ͧ³°±-·«³

VOLUME 4, NUMBER 1 ISSN 1075-0045 MAY 1996
ISNE-3 A RESOUNDING SUCCESS
By Hal Fox, Editor
Thirty-four papers in the Proceedings: International
Symposium on New Energy, Denver, Colorado, April
25-28, 1996 testify to the interest and efforts of many
authors and organizers that made a resounding
success of the third ISNE. compliments the
organizers and the many volunteers who have made
this conference a rewarding experience.
HighIights of the Conference:
International Association of New Science (IANS)
announces the formation of the second new energy
membership organization! This baby brother to the
Institute for New Energy is named Academy for New
Energy with its pro-tem president, Joseph P. Maize.
Zenergy Corporation of Chandler, Arizona,
announced a twelve territory, world-wide energy
licensing, manufacturing,
marketing, and engineering consortium. World
Headquarters will be located in Arizona.
Hal Fox, Editor of , gave the
opening keynote presentation for the conference.
Eugene Mallove, well-known author of Fire from Ice,
Searching for Truth Behind the Cold Fusion Furor,
and editor-in-chief of , was the banquet
speaker. Other keynote presenters at the three day
session were Ron Kovac, Dennis Cravens, Tom
Valone, and James L. Griggs.
InternationaI Symposium on
New Energy
ABSTRACTS
All of the following abstracts were papers presented
at the 3rd International Symposium on New Energy.
VACUUM SPIN ENERGY
Harold Aspden, "Vacuum Spin as a New Energy
Source."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
"Vacuum spin" consists of cylindrical or spherical
pockets of aether spinning inside coextensive matter,
and developing powerful electric fields. While these
fields are canceled by unseen ionization or polariz-
ation in matter, the spin does develop kinetic energies
from
2 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
an electrical coupling with outer space by the
phase-lock of a quantum synchronization with the
surrounding aether. The kinetic energy obtained with
low electrical input power amounts to more than a
billion joules per cubic meter -- thus providing an
over-unity prospect. By regenerating the spin
condition cyclically, one can access aether energy at
a power rate determined by the pulse frequency and
the physical volume of the 'vacuum spin' form.
Independent experiments, and relationship to the
so-called N-machine will be discussed.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
In this paper Aspden gives us further insight into the
"Aspden Effect" in which a type of rotational inertia is
demonstrated.
REGAUGING & MULTIVALUED POTENTIALS
T.E. Bearden, "Regauging and Multivalued Potentials:
Permissible Over-Unity Performance and Specific
Engine Examples."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Scalar Multivalued Potentials (MVPs) are naturally
occurring, nonconservative fields, which can be
utilized to accomplish potential energy regauging of
an engine. Excess electromagnetic energy is
furnished directly from the vacuum during regauging,
and thus exhibits a coefficient of performance greater
than 1.0. While this violates the familiar classical
electromagnetism of conservative fields, it does not
violate known electromagnetics nonconservative
fields, thermodynamics or conversation of energy
laws. Examples include: Johnson's patented non
linear all-permanent-magnet motor, and the
Takahashi and Kawai engines -- all of which
demonstrate permissible over-unity coefficients, such
that these prototypes are now ready for full
development and ultimate introduction into world
markets.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Bearden's discussion is always interesting. This
latest addition to Bearden's analytical discussions of
creating new energy devices, uses the following
concept. One of the topics in discussing Maxwell's
equation has to do with the definition of potentiaI.
Normally, the rate of change of
potentiaI
with
distance is treated. The rate of change of potentiaI
with time is usually treated as unimportant and that
portion of a solution to the Maxwell's equation is
arbitrarily set to zero (or to a
constant). For some historical reason this has been
dubbed as "gauging". Regauging involves changing
the value of this "rate of change of potentiaI with
respect to time". Bearden argues that there may be
some method by which the value of this term can be
changed (regauged) and thus, without vioIating the
MaxweII's equation, provide a method to obtain
energy.
PULSED GLOW DISCHARGE REACTOR
Alexandra and Paulo Correa, "Excess Energy
Conversion System Utilizing Pulsed Glow Discharge
Reactor."
AUTHORS' ABSTRACT
Vacuum arc discharges (VADs) have been shown to
deploy anomalous cathode reaction forces. By
driving the cold-cathode vacuum tube into sustainable
cyclical oscillations, spontaneous auto-electronic
erosion occurs which appear to conform to Aspden's
Law of Electrodynamics. Utilizing the anomalous
cathode reaction, electrical energy can be extracted
from the plasma reactor through a capture and
rectifying circuit, by virtue of a pulsatory interaction
with the polarized zero-point energy field. Direct
utilization is then possible with A.C. motors and
transformers.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Alexandra Correa presented a variety of video
pictures of glow discharges (vacuum arc discharges).
Correa was highly complimentary of Aspden's work
that led him to this VAD work and his development of
means by which excess energy can be obtained. His
work certainly should be treated by the scientific
community as another avenue by which we can
extend our understanding of the energetic aether.
Whether this work will lead to practical
commercialization is not readily apparent. See page
13 for further information on this technology.
RODIN'S AERODYNAMICS
Alastair Couper, "Thoughts upon Reading Marco
Rodin's Aerodynamics."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Rodin has conceived of a toroidal form upon which a
coil of very specific geometry is wound. The details
of
NEW ENERGY NEWS 3
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
the flow of energy are dependent upon an elaborate
numerological scheme rendered on the surface of the
toroidal form, and result in a strong gravitational effect
in the case of a properly executed and powered
winding. Included in the designs are ancient
geometries, as well as fractals, holograms,
monopoles, phased arrays, synchronized electricity,
and other modern scientific concepts. This paper is
intended to link Rodin's aerodynamics with
established theories and concepts, and includes a
fascinating link between numerological sequences
such as the Fibonacci Series and the potential for
electromagnetic systems tapping into vacuum or zero
point energies.
UNIFIED MODEL
Paul Cox, "The Unification of Electromagnetism and
Gravitation using an Interconnected Universe Model
-- 'Soul Psychophysics'."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
A model of an interconnected energy universe is
developed which unifies the concepts of electro-
magnetism and gravitation, as well as connecting
human beings to an interconnected evolving
universe. This model allows for multiple energy
dimensions (i.e. Souls) in a dynamic free energy
system in which energy can change form, increase
or diminish, and be created or destroyed.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Cox is an interesting person who has been lead to the
development of this theory. In scanning his
document, I found no relationship by which his theory
could be tied to any of the vast area of scientific
evidence with which I am familiar. I suggested that
he talk with Brian O'Leary who is far better versed in
psychophysics than I am.
PATTERSON POWER CELL
Dennis Cravens, Keynote: "The Patterson Power
Cell."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
The Patterson Fuel Cell is a light-water, lithium
electrolyte, nickel/palladium catalyst, which provides
for a new type of water hydrolysis. The patented
system has been demonstrated at prior conferences,
was the main subject of a report on ABC's Nightline,
and is
considered by many experts as the leading
contender for commercialization of New Energy
devices.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
In addition to his excellent discussion of the
Patterson Power CeII
TM
, Dennis Cravens held a
workshop in which he demonstrated a working power
cell. This cold fusion device (but not so-called by
Clean Energy Technologies) is doing an excellent job
of raising corporate, utility company, and academic
interest in cold fusion devices. We commend this
group on their excellent work in advancing the
technology of new-energy systems.
