Notes - Chemistry Form 4

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Acid Meets Base Alkaline Aqueous Atom Conductive Concentration Of Solution Elements Forming Theories Ions In Solutions Isotopes Identified Kinetic Theory Of Matter Particles In Motion Periodic Table Of Elements The Enthalpy Of Change Two-way Conversion

red cabbage extract is red in an acidic solution and blue in a base solution.1) [Chemistry Form 4] Acid Meets Base One easy way to distinguish acid and base from one another is through indicators. For example. and flowers can act as indicators. the reaction yields water and an ionic compound known as salt. many natural dyes found in fruits vegetables. An example is the litmus indicator. *** Indicator: Cresol Puple Acid solution: YELLOW Neutral solution: GREEN *** Indicator: Litmus Acid solution: RED Neutral solution: PURPLE Alkali solution: BLUE Alkali solution: PURPLE *** *** Indicator: Phenolphthalein Acid solution: Colourless Neutral solution: Colourless Alkali solution: PINK *** Indicator: Methyl Orange Acid solution: PINK Neutral solution: ORANGE . Alkali solution: YELLOW *** Indicator: Bromothymol Blue Also. Acid solution: YELLOW Neutral solution: GREEN Alkali solution: BLUE When an acid reacts with a base. This acid-base reaction is called a neutralisation reaction.

Thus. ******* Equation to show dissociation: CH3COOH -> CH3 COO.2)[Chemistry Form 4] Alkaline Aqueous Hydroxides of sodium. Hydrochloric acid Formula: HCl Equation to show dissociation: HCL -> H+ + ClNitric acid Formula: HNO3 Equation to show dissociation: HNO3 -> H+ + NO3Ethanoic acid Formula: CH3COOH . That doesn't matter as what does dissolve is 100% ionised into calcium ions and hydroxide ions. Bases have many common features: they have a bitter taste.+ H+ Potassium hydroxide Formula: KOH Equation to show dissociation: KOH -> K + + OHSodium hydroxide Formula: NaOH Equation to show dissociation: NaOH -> Na+ + OHCalcium hydroxide Formula: Ca(OH)2 Equation to show dissociation: Ca(OH)2 -> Ca2+ + 2OH******* Hydroxide that are alkalis: y y y y y NaOH Mg(OH)2 KOH LiOH NH4OH The following the dissociation of acids and base. magnesium and calcium are bases. are slippery to the touch. change the colour of indicators. Solution vs Ionisation Some strong bases like calcium hydroxide aren't very soluble in water. potassium. etc. Aqueous solutions of soluble bases are called alkalis. calcium hydroxide still counts as a strong base because of that 100% ionisation.

ii) The atoms of an element are alike but differ from those of other elements.the centre of an atom . Thompson (1856 .J. Ernest Rutherfold (1871 .1940) Suggested the the atom is positively charged sphere with electrons embedded in it. J. while electrons whirl around the nucleus in different orbits with such a tremendous speed that they seem to form layers of shells around it. James Chadwick (1891 .which is surrounded by a cloud of electrons. and suggested thet protons are concentrated in the nucleus .1844) i) All elements are made up small indivisible particles called atoms.3) [Chemistry Form 4] Atom The word 'atom' comes from a Greek word that means 'something that invisible'. atom can be split! According to modern atomic theory. However. . Scientist And His Findings John Dalton (1766 .1937) Discovered protons.1962) Proposed that electrons are arranged in orbits surrounding the nucleus. subatomic particles like protons and neutrons form the nucleus of an atom. Niels Bohrs (1885 .1974) Discovered neutrons. and proposed that the nucleus contains protons and neutrons. with electrons moving in orbit surrounding it.

An electrolytic cell ia a device that uses electrical energy to generate chemical reactions. and are not chemically changed. Electrodes are conductors that transmit electricity through the electrolyte during electrolysis. y y y y y y y y y . cations move towards the cathode. as well as undergo chemical changes at the same time. Molten compounds or aqueous solutions can conduct electricity due to the presence of free moving ions. During electrolysis. Anode is the electrode through which the electrons leave the electrolyte and move to the external circuit. Non-electrolytes are substances that cannot conduct electricity either in a molten state or an aqueous solution. Electrolytes are substances that can conduct electricity either in a molten state or an aqueous solution. y Conductors are substances that can conduct electricity in a solid or molten state. Cathode is the electrode that is connected to the negative terminal of a battery. whereas anions move towards the A voltaic or galvanic cell is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Electrolysis is the decomposition of a chemical compound into its constituent elements when an electric current passes through an electrolyte. where they will be discharged by donatingelectrons.4)[Chemistry Form 4] Conductive y anode. where they will be discharged by accepting electrons.

