ENERGY CONSUMPTION in ECOWAS and EMCCA COUNTRIES

STUDY REPORT

This document was produced under the responsibility of the ADEME by M. Jourdain KENGNE OUABO, an energy and environmental economist-engineer, and M. Bernard LAPONCHE, an international expert in energy policy and management. Unless otherwise specified, the data used in this document has been taken from the ENERDATA online database proceeding from the publications of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and from various public national sources (values from May 2008).

FOREWORD
At the 2002 Earth Summit held in Johannesburg, the International Community agreed that energy had an essential role to play in bringing about sustainable development. Since then, the countries that make up the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (EMCCA) have all made considerable progress, striving to provide universal access to energy services, in conditions that are economically and socially acceptable, as well as environmentally sustainable. This progress has involved major infrastructures in particular - such as the West African Gas Pipeline Project, and the development of regional electricity trading schemes1 - as well as the provision of access to energy, with a number of regional strategies being adopted in the form of White Papers - ECOWAS-WAEMU and EMCCA. The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) has lent its support to these various initiatives, helping to draft the ECOWAS and WAEMU White Papers in particular. Developing energy systems in Africa is still a long and complicated process which requires technologies and financing, as well as the involvement of civil society, supported by appropriate policies. These policies are founded on a sound analysis of the situation, and on reliable data. This is why ADEME supported work on this document: “Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries”. It has been designed as a tool to help national and regional authorities - particularly those in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries – in making decisions and in managing policy in the energy sectors. It also serves as a means of helping to develop national and regional expertise, such as the Regional Centre for Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) that was set up by countries in the ECOWAS zone in 2010. More widely, we hope that it will be of use to anyone who is involved in developing and implementing energy policies in Africa that are designed to promote access to energy and economic development, while protecting the environment. Dominique CAMPANA Director of International Affairs of ADEME

1 - The West African Power Pool (WAPP) and the Central African Energy Pool (PEAC). Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries

2/3

CONTENTS
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 I - ENERGY PATHS AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Energy paths: from need to primary resource. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. Units of measurement for energy and energy products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3. Energy equivalences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 II - DEMOGRAPHY AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN ECOWAS AND EMCCA COUNTRIES . . . . . . . . . 12 1. Overview of the ecowas and emcca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.1 The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.2 The Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (EMCCA). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. Facts and figures about the zones in 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.1 Surface area and population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.2 Gross Domestic Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2. Population and GDP growth per zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.1 Population growth of the zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2 Growth in GDP per capita. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 III - FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1. Per energy product. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.1 Growth in final energy consumption per product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.2 Structure per zone of final energy consumption per product in 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 1.3 Distribution of energy products per final consumption sector (2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1.4 Final energy consumption per product and per country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2. Per final activity sector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.1 Growth in final consumption per sector in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.2 Structure per zone of final energy consumption per sector (2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.3 Consumption per product for final consumer sectors (2008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.4 Final energy consumption per sector and per country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3. Final energy intensities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.1 Change in final energy intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.2 Final energy intensity per country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 IV - ELECTRICITY GENERATION AND CONSUMPTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1. Electricity generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1.1 Growth in electricity generation in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 1.2 Electricity generation per country and per source . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 1.3 Efficiency of electricity generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 1.4 Installed capacity for generating electricity, per source and per country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 1.5 Losses over transport and distribution networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2. Electricity consumption. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.1 Increase in electricity consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.2 Electricity consumption in 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 2.3 Electricity overview for ECOWAS and EMCCA countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Coal reserves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5. . . . . . . . . . . Natural gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Direct and indirect emissions per sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Growth and structure of total primary energy consumption. . . . . . . . .1 Growth in oil consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries . . . . . . . . . .REGIONAL ENERGY POLICIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Regional centre for the promotion of renewable energies and energy efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3. . . .1 Total emissions and per capita emissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Regional Electricity Regulatory Agency for ECOWAS countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Biomass production and consumption per country . . . 50 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . External energy balance of payments for each country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Growth in primary energy consumption per source in the two zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The “Sustainable development for rural and suburban development” initiative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contribution of primary sources to final energy consumption . . . . . . . . 51 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Oil production and consumption per country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5. . Energy policy in EMCCA countries . . 78 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy accounts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Biomass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 VIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 VII – CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ENERGY ACCOUNTS AND BALANCE OF PAYMENTS FOR 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 From crude oil to refined oil products and their uses: an overview of oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Consumption per sector . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Natural gas overview for countries that produce and/or consume natural gas in the ECOWAS and EMCCA regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 4/5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil and oil products . . . . . . . . . . 85 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Crude oil reserves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 1. . . . . . 68 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Interconnections among countries in the EMCCA zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Structure per zone of primary energy consumption (2008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3. . . . . . . . . . . .1 Increase in CO2 emissions resulting from burning fossil fuels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CO2 emissions per country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Natural gas reserves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 1. . . . . . . . . . . . 61 4. . . . . . 64 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 1. . . 78 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CO2 emissions in the ecowas and emcca zones. . . . . . . .1 The regional and national energy information system . 80 2. . . . 80 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Biomass overviews per zone .1 Coal overview for countries that produce and/or consume coal in the ECOWAS region. . . . Energy policy in ecowas countries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consumption of primary energy per source and per country . 68 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Consumption per zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electricity trading system between countries in both zones . . . . . . . . 63 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Interconnections among countries in the ECOWAS zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The West African Gas Pipeline Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3. . 74 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Increase in CO2 emissions per economic sector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 White paper . . . . . . . . .

and the whole ECOWAS zone (with Nigeria). To make it easier to compare energy consumption among other member countries. It will also look at global indicators for energy and electricity consumption.data about final and primary energy consumption and electricity generation and consumption. the Central African Republic. 3 . Within this document’s commented presentation on energy consumption. This document is made up of eight chapters. production and energy consumption. Guinea-Bissau. since it is taken from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). GDP.in terms of population. It was created in 1994 to breathe new life into the process of economic and social integration within the former Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (itself created in 1964). Chad. Ghana. Two types of biomass energy are used in these zones: so-called commercial biomass (that is traded in the zone1 in exchange for payment) and non-commercial biomass (biomass that is not traded: it is simply gathered2 and used directly by households). Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. Nigeria. energy audits and bills. and the issue of biomass. the document goes on to present and discuss . two specific issues are highlighted: Nigeria’s unique position. Communauté Économique et Monétaire de l’Afrique Centrale) is an organisation of six countries: Cameroon. 2 .Very often within the vicinity of people’s homes. . Niger. the vast majority of households use it for cooking and heating. as well as for both zones taken as a whole .There is trade between the various countries within the zone. it will examine the main aspects of the energy policies in force in both these zones.From Enerdata. Mali. Finally. but there are no details in the database. as well as CO2 emissions. Liberia. the Ivory Coast. Burkina Faso. Its mission is to promote economic integration across all areas of business. Once the general structure of the energy systems has been explained and the fundamental elements for energy accounting provided. Nigeria is a major state within the ECOWAS zone . the Republic of Congo. the Gambia.for each country in both these zones.INTRODUCTION The ECOWAS zone (the Economic Community of West African States) was created in 1975 and is a regional group of 15 West African countries: Benin. Nigeria’s values for these categories account for nearly 50% of all the countries in the ECOWAS zone taken together. Sierra Leone and Togo. The data on biomass which has been used within the framework of this study is official data3 on commercial biomass. Cape Verde. Biomass is the basic source of energy for people right across sub-Saharan Africa. Guinea. Senegal. this document will present ECOWAS data in two forms: the zone without Nigeria (which we will represent as ECOWAS*).Throughout these zones. The Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (or CEMAC from its name in French. each of which deals with different aspects of energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries using data from the ENERDATA database for 2008 (as well as information about main figures have increased from previous years). 1 .

the aim being to better emphasise the increasingly widespread use of other energy sources. etc. These differences in terminology make it difficult to define biomass in sub-Saharan African countries. “used biomass”4. people refer to “sold biomass”. it was considered useful to present consumption both with biomass and without biomass. in some countries. There appears to be a significant difference (ratio of 1 to 3) between the national data on biomass for these countries and the data that international organisations (IEA. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 6/7 . 4 . With regard to the importance of the role that biomass plays in energy consumption. and in others. since households use both commercial and non-commercial biomass for cooking. FAO.Which can lead to confusion. For example. the terms used to refer to the data can vary from country to country.) have on it.However. National data often includes both commercial and noncommercial biomass.

wind power). Most of these involve . Some use energy directly. transporting and distributing the energy products that are supplied to users: it is these activities that result in primary energy being converted into final energy. its people need to be able to access education and information. they need to be able to enjoy culture and exercise their civil rights. providing means for communicating and sharing information. others require energy in order to produce the goods and provide the services that are associated with them. The “primary energy” stage refers to the forms in which nature delivers energy: chemical energy contained in fossil resources (coal. which are found in statistics about energy production and consumption. the quality of their natural environment needs to be maintained. health and clothing need to be provided. the mechanical energy of water or wind (hydraulic. as is the case with natural gas. goods need to be produced and services provided. plants. In some cases. Several “energy value chains” can be associated with each socio-economic need.The two main stages involved. providing transport systems. and they need to be able to take part in sport and leisure activities.to varying degrees . lighting. transforming. etc. the nuclear energy of the nucleus of a uranium atom. transport infrastructure for people and goods needs to be developed. Energy is necessary for: agriculture. Energy products are referred to differently depending on the stage at which they figure in the energy paths. manufacturing equipment and machinery.energy consumption. Each value chain consists of the specific steps that leads from meeting a specific socio-economic development need (which involves the consumption of a certain amount of energy in order to be met) back to the basic energy resource involved in meeting this need. But in most cases. solar photovoltaic energy. heating and cooling people’s homes. are primary energy and final energy. preparing. constructing buildings and infrastructure. shops. etc. Energy paths: from need to primary resource As a society develops. workshops.I . The “energy sector’s” manufacturing and commercial activities involve producing. . storing and cooking foodstuffs. natural gas) or in biomass (wood. waste). healthcare and education centres. producing and transforming energy. The “final energy” stage refers to the energy products delivered to consumers. Furthermore. animal farming and fishing. the final product is the result of the primary product having undergone a transformation: this is the case with electricity generated by fossil fuel power plants and fuels derived from oil in refineries. an ever-growing number of its needs have to be satisfied: food. the final product can be identical or very similar to the primary product. producing and transforming raw materials. the thermal energy of hot water found underground (geothermal energy) or of solar radiation. housing. offices. oil.ENERGY PATHS AND ENERGY ACCOUNTING 1.

Lighting. like the energy products which can supply them.Lamps. cooking food . natural gas liquefaction factories. education. geothermal. their equivalence with the units which appear on electricity or municipal heating bills (kWh) or the physical quantities that they represent are not always obvious (tonnes of coal. agriculture. Agriculture. 6. 2. wind power.Transporting people and goods . wood coal production installations . clothing. 3. liquid or gas fuels .). oil. safe and reliable transport. ovens. trains. light.Light . Forms of energy that are used directly Heat. oil ships and LNG carriers. transport and distribution Heat production plants.Engines . 5.Oil refineries. Services which require energy Heating or cooling. barges. mines. Each of these different forms of energy.Renewable sources: hydraulic. solar (thermal or photovoltaic). chemical energy. Tertiary.Industrial processes. electromagnetic energy.Electricity.Industry. 4. steres of wood. Energy transformation. hot water.Food. Units of measurement for energy and energy products Energy is used in different forms.Electromagnetic energy Chemical energy. Users’ energy equipment and machinery Boilers. electricity power plants (or combined heat and electricity: cogeneration) . cold. litres of petrol. goods transport . etc. Residential.Communications. natural gas . electronic equipment. healthcare. cold . sociocultural activities . Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 8/9 . Energy sources available in nature (primary energy) Fossil sources: coal and lignite.Electricity lines.Oil and gas pipelines. which has either been adopted for reasons of convenience.Production of goods and provision of services.STEPS INVOLVED IN ENERGY VALUE CHAINS 1. Energy products used by users (final energy) Solid. Socio-economic needs of development Comfortable housing and work places . office equipment. PCs . audio-visual and telecommunications equipment . household appliances. has its own specific unit of measurement. Consumption sector Manufacturing. mechanical energy (fixed or mobile). Transport. 2. Not all of these units of measurement are well known. lorries . such as heat. Non-energy uses. etc.fixed or mobile mechanical power .Fissile sources (nuclear energy): uranium. 8. biomass . 7.District heating . or through tradition. household and audio-visual equipment. Similarly. stoves .

186 x 106 3. and so producing 1 barrel per day is the equivalent of producing 50 t per year.3 barrels is the equivalent of 1 t of oil. Because of these potential difficulties. respectively).600 x 106 British 9.as primary energy.3 x 0.26 Mtoe per TWh generated. 0.086 = 0.163 1 (1) 1 exajoule (EJ) = 1018 J (2) 1 calorie (cal) = 10-6 th . For electricity generated from nuclear power and a theoretical conversion efficiency of 33%. situations being interpreted incorrectly and flawed arguments.389 x 10 2.778 x 10-7 2. For electricity generated from geothermal power.i. A specific feature of international energy accounting relates to the accounting of socalled “primary” electricity which is generated by means other than fossil fuels or biomass (hydraulic.968 x 103 3.the tonne of oil equivalent (the toe. the heat produced by the nuclear reactors and used to generate electricity is counted as primary energy . with a theoretical efficiency of 10%.600 x 10-1 -7 kilowatt.e. the equivalence coefficient is 0. the kWh should be used when talking about electricity generation and not the toe.86 Mtoe per TWh . They can even be intentionally manipulated in a number of different ways.The official unit of measurement for energy is the joule.086 toe or 1TWh = 0. one million toe): 1 toe = 41. Using the toe for the purposes of energy accounting with respect to fossil fuels and biomass is relatively unproblematic: equivalents in toe are calculated on the basis of the calorific values of these energy products. For electricity that is generated by nuclear means.2778 kWh) is also used . a common unit is used to express “primary” energy production and consumption . For electricity from geothermal power.and not just for electricity.86 toe. In order to convert kWh into toe.479 x 10 1 3.0. the thermal equipment by joule effect of electricity generated is counted .086 Mtoe. 3 MWh of heat is required in order to generate 1 MWh of electricity .have adopted a system of conversion into physical units: 1000 kWh = 0. 10 MWh of heat is required to obtain 1 MWh of electricity . wind or solar power and produced without a thermodynamic cycle.26 toe.heure 2. For electricity that is generated by hydraulic. For convenience (because it’s more “meaningful” and because oil is the dominant form of energy).8 Giga Joules (Giga: 10 to the power of 9). geothermal.930 x 10-4 1.is the equivalent of 0.kiloWatt and megaWatt.hour J BTU th KWh Joule(1) 1 1. It is immediately apparent that these conventions can lead to misunderstandings.for final electricity consumption .413 x 103 -4 Thermie(2) 2. and its multiple Mtoe. The kWh (1 million joules . nuclear. However. international statistics systems . The unit of power used to measure the rate of energy conversion is the Watt (and its multiples: kW and mW .0.10 times more than for hydraulic or solar.520 x 10-4 1 8. oil production is often expressed as “barrels per day” and the price of crude oil in “dollars per barrel”: 7. wind or photovoltaic solar power).or 1 MJ .086 Mtoe per TWh generated .055 x 103 4. Table 1 Main units of energy Abbreviation 1 1 1 1 joule British Thermal Unit Thermie kilowatt. Electricity generation and consumption are measured in kWh or TWh (a TeraWh is a billion kWh).