BIEFIELD-BROWN EFFECT
Larry Deavenport, "Towards Flight Without Stress or
Strain... or Weight."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
In 1923 Professor Paul Alfred Biefield, a physicist at
the California Institute for Advanced Studies,
discovered that a heavily charged condenser moved
toward its positive pole when suspended in a gravita-
tional field. He assigned T. Townsend Brown to study
the effect as a research project. The discovery was
later called the Biefield-Brown Effect. The question
today is the credibility of T.T. Brown and his system of
propulsion called electro-gravitics.
MODERN WIND POWER
John Earle, "Windmill Home Comes of Age,"
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
A motivational approach for widespread wind power
generation is presented by combining modern wind
power generation with a structure resembling an Old
World (Dutch) windmill. In contrast to the skeletal
windmill of the windmill farm, an attractive type of
structure is described with the dual purpose of
generating power and providing a uniquely attractive
home.
ENERGY MEASUREMENT
Robert Emmerich, "On Energy Measurement."
4 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Definitions and measurements of basic mechanical,
thermal, and electric energies was discussed, along
with examples of measurement pitfalls, difficulties,
and errors. Measurement of electrical energy - from
dc to gigahertz - was described in detail, as was
absorptive and transmissive energy measuring
wattmeters.
NEW ENERGY COMMERCIALIZATION
Hal Fox, "Three Types of New Energy Technologies
Being Commercialized."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
A summary of progress made in the development of
three new energy technologies: cold nuclear fusion,
high-density charge clusters, and super-magnets/
super-motors -- providing thermal, electric, and
mechanical energy. These three technologies are
expected to form the basis for energy-producing
systems of the 21st century, and all three are
expected to be commercialized during 1996 and
1997.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Fox announced the successful invention, patent
application, and early positive results of a new fiber
power cell. This invention has the following inventors:
Bruce Everingham, Avard Fairbanks, Hal Fox, Peter
Glück, and Shan Jin. Fox announced that specially
plated nickel-fiber cathodes were the key that
provides for ten to twenty times as much thermal
output as compared with electrical input.
BALL LIGHTNING IN THE LAB
Robert K. Golka, "Laboratory-Produced Ball
Lightning."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Discovering ball lightning was more of a high current
phenomenon than a high voltage one, the author
contends that cavity-formed plasmoids can be made
by putting a 2-inch burning candle in a home kitchen
microwave oven. The plasmodes float around for as
long as the microwave energy is present. Although
anticipating some types of ball lightning to emerge as
strictly electrostatic- electromagnetic manifestations,
laboratory provable evidence has not been found.
HYDROSONIC PUMP
James L. Griggs, Keynote: "The Hydrosonic Pump."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
The Hydrosonic Pump is a novel device for heating
liquids by the use of shock waves, cavitation, or the
implosion of bubbles within the liquid. The efficiency
of the device has been shown to be significantly
greater than 100%, and may be connected with the
phenomenon of sonoluminescence, and the develop-
ment of the Keeley motor by John Keeley in the late
1800s. The presentation included discussion on
advantages, uses, and energy balances of the
Hydrosonic pump, including the latest research
findings.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
James Griggs and his company are marketing the
only commercial application of a new-energy device
in the United States. At each conference that we
listen to James, he shows us that he is improving his
device. NASA and at least one university are testing
the Hydrosonic Pump
TM
. James found that you do not
sell a device by telling people that it is over-unity --
they won't believe you. Griggs marketing ploy is just
to provide a comparative list of costs of producing hot
water or steam with his device and typical "fired-up"
devices.
SPACE ENERGY ECONOMICS
Josef Gruber, Ph.D. "Economic Effects of Space
Energy Technologies (SET) on Individuals and
Society."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Space Energy devices include the Patterson Fuel
Cell, Takahashi's supermagnet-supermotor (utilizing
super-strong permanent magnets), the Swiss
M-L-Converter, Stanley Meyer's water-fueled engine,
Grigg's Hydrosonic Pump, and other inventions.
Several scenarios were presented which incorporate
these developed devices in the mainstream society
in the areas of transportation, electricity and heat
production, and the unprecedented economic, fiscal,
social, political and environmental effects which are
expected. Of particular importance is the potential for
NEW ENERGY NEWS 5
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
sustainable development, and the need for
important required actions and goals.
TESLA DESIGNS FOR PROPULSION
Richard Hull, and Charles Yost, "Tesla Coils,
Electrostatics and Electric Propulsion."
AUTHORS' ABSTRACT
A discussion of the latest results of experiments on
the character of dynamic electrostatic fields (dynamic
E-fields), including a test of Nicola Tesla's assertion
that much of the electrical phenomena produced by
his coils were electrostatic in nature and not
electromagnetic. Details of new electrostatic
experiments were presented along with what appears
to be promising paths in which electrostatics,
magnetics and dynamic E-fields might be combined
for aerospace flight.
NEW ELECTROMAGNETIC TECHNOLOGY
John Hutchison, "Electromagnetic Space Charge
Technology."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Discussion on the Hutchison Effects (including a
video presentation), zero point energy, methods to
tap into the zero point energy, and a demonstration of
a no-moving-parts, Casimer Effect unit showing
energy activated in a special space charge system.
The latter unit, which fits in a briefcase or even a
pocket, was displayed, tested and measured.
[Hutchison was unable, at the last minute, to make
the conference. We look forward to more information
from John at a later conference. Ed.]
THE SUPER TUBE
Moray B. King, "The Super Tube."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Combining the results of four areas of plasma
research yields the principles for developing the
"Super Tube," a plasma tube which optimally coheres
the zero point energy. Such a tube could become the
foundation for re-inventing the 50 KW radiant energy
machine of T.
Henry Moray. The four areas of plasma research
include: Abnormal Glow Discharge (e.g. Correa),
Hollow Cathode Discharge, Radioactive Cold
Cathode, and Noble Gas Mixture (e.g. Papp). A free
running, two-stage device similar to T.H. Moray's first
radiant energy invention can be constructed with two
super tubes operating in the abnormal glow discharge
regime, and the output rectified onto capacitors which
gradually charge to become the mutual input current
source for the tubes.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Moray presented an excellent review of research
leading up to the possible development of the "super
tube." It should be mentioned that Ken Shoulders'
work with high-density charge clusters can be
considered as a special form of plasma.
PLASMA SHAPING & ENERGY
Ronald J. Kovac, "Plasma Shaping, New Mass and
Energy Source."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Mass spectroscopy analysis has revealed that the
contents in a tube after plasma shaping (electro-
magnetics) included substantial amounts of helium-4
and lithium-5. Lithium-5 is considered the "missing
link" element in that mass spectrometer literature
indicates that there is no element with an atomic
weight of five. The existence of this element is
theoretically predicted, and has been created by
using a vacuum tube with only nitrogen-14 exposed
to electromagnetic force fields and high voltage.
[Kovac showed videos and a platform demonstration
of special plasmas having various geometries. In
addition, he showed photos taken by the Hubble
telescope where this same type of geometry is found
in astronomical structures as large as galaxies. Ed.]
COLD FUSION AS LEADER
Eugene F. Mallove, "Cold Fusion: Vanguard of the
New Energy Age." [This was the banquet
presentation.]