5 X (250/1.5 mole dm-3 calcium hydroxide solution.000) X RMM of Ca(OH)2 4. O = 16. Calculate the a) concentration of the solution in g dm-3 40g dm-3 b) molarity of the solution in mole dm-3 ( Relative atomic mass of Na = 23. The units can be expressed in two forms: Concentration of solution in g dm-3 = Mass of solute (g) / Volume of solution (dm3) Concentration of solution in mole dm3 (molarity) = Number of moles of solute (mole) / Volume of solution (dm3) ******* 1.4 mole dm-3 calcium hydroxide solution. Calculate the mass of sodium hydroxide required. You are required to prepare 250cm3 of 5 mole dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution. 0. 20g of sodium hydroxide is dissolved in 500cm3 of solution. H = 1) Hint: Find the number of moles of sodium hydroxide first. H = 1) 1 mole dm-3 2. (Relative atomic mass of Na = 23. O = 16.000) 3. (Relative atomic mass of Ca = 40.000) X RMM NaOH . Calculate the mass of calcium hydroxide in 200cm3 of 0. Calculate the number of moles of calcium hydroxide in 250cm3 of 0. O = 16.4 X (200/1.5)[Chemistry Form 4] Concentration Of Solution The concentration of a solution refers to the quantity of solute in a given volume of solution. 5 X (250/1. H = 1) Hint: Find the number of moles of calcium hydroxide first. Hint: The number of moles = Molarity X Volume in dm3 0.

His classification was unsuccessful because his table consisted of non-elements and compounds. Elements with similar chemical properties were arranged in vertical columns called groups. Mendeleev's periodic table was accepted. Further progress was made when John Newlands arranged the elements according to increasing relative atomic volume. nitrogen. For example Li. He proposed the law ofoctaves. other chemists doubted his ideas but when the elementgermanium. He even changed the order round when similar elements didn't line up. Rb (alkali metals) occupied the tips of the curve plotted.W. one group comprises lithium. sodium and potassium. Henry Moseley contribute further to the development of the modern periodic table. Then. Lothar Meyer plotted the graph of atomic volume against the atomic mass of each element and found that elements that have similar chemical properties occupied equivalent position in the graph. He divided the elements into groups of three with similar chemical properties. bromine and iodine. hydrogen. Dmitri Mendeleev arranged the elements according to increasing relative atomic mass in horizontal groups called periods. matched his prediction.6)[Chemistry Form 4] Elements Initially. and the other chlorine. Years later. However. he would leave a gas in his table. Na. In the early stages. heat and lightunder gases. For example. . which was discovered in 1886. Antoine Lavoisier classified "elements" into four groups based on theirchemical properties. his pattern only worked for the first few elements. When the pattern began to go wrong. He claimed that the gaps were for elements that had not yet been discovered. He arranged the elements according to increasing proton number and had elements with the same number of valence electrons listed under thesame group. His attempt was unsuccessful because the classification was limited to a few elements only. He included oxygen. K. J. Dobereiner introduced the law of triads. which stated that elements with similar properties recurred after everyeight elements.

In 1525. Karl Scheele. The following is a brief history of chemists who had pondered about matter. a Swede. in Greek. Later on. Who was this scientist? y y 2. When was this? y 4th century AD. Who was this famous Greek philosopher? A hundred years after Boyle made his discovery. 5. man could cook food. . Joseph Priestley. water. y Aristotle. y 1661 3. which. It was the 5th century BC in Greece. means indivisible. make glass and also extract metals from ores. Fire. which recorded old theories that had been developed through reasoning.7)[Chemistry Form 4] Forming Theories Man's first step in modern chemistry probably dated back to the discovery of fire. philosophers began to question what things are made of. succeeded in killing off the old idea of the four elements by establishing that there are other elements . Empedocles suggested that all things on Earth are made from four fundamental substances he called elements. a Swiss doctor and scientist challenged his students to tear up their books. This scientist had an imposing name. Man was so content with the results of what they had done that they did not try to explain what had happened or why something had happened. Modern chemistry was thus born. In later years. Thanks to it. What were these four elements? 4. and what happens when things change. 1. Another Greek philosopher. Who was this Greek philosopher? 6. The atomic hypothesis was contested by the greatest philosopher at the time who remained faithful to the element theory. an Englishman. and they were soon followed by the Arabs. succeeded in isolating oxygen. born at the time Empedocles died. history has it that the Alexandrians were the first to devote themselves to alchemy. Only two thousand and five hundred years ago. When was this? y Democritus. Robert Boyle. the false element theory dominated scientific thought for two thousand years. air and earth. Chemistry then made little headway for years. proposed that nature is made up of tiny particles he called atoms. and an Englishman. Theophrastus Bombastus Paracelsus Von Hohenheim. and told them to find out for themselves through experiments whether a scientific theory was right or wrong. who introduced it into Western Europe. Because of his great reputation.substances that cannot be formed by or broken into other substances.