diesel.086 3.3982 x 10-3 1 3. Source: Energy monitoring body.619 0. Billions of joule 26 28 32 17 42 46 44 40 32 3.17/42 ≈ 0.762 3.086 3.6/42 ≈ 0.414 x 106 1 2511 Horse power 1.17 Tonne of oil equivalent (toe) NCV* 26/42 28/42 32/42 17/42 ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ 1 ≈ ≈ ≈ ≈ 0.414 3. Energy equivalences Table 3 shows a summary of the conversion information needed to transform physical quantities into energy equivalents for all energy resources. Table 3: Converting units of energy measurement Energy or Vector Coal Hard coal Coke Briquettes of lignite Lignite Oil products Crude oil.5 MW 10-6 1 292. and is in compliance with international regulations.952 0.3595 x 103 0.095 1.405 46/42 44/42 40/42 32/42 1. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 10 / 11 .6/42 ≈ 0.3595 x 10-3 1.24/42 ≈ 0.Table 2: Main units of power Watt MW BTU/hour Horse power Watt 1 106 0. heating oil Liquefied petroleum gas Engine fuels Heavy fuel oils Petroleum coke Electricity Fossil production Renewable production Natural and industrial Wood Physical unit Tonne Tonne Tonne Tonne Tonne Tonne Tonne Tonne Tonne MWh MWh MWh GCV** Stere Gigajoules (GJ) NCV*.667 0.9x 10-9 735. The table should be read in the following way: for example.6 3. It has been used by the French Energy Monitoring body since 2002.24 6. for the line “Engine petrol”: 1 tonne of petrol is the equivalent of 44 GJ of energy and 1048 toe.077 6.6 3.147 * NCV: Net Calorific Value ** GCV: Gross Calorific Value The net calorific value is the gross calorific value less the latent heat of water evaporation.2929 735.5 x 10-6 BTU/hour 3. that cannot be used in practice.762 0.048 0.

int/sec/index. the Ivory Coast. establishing a common external tariff.II .CEMAC. Cape Verde. Source: CEDEAO 1. Overview of the ECOWAS and EMCCA 1.2 The Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (EMCCA)2 The Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (EMCCA) was created on 16 March 1994 in N’Djamena. Niger. Ghana.php?id=about_a&lang=en 2 . agriculture. Sierra Leone and Togo) founded in 1975. trade. the Republic of Congo.ecowas. The EMCCA is made up of six Member states: Cameroon. natural resources. Its aim is to breathe new life into the process of economic and social integration within the former Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa. Liberia. Guinea. • maintain stable management of the common currency. Its main mission is to promote the harmonious development of its member states within the framework of instituting a genuine common market. the Gambia. telecommunications. Burkina Faso. social and cultural matters.ECOWAS official website: http://www. transport. harmonising economic and financial policies and creating a single monetary zone. Meeting this overall objective involves the following specific aims: eliminating customs duties and taxes having an equivalent effect. 1 .comm. energy.) and its overall objective is to promote cooperation and integration with a view to establishing an economic and monetary union as a means of stimulating growth and development in West Africa. Nigeria. Central African Republic. Senegal.Official EMCCA website: http://www. Equatorial Guinea and Chad. Gabon. The organisation has the following aims: • implement a multilateral system to monitor the economic policies of Member states. Its mission is to promote economic integration in all fields of economic activity (industry. itself created on 8 December 1964. monetary and financial issues. Guinea-Bissau.DEMOGRAPHY AND ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN ECOWAS AND EMCCA COUNTRIES 1.int/ . etc. Chad by the signing of the treaty. Mali.1 The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)1 The ECOWAS is a regional group of fifteen countries (Benin.

9 33.6 274. fishing. goods.4 Population Growth Urban % per annum % 3.8 3.2 4 322.2 40. • create a common market based on people. capital and services being able to move around freely.8 2.8 41 Density People/km² 85 56 135 62 177 106 39 63 40 11 12 167 66 86 125 76 82 Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 12 / 13 .71 6.01 9. transport and communications.9 3.8 4188 5112 Total Million 9.5 245.6 41.2 58.15 6.1 31.5 3. • harmonise the regulations laid out by sectoral policies in a number of essential areas stipulated by laws (agriculture. teaching and professional training).int/ 2.5 1. Source: http://www.0 1.1 Surface area and population Table 1 below gives the surface area for each country and for each of the zones under investigation.1 29.7 196.27 0.1 48.7 14. livestock farming.7 56. industry.82 12.6 17 2.8 12. Table 1: Surface area and population per country and per zone 2008 Benin Burkina-Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Surface3 1 000 km2 112.75 3. annual growth rates and population densities.4 49 2. research.33 15.77 138.CEMAC.8 36.1 111 1240 1267 923. Facts and figures about the zones in 2008 2.76 .7 45.73 151.54 1.9 54.1 3.7 71.3 41.4 2.8 40 2.57 1.1 18.54 19.7 3.8 40.5 3.6 290. trade.7 2.4 2.3 58.7 2.5 11.• ensure that economic activity and business in general can be carried out in a secure environment. energy and the environment.3 238. together with their populations.

7 1. the base year used is 2005).41 3.4 521 % growth rate per annum 4.2 413.1 1284 3020.2 55.3 25.4 Density People/km² 41 8 12 6 19 9 16 63 ECOWAS*: ECOWAS less Nigeria 2.4 39.5 51.6 84.7 38.6 43.3 318. When a given sum of money is converted into different currencies at the purchasing power parity rate. .3 GDP at 2005 PPP (2005 US$) US$ billion 160.9 4 4. In other words. plus tax on products. The “purchasing power parity” (PPP) rate measures the currency conversion rate which equalises the purchasing power of different currencies.4 623 342 267. To correct for the effects of inflation.9 247.This resulted in significant changes to PPP GDP values. did so in 2007. by the International Monetary Fund in particular).98 4.1 3.7 Population Growth Urban % per annum % 2. The purchasing power parity exchange rates used to calculate purchasing power parity GDPs (PPP GDP) in the ENERDATA database are those published by the World Bank (these values are universally used. it can buy the same quantity of goods and services in all countries. the PPP corrects for differences in price levels between several countries.5 71.31 330. Obviously these differences vary from country to country.35 0. PPP rates do not fluctuate in the same way as exchange rates. particularly for countries currently enjoying strong economic development.2 1. Furthermore. monetary values can be measured at the constant prices of a base year: this gives real GDP (here.2 Gross Domestic Product Gross Domestic Product is a measurement of a given country’s economic activity.6 28.6 1.2 2.8 at constant prices 2005 US$ US$ billion 71.8 239.52 11.2 50. published by Ouest-France.Patrick Merienne.8 2. Nominal GDP is the sum of the value (measurement of net production of a particular branch or sector in monetary units) added to the cost of factors.86 1. Atlas mondial (World Atlas).4 at PPP per capita 2005 US$1000 1. which had not revised its data for a long time.9 4. customs duties and specific taxes.6 3 .19 40.2008 Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA 3 Surface3 1 000 km2 475. which means that more stable comparisons can be drawn between energy intensities. It is usually calculated using current prices (nominal GDP).5 1.2 60.3 187. Such changes have major implications when it comes to drawing comparisons between these countries (particularly with regard to the values of energy intensities4) • By zone Table 2: Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 2008 ECOWAS* ECOWAS EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Nominal GDP Current US$ US$ billion 94.1 8132 Total Million 18.4 2.1 2. The World Bank.The new values are given in the table below.6 107. 4 .5 2.

4 31.The service sector is made up of transport.6 39.82 12.9 0.15 6.1 7.6 3.4 2.5 14.75 3. 6 .8 33.9 40.7 2008 Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS + EMCCA An analysis of table 4 shows significant differences in GDP per capita among the various countries of both zones.5 1.46 19 4.4 45.8 0.05 31.9 1.76 24.8 0.3 2 47.2 1.6 10.8 7.4 2.6 0.2 100.1 2. 5 .27 0.1 0.1 18 0.33 15.77 138.2 0.3 144 Services 2005 billion US$ 4.7 74.73 151.9 4.1 1.7 90.8 0.7 4.64 290. Equatorial Guinea has the highest GDP per capita of both zones .4 3 13 19.5 31.Table 3: Structure of GDP (added values)5 2008 ECOWAS* ECOWAS EMCCA ECOWAS + EMCCA Manufacturing % 19.1 0.2 1.6 5.6 0.2 10.80 12. domestic.4 24.71 14.1 43.1 1.9 5 160.4 2.9 1.6 39.7 3.2 1.2 0.5 Agriculture % 29.8 1.1 31.7 1.7 138.5 0.8 28.3 1.6 1.86 1.1 2. Indeed.2 4.6 1.2 0.6 1. tertiary activities.4 17.79 PPP GDP Total 2005 billion US$ 11.2 3.01 9.4 9.8 21.4 13.6 0.19 40.Calculated without Liberia and the Congo as sectoral data not available.6 13.7 11 0.4 Services6 % 48.1 7.3 7.3 2.1 0.5 69.6 10.4 1.2 413.7 4.7 195.52 11.6 33.7 1.8 6.35 0. a country which has a population of more or less the same size.5 1.54 19.57 1.9 3. in the countries which make up the EMCCA zone.33 330.7 2.5 164.6 PPP value added per sector Manufacturing 2005 billion US$ 1.71 6.1 0.3 1.6 16.9 6 Table 4: Structure of GDP per country 2008 Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS + EMCCA Population Million 9.6 15 107.5 253.4 521 /capita 2005 1000 US$ 1.8 17. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 14 / 15 .5 8.4 0.2 4.4 3.1 89.6 2.1 0.7 151. etc.6 10. GDP per capita is approximately double that of the countries in the ECOWAS zone.7 1.54 1.5 29.7 0.5 5.1 14.4 1.41 3.4 33.4 14.5 4.2 0.9 3.8 Agriculture 2005 billion US$ 4.4 19.50 times higher than for Central Africa and 20 times higher than for Cape Verde.

while manufacturing is stronger in EMCCA countries . where the added value of the oil and natural gas industries accounts for most of GDP (new Liquefied Natural Gas installations were set up in 2006). Population and GDP growth per zone 2.The added values show that the service sector is larger than manufacturing in ECOWAS countries .also 40% of GDP7.40% of GDP. 2.Boosted by Equatorial Guinea.2 Growth in GDP per capita Diagram 2: Growth in PPP GDP per capita in each zone 7 . Agriculture contributes to 33% of GDP in ECOWAS countries.1 Population growth of the zones Diagram 1: Population growth per zone 2. but only around 14% in EMCCA countries. .

Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 16 / 17 .

III .FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION Final energy consumption is the consumption of the energy products that energy distributors supply to consumers in final activity sectors. etc. electricity. we have created two types of diagram: one shows growth in energy consumption with biomass.1 Growth in final energy consumption per product Given that biomass accounts for more than 70% of final energy consumption in subSaharan Africa. diesel. Diagram 1: Growth in final energy consumption per product in ECOWAS* countries (with and without biomass) Diagram 2: Growth in final energy consumption per product in ECOWAS countries (with and without biomass) . gas. kerosene. heat produced by solar water heaters or low-temperature geothermal energy).). and the other without biomass. 1. coal. including for non-energy uses (raw materials for the chemicals sector). biomass and heat (hot water or steam for use in heating networks in northern countries. This is so as to better demonstrate the increase in the roles played by other products in final energy consumption. Per energy product Final energy products are oil products (petrol. 1.

Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 18 / 19 . particularly in Equatorial Guinea (which now has a natural gas liquefaction plant) and. Nigeria and the Ivory Coast have the highest levels of natural gas consumption. Since 2000. coal is mainly consumed in Senegal and Nigeria. however. 5% and 5% in ECOWAS.2 Structure per zone of final energy consumption per product in 2008 Diagram 4: Structure of final energy consumption per product in each zone (with and without biomass) Biomass accounts for more than 80% of final energy consumption in ECOWAS countries1. respectively. EMCCA and ECOWAS* (without Nigeria) countries. Among the countries that make up the ECOWAS zone. Natural gas has been growing in popularity since 2000 in EMCCA countries. Biomass consumption started to fall in 2004 in EMCCA countries as natural gas consumption started to rise. is used in both these zones: 2%. Relatively little electricity.Whereas in ECOWAS* countries (not including Nigeria). as opposed to approximately 60% in EMCCA countries. electricity has been the fourth source of final energy in EMCCA countries. Oil accounts for 14%. oil (products derived from petroleum) is the main source of energy used in the countries that make up the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones. Gabon. Biomass consumption has continued to grow in ECOWAS countries. 1. EMCCA and ECOWAS* countries. Of all the countries in the ECOWAS zone. 1 . to a lesser extent. 20% and 25% of final energy consumption in ECOWAS. biomass accounts for 70% of final energy consumption. and the third source in ECOWAS countries. respectively.Diagram 3: Growth in final energy consumption per product in EMCCA* countries (with and without biomass) After biomass.

1.3 Distribution of energy products per final consumption sector (2008) Diagram 5: Distribution of energy products per final consumption sector • Oil products • Electricity .

and only in manufacturing. broken down for each country per energy product. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 20 / 21 . 1.4 Final energy consumption per product and per country Table 1 shows final energy consumption per capita.• Biomass • Natural gas Natural gas is only used in manufacturing in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries. • Coal Coal is only consumed in ECOWAS countries.

9 0.2 0.5 0.15 6.31 330.6 0.1 0.4 1 11.3 0.1 5.98 4.71 6.5 13 10.7 0.3 0.3 0.5 17.6 2.3 0.5 Final Energy Consumption/ capita toe 0.8 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.54 1.2 3.4 0.1 0.5 140.1 0.06 2.76 24.35 0.5 0.82 12.24 0.24 1.5 44 36 20 25 14 17 21 46.8 1.41 3.4 0.1 0.19 40.1 7.1 0.2 1.4 10.1 0.3 0.2 3 Mtoe Gas % .6 0.14 0.7 2 2 0.Table 1: Final energy consumption for ECOWAS and EMCCA countries per 2008 Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Population Million 9.2 1.5 35 8.5 6 20 14 1.3 20.65 0.3 0.57 1.2 0.73 151.002 1.3 0.4 0.1 84 0.3 0.8 0.1 1.5 29.4 0.27 0.2 0.1 0.5 2.75 3.52 11.06 2.3 2.8 12.3 0.5 2.77 138.1 0.16 2.5 0.8 129 5.44 0.65 290.86 1.04 0.47 18.4 Mtoe 1.2 10.8 1.8 0.5 1.9 1.2 0.33 15.14 0.2 2.3 7.1 0.9 1 0.72 14.01 9.1 0.2 Oil products % 42 21 49 15 54 30 16 50 13 24.78 Total Final Energy Consumption Mtoe 2.4 99.2 0.54 19.

8 2.4 0.5 63 80.13 0 0.9 0 0.2 0.1 7.7 0.04 0.4 6.005 0.06 0.5 77 49 60 7 92.5 1.4 1.05 1.01 0.6 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 22 / 23 .06 0.1 0.7 0.12 0.007 0.1 3.1 0.4 0.5 4.2 0.5 0.4 0.8 2 5.2 2.02 0.5 1.1 0.1 0.7 2.1 1.01 7 85.5 1.1 0.4 4.67 Electricity 2008 % 2.1 0.1 0.9 3.4 0.7 7.8 6.5 0.12 0.57 3.5 1.2 0.6 105.9 2 4.1 Biomass % 56 77 30 76 41.9 2.13 0.7 2 3.1 1.9 2.05 4.8 5.1 0.006 0.6 0.02 0.energy product Coal Mtoe % Mtoe 1.01 0.4 3.5 4.5 20.13 0.1 20.05 1.44 80.025 4.5 47 85 70 84 86 41 62 77 69 82 76.7 4.51 Mtoe 0.006 0.02 0.6 64.3 0.4 113.5 1.3 5.

but in very varied proportions (see the energy account for Nigeria in Chapter VI). shops. 13. it is consumed in Senegal (approximately 7% of final energy consumption) and in very low quantities in Nigeria. Liberia. the residential sector (housing). Niger. Natural gas accounts for a significant proportion of final energy products consumed in EMCCA countries (10. As far as countries in the ECOWAS zone are concerned. biomass accounts for more than 80% of final energy consumption.) and agriculture. accounting for 25. oil is the second energy source. at around 5% of final energy consumption. In all regions.1%. biomass is the main energy source for countries in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones. healthcare centres. accounting for more than 60% of final consumption. schools and universities. Two countries together are largely responsible for the high levels of natural gas consumption in EMCCA: Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.7% in ECOWAS and ECOWAS* respectively. This includes the production of plastic bottles. where natural gas is the main energy used. For some products .5%). . With the exception of Cape Verde and Equatorial Guinea. as opposed to 64% in EMCCA countries. respectively. Nigeria and Chad. Cameroon (7%) and Cape Verde (21%). No coal at all is consumed in EMCCA countries.there is a slight difference between EMCCA and ECOWAS* (without Nigeria) countries. For a number of countries. 2.9% and 20. hotels. Senegal (8%). The highest percentages are in Ghana (7%).5% and 1. Very little coal is used in these zones. etc. etc. This low consumption is offset by biomass which accounts for 69% of final energy consumption in ECOWAS* countries and 82% in ECOWAS countries. The share of electricity in these zones is still very low. Per final activity sector Final activity sectors include manufacturing. ECOWAS and EMCCA countries.The way in which the share of each energy product is distributed in final energy consumption is different for each zone.electricity and biomass . transport. Nigeria is the only country in these zones in which all types of energy source are used. such as Guinea. The use of energy products for non-energy related purposes (mainly oil products) is also included in final energy consumption. The distribution of different energy products in Nigeria has a major effect on how consumption is structured throughout the ECOWAS zone.1% for ECOWAS*. the tertiary sector (offices. lubricants. but only accounts for 0.