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
It is difficult to imagine a more profound reversal of
scientific fortunes than what has been emerging in
the
6 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
coId fusion field. One of the most reviled, disputed
anomalies in the history of scienCE is painfully, but
inexorably heading toward acceptance by the
scientific community. Not only that, but because cold
fusion is rapidly entering the mainstream of media
and industrial attention, it will have the collateral
effect of focusing attention on other perhaps related
anomalous excess energy machines -- New Energy
devices that rely or vortex-cavitation principles and
ones that are entirely electromagnetic, e.g.
permanent magnet motors of unusual design that are
claimed to be over-unity.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
It is now clearly evident that the advent of cold fusion
has paved the way for the more ready acceptance of
other anomalous alternative energy devices. Several
utilities and corporations are testing and verifying the
excess thermal power results that are advertised for
the Patterson Power CeII
TM
. Several university
professors are making serious studies (sometimes
funded by corporations). Without any government
secrecy act to curtail such activity, and with funding
being provided, it is not difficult to obtain some
academic acceptance of the experimental facts that
nuclear reaction byproducts are being found in cold
fusion devices. This activity has engendered the
humorous observation at the conference that
scientists wiII beIieve what they are paid to
beIieve.
In a serious vein, the activities of the CETI
organization are laying the groundwork for the
acceptance of other new energy devices. We wish
to express our great thanks to James Reding,
president of CETI, and to Dr. Dennis Cravens for
his demonstrations of the Patterson Power CeII
TM
.
A WOMAN IN ENERGY RESEARCH
Jeane Manning, "New Energy: One Woman's
Odyssey."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
A journalistic view to new energy research, including
details of individuals working in the field. Emphasis is
placed on the creative energies of implosion- based
technologies (vice [sic] the destructive tendencies of
explosion-based burning of fuels and smashing of
atoms). A clean-energy basis for national economies
is discussed.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Jean Manning is a noted writer with a new book to be
released by a major publisher this coming year. She
turned part of her time over to members of the
audience and invited them to share their view of what
the soon-to-be New Energy future would be like. One
comment related Ken Shoulders observation that the
major problem in the future would not be a scarcity of
energy but the need for new technology to get rid of
thermaI poIIution.
A. Michrowski & J. Van Rhee, "Brown's Gas in
Autonomous Energy Homes." [A. Michrowski was the
presenter.]
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
There is a demand for the design and realization of
healthy, autonomous energy homes. The proposed
modality for the safe supply of energy uses a solar
energy system generating DC power for a
stoichiometric 2:1 proportion hydrogen/oxygen gas
(Brown's Gas) generating electrolytic cells. This gas
generates and stores electrical power, feeds heating
and cooling systems and provides clean water. This
combination involves a relatively mature and safe
technology and is available at present.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
One error in calculation of energy required to
electrolyze water and the energy available from the
electrolyzed Brown's Gas lead to an over-estimation
of energy available from the use of Brown's Gas. In
an earlier discussion with Yul Brown, I was surprised
that a relatively low-temperature flame (of the
stoichiometric ratio of hydrogen and oxygen from
water) could cut some metals better than an oxy-
acetylene torch. My explanation was derived from
cold fusion experiments in which protons appear to
enter nuclei and cause exothermic nuclear reactions.
Supplied by the flame from Brown's Gas, the
hydrogen ions (protons) would similarly combine with
some metal nuclei producing the observed high
temperatures by nuclear reactions. These proton-
capture nuclear reactions do not, in general, produce
damaging nuclear byproducts.
NEW ENERGY NEWS 7
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
NEW ENERGY & CONSCIOUSNESS
Brian O'Leary, "The Relationship Between Free
Energy, The Zero-Point Field and Consciousness."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
An exploration of the hypothesis that anomalous,
quantifiable results from zero point energy devices
and human produced psychokinetic events
(consciousness) may involve the same basic physics
in which charges dynamically interact with a zero
point field. This suggests an equivalence analogous
to Einstein's energy-mass equivalence, and may be
expressed in terms of a complexified charge in which
the imaginary component manifests as
consciousness. Questions and suggested hybrid
experiments were discussed which address the
requirements to initiate significant flows of energy
from the void, such that over-unity energy and
mind-over-matter events can occur.
50 HP FREE ENERGY UNIT
Gerald J. Orlowski, "Disclosure to Construct a 50 HP
Free Energy Unit."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
A disclosure of how to construct a 50 HP free energy
unit is freely offered. The Ro-Mag magnet
motor/generator is a magnetic device incorporating
the use of permanent magnets turning in a rotor in
order to generate a magnetic/electro energy that is
then circuited to other mechanisms to do useful work.
The unit does not require an input of electricity, but
rather a build-up of magnetic energy to cause an
energy thrust. The Ro-Mag unit utilizes a principle of
attract-attract and attract-release, instead of
mainstream attract-repel principles.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Orlowski gave a interesting account of his quest to
replicate the work of Rory Johnson. In this work
magnetism is treated as an energy source that can be
directed and controlled. We expect to hear more
about Orlowski's work in the near future. The Ro-
mag motor was previously used to operate an
automobile for several years. The paper gives a most
interesting account of the problems that were faced
by early developers of new-energy technologies. We
believe that this type of conference and this (and
other) newsletters and publications are paving the
way toward a new-energy future with less obstruction.
TIME & MAGNETIC FIELDS
Edwin L. Pangman, "Time and Magnetic Fields, A Lay
Perspective."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Omnidirectional (isotropic) flow of magnetic fields
may constitute the flow of time, in effect, dynamic
movement of canceled magnetic fields becoming
artificial time fluxes. This suggests the possibility of
created time generators, which in turn create a state
where material objects may be governed by hyper
laws of physics that don't apply to matter in the space
normal time. In this realm, thought and motion may
become one.
KEELY MUSICAL DYNASPHERE
Dale Pond, "The Keely Musical Dynasphere."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Development of a "scalar" developer (phase-conju-
gate polarizer) and differentiator (refractive
modulator), modeled after Keely's original Musical
Dynasphere. One of the basic working principles is
the development of a Neutral Center (so-called zero
point energy zone) and the differentiating of that state
into motive force. The process is a vibrational one,
and recognizes the necessity for universal harmonies
in design and operation of energy devices.
BELTRAMI VECTOR FIELD
Donald Reed, "The Beltrami Vector Field - The Key to
Unlocking the Secrets of the Vacuum Energy?"
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
An exploration of the Beltram vortex topology derived
from the annals of hydrodynamics and
electrodynamics of the 19th century - as a possible
archetype for the primordial electromagnetic vacuum
fields of space. The significance of this topology is
under-scored in the contra-rotating non-linear vortex
filaments discovered in plasma focus research. It is
argued that chiral Beltram morphology may be
universal in microscopic quantum phenomena as well
as macroscopic plasma levels. A new classical
model for the self-action of the electromagnetic field,
devoid of standard divergences
8 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
attendant with QED analysis is surveyed,
incorporating the Beltram vortex morphology.
WATER AND ZPE
Glen Rein, and William Tiller, "Some Evidence for
Anomalous Information Storage in Water: A Possible
Manifestation of ZPE."
AUTHORS' ABSTRACT
Water exposed to electromagnetic fields, and
measured by a variety of optical and electrical
methods, shows altered physical properties.