yield hydroxide ions (OH-). Eg: When gaseous hydrogen chloride reacts with water. Eg: When sodium hydroxide dissolves in water. blue hydrangeas grow only in acidic soils. bases are defined as substances that.8)[Chemistry Form 4] Ions In Solution Swedish chemist Arrhenius defined acids as substances that. the amount of hydroxide ions in the water increases and the alkaline solution is thus produced. the amount of hydrogen ions in the water increases and hydrochloric acid is thus produced. Ethanoic (acetic) acid in vinegar and acetylsalicyclic acid in aspirin.(aq) Base (OH. HCl (g) ---> H+ (aq) + Cl. Contrary to acids. for instance. they turn to pink. For example. produce hydrogen ions (H+). when dissolved in water. in neutral or alkaline soils. .(aq) Acid (H+ producer) Some of the food and medicines that we take contain acids.producer) Did You Know? The compounds responsible for colours in plants are often sensitive to acids and alkalis. NaOH (s) ---> Na+ (aq) + OH. when dissolved in water.

Thus. y y A GeigerMüller counter Radioisotopes are used in agricultural. archaeological and industrial fields. NUCLEAR ENERGY y Isotope Uranium-235 used to produce nuclear energy. since both protons and neutrons contribute about equally to the mass of an atom. Inhibits the sprouting of potatoes. onions and gingers. Gamma Rays used to sterilises pests. INDUSTRY y Gamma Rays used to checks wear and tear in engines. Some examples of the various uses of radioisotopes are shown as below. y This means that different isotopes of an element have different masses. Cobalt-60 used to detects crack in metal or concrete structures. AGRICULTURE . An isotope is an atom that contains a different number of neutrons in its nucleus from that of other atoms of the same element. y Isotope Phosphorus-32 or Nitrogen15 used to traces the rate of nutrient absorptions in plants. medicinal. Strontium-90 used to gauges or controls the thickness of paper and metal in industries. Radioisotopes such as phosphorus-32. sodium-24 and iodine-131 emit radiations. in sector. carbon14. Gauges or controls the content level in canned food.9)[Chemistry Form 4] Isotopes Identified Most atoms have several naturally occurring isotopes. detectors like Geiger-Müller counter are used to trace the presence of radioactive radiations.

which packed them closely in an orderly manner. Forces of attraction between liquid particles are weaker than those in solid particles. Solid particles have limited motion. The particles vibrate. rotate and move randomly. Solid particles are held by strong forces of attraction. Particles in gas are held by very weak forces of attraction. The particles are very far apart from each other and are in constant motion. y y y . rotate and move throughout the liquids. the particles are arranged less compact and less orderly. solid has a fixed volume and shape. which are constantly in motion and contain kinetic energy. Liquids have a fixed volume but not a fixed shape.10)[Chemistry Form 4] Kinetic Theory Of Matter y Matter is made up of small and discrete particles. The particles can vibrate. Gas does not have a fixed shape or volume and can be compressed easily. Thus. they can only rotate and move about a fixed position. Thus.

Since particles of the ammonia gas move and mix with gas particles in the air. upon exposure to moisture in your eyes or the air.11)[Chemistry Form 4] Particles In Motion Do you know that it was the ancient Greeks who first suggested that everything is made up of particles? But when Democritus introduced the particulate nature of matter around 400BC. In random Centuries later. escape into the air. tiny particles of pollen floating on water move around in a haphazard fashion. Onion and tears When you cut an onion. changes into mild sulphuric acid. This led to the idea that particles move randomly in a liquid or gas. Brown. ******* detector : pengesan diffusion : resapan isotope : isotop particulate : bersifat zarah random : rawak sterilise : membasmi kuman ******* . the sharp pungent smell of ammonia quickly spreads through the lab. Fusion of sorts If a classmate has accidentally spilled an ammonia solution in the lab. its cells are broken. and thus amino acid sulphoxides. not many were convinced by his ideas. your brain sends out impulses to your tear ducts. When the pollen was examined on its own. a Scottish scientist. When perticles mix like this. which respond to dilute the acid and protect your eyes. Due to the eye irritation. you will soon know about it. Diffusion of these compounds is responsible for the burning sensation in your eyes while cutting onions. it is called diffusion. no such movement was observed. These acids release a volatile gas (propanethiol Soxide) which. which form suphenic acids. observed that under the microscope. and the movement is called Brownian motion.

