The following procedures for a call to a mobile subscriber are illustrated in Figure 2-6. 1. Any call entering the GSM network from the Public Switched Telephony Network/Integrated Services Digital Network (PSTN/ISDN) is routed to the nearest Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center (GMSC). 2. The GMSC analyzes the Mobile Station ISDN (MSISDN) to find out which HLR the mobile subscriber is registered in and then sends the MSISDN along with a request for routing information to this HLR. The serving MSC/VLR address is stored in the HLR from location updating. The HLR contains the IMSI that is connected to this MSISDN number. 3. The HLR sends a request for a Mobile Station Roaming Number (MSRN) to the MSC/VLR. Included in the message is the mobile station's IMSI. The MSC/VLR allocates an idle MSRN and links it to the IMSI. 4. The MSRN is returned via the HLR to the GMSC. 5. The GMSC, by means of the MSRN, routes the call to the MSC/VLR. 6. When the MSC/VLR receives the call, it uses the MSRN to retrieve the mobile station's IMSI. The MSRN is then released. 7. Using the mobile station's IMSI, the MSC/VLR identifies the location area in which the phone is situated. 8. The mobile station is paged in all cells within this location area. 9. When the mobile station responds to the paging message, authentication, cipher mode setting, and an IMEI check are carried out. 10. If the authentication is confirmed and ciphering is successful, then the call is connected from the MSC to the BSC and the BTS, where a traffic channel is selected on the air path.

The MSC receives a setup message from the mobile station. 3. Ciphering is initiated and the IMEI is validated by the EIR. The mobile station indicates that it wants to set up a call. 4. 1. . The originating mobile subscriber call starts with a request for a signaling channel using the Random Access Channel (RACH). 2. 5.CALL FROM MOBILE SUBSCRIBER The following procedure for a call from a mobile subscriber is illustrated in Figure 2-7. Included in this information is the type of service the mobile station wants and the number (called the B-number) dialed by the mobile subscriber. 1RWH_ Ciphering and authentication are optional and are defined by the network operator. Authentication is performed by the MSC. The identity of it's IMSI is analyzed in the MSC/VLR. and the mobile station is marked as busy in the VLR.

) If the mobile subscriber is not barred.6. The MSC checks that the mobile subscriber does not have services like barring of outgoing calls activated. Within the link. and a traffic channel (TCH) is seized. not generated in the mobile station. 7. which completes the call setup. When the B-subscriber answers. An alert message is sent to the mobile station. and tells the BTS to activate the channel. the network sends a connect message to the mobile station to indicate that the call is accepted. the setup of the call proceeds. the following occurs: The MSC sends a request to the BSC to assign a traffic channel. The BTS sends an acknowledgment back to the BSC when the activation is complete. The BSC informs the MSC when the assignment is complete. 9. and the BSC. (Barring can be activated either by the subscriber or by the operator. A link is established between the MSC. The mobile station returns a connect acknowledgment. . assigns it to this call. indicating that a ringing tone has been generated on the B-subscriber side. The traffic control subsystem in the MSC/VLR analyzes the digits and sets up the connection to the called subscriber. This means that it is sent over the air. 8. The tone generated in the exchange at the B-subscriber side is sent to the mobile station via the group switch in the MSC. The BSC checks if there is an idle traffic channel.