Compared results of the effects of a self-canceling
coil on water using UV spectroscopy were presented
- a first demonstration of a macroscopically
measurable event caused by information which is
non-electromagnetic and non-quantum. It is
speculated that the coil geometries may warp local
space/time, allowing an influx of ZPE, with the
energy/information acting in a manner unlike quantum
and EM fields.
HADRONIC ENERGY
Ruggero Maria Santilli, "Hardronic Energy, a New,
Clean,
SubnucIear
Source."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Outline of the new, subnuclear, clean Hadronic
energy, and indications these new forms of energy
generally contain the principles for recycling nuclear
waste. The basis of the relativistic hadronic
mechanics (RHM) is a quantitative representation of
interactions due to mutual wave overlappings, which
are (in the wavefunction), and
. They are therefore outside the domain
of relativistic Quantum Mechanics. Importantly,
nonlinear, nonlocal and nonpotential interactions can
produce attraction among particles, i.e. nuclei or
atoms of the charge - a fact already
established in the proton-proton bonding in the
nuclear structure, superconductivity, and chemical
bonding. RHM is expected to provide quantitative
treatments of cold fusion and other new energy
technologies, including RHM providing a rigorous
explanation of how cold fusion processes can be
initiated even against repulsive Coulomb barriers.
GRAVITATIONAL DRIVE
Pierre Sinclair, "Gravitational Magnetic Drive
(Anti-Gravity)."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
A presentation on Gravity Magnetic Devices, with a
description of the hardware and theory behind the
invention. Also included was a comparison with
other researchers with similar theories and
technologies, and a brief summary of the tremendous
possibilities and potentials of the technology.
MRA MEASUREMENT VERIFICATION
Robert Taylor & Ed Everett, "Measurement
Verification of MRA."
AUTHORS' INTRODUCTION
One (1) MRA S/N 95-3 was setup for demonstration
and measurement verification on 25 September 1995.
The demonstration and measurements were
performed at the Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical (TRA)
Engineering Environmental Laboratory located in San
Diego, California. The demonstration was conducted
by Robert Taylor and the measurement verification
was performed by Ed Everett of Teledyne Ryan
Aeronautical. The MRA demonstration and
measurement verification was conducted according to
customer direction. No written plan/guideline was
provided. A chronological record of the event was
maintained and is identified as TR 3715. The test log
was used as the basis of this report and a copy of this
log is presented as Attachment A. A copy of the
equipment list is also included as Attachment B. A
short discussion of the measurements made is
provided [in the paper].
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
A special arrangement was made for an independent
test of the MRA to be made just prior to the
conference. As reported to me by Dr. Robert Bass
who witnessed the tests, the equipment used was not
sensitive enough to measure the input power to the
MRA. Output power was measured. However, no
signed officiaI vaIue couId be given to the overaII
power gain of the device due to the Iack of input
power measurements. Therefore, the test did not
resuIt in a signed certification! This failure to get
certified test results was very frustrating, not only to
NEW ENERGY NEWS 9
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Ú«-·±² Þ®·»º·²¹-
Robert Taylor but also to the rest of us at the
conference.
FREE ENERGY PROPULSION
Tom Valone, Keynote: "Free Energy and Propulsion."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
A presentation on non-conventional energy and
propulsion inventions which have been reviewed,
tested and replicated to establish proof-of principle,
but which defy conventional analysis. Highlights
include developments of the homopolar generator
(N-Machine), recently declassified information about
T.T. Brown's electrogravitic propulsion system, a
synopsis of the Patterson Power Cell, and
information on (Yull) Brown's Gas.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Tom Valone is one of the pioneers in the search for
alternative energy systems. He has published
several books and is widely recognized for his work.
His presentation was an excellent review of the
history of this many-year quest for better ways of
producing clean energy.
ENERGY ACCUMULATORS
George Wisemann, "Solid State Energy
Accumulators."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
A discussion of several types of Free Energy
Receivers, all of which use some sort of antenna and
are grounded to earth. A detailed description will be
included of an Energy Accumulator, which was based
upon the research of Nicola Tesla and T. Henry
Moray. The Energy Accumulator is a passive device,
using NO input power to operate. The unit, instead,
readily absorbs various types of ambient energies
and stores the energy in capacitors or batteries for
later use - thus qualifying it as an "Over-unity"
invention. The ambient energies absorbed by the
Energy Accumulator consist of several categories,
including but not limited to, electromagnetic waves
and ionized particles.
NEW UNIFIED THEORY
Al Zielinski, "A New Theory that Unifies the Forces of
Nature."
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Presentation on the behavior of the aether, providing
a new concept of the essence of aether, and
explaining the failure of the Michelson-Morley aether
experiment. A theory is proposed which explains and
unifies the forces of nature, explains quantum theory
and the cosmogony of the universe, and provides
insight into new sources of energy for the future.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
This paper is highly recommended. The theory of the
aether is only briefly summarized and should be
carefully read. According to the author, he has more
to tell, provided that the information is protected by
signed non-disclosure agreements. Zielinski has
patents pending on his work and is visiting the U.S. to
determine the advisability of applying for patents on
his work in the U.S. In a personal discussion, he told
about being in a concentration camp for Germans
during World War II with his family. From age 5 to 11
he lived under spartan conditions. His father, an
engineer who had been employed by an American oil
company before the incarceration, asked for a
physics book to be sent to him. It was this physics
book, received in a concentration camp, that
launched Zielinski on his trek to become a scientist. I
am sure that we will hear more about Zielinski's work
in the future.
ITALY - COLD FUSION & JUDGE'S VERDICT
Courtesy of Jed Rothwell
26 March 1996
D. Morrison (CERN), "Court Judgement on Question
of Cold Fusion Being 'Scientific Fraud'," from Internet
Newsgroup sci/physics/fusion.
10 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Martin Fleischmann, Stanley Pons, Tullio Bressani,
Guiliano Preparata, and Emilio Del Giudice
Versus
Editoriale s.p.a., Eugenio Scalfari and
Giovanni Maria Pace.
In October 1991, the published an
article by their science editor, Giovanni Maria Pace,
which reviewed the book False Prophets and
essentially suggested that cold fusion was "scientific
fraud" and the names of Fleischmann and Pons were
mentioned. Letters from Bressani (Turin), Preparata
(Milan), and Del Guidice (Milan) were written to the
newspaper and published. The five then sued the
newspaper, its editor and the journalist for 8 billion lire
(about $5 million at that time).
The court appointed Prof. Giovanni Licheri of Cagliari
to assess the 105 pieces of scientific evidence
presented. The five plaintiffs asked Prof. Daniele
Gozzi (Rome) to be their adviser.
asked Douglas Morrison, of CERN, Geneva, to be
their scientific adviser. See 363(1993)107.
Both sides submitted further written evidence. This
may be the first time, or one of the first times, that a
law court has been asked to decide on a scientific
issue.
DECISION - The decision of the court has just been
received. It rejected the plaint of Fleischmann, Pons,
Bressani, Preparata, and Del Guidice. It condemned
the five to pay the legal expenses of 28 million lire
(less than $20,000) of the defendants.
MOTIVATION - Firstly the court considered whether
the manner in which Fleischmann and Pons
presented their results was correct. They concluded
that it was correct because on the 13th March 1989
they submitted their paper for publication, and it was
accepted on the 22nd March before their press
conference of the 23rd March.
