCCH6 TCH TCH TCH CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H SACC H0 SACCH2 RAC H RAC H RAC H RAC H TCH TCH TCH SDCC H7 SACCH3 SACCH7 SDCCH7 CCC H RAC H RAC H RAC H SACC H1 SACCH3 SDCC H2 SDCCH2 TCH TCH TCH SACCH0 SACCH4 50 RAC H 50 25 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 411 .

577 ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TB 3 57 data bits 26 bit training 1 1 sequence 57 data bits TB GP 3 8.615 ms 0.12 s 120 ms 4.12 s duration Superframe 51 multiframes of 120 ms duration Multiframe Frame Time slot 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 3 h 28 m 53 s 6.2 5 Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 412 .GSM RNE Fundamentals TDMA Frame Structure for TCHs Hyperframe 2048 superframes of 6.

Quality of Service Performance Figures Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 413 .

Pint) w Outage Probability Pout s complementary to CSR s Pout = 1 .GSM RNE Fundamentals Performance Figures (1) w Interference Probability Pint s measure for co/adjacent channel interference w Coverage Probability Pcov s measure for sufficient received power w Call Success Rate (CSR) s CSR = "Coverage" AND (NOT "Interference“) s CSR = Pcov · (1 .CSR Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 414 .

Abbreviations Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 415 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals AMR AMSS AN ARCS ARFCN AS AS ASMA ASMB AuC BC BCU BCLA BCR BCU BCCH BCF BG Advanced Multi Rate (TC) Aeronautical Mobile Satellite Services Antenna Network (BTS) Average Reuse Cluster Size Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Access Switch (BSC) Alarm Surveillance (O&M) A-ter Submultiplexer A A-ter Submultiplexer B Authentication Center Broadcast Broadcast Unit BSC Clock A Broadcast Register Broadcast Unit Broadcast Common Control Channel (GSM TS) Base station Control Function (BTS) Border Gate (GPRS) BIE BIEC BIUA BPA BSC BSIC BSS BSSGP BTS CAE CAL CBC CBCH CBE CCCH CCU Base Station Interface Equipment Base Station Interface Equipment (BSC) Base Station Interface Unit A Back Panel Assembly Base Station Controller Base Transceiver Station Identity Code Base Station (sub)System Base Station System GPRS Protocol (GPRS) Base Transceiver Station Customer Application Engineering Current Alarm List (O&M) Cell Broadcast Center Cell Broadcast Channel (GSM TS) Cell Broadcast Entity Common Control Channel (GSM TS) Channel Coding Unit Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 416 .

CS-4 EPROM Carrier Unit (BTS) ETSI Data Circuit Terminating Equipment FPE Data Communication Network FR DownLink Mobile Radio Network Planning MA K K SI MA MDA MFA R C E N Data Load Segment Direct Memory Access Dual Rate Frame Unit Discontinuous Reception (GSM TS) Digital Switching Element Digital Switching Network Discontinuous Transmission (GSM TS) Digital Trunk Controller (Type: DTCA.GSM RNE Fundamentals Code Division Multiple Access DLS Control Element (BSC) DMA Control Element Kernel DRFU Carrier to Interferer ratio DRX Clock DSE Custom Large Scale Integrated circuit DSN Configuration Management Application (O&M) DTX Common Memory Disk A DTC Common Memory Flash A DTE Common Processor (Type: CPRA. CS-3. CS-2. CPRC) EDGE Cyclic Redundancy Check EI Circuit Switching (Telecom) EML Coding Scheme (GPRS): CS-1. DTCC) Data Terminal Equipment Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Extension interface Element Management Level Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory European Telecom Standard Institute Functional and Protective Earth Full Rate (GSM TS) 417 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Home Location Register Human Machine Interface HandOver Half Rate Hardware Internal Directed Retry ISDN Link Controller Installation and Maintenance Terminal (MFS) Indoor (BTS) Internet Protocol Integrated Services Data Network Intelligent Terminal Location Area (GSM TS) Location Area Code (GSM TS) Local Area Network Light Emitting Diode Low Earth Orbit (Satellite) Location Services 418 R Frame Relay (Telecom) HLR RDN Frame Relay Data Network (Telecom) HMI U Frame Unit (BTS) HO W Firmware HR GCR Group Call Register HW GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node (GPRS) IDR GMLC Gateway Mobile Location Center ILCS GMM GPRS Mobility Management (GPRS) IMT GMSC Gateway Mobile Switching Center IND GPRS General Packet Radio Service IP GPU GPRS Packet Unit ISDN GS-1 Group Switch of stage 1 (BSC) IT GS-2 Group Switch of stage 2 (BSC) LA GSL GPRS Signalling Link LAC GSM Global System for Mobile Communications LAN GSM TS GSM Technical Specification LED HAL Historical Alarm List (O&M) LEO HDSL High rate Digital Subscriber Line LCS HDLC High Level Datalink Control Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .

GSM RNE Fundamentals LLC Logical Link Control (GPRS) OBC On Board Controller LMU Location measurement unit OBCI On Board Controller Interface MA Mobile Allocation (GSM TS) OC Originating Call MAC Medium Access Control (GPRS) ODMC On Demand Measurement Campaign (O&M) MAN Metropolitan Area Network O&M Operation and Maintenance MAN MicroBTS Antenna Network (BTS) OMC Operation and Maintenance Center MCB Multiplex Channel Block Operation and Maintenance Center MFS Multi-BSS Fast Packet Server (GPRS) OMC-R Radio MLU Massive Logical Update OML Operation and Maintenance Link MMI Man Machine Interface OMU Operation and Maintenance Unit (BTS) MO Managed Object (O&M) OS Operating System MRP Multiple Reuse Pattern OUT Outdoor (BTS) MS Mobile Station PBA Printed Board Assembly MSC Mobile Switching Center Packet Broadcast Common Control MSUM MicroBTS Station Unit Module (BTS) PBCCH CHannel (GPRS) NMI Non Maskable Interrupt PC Personal Computer NPA Network Performance Analyser PCCCH Packet Common Control Channel NSS Network SubSystem (GPRS) NTL Network Termination Line Mobile Radio Network Planning 419 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 NW Network .

GSM RNE Fundamentals Public Switching Telephone Network (Telecom) Point To Point CoNnectionLeSs data transfer (GPRS) Quality of Service Radio Access Random Access CHannel (GSM TS) Random Access Memory Radio Control Point Radio Link Control (GPRS) Radio Link Protocol (GSM TS) Radio Management Level Radio Network Optimisation Radio Network Planning Radio Signalling Link PCH PCM PCU PDCH PDN PDU PLL PLMN PMA PMC Paging CHannel (GSM TS) PSTN Pulse Coded Modulation PTP-CNLS Packet Control Unit (GPRS) Packet Data CHannel QoS Packet Data Network (Telecom) Protocol Data Unit (generic terminology) RA RACH Phase Locked Loop RAM Public Land Mobile Network RCP Prompt Maintenance Alarm (O&M) RLC Permanent Measurement Campaign RLP (O&M) RML PPCH Packet Paging CHannel (GPRS) PRACH Packet Random Access CHannel (GPRS) RNO RNP Prec Received Power PRC Provisioning Radio Configuration (O&M) RSL PSDN Packet Switching Data Network (Telecom) Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 420 .

Cell Broadcast Short Message Gateway Mobile Switching Center Static RAM SubRate Switch Signalling System ITU-T N°7 (ex CCITT) Solid State Disk Service Switching Point Software Switch Element Temporary Block Flow (GPRS) Terminal Adaptor Function Mobile Radio Network Planning 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 421 .GSM RNE Fundamentals RTS RxLev RxQual SACCH Radio Time Slot Received Level Received Quality Slow Associated Control Channel (GSM TS) SAU Subrack assembly unit (BSC) SC Supervised Configuration (O&M) SCC Serial Communication Controller SCP Service Control Point SCCP Signalling Connection Control Part SCSI Small Computer Systems Interface SDCCH Standalone Dedicated Control Channel (GSM TS) SDU Service Data Unit (generic terminology) SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node (GPRS) SIEA SCSI Interface Extension A SM SMLC SMP SMS SMS-CB SM-GMSC SRAM SRS SS7 SSD SSP SW SWEL TBF TAF Submultiplexer Serving Mobile Location Center Service Management Point Short Message Service Short Message Service .

GSM RNE Fundamentals TC TC TCC TCH TCIL TCSM TCU TDMA TFO TFTS TLD TMN TRAC TRAU TRCU TRE TRS TRU Transcoder TRX Terminating Call TS Trunk Controller Chip TS Traffic CHannel (GSM TS) TSS TransCoder Internal Link TSCA TransCoder / SubMultiplexer equipment TRX Control Unit (Type: TCUA. TCUC) TSU TU Time Division Multiple Access UL Tandem Free Operation (TC) Terrestrial Flight Telecom Systems UMTS USSD Top Level Design VBS Telecommunication Management Network VGCS Trunk Access Circuit VLR Transcoder and Rate Adapter Unit VPLMN Transcoder Unit VSWR Transceiver Equipment WAN Technical Requirement Specification WAP Top Rack Unit WBC Mobile Radio Network Planning Transceiver Time Slot Technical Specification (GSM TS) Time Space Switch Transmission Sub-System Controller A (BSC) Terminal Sub Unit (BSC) Terminal Unit (BSC) UpLink Universal Mobile Transmission System Unstructured Supplementary Services Data Voice Broadcast Service Voice Group Code Service Visitor Location Register Visited PLMN Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (BTS) Wide Area Network Wireless Application Protocol Wide Band Combiner 422 3FL 11820 ABAA WAZZA ed01 .