1 Growth in final consumption per sector in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries Diagram 6: Growth in final consumption per sector in ECOWAS* countries Diagram 7: Growth in final consumption per sector in ECOWAS countries Diagram 8: Growth in final energy consumption per sector in EMCCA countries Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 24 / 25 .2.

pushing the residential sector down into third place. before being taken over by the residential sector. whereas in EMCCA countries. from 2000 onwards. natural gas has been the main alternative to oil since 2000. Manufacturing was the second largest consumer sector in ECOWAS countries from 1990 until the start of the 2000s. Cameroon will start exploiting its own natural gas reserves in 2011 for electricity generation.2 Structure per zone of final energy consumption per sector (2008) Diagram 9: Structure of final energy consumption per sector for each zone (with and without biomass) 1 . manufacturing is the main consumer of final energy1.not including biomass . it becomes apparent that oil is the main source of energy . From this analysis.Natural gas is mainly consumed in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. In EMCCA countries.Installation of a Natural Gas Liquefaction plant in Equatorial Guinea. while transport found itself in second position in EMCCA countries. 2 .in ECOWAS countries.Comparing these diagrams shows that removing biomass from final consumption moves transport up to the top of final energy consumer sectors in ECOWAS countries as of 1990. . This will further strengthen the position of this energy source in the EMCCA sub region.2 2. However.

the energy consumed by the transport sector is generated exclusively by oil products.3 Consumption per product for final consumer sectors (2008) Diagram 10: Consumption per energy product for each final consumption sector • Industry • Transport In both ECOWAS and EMCCA countries. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 26 / 27 .2.

• Agriculture (with or without biomass) • Residential .

Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 28 / 29 . the only primary energy resources consumed for non-energy-related uses are oil products (in the chemical industry). But if we remove biomass from final consumption (table 3). 2. the main energy source or product being biomass. the transport and manufacturing sectors become the leading consumers in both ECOWAS and EMCCA countries.• Tertiary • Non-energy uses In both ECOWAS and EMCCA countries.4 Final energy consumption per sector and per country Table 2 shows that the residential sector is easily the highest consumer of final energy in both zones.

33 0.14 0.65 290.5 17.977 0.98 11.54 140.49 2.8 3.2 12.022 0.9 9.3 0.01 9.33 15.121 7.923 0.19 40.44 0.31 2.9 % 26.005 0.5 10.71 6.6 11.94 1.254 2.21 0.206 0.37 0.005 0.4 10 2.16 0.27 0.49 0.4 11 2 7.09 0.23 4.62 2.4 26.3 40.41 0.05 0.12 0.3 15.81 12.262 0.12 0.55 1.8 12.4 4 6 4 4 13 7 12.13 2.24 1.855 1.03 2.86 0.31 330.8 17.5 Mtoe 0.6 12.17 0.18 1.47 18.038 11.5 12.52 29.084 0.064 0.026 0.05 1.217 0.2 11.57 0.35 0.7 32.15 0.73 151.22 0.77 0.216 0.60 0.5 12.2 % 2.6 7.40 0.5 7.41 3.15 0.28 0.07 0.44 0.18 0.98 4.094 0.1 0.3 4 3.18 0.6 24.48 13.018 0.3 15.7 1.54 Per capita tep 0.72 14.3 10.18 0.31 0.44 99.Table 2: Final energy consumption for ECOWAS and EMCCA countries Final Energy Consumption 2008 Population Total Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Million 9.91 16.2 25.42 Mtoe 0.57 1.54 1.75 0.35 0.73 0.5 16.65 0.8 10.82 12.27 0. .31 0.01 0.15 7.76 24.208 1.06 0.14 0.7 9.27 0.2 31.17 13.5 1.54 19.6 0.28 0.1 87.03 0.12 0.9 Manufacturing Transport Note: consumption for the residential/tertiary/agricultural sectors is not the same as the sum of the three sectors for the Ivory Coast (statistical uncertainty).1 9.6 21.5 15.10 1.78 Mtep 2.33 0.15 6.2 15.52 11.083 5.034 1.4 0.55 0.69 0.25 0.86 1.09 0.77 1.75 3.6 13.82 129 5.3 42.29 0.77 138.

33 0.1 % 71.3 0.015 0.45 0.4 2.04 0.9 4.32 0.02 0.6 1.05 3.5 81 53.8 0.5 67.4 Mtoe 0.2 Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde 0.9 63.32 0.9 0.8 71.77 2.7 0.07 5.1 0.2 0 9.02 0.94 0.3 80.4 82.064 4.08 1.058 3.02 0.4 53.51 0.82 7.45 0.19 0.4 68.8 11.7 8.7 0.9 52.52 1.4 85.1 82.24 80.7 61.3 0.2 4.4 70.3 83.87 1.11 1.004 0.2 0.4 0.4 78.17 0.027 0.12 0.004 1.8 67.3 62.3 76.1 1.3 0.11 110.3 0.2 76 79.15 1.047 0.11 0.2 55.52 1.1 79.07 1.17 0.6 72.264 0.4 85.06 4.2 0.6 72.7 82.1 0.22 1.3 0.1 0.004 % 10.8 72.15 0.624 0.001 0.1 1.015 0.2 80.15 0.6 83.1 83.3 0.09 0.026 0.015 0.7 60.95 0.3 0.5 88.3 70.4 54.001 0.8 % 61.2 0.11 1.1 0.1 Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Residential Tertiary Agriculture 2008 Mtoe 1.134 1.2 0.5 0.per sector Residential Tertiary Agriculture Mtoe 1.99 0.02 0.5 53.89 0.000 0.25 3.7 0.96 107.58 1.51 1.303 0.075 0.3 0.1 Mtoe % Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 30 / 31 .1 0.003 0.004 53.1 1.000 0.4 2.84 0.34 0.25 22.58 1.104 2.004 0.6 78.7 103 4.07 2 0.1 21 101 4.2 57.8 1.8 0 0 0.000 0.1 Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali 0.3 0.004 0.8 8.4 86.445 0.3 Nonenergy Mtoe 0.003 0.82 6.5 Ivory Coast Gambia 0.8 0.2 1.5 1.6 72.1 9.4 86.3 1.83 0.24 79.12 0.05 % 0.3 83.5 51 67.08 1 Ghana Guinea 0.

07 4.48 0.78 Mtoe 1.32 0.057 0.16 0.71 1.5 17.018 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.35 0. .9 % 59.03 0.1 28 8.005 0.5 54.216 0.186 0.54 1.1 60.Table 3: Final energy consumption not including biomass for ECOWAS Final Energy Consumption not including biomass Totale Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Million 9.018 2.10 27.08 0.12 0.03 1.12 0.4 65.35 0.1 48.53 2.15 6.022 0.76 24.8 24.06 0.41 0.9 83.8 32.11 0.034 1.07 0.8 Mtoe 0.11 0.814 12.091 0.06 1.1 55.1 26 8 6.5 24.4 18.051 0.19 0.23 23.3 0.2 49.05 0.8 12.4 0.182 0.3 53 66.3 22.153 7.04 0.2 66.262 0.2 8.026 0.53 0.54 19.3 46.1 69.25 0.03 0.77 138.6 6.2 36.5 38.7 4.512 0.98 4.2 25.1 94.375 0.73 151.57 1.217 0.33 15.41 3.86 1.236 % 5.3 52.212 0.33 0.4 17.33 0.091 0.2 9.2 53.403 0.2 50.65 290.485 13.3 56.9 21.38 Per capita toe 0.05 0.31 330.75 3.024 6.10 0.686 0.005 0.546 0.57 0.07 2.064 0.183 0.06 0.36 0.82 12.01 0.166 0.11 0.038 2.05 0.05 1.1 49.6 16.72 14.4 18.4 31.35 9.3 48.57 0.6 4.084 0.51 0.71 6.03 0.6 0.7 2008 Population Manufacturing Transport Note: consumption for the residential/tertiary/agricultural sectors is not the same as the sum of the three sectors for the Ivory Coast.05 0.62 0.344 1.47 18.07 0.07 0.38 0.7 85.23 14.73 0.01 9.75 0.15 0.8 19.049 1.28 1.08 Mtoe 0.27 0.03 0.5 46.4 66.05 0.235 4.8 30 16.19 40.02 0.52 11.

1 0.4 1.912 % 34.153 0.007 0.004 % 1.3 52.009 0.653 0.3 1.8 9.3 13.4 22.2 0. Agri Mtoe 0.352 0.9 16.086 0.019 1.9 24.6 18 27 21.027 0.05 0.6 24.077 2.2 Nonenergy Mtoe 0.1 45.335 0.07 2.563 6.015 0.019 0.1 0 0.3 0.3 18.031 0.463 % 32.6 13.303 0.031 0.208 0.079 1.015 0.015 0.5 4.173 0.004 0.2 3.247 9 0.3 0.036 0.001 0.8 24.223 0.051 0.6 25. Tertiary.803 0.09 1.3 19.8 27.015 2.7 16.176 0.422 5.015 1.7 15.007 0.086 2.176 0.8 Mtoe % Unit Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 32 / 33 .004 0.022 0.316 0.15 0.6 3.5 0.9 3.7 15.6 9.9 29.6 18.058 0.000 0.829 0.560 6.57 0 Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali 0.019 0.788 0.026 2 % 0.1 0.2 1.339 0.06 0.004 3.1 7.1 29.121 0.000 0.4 21.23 1.445 0.11 0.7 5.6 10.62 1.86 Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad 0.001 0.5 0.06 0.1 24.38 0.013 0.3 23.089 0.384 0.1 15.9 11.4 0 17.9 11.and EMCCA countries per sector Residential/.013 0.8 17.041 3.047 0.245 0.017 0.061 0.9 Mtoe 0.6 0.465 0.8 Ghana Guinea 0.4 0.4 2 4.046 0.6 3.88 1.027 0.046 0.003 1.086 0.7 5.273 0.022 0.031 0.2 3.36 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia 0.9 50.004 0.3 0.316 0.6 13.014 0.3 19.6 4.8 19.7 11.6 16.091 0.2 27.02 0.004 0.3 0.1 17.08 1.95 2.000 0.15 0 0 0 0 0.4 23.2 4.9 1.042 3.003 0.042 0.6 5.05 0.343 0.24 EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Residential Tertiary Agriculture 2008 Mtoe 0.1 29.05 9.6 9.068 5.06 8.6 17.

final energy consumption for the EMCCA zone was growing at a slower rate than GDP. 3.A recent study . 4 . influence a country’s overall energy intensity.3. This indicator (which is usually expressed in toe/US$100 or in ktoe/US$100) gives the level of “energy efficiency” or “energy voracity” for a country or a development mode.odyssee-indicators.2. and produced by 14 national teams (the ODYSSEE-MURE network). needless to say. . the greater the energy efficiency4. such as climate (in hot countries.org). energy is not required for heating).126 in 1986.an “Assessment of energy efficiency in the European Union (15 member states)” .See 2.published by the European commission and the ADEME. But when countries whose economies are structured in similar ways are compared.is used to draw comparisons between different countries in addition to consumption per capita. the lower the energy intensity. It separates out the effects and then defines and assesses an actual energy efficiency indicator (www. gives a detailed analysis of energy efficiency in 15 member states of the European Union. Diagram 11: Change in final energy intensity for both zones It is seen that at the start of 1980. the essential factor is the efficiency with which energy is produced and consumed: in very simple terms. It is a measurement of the quantity of energy consumed for a given production level to produce goods and provide services.1 Change in final energy intensity Final energy intensity is calculated as units of final energy consumption per unit of PPP GDP. After 1986. Energy intensity is calculated as energy consumed (primary or final) per net GDP. and is expressed in constant $2005. This continued until 1986: energy intensity fell from 0. The study identifies a number of different factors which influence a country’s energy intensity. A number of factors. after 3 . with GDP being calculated on the basis of “purchasing power parity” (PPP) in order to take differences in standards of living into account3.“energy intensity” . the trend was reversed until 1994.152 in 1980 to 0. Chapter II. Final energy intensities Another indicator . and the structure of the economy: a country with well-developed manufacturing industries (which consume a great deal of energy) will have a higher level of energy intensity.

which the rate of growth in energy consumption once again fell below that of GDP.31. more than improvements in energy efficiency as a result of other factors. the trend remained more or less constant until the start of the 2000s. Liberia is an exception . The fact that the energy yield of biomass across all of these countries is very low explains the low energy intensity values for these countries.The situation seems somewhat paradoxical.43 to 0. but it is real insofar as the conditions in which biomass is used are archaic with very low yield. An analysis of the situation in the countries in the ECOWAS zone clearly shows that Nigeria has a high level of energy dependency. 3. One could reasonably believe that the fall in energy intensity in these regions is closely linked to the increase in the share of fossil fuels in final energy consumption5. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 34 / 35 . Diagram 12: Final energy intensity per country in 2008 5 . despite the efforts it went to between 1984 and 2008 to reduce its energy intensity from 0. But for countries in the ECOWAS* zone (not including Nigeria). however.it is recovering from a long period of war (around 10 years) which paralysed economic activity throughout the country. as opposed to 60% for EMCCA countries.2 Final energy intensity per country The diagram below shows that ECOWAS countries have very high energy intensity levels compared with countries in the EMCCA zone: analysing the structure of final energy consumption shows that biomass accounts for approximately 75% of final energy consumption in ECOWAS countries.

hydraulic electricity generation has remained stable at around 12 TWh since 1990.IV . In EMCCA countries. whereas electricity generation from oil and natural gas has continued to rise at an average annual rate of approximately 6% for oil and 7% for natural gas.43 TWh for EMMCA countries. hydraulic power is still the main source of electricity generation and has been increasing at a rate of 2% per annum since 1990.78 TWh for ECOWAS countries (including more than 50% of the Nigeria) and 8.The use of natural gas and oil has also been on the increase in EMCCA countries. Electricity generation 1. . In ECOWAS countries. Electricity generation in both these zones is mainly centred around hydraulic power.ELECTRICITY GENERATION AND CONSUMPTION 1. however.1 Growth in electricity generation in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries • Growth per generation source Diagram 1: Growth per electricity generation source for each zone Total electricity generation in 2008 was 42.

• Growth per zone Diagram 2: Growth in electricity generation per zone
Electricity generation increased significantly in both zones between 1990 and 2008. This growth was more accentuated in ECOWAS countries.