However there were some negative aspects;
1. They failed to mention the work of Prof. Stephen
Jones which began in 1986. Fleischmann and Pons
had agreed with Jones to submit their papers for
publication together on the 24th March.
2. When it was pointed out to Fleischmann and Pons
that their gamma ray peak was at an impossible
energy, they changed the scale.
3. They claimed to have observed and measured
fusion for a long time but were not subject to gamma
radiation - therefore it was not fusion.
4. In April 1989, the US government set up a
committee of 22 scientists to check the results.
Despite complicated work, the results were negative.
This is
described in the book by John Huizenga, the
Co-Chairman, entitled Cold Fusion - The Scientific
Fiasco of the Century.
5. On the 8th July 1989, in the (daily
newspaper published in Utah) appeared an article
(with photograph) where Pons declared that he had
made an apparatus of the size of a thermos which
would satisfy the needs of a normal family and could
make tea. Pons also said that the boiler was giving off
10 to 15 times the energy put in.
The court noted that little progress had been made
since 1991, There was no good theory to explain the
claims of cold fusion and there was a failure to
observe the products of fusion as would be expected
(tritons, neutrons, protons,
3
He,
4
He and gamma
rays).
The court noted the comportment of Fleischmann and
Pons who provided different and inconsistent data at
different times, noted that they omitted to cite the
work of Prof. Jones, noted the manner in which they
dealt with the press, and noted how they considered
future developments and concluded that they were
separated from reality. The court noted that most
scientists had now abandoned cold fusion.
Thus, the court judged that Giovanni Maria Pace was
justified in making his comments in the exercise of his
profession, since there had been great discussion
and contestation.
The above is a brief summary of the 14 page
judgement. Since this was translated from Italian, it is
possible that there are some small errors in
translation (please inform me so I may correct them)
but the sense of the judgement is clear.
Douglas R. O. Morrison
Address: drom@vxcern.cern.ch
************************
Alison Abbott (staff writer), "Scientists Lose Cold
Fusion Libel Case," , vol 380, 4 April 1996, p
369.
reports that Pons and Fleischmann have lost
the 8-billion lire (US$ 6.3 million) libel case against
Italian newspaper and a journalist
Giovanni Pace, who had written a review of a book
about scientific fraud, False Prophets, in which he
had used what called "colorful wording"
likening Pons and Fleischmann to "fornicating priests"
as fraudulent scientists. reports that the judge
rules that Pace's words "represented an expression
of the right to report and criticize on part of the
journalist
NEW ENERGY NEWS 11
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
and as such are not derogatory." The scientists were
ordered to pay court costs.
A point was made by the magazine that although
scientific evidence from experts representing both
sides was heard, the judge concluded that cold fusion
remained an unproven hypothesis.
************************
Here are some comments by Chris Tinsley about the
Italian court judgment against Pons and Fleischmann.
I agree with Chris 100%.
- Jed Rothwell
From: Chris Tinsley
I've just heard the result of a court case in Italy, the
one where Fleischmann and Pons and others sued
the newspaper for referring to cold fusion
as scientific fraud. They lost the case. This has been
gleefully reported on sci.physics.fusion by the
scientific advisor to the defence, one Dr. Douglas O.
Morrison of CERN ...
So, why am I pleased? Because I hope this will
finally knock some sense into the heads of CF
people. I said in Boston that we haven't got time for
science in CF. That was not because I'm against
science - I'm all for it - but because (as I also said)
scientists wiII beIieve anything which they are
funded to beIieve. Also, contrariwise. But there's
only one way they'll be funded.
If the CF wars are to be fought within science, then
Planck's Other Constant will apply: "The time it takes
for fresh minds to overcome the past" Planck set this
value at 20 years.
...
So, how do we reduce Planck's twenty years? By
putting the machines into the hands of people with
money, showing that they work, and bringing some
materiaIs scientists in on the act - in a big way. Not
piecemeal, and most definitely not by doing "really
good science" to find out exactly why they work...
Meanwhile, out there we have all these little groups...
All of them seem to think that they have the one best
system
, and are terrified that if they tell anybody
about it - then somebody will find an improvement or
circumvent their patents [which they usually don't
have].
Commercial secrecy is legitimate, but paranoia, greed
and secretiveness are not...
And let us be clear about the present role of science
in CF. Its role is primarily to help in the development
of high-performance machines, and to ensure the
safety of products.
Once there are commerciaI products - even
poor-quaIity, Iow performance products - then
there wiII be no shortage of scientists to work on
improving them. There wiII aIso be pIenty of
funding to find out the basic phenomenon. In the
face of such funding, there wiII be pIenty of
beIieving scientists.
To find the mechanism - or mechanisms - of CF is
perhaps the most important aspect of the subject, but
it is certainly the Ieast urgent.
Maybe this court judgement will wonderfully
concentrate a few minds. I doubt it, though. As
Schiller puts it:
... And if "the gods themseIves contend in vain
against stupidity," I don't give much for the
chances of an ItaIian judge.
Chris Tinsley
HIGH GRADE ELECTRICAL ENERGY
Courtesy of Mitchell Swartz
EDITOR'S SUMMARY
At 12:05 a.m., on 1-28-96, with hundred milliwatt
levels of electricity, derived from the heat generated
using light water generators, Jet Energy Technology
achieved and launched its new phase of developing
high-grade electrical power output systems by
actually illuminating
12 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Í°¿½» Û²»®¹§
a small light source. Gary Verner and Mitchell Swartz
conducted the experiment wherein a tiny LED light
source, composed of gallium arsenide phosphide,
was made to glow as approximately 0.5 watts was
delivered entirely from the generator. [A picture was
sent, but was not reproducible. -Ed.]
The input electrical power to the light water power
generator was 9.8 watts (based on input electrical
current and voltage). The generator relied on the
thermal energy derived from a metal electrode, which
had previously been calibrated to deliver excess heat
output in the range of 300%. The high-grade
electrical output was ~0.58 watts (~323 milliamperes).
The Jet Energy Technology light water electric power
generator drove the minute light source for a few
minutes in each of the two initial runs. Although this
demonstration was not "break-even," it does provide
a new level of progress in this energy producing
system. Jet Energy Technology is highly
commended for their continued progressive
development of this future possible energy source.
SPACE ENERGY JOURNAL - MARCH 1996
, vol VII, issue 1. The following
are the contents and the editor's comments:
"New Science for the 21st Century" by Shiuji Inomata.
Dr. Inomata reminds us that while the Western
science did not include any type of "spiritus" (the
name that Newton used in his Principia) that the
Eastern cultures still had (and still have) a concept of
consciousness or ki and prana. Inomata includes his
famous triangle of formulas relating Mass, Energy,
and Consciousness.
"The Jensen Variable Air-Gap Transformer" by Don
Kelly.
Don Kelly describes experiments that show that the
Jensen transformer can produce 125% more power
out than input power.
"High Voltage Electromagnetic Motor" by Don Kelly.
Don describes further experiments by the Creative
Science and Research Group (Albany, Indiana) that
are similar to the Wimshurst generators. This is
similar to the approach used in the Swiss M-L
Converter.
"The Edwin Gray Capacitive-Discharge H.V. Motor"
by Don Kelly.
Kelly describes work by "a west Florida coast
engineering group" that has made a version of the
Edwin Gray motor. No claims, as yet, for over-unity
operation.