In addition. It has horizontal rows. metals and earths. elements arranged along the same period share a common feature. Eg: Elements in the first group have one valence electron while those in the second group have two valence electrons. Dmitri Mendelev (1834-1907) This Russian chemist made a table of elements and left a gap for elements that had not yet been discovered. i. the properties of elements fell into a pattern at regular intervals. 2.12)[Chemistry Form 4] Periodic Table Of Elements The periodic table of elements presents an organised display of all known elements. Henry J. the same number of electron shells. Johann Dobereiner (1780-1849) This German chemist proposed the law of triads. 3. calledgroups. which arrange the elements in such a way that those with similar properties fall under the same group.e. scientists began to develop the periodic table of elements. John Newlands (1837-1898) This English chemist's law of octaves stated that when elements were placed in the increasing order of atomic weight. and vertical columns. 6. Another arrangement evident in the periodic table is that metals are on the left and nonmetals are on the right. Thus. Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) This French chemist classified elements into four groups . Element in the same group have the same number of valence electrons. which stated that elements came in groups of three. called periods.gases. Below are scientists with their respective contribution to the development of the periodic table. 4. 5. Moseley (1887-1915) This British chemist rearranged the elements in order of increasing atomic number. 1. Lothar Meyer (1830-1895) This German chemist recognised periodic behaviour based on his graphs of the atomic volume of elements against their atomic weight. non-metals. G. The need to organise elements into groups based on their properties arose when more and more elements were made known. Eg: Elements in the first period have one shell to contain their electrons while those in the second period have two shells to contain theirs. .

When the solid melted. Did you know? Solid carbon dioxide as dry ice. As energy transferred to a solid. It take energy to change a substance from a solid to a liquid. and then to a gas. At boiling point. a rise in temperature is needed so that particles in the liquid have more energy to move faster. since all the energy taken in by the liquid is used to overcome the forces that hold the particles in the liquid state. This is when solid melts.13)[Chemistry Form 4] The Enthalpy Of Change If the amount of thermal energy needed to change one mole of substance from a solid to a liquid or vice versa is called the enthalpy change of fusion. the enthalpy change of vapourisation. because all the energy transferred goes into overcoming the forces that hold the particles in the lattice. the liquid begins to change into a gas. changes directly into a gaseous state at room temperature. and the temperature again stays constant. This is why it is often used to create 'fog' on stage and movie sets. When the liquid has boiled to form a gas. define. then. The process that involves changes in the state of a substance is a physical process because no chemical bonds are broken. There is no change in temperature during this time. the temperature is raised again to enable the particles to move faster. particles in the solid vibrate more until they break out of their fixed lattice positions. .

Conversely. Aluminium and copper are some examples of the products of electrolysis. electrical energy is converted into chemical energy. y y Non-electrolytes 1. Tetrachloromethane Did You Know? y A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy. Sodium hydroxide solution 4. An electrolyte is an electrically conductive substance that contains positively. Acetamide 8. Molten naphthalene 7. So how are they related? An electric current can bring about an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Copper (II) chloride 2.and negatively. Since then. Glucose solution 4. was named after him. In the process called electrolysis.charged particles called ions. Molten aluminium oxide 3. In 1881. an electrical unit. Copper (II) sulphate crystal 3. This process can be seen in spontaneous chemical reactions and forms the basis for batteries and fuel cells in supplying electrical power. In 1800. chemical energy can be converted into electrical energy. the principles applied to the Voltaic pile have been used in batteries. Italian physicist Alessandro Volta developed the first electric battery that generated a steady stream of electricity. The following are electrolytes and nonelectrolytes. such as the recovery of metals from their ores and electroplating of surfaces. Ethanol 5. His invention was called the Voltaic pile. the volt (V). Solid sodium chloride 6.14)[Chemistry Form 4] Two-way Conversion Electrochemistry is the science that studies the relation between electricity and chemical changes. Aqueous ammonia 2. Silver nitrate solution . which is stored in the products of the reaction. Electrolytes 1.