1.2 Electricity generation per country and per source
• Per zone and per source Diagram 3: Structure per source of electricity generation for each zone

In ECOWAS* countries (not including Nigeria), oil is the main source of electricity generation (43%), followed by natural gas (19%). In ECOWAS countries, electricity generation from natural gas accounts for 43% of the total, considerably more than from oil (24%).This variation in structure is mainly due to how electricity is generated in Nigeria. In the EMCCA zone, however, natural gas is only used to generate electricity in three countries: Cameroon, Gabon and the Congo. The way in which generation is structured in EMCCA countries is strongly influenced by the situation in Cameroon, which accounts for approximately 70% of the zone’s electricity production. In most of the ECOWAS zone’s countries, most of the electricity is generated by thermal fossil fuel plants, with the exception of Ghana (46% in thermal fossil fuel plants and 54% by hydraulic means) and Mali. In this zone, the Ivory Coast and Nigeria use natural gas to generate 66% of their electricity. But all countries in the EMCCA zone - except for Chad (which uses oil to generate 100% of its electricity) are heavily reliant on hydraulic means for generating electricity. In both zones, other means of generating electricity from renewable sources are only in their very early stages (apart from hydraulic).
Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries

36 / 37

Table 1: Electricity generation per energy source and per country in the
Gross total production TWh 0.14 0.65 0.29 5.57 0.11 7.65 1.23 0.07 0.35 1.49 0.19 22.42 2.18 0.23 0.21 20.37 42.79 6.05 0.14 0.46 1.49 0.13 0.18 8.44 51.22 TWh 0.14 0.41 0.28 0.02 0.11 3.56 0.79 0.07 0.35 0.7 0.19 1.34 1.77 0.23 0.11 8.73 10.08 1.54 0.0001 0 0.54 0.06 0.18 2.32 12.4 Generation by thermal power plants Oil % 99.3 64 97.9 0.3 100 46.6 64.3 100 100 46.6 100 6 81.2 100 50 42.9 23.5 25.5 0.1 0 36.4 47.6 100 27.5 24.2 0 0.83 19.39 0 9.8 37.8 Natural gas TWh 0 0 0 3.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 14.82 0.04 0 0 3.74 18.56 0.46 0 0.07 0.29 % 0 0 0 66.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 66.1 2 0 0 18.3 43.4 7.6 0 16 19.7 Total for fossil fuels TWh 0.14 0.41 0.28 3.71 0.11 3.56 0.79 0.07 0.35 0.7 0.19 16.17 1.81 0.23 0.11 12.47 28.64 20.0 0.000 0.07 0.83 0.06 0.18 3.15 31.79 % 99.3 64 97.9 66.6 100 46.6 64.3 100 100 46.6 100 72.1 83.2 100 50 61.2 66.9 33.1 0.1 16 56.1 47.6 100 37.3 62.1

2008

Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA

Note: the data from Guinea is incomplete, because the sum of the various sources is not the same as the total amount of electricity generated.

ECOWAS and EMCCA zones
Generation from renewable energy sources (excluding biomass) Biomass1 TWh 0 0.09 0 0.12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0 0.01 0.27 0.27 0 0 0 0.01 0 0.007 0.27 % 0 13.4 0 2.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.3 0 5 1.3 0.6 0 0 0 0.5 0 0.1 0.5 Biomasse1 TWh 0.001 0.15 0 1.74 0 4.09 0.44 0 0 0.8 0 6.25 0.29 0 0.09 7.60 13.85 4.04 0.14 0.38 0.65 0.002 0 5.22 19.06 Hydraulic % 3 22.6 0 31.2 0 53.4 35.7 0 0 53.4 0 27.9 13.4 0 45 37.3 32.3 66.9 99.9 84 43.4 2 0 61.8 37.2 0.01 0.02 0 0 0 5.22 19.34 0 61.9 37.8 Other renewables (wind, solar power) TWh 0 0 0.006 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.004 0 0 0.01 0.01 0 0 0 0 0 0.05 0.02 0 0 0 0 % 0 0 2.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 Total for renewables TWh 0.001 0.23 0.006 1.86 0 4.09 0.44 0 0 0.8 0 6.25 0.35 0 103 7.87 14.12 4.04 0.14 0.38 0.65 % 3 36 2.1 33.4 0 53.4 35.7 0 0 53.4 0 27.9 16 0 50 38.6 33 66.9 99.9 84 43.9 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA 2008

1.3 Efficiency of electricity generation
The efficiency of an electricity generating system is equal to the ratio of the quantity of electricity generated to the quantity of fossil fuels and biomass consumed upstream of generation at thermal power plants, plus the primary energy value of electricity derived from hydraulic means and other renewables. The table above shows that the efficiency of thermal electricity generation (oil, gas, coal and biomass) is around 33%. A number of countries, such as the Gambia (16.4%), Togo (21%) and Niger (13.8%) have levels of efficiency that are considerably lower than the general mean (by half). Sierra Leone, on the other hand, has an efficiency level of

1 - Biomass also refers to the unconventional energies referenced in the diagrams above. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries

38 / 39

51% (the highest). The reason for this is the poor state of repair of the power plants in operation in the Gambia and the low efficiency levels of primary energy used: coal in Niger and biomass in Togo. As far as total electricity generation is concerned, efficiency levels are considerably better. Integrating renewable primary electricity into the energy mix has improved the efficiency of the electricity generating system. 99% of electricity in the Central African Republic is hydraulically generated, and the efficiency of its systems is in the region of 99%; a number of other countries - such as Cameroon (52%) and the Congo (77%) in the EMCCA

Table 2: Efficiency of electricity generating systems in ECOWAS and
Generation by thermal power plants 2008 Oil Mtoe Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA 0.031 0.11 0.072 0.006 0.055 0.919 0.208 0.016 0.083 0.201 0.011 0.575 0.489 0.039 0.029 2.27 2.846 0.363 0.00002 0 0.119 0.023 0.053 0.558 3.404 0.468 4.624 0.112 0.006 0.155 0.018 0.133 0.025 0.006 0.886 4.156 0.292 0.112 0.112 0.018 0.149 0.149 3.27 0.009 0.112 0 0.066 0.877 0.041 0.0234 Natural gas Mtoe Inputs Coal Mtoe Biomass Mtoe Total Mtoe 0.031 0.133 0.072 0.924 0.055 0.919 0.208 0.016 0.083 0.201 0.123 3.845 0.564 0.039 0.047 3.417 7.262 0.655 0.000025 0.018 0.258 0.048 0.053 1.032 8.295

006 0.3 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Total production 2008 Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 40 / 41 .030 0.9 51.146 0.8 44 31.7 38.488 0.06 0.02 0.01 1.33 0.8 22.012 0.024 0.013 -0.01 0.0063 0.191 0.012 0.7 37.1 37.2 43 43.012 0.162 0.3 Inputs Mtoe <0.537 0.35 0.003 0.048 0.0315 0.3 26.8 13.4 35 27.1 34.45 1.9 26.15 -0.051 0.016 0.7 16.269 0.072 1.348 0.383 0.0535 1.39 0.1 28.4 32.0000086 0.765 Efficiency % 38.59 0.1 34 44.9 28.7 32.038 -0 0.246 0.5 36.313 0.3 21.7 51.9 22.033 0.017 1.3 32.1 47.3 32.9 40.8 33.935 Efficiency % 38.7 13.6 16.011 0.EMCCA countries Hydraulic Electricity Generated Mtoe 0.025 -0.055 1.039 0.481 9.5 36.4 51.5 51.5 28.3 33.9 49 44.123 4.074 0.055 4.64 Inputs Mtoe 0.043 0.0153 0.4 33.653 1.307 0.2 34.009 0.1 29.8 43.001 -0.001 0.056 <0.071 8.083 0.8 36.068 0.072 0.9 99.3 35.277 2.172 0.069 -0.8 76.454 1.27 0.098 2.

1 10.6 Thermal MW 73 220 89.3 208 31 30 608.397.4 0 2.2 56.124 782. thermal fossil fuel power generation provides 619 MW of installed capacity (38% of the total) for a total production of 3.209 93 2.2 TWh.2 38. thermal power plants run 5100 .5 245.6 59. Electricity production from renewable energy sources provides 4103 MW of installed capacity (including 1800 MW for Nigeria) for total production of 14.2 Natural gas MW Other renewables (wind) MW Hydraulic MW 33.830 2.1 10.6 55.840.6 5. with renewable sources providing 1006 MW of installed capacity for a total production of 5.454.5 900 722.5 2.4 1.625. In EMCCA countries.1 In ECOWAS countries.57 55.878.234 130 5 166 5.5 252 91.have very high levels of efficiency. In EMCCA countries.324 722.6 47 30 1. thermal power plants operate 3000 hours per year and renewable energy sources for approximately 3500 hours for generating electricity in ECOWAS countries.3 610 93 930 184 9.5 9.3 208 41.9 145.12 TWh (including 6.3 198 107 95.108. 1.1 2. What emerges from this data about installed capacity and the energy generated is that on average (at nominal power output).4 30 619.800 60 4 34. for total production of 28.3 199 93 930 184 9. as more than 50% of their electricity is generated using renewable means (hydraulic).4 10.9778 MW (including 6324 MW for Nigeria). per source and per country Table 3: Installed capacity for different electricity paths in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 2008 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Total MW 106.3 378.64 TWh (including 16 TWh for Nigeria).6 Oil MW 73 220 89.9 2008 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA 2.zone and Ghana (52%) and Mali (48%) in the ECOWAS zone .037.103 722 18.428.754.5 8.5 5.8 67 3.5 245.3 203 273 95.6 13.4 5.6 1.15 TWh.8 101.7 89 170.7 4.424 1.778.2 38.9 5.8 67 2.503.24 56. 70% of installed capacity is derived from thermal fossil fuel power generation .0 15.005.528.5 32 604 1.303 4.1 406 406 5.164 314 9.25 TWh for Nigeria).5 3.3 198 107 95.5 6.4 Installed capacity for generating electricity.24 56.6 967.

3 40.478 0.106 4.841 0.04 1.497 0.5 13.332 0.044 0.178 4 46.177 0.464 21.424 0.3 24.3 56.434 0.6 25.82 42. as well as the different designs of the hydraulic installations in use in both zones (high potential in EMCCA countries).543 0.6 16. and theft.63 8.206 0.733 0. respectively.073 1.068 0.646 0.1338 0.2 29. Guinea and the Central African Republic .107 7.8%. and some large nations lose lower quantities of electricity than smaller countries.820 0.097 0.626 0.48 1.8 47.993 0.292 0.2 26.6 20.8 30 15 20.6 12.06 0 0.011 0.9 7.852 0.126 0. This significant difference can be explained by the type of primary energy used (mainly natural gas in ECOWAS countries and oil in EMCCA countries). 2.5 Losses over transport and distribution networks Table 4: Losses over transport and distribution networks 2008 Country Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Electricity transported TWh 0.29 6. The lowest quantities of electricity are lost over the transport and distribution networks of the Niger.8 34.661 1.141 0.6 37. since electricity is not distributed across the entire extent of these countries. The surface areas of these countries cannot be the main causes of these losses.9 18.042 0.022 1. etc.037 2.hours and renewables 5200 hours per year.4 2008 Country Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Electricity losses over transport and distribution networks in EMCCA countries account for approximately 40% of all electricity transported.275 5. as opposed to only 16% in ECOWAS countries. These losses are the highest in Cameroon (57%) and in the Congo (47%). 9% and 7%.4 18 9.5 TWh 0. Electricity consumption Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 42 / 43 .94 0. Causes include the quality of the equipment used to transport electricity (electric power lines).030 0.57 Losses % 16.708 20.9 12.125 0.755 0. 1.7 8 12.896 1.95 0.

10 TWh to 3.84 TWh). All sectors contributed to this increase.2% between 1990 and 2008. which grew at average annual rates of 10% and 12%. final electricity consumption increased at an average annual rate of approximately 5. It can be deduced that Nigeria’s final electricity consumption increased dramatically compared with that of other ECOWAS countries. respectively. whereas it remained stable for the whole period in the tertiary sector.6% per year between 1990 and 2008.which practically doubled between 2005 and 2008 (2.2. This increase was stimulated by rising consumption in the residential and tertiary sectors. Diagram 6: Increase in electricity consumption per sector in EMCCA countries Final electricity consumption increased by approximately 4.9% between 1990 and 2008. Its growth became even more pronounced in 2005 as a result of increased electricity consumption in the manufacturing sector . unlike ECOWAS* countries where it was mainly due to growth in the residential and tertiary sectors. Electricity consumption in the residential sector increased at a rate of 7% a year. . consumption in the manufacturing sector was stable.1 Increase in electricity consumption • Per sector Diagram 4: Increase in electricity consumption per sector in ECOWAS* countries Electricity consumption in ECOWAS* countries (excluding Nigeria) increased at an average annual rate of 4. Before this period. Diagram 5: Increase in electricity consumption per sector in ECOWAS countries In ECOWAS countries (including Nigeria).

2 Electricity consumption in 2008 • Per capita final electricity consumption Diagram 8: Per capita electricity consumption for each country in 2008 There is a considerable disparity2 between per capita electricity consumption in the two zones. In 2008.• By zone Diagram 7: Increase in electricity consumption per zone 2. others relatively large populations). Gabon’s electricity generation was eight times greater than Chad’s. and around 165 kwh per year in EMCCA countries. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 44 / 45 . ranging from 14 kWh per capita per year in Chad to 826 kwh per capita per year in Gabon. Average per capita electricity consumption is around 124 kwh per year in ECOWAS countries. with a population equivalent to an eighth of Chad’s.The reason for this disparity is the ratio between each country’s electricity generation and its population size (some countries have relatively small populations. • Structure per zone and per sector of electricity consumption Diagram 9: Structure per sector of electricity consumption for each zone 2 .

5 30 50.6 29.3 4059 460 149.3 67.4 472 1142.5 202 3541 67 6024 1166.3 844. It is worth pointing out that in Cam- . with the exception of a few countries such as Guinea.5 621 16896 36087 4681 129.• Electricity consumption per sector and per country Table 5: Electricity consumption per sector and per country Internal consumption 2008 Total Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA GWh 659 663. Mali.7 181 38. 47% and 26%.5 21 29. however.2 37.5 47 944 % 18.7 34.5 79 3845 14792 46 51.4 472 1117.1 126.3 74 32 40. respectively. In the EMCCA zone.9 23.6 57.8 91.6 52. more than half (58%) the electricity generated is used for manufacturing purposes.2 157.4 9 73.4 123.2 GWh 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 25 0 0 25 25 0.5 202 3541 67 6024 1166.4 98 39.3 19190 1570 201.1 14 165 129. Liberia.4 0.5 82 156 6663 42749 Per capita KWh 70. 26%.5 621 16896 36087 4681 129. This is particularly the case in Cameroon. where it accounts for 40%.7 122 124.4 68 290 1247 576.8 66.6 99.6 43.7 Energy sector Total Final Consumption Manufacturing The tertiary and residential sectors account for 60% of electricity consumption in the ECOWAS zone.4 68 290 1247 576.4 371.6 GWh 120 251.2 47 49 26. Niger and Sierra Leone. where 67% of total electricity consumption is used for manufacturing.3 19190 1570 201.8 30.9 2765 600 6 214 831 302.6 32.4 122.3 26.3 198 6887 10947 3146 61 232 302 24.3 39 76.2 246.2 251 122. 33%.1 2 % GWh 659 663.5 82 156 6638 42724 % 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 98 100 100 99.

3 100 54 48.3 Ivory Coast Gambia 0 Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau 31 10.2 27928 231 20.4 47.5 312 50 1324 35 908 44.2 57.7 52 37.4 239 % 81.2 15 3. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 46 / 47 .Transport GWh % Residential/Tertiary/ Agriculture GWh 539 412 155 2597 67 3259 566.8 Burkina Faso Cape Verde 11 0.9 65.1 ECOWAS 1 Cameroon Central African Republic Congo 4.4 7 13 21 24.7 EMCCA 0.5 79 70.2 423 10009 25140 1535 68.7 26 68 59.4 2 16 16 44 0 Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo 0. In manufacturing.8 91 15.4 44.8 53 51 71 70 49.4 52.Which specialises in producing aluminium. This explains the high levels of electricity consumption in Cameroon’s manufacturing sector.7 32.3 19 55 38.8 Agriculture GWh % Benin 5 2008 Unit 0.3 Residential GWh 323.3 52 35.2 57 77 1837 18227 % 49. one single company (ALUCAM3) consumes approximately half of all electricity generated.6 91 26.4 17.7 Liberia Mali 16 5179 525 14 81 3554 8734 673 3 2.1 77 2788.4 51 51 50.2 33.4 239 580.4 62 76 416 274 15131 1110 52.4 811.6 47.1 45.8 39 44.7 73.4 27.6 22.8 70 49. Electricity is mainly used in these countries for lighting and cooking in the residential sector.2 14.3 0.1 ECOWAS+EMCCA eroon. it is used in particular for carrying out electrolysis on alumina which is extracted from bauxite (in Ghana and Cameroon).6 44 60 0.1 76.7 47 24.1 14.8 27 33.8 62.3 95 105 1262 32 2351 522 62 45 416 258 9952 585 38.6 Tertiary GWh 215.7 37.2 Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad 907 9641 13.4 41.5 33.1 ECOWAS* 0.2 69.4 % 32.2 342 6438 16390 818 65. 3 .6 42.

tertiary.679 44268 . agriculture 42788 13846 5. made up of Hydraulic Wind power Thermal.3 Electricity overview for ECOWAS and EMCCA countries Table 6: Detailed electricity overview: generation through to final consumption (2008) ECOWAS Electricity overview GWh GROSS GENERATION.644 7793 8297 -1635 6662 25 6637 3845 4 2788 EMCCA . of which From Oil From Natural gas From Biomass IMPORTS EXPORTS Gross availability Private consumption (-) Gross generation Internal availability Loss during transport/distribution (-) TOTAL CONSUMPTION Energy sector consumption FINAL CONSUMPTION Manufacturing Transport Residential.2.1182 41606 43086 .5 28932 10076 18561 267 2159 .6937 36086 0 36086 10947 0 25140 GWh 8437 5217 0 3220 2321 892 7 504 -0 8941 .

Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 48 / 49 .

PRIMARY ENERGY CONSUMPTION 1.1 Growth in primary energy consumption per source in the two zones Diagram 1: Growth in primary energy consumption per source in ECOWAS* countries (with and without biomass) Diagram 2: Growth in primary energy consumption per source in ECOWAS countries (with and without biomass) Diagram 3: Growth in primary energy consumption per source in EMCCA countries (with and without biomass) .V . Growth and structure of total primary energy consumption 1.

01 toe.07 toe) is approximately equivalent to average per capita consumption in EMCCA (0. 1. whereas per capita consumption in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea are 5 and 4 times greater respectively than average per capita consumption in the EMCCA zone. In addition to biomass. 1 . 14% in ECOWAS and 22% in EMCCA. oil is also one of the main sources of energy. Oil is the second source of primary energy . respectively). with biomass (table 1) and without biomass (table 2). 0. 2. no natural gas is consumed. such as Niger. in ECOWAS (77%)1 and in EMCCA (62%). Consumption of primary energy per source and per country Tables 1 and 2 show primary energy consumption per country and per zone.Most of this is consumed by Nigeria: apart from in the Ivory Coast and Ghana. Per capita consumption in Cape Verde (0.23% in ECOWAS*.Considerably higher quantities of biomass are consumed in Nigeria compared with other countries in the ECOWAS zone.01 toe. the Central African Republic and Chad have very low levels of per capita oil consumption (0. A number of countries. Oil consumption has been increasing steadily in both zones since 1990.21 toe) is three times greater than the average for the whole ECOWAS zone. Primary electricity generation has been increasing throughout the period.02 toe and 0.Biomass is by far the most commonly used source of energy in West Africa and Central Africa. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 50 / 51 . • Oil Average per capita consumption in ECOWAS (0. primary electricity and coal. but almost imperceptibly. Natural gas consumption started to increase throughout Central Africa in 2001. whereas biomass consumption has been falling since 2005.2 Structure per zone of primary energy consumption (2008) Diagram 4: Structure per source of primary energy consumption for each zone (with and without biomass) Biomass is the main source of primary energy in ECOWAS* (72%). Higher quantities of natural gas are consumed in EMCCA (12%) than in ECOWAS (7%)2. much more so than natural gas.08 toe). 2 .

1 91.35 0.98 4.6 12 43.1 8.25 21.53 0.48 0.71 6. In Nigeria (0.82 14.66 2.3 37.42 0.8 12.47 18.6 14.1 13.85 0.78 Total Mtoe 3.51 Total Mtoe 1.3 100 % Per capita toe 0.2 5.87 1.15 0.5 26.3 4.115 0.17 169.8 1.17 0.31 155.25 0.4 7.2 11.76 24.20 0.12 2.725 1.72 14.55 44.31 330.61 0.48 1.54 19.04 toe).• Natural gas Seven countries in both zones consume natural gas:The Ivory Coast.65 2.01 toe.01 9.6 1 1.5 1.1 0.25 0.58 0.7 0.4 6.52 0.9 22. the Congo.1 33.3 32.72 0.2 22.6 23.41 3.57 1.28 9.5 81.9 6.5 1.20 11.77 138.3 0.32 0.23 0.49 111.1 12.9 0.22 1.6 % Total Mtoe % Primary energy consumption Oil Natural gas 1.13 1.2 0.94 0.2 13.32 0.36 toe. per capita consumption is twice as high as average per capita consumption in both zones (0.1 18 54.01 10.9 28. 59 times higher than average per capita consumption across the whole zone.14 10.11 1.5 1.62 0.01 3.68 37.04 10.37 0. • Coal Only two countries in the ECOWAS zone consume coal: Niger and Senegal.1 6 0.54 1.75 3.73 151.37 0.13 0.8 1.23 0.26 0.52 11.4 8.52 0.78 3.9 83.9 13.8 2 0.23 1.23 1.1 0.38 0.27 0.11 0.46 0.8 24.2 9.72 14.5 16. Per capita consumption in both these countries is very low compared with other energy sources .27 0.0.14 0.59 1. Natural gas is the main source of energy in Equatorial Guinea .86 1.20 24.38 2.65 290.43 7.52 2.2 8.32 1.1 48.13 1 1.12 3. Nigeria and Senegal in the ECOWAS zone and Cameroon.11 3.19 40.71 0.13 0.21 0.per capita consumption is 2.6 .76 2.1 toe).08 toe) and Gabon (0.41 0.12 0.9 10.30 1.82 12.73 0.35 0.33 15.05 12.36 0.34 1. Table 1: Primary energy consumption per source in ECOWAS and EMCCA Population 2008 Million Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA 9.8 2.35 10.5 65.16 0.6 4.34 0.9 1.02 0.2 19.13 0.33 0.15 6.16 0.6 1. Gabon and Equatorial Guinea in the EMCCA zone.

012 toe) is twice that of ECOWAS countries (0.15 0.0005 0.81 1.005 0.47 0.1 78.41 toe and 0.6 Biomass % Primary heat Total Mtoe % Primary electricity 2008 Total Mtoe 0. 3 .06 0.52 1.01 0.1 80.2 78.02 0 0.4 0 4.9 86. A country such as Equatorial Guinea has a per capita consumption level that is close to the average for the whole EMCCA zone. respectively.83 2.8 66. Most electricity in EMCCA countries is generated from hydraulic means.7 0.9 7 93.05 0.52 0.1 86.03 7.8 75.21 toe.• Biomass More biomass is consumed in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries than any other energy source.04 0.91 0.08 0.07 0.2 76.8 84.06 0.1 77.1 68.45 1.2 60.9 2 5. respectively.01 0.72 1.03 0.57 toe and 0.7 55.1 1.7 45.Wind power is used extensively in Cape Verde.11 0.8 128.02 0.8 4.11 0.01 0.06 0. and is derived from fossil fuels in ECOWAS countries.23 0.5 1.24 0.4 4.8 0.15 87.3 72.54 0.3 1.7 0.78 1.35 0.9 2.8 61.1 3.24 0.1 1.00 3.9 3 0.28 2.0002 0.5 0. countries Coal Total Mtoe % Total Mtoe 1.1 % Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA 0.12 4.79 toe. with average per capita consumptions of 0.16 6.77 0.04 0 0.7 1. Nigeria and Gabon have the highest levels of per capita consumption .4 0. although biomass only accounts for 7% of its total primary energy consumption.73 2.8 0.006 toe).8 18 76.9 45.7 82.01 0 Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 52 / 53 .23 1.01 0.27 2.7 8.4 0.15 32 119. • Primary electricity (hydraulic and wind power3) Average per capita consumption of primary electricity (hydraulic) in EMCCA countries (0.0.37 0.86 0.7 64.1 0 2.6 56.32 0.49 1.5 0.1 1.7 56.8 1.

13 0.12 0.41 0.8 12.3 1.13 0.03 0.20 24.6 1.5 1.3 90.5 0.7 100 89.82 12.72 14.6 0.15 6.37 0.34 23.6 51.07 0.2 59.2 0.48 0.2 56.62 0.1 100 86.2 100 100 91.13 0.9 0.06 0.07 0.15 0.5 94.65 290.34 11.11 0.57 1.11 5.9 47.12 3.Table 2: Primary energy consumption per source excluding biomass in ECOWAS Population 2008 Million Unit Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA 9.05 12.3 96 99.68 95.72 14.06 0.23 0.09 0.23 1.3 0.35 10.6 2.6 1.71 6.58 0.33 15.13 0.245 0.73 151.5 1.25 21.07 0.33 0.15 0.04 % Total Mtoe Primary energy consumption excluding biomass Oil Natural .38 0.41 3.12 Total Mtoe 1.15 0.04 0.65 0.94 0.61 0.52 11.3 13.4 83.86 1.15 0.58 0.1 100 % Per capita toe 0.9 3.65 0.21 0.11 3.7 1.12 0.3 0.23 1.8 1.02 0.77 138.98 4.54 19.12 0.76 24.12 0.6 77 10.51 0.02 0.14 0.20 11.01 1.13 1.4 0.5 0.8 57.27 0.01 0.37 0.31 330.35 0.9 1 29.11 1.19 40.9 0.3 36 2.4 2.06 0.71 0.72 0.12 0.3 5.66 0.9 0.9 5.8 83.6 0.13 0.4 89.06 0.9 1.54 1.75 3.78 Total Mtoe 1.8 0.7 71.8 86.12 3.1 3.8 0.4 12.47 18.1 59.41 41.6 0.4 1.3 8.25 0.6 100 59.11 2.01 9.

8 35.0005 43.1 0.4 0.3 0.24 0.37 0.2 6.54 0.11 50.6 0.01 0.06 0.7 0.5 5.23 0.01 0.01 Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad 31.9 0.3 1.08 0.8 Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau 0 0.5 36 14.4 EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA % Unit Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 54 / 55 .35 0.03 0.7 0.8 10.01 0.1 4.6 0.4 9.02 8 0.9 0.6 13.3 0.24 1.7 4 0.3 3.07 0.4 4.6 2.49 1.0002 13.12 32.005 0.6 0.02 0.03 0 8.01 3.04 0.06 0.81 9.78 1.04 10.02 0.4 0.32 0.7 Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone 0.11 4.01 0.and EMCCA countries gas % Total Mtoe Coal % Primary heat Total Mtoe % Primary electricity 2008 Total Mtoe 0.7 14.3 0.1 16.7 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia 0.1 89.2 6.05 8.

In 2008. ECOWAS* countries (excluding Nigeria) produced 2.1 Growth in oil consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries • Production. trade.more than 90% .3. . consumption Diagram 5: Growth in oil production.is for export. Oil and oil products 3. most oil production . while its primary oil consumption stood at 10.8 Mtoe of crude oil.3 Mtoe. Net imports were at 8 Mtoe and the rate of dependency on imports was approximately 75%. trade and consumption for each zone In EMCCA countries and Nigeria.

by 59% across the ECOWAS zone (with Nigeria) and by 60% across the EMCCA zone. and remained stable at 0. agriculture Oil consumption increased by 177% across the ECOWAS* zone and by 105% across the ECOWAS zone. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 56 / 57 . • Electricity sector In the electricity sector. oil consumption has increased by 72% across the ECOWAS* zone. tertiary.2 Consumption per sector Diagram 6: Growth in oil consumption per sector for each zone • Transport Oil consumption has increased by 143% in the transport sector since 1990 across the ECOWAS* zone. • Residential. oil consumption has increased by 156% across the ECOWAS* zone. it has fallen by 8% across the ECOWAS zone and increased by 300% across the EMCCA zone. • Manufacturing In the manufacturing sector.3.32 Mtoe across the EMCCA zone. by 96% across the ECOWAS zone and by 900% across the EMCCA zone.

01 0 0 0.25 0.14 0.04 0.44 0.3 0.18 10.07 0 0.58 0.72 0.69 0.01 0.31 0.15 0.05 0.34 8.10 0.13 0.96 1.18 0.03 0.15 3.01 0.61 0.11 0.95 -2.35 Production Agriculture 0.02 0.11 0.92 Transport Tertiary 0 0.08 0. 3.61 0.06 2.02 0. In ECOWAS countries.0 0.09 0 0.12 0.05 1.84 0.07 0 0.38 0.38 Gabon 10.16 0.71 0.3 Consumption per zone Diagram 7: Growth per zone in oil consumption Since the start of the 1990s.02 2.20 -94.01 0.33 Residential 0.14 0. it peaked in 2005 at 22.18 0.05 0.64 0.16 0.06 2.35 10.08 0.7 1.03 1.14 0.26 Chad 6.62 0.33 0.05 0.0 0.51 0.02 0.22 1.5 17.15 0.4 Oil production and consumption per country Table 3: Oil production and consumption per sector and per country Manufacturing Primary consumption Final consumption Net imports Non-energy uses 0 0.41 0.3 Cameroon 4.03 0.28 3.1 0.49 0.01 0. .23 1.0 0.44 137.15 0.07 0.01 -86. oil consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries has been increasing steadily.04 0.4 1.22 0.11 1.02 0.73 0.98 1.5 1.02 0.05 1.41 0.13 0.48 0.23 4.02 0.0 0.05 0.01 0.06 0.39 0.01 0 0.57 0.97 0.04 0.03 0 0.01 0.36 Senegal 0 Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* 2.16 0.24 0.3.13 0 0.9 Gambia Ghana 0 Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria 107.48 1.87 -10.33 0.92 ECOWAS+EMCCA 164.05 0.11 -12. The difference between primary consumption and final consumption can be attributed to consumption in the energy sector.9 ECOWAS 110.14 0.23 0.42 0.20 11.25 0.03 0.81 12.12 0.01 0.72 -50.30 7.12 3.31 0.01 0.12 3.35 0.60 0.32 0.25 21.73 0.06 0.40 0.02 0.04 0.37 0.11 3.25 0.32 20.08 0.32 0.12 -1.2 24.62 0.6 Mtoe before dropping down to 20 Mtoe in 2006 and then climbing back up to 21 Mtoe in 2008.0 0.58 0.77 0.35 0.72 0.26 0.25 0.71 0.02 0.12 0.83 0.05 0.11 0.89 The difference between “Production + Net imports” and “Primary consumption” is mainly due to consumption of “sea fuels”.6 Central African Republic Congo 13.13 -18.06 0.16 0.12 0.11 2008 Mtoe Benin 0 Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast 2.11 -6.47 0.07 0.48 13.85 Equatorial Guinea 18.40 0.62 0.27 0.15 7.01 0.05 0.32 0.83 EMCCA 53.9 0.

01 0. tertiary.49 -2.02 0.032 0 0.69 0.15 2. Ghana is the main consumer and importer in the ECOWAS* zone (3.365 0.5 From crude oil to refined oil products and their uses: an overview of oil The oil overview table shown below provides all values resulting from industrial refining operations.08 0.59 -0.95 Fuel oil 0. Unlike the ECOWAS zone.5 2.37 0 0.4 LPG 0.035 0.14 Mtoe).03 -0.03 2.14 0.7 Mtoe) and Equatorial Guinea is the leading oil exporting country. of which Electricity power plants Refineries Final consumption Manufacturing Transport Residential.008 0. these four countries account for 66% of all oil consumption in the ECOWAS* zone.27 -0.33 Mtoe).32 1.11 0.07 7.65 0.14 0.05 2.11 -0 3. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 58 / 59 .09 0.99 Mtoe).18 -2.31 -0.Ghana will start exporting oil very soon.98 4.23 Mtoe) and Benin (1.32 0. Apart from Nigeria.51 0.82 6.04 0. agriculture Non-energy uses 0.04 -0 TOTAL 4.83 0.016 0.82 0.67 0.015 1.035 0.003 3.97 0.75 -0.37 0.12 0. mainly in the transport sector (2.83 7.78 -0.04 0 0. 3. manufacturing consumes more oil in the EMCCA zone than any other sector (2.06 7.87 1. For example. and the “total consumption” line is the sum of crude oil used for refining and oil products which are the result of refining.007 0.The Ivory Coast and Nigeria are the only oil exporting countries in the ECOWAS zone1 and the Central African Republic is the only country which imports oil in the EMCCA zone.47 0.42 0.003 0 0.13 0. the Ivory Coast (1.2 0.28 0.02 6.38 1.22 -1. the columns in the “production” line give quantities for various products manufactured by refining.43 0.15 3.66 0.65 7.32 Mtoe).004 0.02 1 .04 2.75 0. together with a breakdown of importers and exporters of these products.23 -0.01 0.13) Mtoe.13 0.64 0.47 -0.16 -0. Cameroon is the number one oil consuming country in the EMCCA (1.02 0 004 0. Together.003 0.0005 0.6 -0. just ahead of Senegal (1.04 0.035 0.92 0.02 Petrol 1.15 0 Paraffin Domestic Heavy Naphtha Other heating fuel oil oil products oil 0.9 6.64 0.485 0. Table 4: Oil overview for ECOWAS*(excluding Nigeria) 2008 Unit: Mt Production Import Export Sea and air fuels Inventory changes Consumption (including returns and transfers) Energy sector consumption.08 0 Crude oil 2. or imported.

