Andres, Maria Deann P. BSIE-2B 1.


2. HISTORY OF INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE 1847 Jons Jacob Berzelius produces first condensation polymer, polyester, from glycerin (propanetriol) and tartaric acid Jons Jacob Berzelius is also credited with originating the chemical terms "catalysis," "polymer," "isomer," and "allotrope," although his original definitions differ dramatically from modern usage. For example, he coined the term "polymer" in 1833 to describe organic compounds which shared identical empirical formulas but which differed in overall molecular weight, the larger of the compounds being described as "polymers" of the smallest. According to this (now obsolete) definition, glucose (C6H12O6) would be a polymer of formaldehyde (CH2O). The first man-made comercial plastic was invented in Britain in 1861 by Alexander Parkes. He publicly demonstrated it at the 1862 International Exhibition in London, calling the material he produced "Parkesine." Derived from cellulose, Parkesine could be heated, molded, and retain its shape when cooled. It was, however, expensive to produce, prone to cracking, and highly flammable. In 1868, American inventor John Wesley Hyatt developed a plastic material he named Celluloid, improving on Parkes' invention so that it could be processed into finished form. Together with his brother Isaiah, Hyatt patented the first injection molding machine in 1872. This machine was relatively simple compared to machines in use today. It worked like a large hypodermic needle, using a plunger to inject plastic through a heated cylinder into a mold. The industry progressed slowly over the years, producing products such as collar stays, buttons, and hair combs. The industry expanded rapidly in the 1940s because World War II created a huge demand for inexpensive, mass-produced products. In 1946, American inventor James Watson Hendry built the first screw injection machine, which allowed much more precise control over the speed of injection and the quality of articles produced. This machine also allowed material to be mixed before injection, so that colored or recycled plastic could be added to virgin material and mixed thoroughly before being injected. Today screw injection machines account for the vast majority of all injection machines. In the 1970s, Hendry went on to develop the first gas-assisted injection molding process, which permitted the production of complex, hollow articles that cooled quickly. This greatly improved design flexibility as well as the strength and finish of manufactured parts while reducing production time, cost, weight and waste. The plastic injection molding industry has evolved over the years from producing combs and buttons to producing a vast array of products for many industries including automotive, medical, aerospace, consumer products, toys, plumbing, packaging, and construction.

LTD introduced the first all-electric injection molding machine in 1983. In a cold runner mold. the moveable plate (mounted to the moving platen) contains the ejector system and half the plastic part geometry. Electric Electric presses have been shown to be quieter. Hybrid Hybrid injection molding machines take advantage of the best features of both hydraulic and electric systems. The electric press. During the cooling stage of the injection molding cycle. 4. They are then ground into small pieces or pellets and mixed with the virgin plastic for reuse. however they can be less economical to run if the amount of plastic in the sprue and runner exceeds 35% of the plastic that is injected into the part cavities. reduces operation costs by cutting energy consumption and also addresses some of the environmental concerns surrounding the hydraulic press. sprue and runner solidify. also known as Electric Machine Technology (EMT). releasing the sprue and runner. electric. however the machines are more expensive. As the mold opens. and the floating plate (moves freely between the stationary and moveable plates) which contains the other half of the runner geometry and half of the part geometry. Hot Runner Injection Mold A Hot Runner mold uses a heated manifold and sprue bushing to inject the plastic melt directly to the part cavity through a heated nozzle.. they are particularly advantageous for small injection molded parts where the sprue and runner can consist of more than 50% of the total plastic shot per cycle. the floating plate and moveable plate remain together. Hydraulic machines are the predominant type in most of the world. while de-gating the plastic part. and have a higher accuracy. TYPES OF INJECTION MOLDING Machines are classified primarily by the type of driving systems they use: hydraulic. TYPES OF MOLDS USED IN INJECTION MOLDING Cold Runner Injection Mold The majority of plastic injection molds built are of the cold runner type. faster. Hydraulic Hydraulic presses have historically been the only option available to molders until Nissei Plastic Industrial Co.3. the plastic melt is injected into the mold through a sprue and runner where it enters each cavity in the mold. Cold runner injection molds are more economical to build than hot runner molds. producing no byproducts to be separated or reground. The advantage of a hot runner mold is that the sprue and runner remain molten. In addition the cycle time is often shortened because the amount of plastic to be melted and then cooled is often drastically reduced. While hot runner molds are typically more expensive than a conventional cold runner tool. or hybrid. As the mold continues to open. the floating plate and . Three Plate Injection Mold A Three plate injection consists of three major components. The sprue and runner become scrap in this type of injection mold. with the exception of Japan. the runner plate (which is mounted on the stationary platen) contains the sprue and half of the runner geometry. the plastic in the cavities.

A cavity set can be used to produce prototype parts. or shaping of a piece of metal or other material. The advantage of a three plate mold is that it allows precise pinpoint or center gating of the plastic parts. CNC does numerically directed interpolation of a cutting tool in the work envelope of a machine. grinding. forming.' . The advantage of building a cavity set is short lead time.moveable plate seperate so the plastic parts can be ejected. and refers specifically to a computer "controller" that reads G-code instructions and drives a machine tool. 5. This style mold is generally generally less expensive than a similar hot runner injection mold. MACHINE TOOL Heavy or non-portable power driven industrial device used for abrading. drilling. DEFINITION OF CNC AND TOOLING MACHINE CNC a machine tool that uses programs to automatically execute a series of machining operations. it is often advantageous to build a cavity set to fit into a standard prototype mold base. CNC machines offer increased productivity and flexibility. Machine tools (such as lathes) are 'machines that make machines. The abbreviation CNC stands for computer numerical control. nibbling. a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate components by the selective removal of material. cutting. The operating parameters of the CNC can be altered via a software load program. A cavity set generally consists of a single cavity and core insert. Cavity Set For short run production or prototyping. and low build cost. or short run production parts.