"High-Efficiency Generator" -- from the works of John
Ecklin
These ten pages of diagrams and suggestions are
directed to the experimenter. No data is provided to
indicate successful achievements. However, page 18
includes the sentence: "Free energy and perpetual
motion is everywhere...tap into it and let it do your
work for you." [Note: every atom with a theoretical
circling electron is a perpetual motion machine.]
"The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman" by Evan
Soule Jr.
This is similar to reports seen previously, except that
on the Iast page is the foIIowing: "On Thursday,
August 10, 1995, Joseph Newmann demonstrated his
newest production model of his motor/generator from
8:00 am to 8:00 pm -- and [it was] attached to a
Grainger Reciprocating Pump." This paragraph
states the use of a house watt meter, that did not turn
when the Newman motor operated but did turn when
a conventional motor was used. We would suggest
that some watt-hour meters are not sensitive to
voltage and current if the power factor is far from
normaI.
The power for an a.c. circuit is defined as P
= (E
M
I
M
/(2) cos 1, where the subscript M indicates
maximum or peak voltage and current, and 1 is the
angle that the current lags the voltage. The formula is
derived for sinusoidal wave forms. The Newman
motor is highly inductive and would strongly affect the
power factor and possibIy the action of the
standard watt-hour meter. Commercial factories
are often charged an additional premium on their
electric bill depending on the prevailing or average
power factor. Many supposedly over-unity devices
have been found to fail when power is properly
measured. This comment does not mean that the
Newman motor does not work. The message is: be
careful in how power is measured.
"The Beltrami Vector Field" by Don Reed
This is heavy-going for the non-mathematician but an
interesting concept of the nature of vortical currents.
"Method of Electrolysis of Water to Form Metal
Hydride"
This is a reprint of one of James Patterson's patents
on the Patterson Power CeII
TM
.
NEW ENERGY NEWS 13
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Miscellaneous
PRESS RELEASE -- APRIL 22, 1996
CANADIAN BREAKTHROUGH
IN POWER GENERATION
Non-polluting Electrical Power from Pulsed Cold
Plasmas Delivers More Power Than it Consumes,
Prepares for Manufacturing Development, and is
Fully Protected by Recently Granted U.S. Patents.
Dr. Paulo Correa, M.Sc., Ph.D., Partner and Director
of Research at Labofex-Experimental and Applied
Plasma Physics of Concord, Ontario, and Partner
Alexandra Correa, (Hon) BA, are today announcing a
significant breakthrough in the field of clean power
generation. The technical basis for the extraction
process has been a carefully guarded secret until full
disclosure was secured through the granting of three
US patents: US Patent Numbers: 5,416,391, issued
May 16, 1995, entitled "Electromechanical Trans-
duction of Plasma Pulses;" 5,449,989, issued
September 12, 1995, entitled "Energy Conversion
System;" and 5,502,354, issued on March 26, 1996,
entitled "Direct Current Energized Pulse Generator
Utilizing Autogenous Cyclical Pulsed Abnormal Glow
Discharges."
The Correa grid-independent Energy Conversion
System utilizes an energy reactor whose function is
based upon heretofore unknown spontaneous
emission properties of certain metals in vacuum and
involves an anomalous cathode reaction force
conforming to Dr. H. Aspden's Law of Electro-
dynamics. The associated Motor Drive provides for
direct electromechanical transformation of the energy
accumulated within the reactor. The reactor may be
conceived of as a portable vacuum battery made
active only when needed.
The Correa technology employs cold-cathode
vacuum discharge plasma reactors to set up self-
exciting oscillations, in the form of pulsed abnormal
glow discharges triggered by auto-electronic
emissions, in order to produce power. The circuit is
driven from a direct current source of impedance
sufficient to prevent establishment of a sustained
vacuum arc discharge. In combination with a special
circuit, electrical power in excess of the input power
needed for operation can be extracted. The System,
therefore, may also be referred to as an over-unity
system: where net energy output greatly exceeds net
energy input.
Unlike the cold fusion process, which claims to output
low grade heat, the Correa technology directly
generates electricity at power voltage levels, without
any utilization of cold or thermonuclear fusion
principles. Another important feature of the
apparatus is that it employs no radioactive
compounds and generates no nuclear radiation nor
radioisotopes. The energy system is entirely
pollution-free, self-contained, and composed of
readily recyclable materials. Storage of the power
produced may be carried out by traditional means, be
these mechanical or electrical.
Energy conversion system applications for electric
vehicles, stand-alone power supplies and
autonomous housing are currently under
development. The inventors hope that by making
vehicles self-sufficient in terms of energy, this
technology will offer the possibility of bypassing
massive infrastructure expansions in order to make
the electric vehicle a feasible reality while solving the
problems of range which currently detracts from its
appeal. Other potential applications include: pulsed
lasers, inverters, transformer and motor circuits. The
inventors are presently engaged in negotiating
licensing agreements with a view to development of
the applications.
Contact: Dr. Paulo Correa, Research Director
Tel: 905-660-1040 Fax: 905-738-8427
WELCOME TO THE ANE
ACADEMY FOR NEW ENERGY
, vol 1, no 1., contains:
"The James Griggs Hydrosonic Pump" by Joe Maize
"Test Results of an N-Machine" by Leyland
Consultants
"Thomas Edison, the Early Years"
"The Hutchison Effect"
"Whatever Happened to Bill Fogel"
"Lost Technologies: Patent No. 413,353" Tesla's
"Method of Obtaining Direct form Alternating
Currents"
For information about subscriptions see the
Commercial Column.
14 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
INCREASED VOLTAGE PHENOMENON
Osamu Ide (Clean Energy Lab., Nat. Group Corp.,
Shinagawa, Japan), "Increased Voltage Phenomenon
in a Resonance Circuit of Unconventional Magnetic
Configuration," , vol 77, no 11, 1 June
1995, pp 6015-6020, 7 refs, 10 figs, 1 table.
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
The behavior of an LCR (Inductance-capacitance-
resistance) circuit with a movable ferromagnetic core
is discussed. The core is attracted by a magnetic
field generated by an electric current resulting from
the discharge of a capacitor in the closed LCR circuit.
An unusual increase in recharge voltage, which was
dependent on the magnetic configuration of the coil,
was observed. This voltage increase does not
conform to the mathematical simulation of the system.
The possibility that a positive electromotive force was
involved in this effect is discussed.
AUTHOR'S CONCLUSIONS
In this paper, the behavior of an LCR circuit with a
movable ferromagnetic core was discussed. The
increase in inductance of the coil, which is caused by
the attraction of the core during discharge, yielded the
following results.
1. The recharge voltage is generally smaller when the
core moves than when it is stationary. The decrease
in the recharge voltage depends on the rate of
change of the inductance. The simulation based on
the theoretical equation confirmed the experimental
results.
2. When applying opposing magnetic fields to the
facing coils, an increase in the recharge voltage can
be observed in an electrically closed LCR circuit. The
apparent resistance of the coil decreased
correspondingly.
3. It can be postulated that the complex movement of
magnetic flux generates a positive EMF, but the
cause of the voltage increase is not clear.
COUNTERING BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF COILS
By Samuel P. Faile
The extremely high frequency discharge in the vicinity
of the non-inductive coils recently may have triggered
visual disruptions and cardiac symptoms. Counter
measures that may help remove these types of
effects
involve the pressing of the bare wire end of an
unpowered or passive inductive coil against the scalp
and taking a bath with dissolved Epson salts or table
salt in the bathwater.