02 5.04 1. of which Electricity power plants Refineries Final consumption Manufacturing Transport Residential.78 -0.45 1.016 0.19 0.0003 0.44 3.58 0.003 0 0.78 -0.31 -0.25 0.03 2.38 0.15 8.022 -0.11 0.37 1.15 0 Paraffin Domestic Heavy Naphtha Other heating oil fuel oil products oil 0.72 1.56 0.68 -0.007 0.19 0 0.084 0 -0.01 1.27 -1.93 0.04 0 0.09 0.34 0.81 -51.55 0.03 -1.11 0.04 0. agriculture Non-energy uses 0.15 -0.032 0 0. tertiary.16 -0.16 1.Table 5: Oil overview for ECOWAS (including Nigeria) 2008 Unit: Mt Production Import Export Sea and air fuels Inventory changes Consumption (including returns and transfers) Energy sector consumption.12 0.02 Petrol 1.0003 .83 -2 0.02 0 004 0. of which Electricity power plants Refineries Final consumption Manufacturing Transport Residential.1 Fuel oil 0.52 0.27 -0.01 0.13 0.04 0.275 0.012 0.11 -0 3.11 -0.44 -0.04 2.11 0.013 0.75 -0.31 0.002 0.0003 -0.52 7.64 0.15 -0.03 8.1 0.14 0.035 0.16 LPG 0.67 -0.003 0.013 0.125 2.05 8.91 0.084 0.47 0.31 0.07 0.14 0.004 0.53 3.18 103.95 0.07 0.04 -0 Petrol 0.43 0.65 0.27 -0.04 0.03 0.58 0 Crude oil 52.9 11.95 Fuel oil 0.46 0.53 13.24 -2.86 1.9 0.035 0.83 0.04 16.33 0.012 TOTAL 2.44 0.19 0.04 -0.005 -0.13 0.09 0.19 13.58 0.47 -0.081 3.87 0.46 0.9 1.04 0.04 -0 TOTAL 7. agriculture Non-energy uses 0.47 0 Crude oil 108.04 3.17 12.55 0.1 12.015 0.11 0.002 0.04 0 Paraffin Domestic Heavy Naphtha Other heating oil fuel oil products oil 1.2 0.13 0.115 0.06 3.18 0.5 0.06 4.011 0.58 0.008 0.02 Table 6: Oil overview for EMCCA 2008 Unit: Mt Production Import Export Sea and air fuels Inventory changes Consumption (including returns and transfers) Energy sector consumption.38 0. tertiary.13 0.1 7.012 0 0.14 11.19 0.002 0.01 1.0005 0.04 0.66 0.03 0.43 0.035 0.14 1.79 -1.1 0.003 0.83 -0.12 0.8 0.2 LPG 0.13 0.67 1.

01 0.01 Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 60 / 61 .3 Gabon Gm3 0. They were also checked by the difference between the values for production.42 Congo Gm3 0.42 0. export.01 -5.42 0. Tertiary… Non-energy 0.1 0.4 1.4 Senegal Gm3 0.2 0.01 0.2 0. 4.03 0.002 0.18 0.other than Nigeria .8 NIGERIA 4941 EMCCA 873 Years of consumption** ECOWAS* 2 NIGERIA 1122 EMCCA 256 * ECOWAS excluding Nigeria.002 0.8 Cameroon Gm3 0.02 Ivory Coast Gm3 1. They were therefore obtained by calculating the difference for the “Sea and air fuels” between the total for oil products in each country’s Energy overview and the sum of Domestic heating oils and Heavy fuels in the oil overview for the corresponding countries.16 Equatorial Guinea Gm3 6.02 0.1 1.2 -20.02 0. inventory changes and the values for total consumption for the Fuel oil column in each country’s oil overview. import.6 2. Natural gas 4.02 1.4 2.1 Natural gas overview for countries that produce and/or consume natural gas in the ECOWAS and EMCCA regions Table 8: Gas overview Gas overview PRODUCTION Import Export Inventory changes TOTAL CONSUMPTION Energy sector consumption. of which Electricity power plants LNG factories FINAL CONSUMPTION Manufacturing Transport Residential. ** Number of years it would take to consume the reserves at 2008 consumption levels for countries in the ECOWAS zone .4 EMCCA 3.4 Proven economic reserves (Mt) ECOWAS* 16.5 1.Note: The values in the “Sea and air fuels” line for the Fuel oil column were not available in the Enerdata database for each country.6 Crude oil reserves Table 7: Oil reserves OIL Consumption 2008 (Mt) ECOWAS* 7.and countries in the EMCCA zone.36 0.16 1.8 12.4 0.5 0.3 4 21.5 14.18 0.3 1.6 NIGERIA 4. 3.03 5.7 Nigeria Gm3 35.

2 0. Gabon. Apart from Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea (which export much of the gas that they produce). Tertiary… Non-energy Niger Mt 0. the Congo.Seven countries produce natural gas in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones: Cameroon. January 2009. The EMCCA zone also has four countries: Cameroon. Equatorial Guinea. . Ghana.2 Natural gas reserves Table 9: Natural gas reserves4 Natural Gas (2008) Consumption 2008 (Gm ) 3 Proven economic reserves (Gm3) ECOWAS * 5 Years of consumption** ECOWAS* 42 NIGERIA 357 EMCCA 242 ECOWAS* 1.2 0. Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea are among a very limited number of companies which export LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). Coal 5. 3 . Nigeria and Senegal.31 NIGERIA 14. Nigeria and Senegal.008 Senegal Mt 0. Ivory Coast. 5 .17 0. 4.008 0 0 0. Gabon and Equatorial Guinea. IFP School/INSTN.1 Coal overview for countries that produce and/or consume coal in the ECOWAS region Table 10: Coal overview (tar sands) Coal overview 2008 PRODUCTION Import Export Inventory changes TOTAL CONSUMPTION Energy sector consumption.Including reserves in Ghana (although Ghana has not yet started to extract its natural gas reserves). school project.008 0 -0 0 0.008 0. (Liquefied Natural Gas in Africa: future developments).17 0.2 2 . household consumption2). 5.17 Nigeria Mt 0. of which Electricity power plants LNG factories FINAL CONSUMPTION Manufacturing Transport Residential. Cameroon may start exporting LNG in 20153.17 0. the Congo.Jourdain KENGNE & ISMA EL FODIL.2 0 0.8 EMCCA 2.Four countries have natural gas reserves in the ECOWAS zone: Ivory Coast. 4 . le Gaz Naturel Liquéfié en Afrique: quelles évolutions futures.12 NIGERIA 5292 EMCCA 514 55 It5 should be possible to mine natural gas reserves in Nigeria and countries in the EMCCA zone for more than two decades (if consumption continues at current levels).Only in the Ivory Coast. most of the gas which the other countries produce is mainly for domestic use (producing electricity.

it is used to generate electricity. Biomass The biomass consumed in countries in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones is mainly made up of wood and charcoal. 5. or 102 Mtoe). Nigeria consumes more biomass than any other countries in the ECOWAS zone (80%).17 NIGERIA 0. 7 . 6 . In some countries in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones. it can be seen that other farm and household waste (apart from wood) are not represented (owing to data not being available)7. and Nigeria for more than 19.The reason for this data not being available is the lack of a system for converting household and farming waste into energy.2 Coal reserves Table 11: Coal reserves in ECOWAS countries Coal Consumption 2008 (Mt) NIGER 0. But in the EMCCA zone. This energy may be considered non-commercial or commercial6. followed by Ghana (4. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 62 / 63 . Charcoal is counted within statistics for wood. Nigeria and Senegal. This energy is consumed by the residential sector in particular (90%. where as in Niger. In the biomass overviews.Three countries consume coal in the ECOWAS zone: Niger. followed by Gabon (14%). the rest of wood wood is consumed directly in order to meet the same cooking needs.produce coal.Nigeria and Niger . Two of these countries . 6. transformed in order to more conveniently meet cooking needs.5%) and the Ivory Coast (4%). The wood column represents the total amount of biomass energy. since it a sub-product of wood. Cameroon is the main consumer of biomass (60%). the biomass used is not in any way transformed before final consumption.Each country has a different name for the data it passes on to international organisations (see Introduction). Consumption in Nigeria and Senegal is for manufacturing purposes. A part from charcoal. Niger can continue to mine its coal reserves for more than 4 decades.000 years.008 Proven economic reserves (Mt) NIGER 70 NIGERIA 190 Years of consumption NIGER 411 NIGERIA 19000 At current levels of consumption.

22 1.02 19.84 1.7 0.46 1.07 1.05 0.14 0.2 Biomass overviews per zone The biomass overviews highlight the consumption of wood to produce charcoal and.07 0.83 0.10 1.19 0.21 0.01 0.8 3.86 0.4 4.45 0.1 0 0 1.1 1.15 32 119.83 2.95 0.72 0.28 2.53 1.73 2.8 6.03 3.73 2.02 8.91 0.06 0.03 7.46 0.4 4.43 113.42 0.46 0.74 0.28 2.42 0.23 1. the resulting production of charcoal.52 1.16 6.24 0.72 1.74 0.72 0.10 1.06 0.1 0.52 1.48 0.1 0. on the same line.06 0.57 105.07 1.91 0.08 0.14 87.88 9.2 1.46 1.2 76.53 1.11 0. .7 8.53 102.2 85.73 2.76 128.86 0.3 2.72 1.8 0.7 4.14 87.01 0 0.1 1.03 7.83 2.46 0.45 1.7 0.2 1.13 0.43 0.1 1.8 0.1 1.23 1.47 1.01 0.83 0.45 1.03 4.15 32 119.76 128.16 6.28 2.91 7.85 0.1 Biomass production and consumption per country Table 8: Biomass production and consumption per sector and per country Manufacturing Primary consumption Final consumption Production Residential Transport 2008 Mtoe Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Tertiary 0.16 20.90 0.61 0 0 0.48 1.74 0.52 0.26 95.28 2.7 8.3 6.1 0.6.56 4.05 4.46 9.

3 20.59 3.1 Table 10: Biomass overviews for ECOWAS 2008 Unit: Mtoe Production Primary consumption Energy sector consumption. of which: Manufacturing Transport Residential. tertiary.4 0 4.0.6 Table 11: Biomass overviews for EMCCA 2008 Unit: Mtoe Production Primary consumption Energy sector consumption.51 3.18 101. agriculture 6 0.0.01 .59 0 3.4 119.3 7.6 105.4 .6 0. of which: Electricity power plants Charcoal production Final consumption.6 0. of which: Manufacturing Transport Residential.0. of which Electricity power plants Charcoal production Final consumption.9 .8 8.Table 9: Biomass overviews for ECOWAS* 2008 Unit: Mtoe Production Primary consumption Energy sector consumption.4 4.1.8 -1.6 0.6 Wood 8.6 6.4 .15 .14.1 0 92.1 0 96.006 – 1.3 9.8 8.59 3.15 .1 .59 Charcoal TOTAL 32 32 .7 9.006 . tertiary.32 .7 .9 0.9 17 0.0.0.4 119.9 Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 64 / 65 . of which Electricity power plants Charcoal production Final consumption.47 0 16.9 6.9 0.11. agriculture Wood 32 32 .15 .0.4 4.13.6 Charcoal TOTAL 8. of which Manufacturing Transport Residential. tertiary.11.2 4.15. agriculture Wood 119.47 0 20.13.8 1.18.42 .15 .5 0.4 Charcoal TOTAL 119.

8 47.3 78.98 11.44 99.86 0.2 38 92.2 13.9 82.54 140.54 Fossil fuels % 44 22.2 78.9 81.4 85.7 30.77 1.2 41.1 83. ii) Final electricity consumption expressed in toe is distributed according to each source’s contribution to a country’s electricity generation.5 78.1 52.3 42.5 67.6 37.7 57.9 47.94 1.44 0.82 129 5.9 16.52 29.5 33. Contribution of primary sources to final energy consumption The contribution of various primary energy sources to final energy consumption is worked out as follows: i) Direct contributions of fossil fuels and biomass are known and can be found in the previous tables (final energy consumptions per product).10 1.1 73.4 62.55 0.7 21.9 26.1 79.75 0.60 0.5 32.50 0.4 70.8 21.18 1.27 0.121 7.5 Renewables % 56 77.50 2.3 69.21 1.3 18.5 81.8 62 7.5 66.62 2.1 18.1 17.5 18.2 52.5 2008 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA .9 20.8 58. Table 12: Contribution to total final energy consumption with biomass 2008 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Final Energy Consumption Mtoe 2.7 81.254 2.6 14.08 5.8 86.5 21.6 29.7. Electricity imports and exports are not taken into account.85 1.

is dependent on fossil fuels for getting 13% of its final energy requirements met. biomass is mainly used for household cooking. Cape Verde (70%). With regards to renewable energies in these countries. Nigeria.Equatorial Guinea consumes mostly natural gas (83%). Guinea-Bissau (52%). Africa’s leading oil producing country. with the exception of Equatorial Guinea8) for an average of 20% of their final energy requirements met. Some countries in the ECOWAS zone are much more dependent than average on fossil fuels: these are Benin (44%). only Equatorial Guinea (92%). the Congo (47%) and Gabon (38%) are more than averagely dependent on fossil energies (the average being 20%). In EMCCA countries. 8 . Senegal (57%) and Sierra Leone (37%). Gambia (58%). Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 66 / 67 .Table 12 shows that countries in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones are dependent on fossil fuels (mainly oil. This is considerably lower than other countries in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones.

Values expressed in toe for electricity imports and exports are calculated based on an equivalence factor of 1 TWh = 0. a country that imports electricity will only have the electricity imported expressed with the same equivalence coefficient attributed to its consumption. It concerns oil products only.sign). gas (natural gas) and biomass (wood.The “Hydraulic” cell on the “primary production” line is for electricity that is produced hydraulically. It is seen that import-export balances and for oil products and electricity taken into account in primary consumption (in accordance with the rule mentioned above). column by column.Value in toe for raw material production for coal (coal and lignite). d) The “inventory changes” line is for coal.only the electricity exported. using wind power. . Conversely. gas and biomass. Consequently. Energy products appear in the columns (primary and final) and the various stages involved in the energy system are shown on the lines: production. This energy consumption is not counted as consumption for the country or zone for which the account is being presented. natural gas. of all the corresponding cells (taking account of their + sign or . biomass). crude oil. The energy account should be read in the following way: • From primary production to primary consumption: a) The “Primary production” line gives national production levels for various primary energy sources: . transport and distribution (energy sector) and final consumption. trade. the proportional fuel reduction is not recorded in the primary account . Energy accounts An energy account is a two-way table. crude oil.ENERGY ACCOUNTS AND BALANCE OF PAYMENTS FOR 2008 1. b) The “Import” and “Export” lines do not refer only to primary product trading (coal. electricity trading is in the “electricity” column. e) The “Primary consumption” line is the sum. organic farming or household waste).VI . They also include the trade of oil products (expressed in toe) and electricity. c) The “sea and air fuels” line includes energy supplies for fleets which refuel in the ports and airports in the zone in question. oil products. transformation. oil.086 Mtoe. using photovoltaic solar power and geothermal power. . If a country exports electricity that has been generated by burning fossil fuel or biomass.

Given the importance of Nigeria in the ECOWAS zone that has been mentioned in each of the previous chapters. electricity power plants and losses over the transport and distribution networks (gas and especially electricity). • Final consumption: The lines in the “Final consumption” area show energy product consumption per sector.is very low (it is considerably higher in industrialised countries… in European countries.sign). oil products. the values on the “Final consumption” line are obtained by the algebraic sum of the values for primary consumption. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 68 / 69 . d) For each energy product.Consumption in toe of coal. for example). These consumption figures do not represent final consumption for energy requirements. contribution in toe of hydraulic (. an energy account for accountNigeria is provided in table 3.• Primary consumption to final consumption: Consumption and production for the energy sector are between the “Primary consumption” and “Final consumption” lines: a) Refineries: consumption in toe (. refineries. with the .sign) of crude oil (and maybe small amounts of coal and gas) and production in toe (+ sign) of oil products.Electricity generation by power plants plus electricity imported in the “electricity” column c) Private consumption and losses: private consumption by mines. b) Electricity power plants: .consumption of energy raw materials (mainly oil products and gas) for the chemical industry .sign) . It is seen that consumption related to non-energy uses .sign. gas and biomass (. Tables 1 to 4 are energy accounts accountof the zones looked at in this document. but they need to be taken into account to get a complete and coherent account of energy product consumption. This line. is for actual consumption of various different energy products which are consumed by different operations in the energy sector.

43 1.7 0.3 -11. tertiary.9 0 0.32 -2.65 0.004 Electricity Biomass 119.6 0.1 0.8 2.15 -13. agriculture Non-energy uses -0.16 0.6 105.84 -6.2 0.6 -0.13 32 Oil products Gas 1.5 0.11 0 0.1 -126.03 Coal 0.1 13 1.3 -0.24 0.1 -0.12 0.9 -1. tertiary.075 7.7 3.4 -11. agriculture Non-energy uses -0.9 -0.7 9.8 1.8 29.42 6.92 -0.06 -0.2 -0.5 1 4.4 4 0.14 12.13 0.23 0.4 -0.5 -4.5 -0.6 -4.13 17.1 0.4 -2.2 2 -1.9 -0.1 9 10.5 -17 Oil products Gas 30 Hydraulic 1.35 -0.9 0.7 15 -6.9 -0.6 -0.19 -0.2 96.4 103 0.12 -0 Crude Oil 110 7 -105 15.75 -0.28 -4. losses Final Consumption Manufacturing Transport Residential.6 2.1 0.3 12.13 0 0 0 0.9 20.12 2.65 0.6 -0.12 0.2 2.9 7.9 0.Table 1: Energy accounts for the ECOWAS* zone (without Nigeria) 2008 Unit: Mtoe Primary Production Import Export Sea and air fuels Inventory changes Primary Consumption Refineries Electricity power plants Private consumption.7 -0.2 12.52 0.15 -11.05 Hydraulic 0.05 0.9 -0.8 -21.03 7. losses Final Consumption Manufacturing Transport Residential.45 7.15 0.46 -1.16 -0.8 -2.12 0.5 1.11 0 0.03 Coal 0.3 0.13 119.11 0.12 -0.2 -6.6 -4.3 .3 20.2 4.004 Electricity Biomass 32 TOTAL 36.9 1.8 22.2 0.5 TOTAL 261 23.2 44.65 1.12 Crude Oil 2.2 3.15 Table 2: Energy account for the ECOWAS zone (with Nigeria) 2008 Unit: Mtoe Primary Production Import Export Sea and air fuels Inventory changes Primary Consumption Refineries Electricity power plants Private consumption.3 155.4 -2.1 129 13.

2 -1. losses Final Consumption Manufacturing Transport Residential. losses Final Consumption Manufacturing Transport Residential.45 TOTAL 224.1 4.2 1.84 -52.2 -0. agriculture Non-energy uses -0 0 0.15 Table 4: Energy account for the EMCCA zone 2008 Unit: Moe Primary Production Import Export Sea and air fuels Inventory changes Primary Consumption Refineries Electricity power plants Private consumption.76 11.6 2 2 -0.05 1.3 76.18 11.36 8.04 0 -0.3 -6. tertiary.1 -0.6 80.06 3.9 Hydraulic 0.2 -0.005 0.6 2.55 -0.25 0.12 -0.32 7.2 Oil products Gas 6 Hydraulic 0.54 Electricity Biomass 87.28 1.04 8.32 3.35 -2.00012 0 0.36 0. agriculture Non-energy uses -0.6 4.12 7.25 -0.29 -1.2 -120.04 -0 Electricity Biomass 8.6 -4.5 0.2 -0.52 -3.Table 3: Energy account assessment for Nigeria 2008 Unit: Mtoe Primary Production Import Export Sea and air fuels Inventory changes Primary Consumption Refineries Electricity power plants Private consumption.3 0.33 0.54 1.3 99.65 0.9 1.5 0.45 0.16 -2.32 85.1 0.76 TOTAL 69.12 -0.9 Crude Oil 107.13 8.54 0 87.4 -0.04 Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 70 / 71 .005 0 -0 -102. tertiary.5 -3.26 -57.7 -0.93 -0.36 0.5 7.6 -11.6 0.75 -1.0004 0.76 -4.43 0.9 1.45 -9.45 -0.01 -0.45 0.006 -1.02 6.005 -0.005 0.4 -0.5 1.9 -0.3 0.4 -1.1 10.2 2.4 0.51 Coal Crude Oil 53.1 3.54 2.6 -0.06 14.24 6.3 8.45 -17 -0 Oil products Gas 28.2 1.9 0.45 0.08 111.3 0.2 1.7 0.16 7.2 0.5 -0.56 -0.15 1.6 Coal 0.

imports) total and for energy products. total and for energy products and the share of energy in imports.4 8.6 2138 -229 -2952 70 -20 -178. value for imports (I).8 720.5 4800 4860 4084 7136 3032 % 0. External energy balance of payments for each country We are using 2005 as our basis because of the absence of data for the following years. • In columns 7 and 8.3 2798 1389 128 0.4 38 448.692 1536 324 158.7 3101 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria (1) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad 2006 values for Nigeria. Imports mainly involve oil.6 1.9 98.197 344. • In columns 4. total and for energy products and the share of energy in exports.6 7488 2082 8 2803 158 890 99 131.6 Million US$ -325 -933 -420.6 -487 -305 36.2 21.376 -35 -45 38 -6.5 586 7.8 5. Table 5 shows for each country.066 -409 -283 668 -28 4031 -8.2 . value for net exports (E-I) (exports .6 583 -290 31 -13 118 626 732. • In column 9: the external energy bill (E-I) Energy divided by the number of inhabitants.726 57.5 289.4 84 -10 57.9 28 16 7.6 0.8 38. . respectively: • In columns 1.1 1.3 58.917 -1661 -186 -414 63 -43 3385 3389 5027 1915 -17 US$ -21 894 1280 438 5. 5 and 6.9 29 26.350 237 5755 820 119 310 1622 805 21809 3.8 28.8 53. with the average import price in 2005 standing at US$430 per oil toe (US$60 per barrel).3 16.3 1135 500 9. value for exports (E).9 1499. Table 5: External energy balance of payments for countries in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones Imports(1) 2005 Exports (E) Exports – Imports (E-I) Energy bill per capita 2005 Total for Energy Total for Energy (E-I) all products Energy Share all products Energy Share Total Energy Energy/pop Million US$ % 20.8 3.2 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria (1) Senegal Sierra Leone Togo Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad (1) 27. 2 and 3.2.8 Million US$ 569 3.6 2.7 1000 2735 171 1415 1471 2109 1117 182.5 14.2 49.9 347 17.8 22.

for both its total and for energy. And energy accounts for 20% of its exports and imports. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 72 / 73 . in which the share of energy in overall imports is considerably higher than the share of energy in overall exports1. considerably more than its total energy balance. 1 .They have a foreign trade deficit. thanks to a very positive energy trade balance.The Ivory Coast has a positive net balance for its trade (it exports more than it imports).Cameroon’s total trade balance is almost positive. . Energy accounts for 26% of overall imports and approximately 50% of the country’s total exports.We do not have data about trade in energy products for all countries.Gabon also has very high net energy exports. b) But many countries (and these countries are probably more representative than the ones mentioned above of the general situation in which most countries in these two zones find themselves) have very low figures for their foreign trade (exports which are lower than their imports). These figures highlight just how vulnerable the economies of these countries are to fluctuations and increases in the international prices of the hydrocarbons that they import.Nigeria has a very positive trade balance thanks to its very high energy exports. . . The data shown in table 5 shows some very different situations: a) A small number of countries have very favourable circumstances: . Nor do we have data for the years after 2005 for most countries (although 2006 values for Nigeria do appear in the table).

for example. In EMCCA countries.1 Increase in CO2 emissions resulting from burning fossil fuels Diagram 1: Increase in CO2 emissions resulting from burning fossil fuels per zone There has been a significant increase in CO2 emissions since 1990.2 Increase in CO2 emissions per economic sector • ECOWAS Diagram 2: Increase in CO2 emissions per economic sector in the ECOWAS zone . In both the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones. 1. CO2 emissions in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones 1. this increase is due to higher demand for fossil energies (oil and gas) in order to meet electricity generation requirements and for transport purposes. the high levels of natural gas which have been produced since the early 2000s in Equatorial Guinea have dramatically increased emissions levels in the zone.VII – CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS 1.

2.3 96. CO2 emissions per country 2.96 1.27 0.31 7.1 1.93 1.24 1.39 0.74 9.12 0.41 0.33 0.943 57. This trend is the result of the high production of natural gas in Equatorial Guinea which began during this period.48 0.023 3.2 4.33 1.94 0.23 2.24 0.72 9.8 3.02 0.015 0.32 0.28 0.15 0.07 0.19 0.6 0.33 Per PPP GDP kgCO2/US $ 2005 0.34 8.• EMCCA Diagram 3: Increase in CO2 emissions per economic sector in the EMCCA zone These three diagrams show that the transport sector was the principal source of CO2 emissions from 1990 until the early 2000s for countries in the EMCCA zone.31 0.615 6.92 54.the one for 2007 although the declarations for some countries are not available yet. CO2 emissions in the residential/ tertiary/agriculture sector for EMCCA countries have been stable since 1990.08 0.22 2007 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA 1 .4 0. while emissions for all sectors in ECOWAS countries have been increasing since 1990 (a growth rate of 100% for the whole period).12 0.31 0. after which manufacturing became the main CO2 emitter.2 0.25 8.17 0.6 0.24 0.44 1.005 0.5 0.24 Total MtCO2 5.11 0.4 5.11 0.43 0.2 0.04 Manufacturing processes MtCO2 2. other sectors.16 0.34 1.04 Per capita tCO2 0.75 0.15 0.54 85. the energy sector in EMCCA countries and the manufacturing sector in ECOWAS countries emit the lowest amounts of CO2.73 1.22 0.10 0.2 2.47 101.44 0.35 0.10 0.84 0. such as the residential and tertiary sectors for both zones.Because of the lack of data for 2008.5 1.9 0.25 1.23 2.87 0. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 74 / 75 .39 0.7 0.87 31.18 0.3 0.11 0.11 0.65 1.24 0. after which they began to increase.21 0.44 5.905 0.57 3.63 0 0.1 Total emissions and per capita emissions Table 1: CO2 emissions per country and their indicators in 20071 2007 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Combustion MtCO2 3.26 0.29 10.34 0. Furthermore.26 0.57 0. we have used the most recent emissions declaration .1 0.27 36.13 93.74 0. Emissions in the energy sector were stable from 1990 to 2000.32 6.32 0.

074 0.075 0.Table 1 shows a very small difference between average per capita emissions in the EMCCA zone.54 total 0.285 6.098 4.38 0.25 1.067 1.916 0.14 Burkina Faso and 0.53 34.55 0.39 t per capita for Nigeria.69 0.39 0.037 0.69 0.19 0.06 0.18 0.021 0.47 0.5 7.09 0.25 1.16 7.69 0.17 0.12 0.84 0.11 0.26 Manufacturing indirect 0. and from 0.18 38.3 0.08 0.07 t per capita for Niger to 0.15 3.72 0.5 2.05 0.13 0.17 0.21 0.62 13.11 7.18 38.43 20.016 0.38 8.49 0.046 0.62 13.12 0.78 0.57 for Liberia.2 0.21 4.022 0.8 14.12 0.06 0.02 0.04 0.12 0.76 1.61 0.18 2.074 0.02 direct 1.42 0.043 3.44 t per capita for Senegal or 0.11 in EMCCA countries.012 0.69 0.0023 Transport indirect total 1. Table 2: Direct and indirect CO2 emissions of economic sectors in countries 2007 MtCO2 Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA direct 0.13 3.98 0.33 0.29 0.4 3.102 0.45 0.45 0.21 0.3 0 0.0045 0.47 0.003 0.69 0.025 3.76 1. In both ECOWAS and EMCCA countries.016 0.82 14.94 0.9 9.07 7.17 0.97 1.916 0.95 1.041 0.012 2.68 direct 0.87 0.32 0.33 Residential indirect 0.96 0.11 0.15 0.67 5.87 0.076 1.74 0.088 0.044 0.56 0.15 0.067 0.49 0.21 t per capita for Cameroon to 1.045 0.086 0.53 34.26 0.14 .98 0.13 0.41 0. per capita emissions levels vary dramatically from country to country: from 0.198 0. Emissions intensities per dollar of PPP GDP produced vary significantly from 0.009 0.8 0.98 0.21 0.046 4.018 0.028 1.3 22.76 0. There is also a great deal of variation among countries within the ECOWAS zone: 0.25 2.05 1.15 0 0.032 0.043 0.24 0.29 0.36 0.02 0.89 1.035 4.19 0.68 0.5 2.43 20.15 3.048 0.033 5.33 0.26 0.71 0.023 0.19 1.74 t per capita for Gabon.97 1.72 8.4 0.42 0.98 0.098 4.87 0.031 0.78 0.71 2.067 1.97 0.15 0.24 in ECOWAS countries to 0.15 8.053 4.098 0 0.44 0.

Indirect emissions are mainly those generated by electricity power plants (fossil thermal plants).16 0. It can be seen that in countries in the ECOWAS zone.34 0.95 0.11 1. The tertiary sector is just behind it with 0.09 0.17 6.01 2.7 Mt (21%).5 0.54 15.72 0.53 0.008 0.054 0.02 0.013 2. Manufacturing is in third position with 14.3 Mt (54%).49 0.025 total 0.01 0.22 0.06 1.5 Mt of CO2 (49%).26 9.054 0.98 0. ahead of the transport sector with 4.39 0. In countries in the EMCCA zone.11 0.028 0. in the ECOWAS and EMCCA zones Tertiary total 1.11 0.009 0 0.02 0 0 0 0. ahead of the tertiary sector with 4.028 0.006 0.2 Mt (31%).6 0.3 0.16 0. however.25 0 0. which are used to supply electricity to corresponding final consumption sectors.85 Mt (22%).15.04 0. followed by the residential sector .85 0.6 Mt (12%).34.8 Mt (7%) and agriculture with 0.41 0.95 0.94 0.26 0.52 Mt (4%) and agriculture with 0. the transport sector is the biggest CO2 emitter .87 0.032 0.033 0.12 1.04 0.82 0.36 0.62 17. followed by the residential sector with 1. manufacturing is the biggest CO2 emitter with 7.14 0.085 0.04 0.013 2.06 Mt (0.21 0.14 0.18 direct 0.01 2.2 Direct and indirect emissions per sector Table 2 shows the distribution of direct and indirect emissions resulting from combustion in different sectors of final consumption energy.2.009 0.5%).05 0.26 0 0.96 0.22 0.52 5.07 0.66 0.03 0.22 0.07 0.41 5 0.27 0.12 0.72 0 0.68 0.53 0.18 0.5 0.16 0.32 0.53 0.008 0.95 Mt (1%).003 direct Agriculture indirect total Benin Burkina Faso Cape Verde Ivory Coast Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Liberia Mali Niger Nigeria Senegal Sierra Leone Togo ECOWAS* ECOWAS Cameroon Central African Republic Congo Gabon Equatorial Guinea Chad EMCCA ECOWAS+EMCCA Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 76 / 77 .003 0.025 0.006 0.085 0.03 0.01 0.05 4.02 0.27 4.003 indirect 0.17 1.94 0.78 0.009 0.

REGIONAL ENERGY POLICIES Regional energy policies are characterised by joint decisions with respect to the directions and strategies of national policies. 1 .VIII . • Develop coherent energy investment programmes centred around reducing poverty in rural and suburban areas. 2nd session by Kouo Dibongue. 17-20 April 2007/ Yaoundé/Cameroon. Energy policy in ECOWAS countries The energy policies of countries in the ECOWAS zone are structured around four main areas: • The West African Power Pool (WAPP). together with an emergency security Energy Supply plan (for boosting electricity generation capacity and implementing energy efficiency measures). a number of subsidiary objectives were also defined: • Strengthen regional integration by sharing good practice and exchanging information in order to develop and increase capacity. 1. • The White Paper on access to modern energies for a significant proportion of the population. • Promote harmonised political and institutional frameworks which further support access to energy services as one of the main priorities for human development and for achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs). and by the way in which energy trade is structured. • The Regional Electricity Regulatory Authority (ARREC) for countries in the ECOWAS zone. These national investment programmes for providing access to energy services are based on three major pillars: • Access to cooking fuels: 100% of the population will have access to a modern cooking service.From the ECOWAS/WAEMU White Paper presentation.The main objective of this policy was to provide at least half the population with access to modern energy services by 2015. . 1. • The development and promotion of renewable energy through the creation of a regional centre in Praia. particularly electricity trade through the construction of international transport networks for interconnecting regions.1 White paper1 The White Paper was adopted in January 2006 in Niamey (Niger) by ECOWAS heads of state and government. In order to meet this main objective.