EDITOR'S COMMENTS
Some persons are much more sensitive than others
to the fieId of energy provided by some of these non-
inductive coils. For example, this editor can scarcely
feel the field effect that gives others a headache or
may cause some to leave the room in which an active
coil is being tested. Faile has produced some
passive coils that actually produce spark discharges.
SUMMARY OF STUDIES USING ACTIVATED
SOURCES
By Samuel P. Faile and Nicholas Reiter
April 28, 1996
It was found that using various activated sources
such as a TV screen or a plasma globe, one could
use aluminum foil to draw off power to light a neon
lamp (NE-2) or produce arcing/fireball effects. Later
on, the activated systems were replaced by simple
non-inductive insulated coils involving line hookups
where the open circuit coil was next to a metal plate
or foil. The plate or foil was connected in a unipolar
manner to the type of diodes/capacitor system
mentioned (reported in , Feb 1996, pp 13-16;
and March 1996, pp 3-8). See Fig. 1.
Even though it was
possible to get a NE-
2 lamp to operate
continuously and to
obtain blue-white
fireballs from arcing
discharges 1 mm to 5
mm across, it was
found in an extensive
study by N.Reiter that
the folded 3' x 9' Chaos 100 coil with aluminum foil on
it or the 2' x 3' Flat Hooper 17 (Open Circuit) coil on
both sides of galvanized steel sheet could be
replaced by a capacitive system with the sheet/coil
rating involving the use of four capacitors operating at
250 picoFarads. Thus, a fairly conventional system of
4 capacitors can replace the special open circuit
insulated coils with their nearby metal sheets. Still,
the entire system contains a component, the 2-or-
more-diode assembly, which has been mentioned
many times by the authors in of being capable
of drawing out unexpected amounts of new energy
that otherwise remains hidden when using only one
diode. Thus, the question is raised as
NEW ENERGY NEWS 15
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
to whether the apparent continuous operation of the
NE-2 lamp is from conventional energy or new
energy. Some researchers have even found that just
using the conventional capacitor hookups sometimes
produces an apparent gain in energy.
Further research by others may answer the question,
but at least we have some data that should help in
getting started. The NE-2 lamp, if operated
continuously, should draw about 250 milliwatts. The
measurement N.Reiter made indicated the lamp was
drawing from the line something like 100 Volts to 42
Volts and around 5.8 to 14 microamps. If we use the
higher 100 Volt value and the 14 microamp value, the
watts being drawn from the line is about 1.4
milliwatts, which is about one hundred eighty times
too small for a low continuous operation of the NE-2
lamp (which require 250 milliwatts). Perhaps the
wavering or flickering lamp output indicates only a
tiny fraction of the time. Does the discharge occur in
the lamp with the eye seeing what appears to be
continuous? The problem with this is when the NE-2
lamp is given more power so that the wavering or
flickering is barely noticeable, against the regular light
output, the overall brightness does not seen to be
much greater. Someone with instruments that can
measure candle power should look into this. Also, an
inventory of energy going directly to heat output is
needed.
Thus there is a good question as to whether mainly
new energy or conventional energy is producing the
light.
Despite the open question, it was still possible to get
effects involving plasmas that appear to fit into the
new energy category. Some experiments with
plasmas indicated anomalous results with possible
new energy output.
Arcs were produced by nearly closing the circuit of
the diode/capacitor assembly by bringing wire tips to
about 1/2 mm of each other. Then there would be an
arcing producing a blue-white fireball with yellow
sparks jettisoned outward. This would be accom-
panied by a sharp cracking noise. If the tips were
coated prior to firing with a tincture of Iodine solution
or with metallic mercury, the subsequent explosion
would produce a larger bang and the size of the
fireball would be about 50% larger. Perhaps the
presence of light and heavy elements in the
arc/fireball augments the explosion with a cold fusion
reaction. [See Shoulders' US Patent 5,018,180, for
use of mercury-wetted electrodes.] Also, by the
choice of other combinations, one may obtain a
conversion of mass-energy and the aether in an
endothermic effect that quenches the fireball. A LiCl
solution painted on the tips eliminated the fireball
effect.
Another anomalous effect involves the powering of
the coil/plate system to power the NE-2 lamp using,
instead of a line voltage, an extension cord
"electrical" contribution from a luminescent lamp
weakly activated by a plasma globe next to the lamp
but far away from the coil/plate system, as shown
below in the diagram. The NE-2 lamp flickering every
1/4 second was about as bright as the continuous
output.
For future research, a suggestion would involve trying
additional heavy metal compounds introduced into
the arcing in various ways to see if one could produce
useful fireball explosions with the power of fairly large
firecrackers.
The relatively small amount of current in the
extension cord from the weakly activated luminescent
lamp could be an indication that a stand-alone device
should be attempted to meet the one watt challenge.
Perhaps as a replacement for the coil/metal sheet
component in the system, many capacitors (about
120 in number) should be tried to see if a large
number with a 250 picoFarad total value would
increase the energy output.
MICRO-INDUCTIVE ARRAYS
N.A. Reiter (Ohio), "Micro-Inductive Arrays
Constructed with High Resistivity Metalloids: Their
Possible Relation to T. Beaden's Free Energy
Concept."
16 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
Since February 1996, we have extrapolated upon
several aspects of the Micro-Inductive Array as an
energy conversion device. One of these excursions
involved building small arrays from non-standard
conductive materials, such as tellurium, selenium,
and conductive flourine doped SnO
2
. This action had
been prompted mainly by the interestingly high open
circuit voltages produced by simple TRACK arrays
made with aqueous electrolytes such as HCl and
NiCl
2
.
Our first attempt involved filling a 1.5 meter long
rubber tube with about 50g of 99.99% purity granular
Te. Stainless electrodes were provided and the tube
was folded over to form a 0.75 m TRACK. When
placed at 1 meter altitude, and connected to a pair of
1N914 diodes with a filtering capacitor of .33 µF, we
read a Voc of over 150 mV with a Fluke 79 meter.
This compared quite reasonably to Voc's obtained
with HCl and LiCl electrolytes, DC resistance of the
Te array was read at 0.98 meg-ohms.
During this period of time, my associate, Dr. Faile,
observed that some arrays could be connected as
unipolar antennas to a jumpered pair of diodes and
produce Voc and currents equal to those obtained
with the original bipolar connections reported in our
recent paper published in this newsletter. This
alternative configuration has allowed us to evaluate
non-inductive structures such as spheres, cavities,
and pipes.
A combination of these two developments has more
recently prompted some amount of speculation that
some array materials and structures producing good
Voc and current under test are doing so by a
mechanism described by T.E. Bearden a few years
ago in a privately distributed monograph. In his work,
Dr. Bearden predicted that virtually "free" energy
could be extracted from voltage sources by high
frequency switching of a "collector" made from a
material having a long electron relaxation period.
At the time when I read this document, I was acutely
aware of a serious practical problem with the concept,
i.e. finding the right material. According to several
solid state physicists in my circle of contacts, the
electron relaxation period is easily calculated for a
given material. However, materials having a period
accessible to even high Mhz switching would have an
extremely high bulk resistivity, and thus be very poor
current carriers for the load portion of the switching
cycle.