100% in urban and suburban areas and 36% in rural areas. the ECOWAS and the WAEMU (West African Economic and Monetary Union) decided jointly2 to create a regional centre for renewable energies and energy efficiency which will be based in Praia in Cape Verde. such as preventing anti-competitive practices. and so for providing support to the various regulatory mechanisms in place.3 Regional Electricity Regulatory Agency for ECOWAS countries3 ECOWAS has decided to set up a Regional Electricity Regulatory Authority (ARREC).Source: http://www. • Implementing effective communications channels between governments. around US$50 billion needs to be invested over a ten-year period . regulators and the electricity services of member states with regard to mutual interest issues. • Access to electricity services: 66% of the population will have access to household electricity supply . 2 . In order to meet these objectives. and so for providing support to the various regulatory mechanisms in place. The implementation of this regional electricity regulatory body was launched in March 2006. 1.It is worth remembering that the WAEMU also has an energy policy made up of several components. • Tracking wholesale electricity sales between different purchasers within the member states and analysing their efficiency in order to avoid anti-competitive practices. at the 35th ordinary summit of ECOWAS heads of state and government. including the Regional Initiative for Sustainable Energy. • Ensuring that the partners comply with commercial regulations and respect their contractual commitments and developing procedures for resolving disputes. The missions with which the ARREC is entrusted involve the following: • Developing and tracking the application of standardised technical regulations for managing trade between interconnected systems so as to maximise their technical efficiency. This regional regulatory agency for the electricity sector in ECOWAS countries will be responsible for introducing and managing cross-border electricity trade regulations.2 Regional centre for the promotion of renewable energies and energy efficiency In January 2008. to which the 8 Francophone countries of the ECOWAS zone belong. 1.int/services/expression_of_interest/fr/afd/EOI_BENCHMARKINGFINAL_FR1.• Access to mechanical power: 60% of the population will live in areas with access to mechanical power. based in Accra (Ghana).ecowas.pdf Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 78 / 79 . This regional regulatory agency for the electricity sector in ECOWAS countries will be responsible for introducing and managing cross-border electricity trade regulations.or US$16 per capita per year. 3 .

• The sustainable development initiative for rural and suburban development in the EMCCA zone.000 households up. Energy policy in EMCCA countries4 The energy sector’s sub-regional programme mainly involves two projects: • The energy information system. the aim being to develop or consolidate national rural electrification plans involving links in the community area. 15 April 2008. • Draw up terms of reference for the sub-regional study for implementing the EMCCA zone’s Energy Information System. • Coordinated development of hydroelectric power: This involves a sequence of studies per catchment area to be drawn out among the zone’s abundant sources of renewable energy.the feasibility of promoting energy services across a given area. 2. 4 . 2. producing and managing an action plan on the basis of survey data.1 The regional and national energy information system This project was implemented in accordance with a well-defined methodology: • Provide precise information based on the experience of other African countries. Deputy-director in charge of energy at the EMCCA commission.Extract from the report presented at the 21st Workshop on regional activities for accessing energy. • Promoting photovoltaic solar energy: this involves leading a themed cross-category initiative in which the various players involved can share their experience over a network.in operational terms . • Converting biomass surplus from agro-manufacturing units (target: companies): this will involve boosting the capacity of business frameworks with regard to co-generation techniques. • Take stock of the situation with regard to energy data and energy accounts available in the EMCCA zone’s member states. • Rural energy service promotion zone: this will involve defining . practical methods for implementing national and regional energy information systems within the EMCCA zone.2 The “Sustainable development for rural and suburban development” initiative The energy action plan for the EMCCA zone can be summed up in 10 points: • Support for electricity sector planning (SIG): this mainly involves strengthening national capacity (training and equipment provision). • Intensive suburban electricity projects: this involves linking a home population up as clients grouped together under a single transformer and connecting 125. developed in partnership with the Institut de l’Energie et de l’Environnement pour la Francophonie (Institute of Energy and Environment for Francophone Countries). putting together coherent energy investment projects. Dakar. . by Pierre YETE.2.

• Optimising the domestic fuels market: this involves setting up a concrete development programme following notice from companies. • Developing an energy charter which will commit member states within the framework of a community energy policy to drawing up an EMCCA national energy code integrating hydroelectricity. in the hope that in the mid.ecowapp.org Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 80 / 81 .1 Interconnections among countries in the ECOWAS zone5 The West African Power Pool (WAPP) was set up in the ECOWAS zone in 1999 as a result of Decision A/DEC 5/12/99 taken at the 22nd Summit for heads of state and government in the region. 3. NGOs. • Dialogue on the hydrocarbon policy: this involves carrying out studies with a view to highlighting the refining and distribution problem. the main ones of which are the following. This specialist institution sets out to meet the electricity deficit in West Africa. A number of projects have so far emerged. and project managers for optimising the domestic fuels market. reliable electricity supply at a reduced cost. • Setting up an energy monitoring body: this body will be responsible for holding discussions to ensure the sustainability of the process. without forgetting issues relating to substitute fuels and creating a EMCCA zone oil club.Source: www. this mechanism would provide a stable. Electricity trading system between countries in both zones 3. and to create added value. a framework for dialogue designed to improve the regulation of oil and gas contracts. Implementing all of these initiatives require approximately 236 million over a five-year period (2007-2012). solar energy and hydrocarbons. This organisation’s main aim is to integrate national electricity system operations into a unified regional electricity market.to long-term. 5 .

2010) .ecowapp. CEB : Benin Electricity Community .CEB (Q4. 150 MW 147 MW Adjarala hydroelectric project National Electricity Control Centres (Ivory Coast (CIE).Source: http://www. IDA : International Development Association . SOPIE : Ivory Coast Electricity Holding Company .Lome 'C' . 2009 10 2013 . 400 MW .OMVS. 6 . Guinea-Bissau and Senegal To provide hydroelectric power for Sierra Leone To curtail power outages in the medium term and reinforce power supply security in WAPP To increase the hydroelectric power capacity of Togo and Benin Modernise the SCADA system: communications and telemetry systems in particular to minimise power outages and improve efficiency Modernise the SCADA system: communications and telemetry systems in particular to minimise power outages and improve efficiency To provide emergency support to Guinea-Bissau as required in anticipation of the advent of the OMVG8 2013 2015 2009 2011 Year brought into servic Q1. Togo. 8 . Ghana and Ivory Coast To provide adequate capacity for unconstrained electricity trade among Nigeria. Burkina Faso. 450 MW .Ouagadougou Transmission Line (Burkina Faso) 225/150 kV Ferke . 2007 2 Q3. 1 Project 330 kV Sakété . 2012 Q4. Togo.Ségou (Mali . Guinea.Sakété (Ghana-Togo-Benin Interconnection) 225 kV Bobo .VRA (Q3. PHCN : Power Holda8 ing Company of Nigéria . Guinea Bissau-SenegalGuinea Interconnection) + hydro site at Kaleta and Sambangalou Bumbuna 50 MW hydroelectric power project Emergency power supply security plan . Liberia Cross border project (Gambia-Senegal.WAPP Priority Projects6 Projects implemented (million US dollars) No.Organisation set up to make use of the Senegal River. Benin.Aboadze. Benin.Sikasso . Togo. Gambia and Guinea-Bissau To ensure the smooth. coordinated operation of the WAPP interconnected system 2011 a7 VRA : Volta River Authority .Ivory Coast Interconnection) 60 MW hydro power project in the OMVS7 225 kV OMVG Loop (Gambia. Ghana (VRA).pdf 7 . Benin.Maria Gleta. . Togo.Ikeja West Line (Nigeria-Benin interconnection) 330 kV Aboadze . 2012) 11 12 13 14 15 16 a6 2008 2010 2010 Cross border project To increase access to energy in the border communities (Ghana. Burkina Faso. CIE : Ivory Coast Electricity Company . 2010 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Q4. Ivory Coast. Benin/Togo (CEB). Liberia) of Ghana. Ghana and Ivory Coast To extend the electricity supply from the Ivory Coast to Ouagadougou To interconnect networks in the Ivory Coast and Mali in order to export low-cost power from the Ivory Coast to Mali To increase the hydroelectric capacity of the OMVS power system To interconnect the national power systems of the Gambia. Ivory Coast.Organisation set up to make use of the Gambia River.org/status_wapp_projects. Nigeria (PHCN) National Electricity Control Centre (Burkina Faso (SONABEL) Guinea-Bissau emergency programme Objective To interconnect Nigeria and Niagara with the rest of zone A of the WAPP To provide adequate capacity for unconstrained electricity trade among Nigeria.Volta Transmission Line 330 kV Volta . Guinea-Bissau-Senegal) WAPP operations manual To increase access to energy in the border communities of Senegal.

EIB : European Investment Bank . 80% of construction work on the line is complete. SOGEM AfDB.3 0 World Bank. AFD : French Development Agency . LEC (Liberia) Funding Required In progress In progress: in the process of being finalised Funding Required In progress: Manual developed and approved by the executive board for deployment throughout the interconnected WAPP system. Abu Dhabi fund. EBID Kuwait Fund. In progress Completed Relaunched: In progress In progress: contract signed In progress: pre-investment studies completed. over 70 km of line have been set up. Nordic fund. CEB (Benin/Togo) AFD.893 . KfW : Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau Privatkundenbank.380 321 67 130 102 135 38 0 0 31 855. AfDB. World Bank/IDA. KfW. EIB. BOAD World Bank/IDA. World Bank and IDA Project status Completed In progress: erection of transmission line towers started in July 2008. EBID.380 321 EBID Relaunched: feasibility study is complete 40 20 18 World Bank/IDA In progress: financing received for VRA and CEB 10 10 19810 6 860 14. AfDB.800 . Completed In progress: 38 38 105 130 102 236 1451 88 . CEB (Benin/Togo). EIB. BOAD : West African Development Bank . AfDB : African Development Bank . IDB : Inter-American Development Bank Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 82 / 83 . SONABEL (Burkina Faso). KfW. EIB. EIB. ADB. DANIDA Government of India. Financing in the process of being mobilised. German government WAPP donors LEC : Libéria Electricity Company . BOAD.WAPP donors EU.6 595. EBID : Ecowas Bank For Investment and Development . World Bank/IDA. VRA (Ghana). IDB World Bank.800 . ADB : Asia Development Bank . OPEC Fund 88 .43 19810 10 10 World Bank/IDA ECOWAS . AFD.Project Funds secured Funds under Financing gap Cost negotiation achevé achevé Funding sources BOAD. 6 860 14.20 . SOPIE (Ivory Coast).873 . VRA (Ghana).43 AfDB.

• 330 kV Ikeja West .Sakété line (Nigeria-Benin interconnection) • 330 kV Volta – Mome Hagou – Sakété line (Ghana – Togo – Benin) .

Cameroon Cameroon.8 Studies: 0.5 2 3 4 Work: 1770 Inga – Cabinda – Pointe Noire interconnection Cross-border electrification of Zongo (DRC) from Bangui Cross-border electrification of 7 villages (CAR) from Mobaye (DRC) Electrification of LéRé.26 Work: 7. the West African Energy Pool (PEAC) is the body responsible for structuring and running the electricity market. Congo.3. Nigeria RD Congo. Energy consumption in ECOWAS and EMCCA countries 84 / 85 .39 Work: 13.2 Interconnections among countries in the EMCCA zone9 In Central Africa. and the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe).The PEAC was set up in April 2003 and has six members from within the EMCCA and a further five from outside it (Angola. Ebebiyin (Equatorial Guinea) and Meyo-Kye (Gabon) TRANSPORT TRANSPORT HYD. Cameroon. The following are priority projects for interconnecting countries in the region: N° 1 Name of project Inga .8 Studies: 0.Calabar interconnection Country DR Congo. Central African Republic DR Congo. Angola. Its aim is to ensure that the region’s energy needs are met through the implementation of an interconnected electricity network.3 Studies: 1 Studies: 0. GEN + OTHER 5 OTHER 6 OTHER 7 OTHER 9 . Congo DR Congo. Momboré. Angola. Mamboroua and Binder (Chad) from Guider (Cameroon) Electrification of Kyo-Ossi (Cameroon). Para.Source: Panorama 3rd Session PEAC. Gabon Type TRANSPORT Estimated cost (Million US$) Studies: 3 Études : 1 Réalisation : 97. Gabon. Burundi.26 Work: 9. Congo DR Congo. Rwanda. Ribao. Central African Republic Chad. Equatorial Guinea.13 Work: 28 Studies: 0. Equatorial Guinea. the Democratic Republic of Congo.

10 .1 Cameroon .10 Project DIMBOLI Cameroon .Gabon interconnection Country Cameroon.5 65. The project is worth some US$500 million and is being financed by a consortium made up of 6 companies: Nigeria National Petroleum Coorperation (25%). Equatorial Guinea Gabon. Shell Nigeria (18%).7 72 40 591.Gabon interconnection MINI Hydro Cameroon . DRC 4. CAR Cameroon. Chervon Nigéria Ltd (36.8 12.7 27. Chad.6 14 Production Cost excl. Ghana. Nigeria Cameroon .2 343.4 83.com/texte/Economie/Gazoduc_ouest_africain.A (2%) and Société Togolaise de Gaz S. Congo Gabon.2 197. Source: http://www.pdf It is being managed by the West African Gas Pipeline Company (SOGAO). Equatorial Guinea Cameroon.htm .http://www.6 Hydroelectric power 188 MW 200 MW 20 MW MT/BT cost (M€) 97.1 23. 4 West African heads of state (Nigeria. Congo 179 MW 0 100 MW 15 MW 53 MW 39 MW 26. 11 and 12 November 2009. Congo.Report of the 2nd regional committee meeting for coordinating the EMCCA zone’s “intensive suburban electrification” project. Congo Cameroon. Takoradi and Effasu in Ghana.4 128. Central African Republic Cameroon.centre CAR Cameroon.Congo Congo . Lomé in Togo and Tema. VAT (M€) 466. 11 . CAR Northern CAR East Congo Cameroon. Gabon. with a maximum discharge of 5.togo-confidentiel. Congo.5 million m³. It involves the construction of a 600 km long gas pipeline.Malabo interconnection Southern Congo Gabon interconnection Cameroon . Benin and Togo to get natural gas from Nigeria. Société Béninoise de Gaz S. The West African Gas Pipeline Project11 In February 2003. Togo and Benin) signed a treaty for the production and extraction of natural gas.2 154.foei.A number of other projects have been identified within the framework of the EMCCA zone’s “intensive suburban electrification” initiative.org/fr/publications/pdfs/wagp-fr. This project will enable Ghana. during the 26th ordinary ECOWAS summit.6 63. Chad. The pipeline will start in Alagbado in the suburbs of Lagos (Nigeria) and will link up the towns of Cotonou in Benin. CAR CAR. Volta River Authority of Ghana (16%).N’Djamena Cameroon.3%).4 28. Chad.A. (2%).

.

the Ministry for Higher Education and Research. Transport and Housing. Sustainable Development. air quality and noise abatement. The agency is active in the implementation of public policy in the areas of the environment. As part of this work the agency helps finance projects. energy efficiency and renewable energy. Finance and Industry. government bodies and the public at large. soil conservation. ADEME 27. rue Louis Vicat 75015 Paris . 7218 ISBN 978-2-35838-185-7 I July 2011 I Printed on Eco-label paper with vegetal-based inks ADEME provides expertise and advisory services to businesses. energy and sustainable development. local authorities and communities. from research to implementation. and the Ministry for Economy. in the areas of waste management. to enable them to establish and consolidate their environmental action.ABOUT ADEME The French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) is a public agency under the joint authority of the Ministry for Ecology.France .