This, at the time, seemed to limit the final choice to
high resistivity metalloids, or metal oxides such as
CuO, Cu
2
O, SnO
2
. Little more thought was given to
this paradox, until recently.
We have seen evidence that some micro-inductive
arrays are potential pick-ups for energy well into the
VHF and possibly beyond. This energy is collected
and half wave rectified by our standard diode pair,
typically either fast silicon, or Schottkey Si. It recently
occurred to me that this geometry might fulfill the
switched potential portion of the Bearden concept!
On 21 April 1996, I derived the circuit shown in Fig. 1
to test this idea, and to allow evaluation of potential
candidates for the "collector" portion of the Bearden
concept.
A large micro-inductive array is used as a pick-up for
high frequency spectra. The incident E-field energy
builds up potentials in the array, which are half wave
rectified by the fast silicon diodes. This waveform is
applied across the "collector" under test. Some
portion of this energy should lie above the electron
relaxation period of the material of the test element.
A load is then attached to the "collector" via diodes
polarized oppositely from the input diodes. We
would, therefore, speculate that the portion of the
spectra lying above the electron relaxation period of
the collector would be seen as a potential only, and
would cause current to flow through the load/
collector circuit without causing a potential drop in the
array, at those frequencies.
On 21 April, I tested this design, using as a collector
element a 10 cm x 10 cm glass plate coated with a
commercially available conductive SnO
2
: F film.
Contacts were made on opposite sides of the plate.
Sheet resistance of the film is nominally 20 ohms per
square. A 96" by 96" FLAG array set on garage
rafters was used as a high frequency pick-up. 1N914
diodes were employed at the collector. To measure
output values, a Kiethley 175 multi-meter was used.
With the collector element tabs open, no voltage or
current was noted at the Keithley meter. Jumpering
the tabs with a piece of copper wire gave an output
Voc of 4.832 V and a short circuit current of 0.69 µA.
Next, the coated glass plate was connected in place
of the jumper. We now read 4.853 V and 0.71 µA. A
small but undeniable gain!
Our next test was conducted on 28 April. Several
collector elements were prepared ahead of time:
A. 10 cm x 10 cm glass plate coated be E-beam
with 1000 angstroms of Te.
B. 10 cm x 10 cm glass plate with 1000 angstrom
Te coating lithographed into a spiral pattern.
NEW ENERGY NEWS 17
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
C. The SnO
2
: F coated plate used previously.
D. 10 cm x 10 cm glass plate coated by E-beam
with 1000 angstroms of intrinsic 40 ohm-cm. Ge.
E. Same as D, except lithographed into a spiral
pattern.
F. Small polycrystalline lump of intrinsic Ge.
The following table illustrates the results obtained by
testing the above elements.
Collecting DC resist. Voc
prod. Jsc prod.
Element
Cu wire jumper - 4.722 V .64 µA
Open circuit infinite .021 V * 0 µA
A 28.32 K ohm 4.745 V .65 µA
B 4.87 M ohm 3.544 V .46 µA
C 13.45 ohms 4.732 V .64 µA
D 90.0 M ohms .534 V .05 µA
E > 100.0 M ohm .023 V 0 µA
F 1.82 K ohm 4.733 V .64 µA
* Possibly Diode Noise
From these results, we see that in the cases of
collector elements A, C, and F, Voc potentials are
produced which exceeds that noted with the collector
shorted by Cu. This is most noticeable with the Te
coated plate, which also demonstrated a very slight
current gain. While these values are exceptionally
small, they may nonetheless be helpful in pointing out
promising directions for future collector element
design.
As has been stated in the past, experimental
duplication of these effects is essential to eliminate
lurking artifacts. If further work indicates the
feasibility of the Bearden concept device, which I
have lightheartedly called the Quantum Tease Effect,
then the micro-inductive arrays which Dr. Faile and I
have devoted much time to may have an excellent
new application.
STILL MORE ON THE SIMPLE COIL TEST
By Greg Hodowanec
Basic Coil Test:
As per my Cosmology Note of 3/30/96 ( , April
1995, pp 16-17), it appears that my coil test
performances might be related to the use of power
transformer-type HV power supplies in both my
scopes? With the use of un-bypassed primaries,
there is a large voltage 'spike' of very low current
which couples across the capacitance which exists
between the primary and secondary windings? This
appears to be the 'source' of my 'leakage' pulses!
At 60 Hz, this circuit will be basically a high-pass filter
with a time constant T
C
= L/R w 1/(9 x 10
6
) w 1.1 x 10
-
7
seconds.
Since e is much greater than E
OUT
, the network is
also a differentiator as well (when L is small and R is
large).
Conclusions:
1. When the coil, L, is driven by e , the input pulses
will 'ring' the coil but this ring will decay as per normal
theory.
18 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
2. However, in terms of rhysmonic theory, the input
pulses will not only 'ring' the coil, but the coil will also
'ring' the Universe (or at least the earth-ionosphere
complex) and thus it will build-up into a self-sustaining
'ring' as was speculated many times before!
A typical response is shown here:
This type of output is verified here in tests when no
ferrite was used in the coil. With the use of a ferrite
insert (a normal tuning screw ferrite), the output is
much enhanced and the response is quite sinusoidal
when resonant conditions are achieved. For this
sustained condition, the circuit must be 'extracting'
some additional energy, either from the aether or a
scalar field condition in the earth-ionosphere
complex? Thus, such mechanisms might be involved
in the MRA, VTA, and the Swiss M-L-C device?
Room for much more research here!
Some further thoughts:
The simple capacitor-diode circuitry as shown in the
last letter (using Dr. Faile's circuit and my version of
it) might also be activated by 'space' or 'leakage'
fields of some sort. In my case, this was provided by
my scope system as discussed above. The input
pulses are also differentiated as seen here:
and are occurring at the 60 Hz rate, but no 'ringing' is
involved. This circuit is also a low-pass filter and
integrator so that there is summing of the output
pulses involved. However, expansion of the pulses
show that there appears to be an interaction with
some other energies (as random HF pulses atop the
pulse peaks) so that even this simple circuit might
also show some power gains! Also much room for
further research here!
Final Comments:
I apologize for the crudeness of these tests and
reports. They are being done very quickly and
sporadically here due to some circumstances here.
However, I strongly feel that there may be more here
than appears so far; but I must rely more on your
efforts to determine just how real these speculations
may be; but I will continue to 'look' into such
'research' as much as I can. Good experimenting to
all.
ERRATA: (by staff)
In last month's letter (p 16), two errors were made in
the illustrations for the simple coil test. We reprint the
illustrations here, with the corrections circled.
WARNING ABOUT THE HAARP
Adolf Zielinski, "Die Fähigkeit des Menschen, das
Universum zu vernichten" (The Ability of Man to
Destroy the Universe), March 1996 (in
German).
AUTHOR'S ABSTRACT
In their book Angels Don't Play This HAARP, the
consequences of applied advances in Tesla
Technology in the US military project called "HAARP"
have been researched and discussed by Dr. Nick
Begich and Jeane Manning (Earthpulse Press, P.O.
Box 201393, Anchorage, Alaska 99520, USA; ISBN
0-9648812-0-9). The real disaster that the installation
of the HAARP program will trigger off, once activated,
is far beyond the imagination of the writers and even
the US military. In order to fully understand the total
global impact the HAARP installation will create, one
has to understand what gravity and gravitational field
are.
NEW ENERGY NEWS 19
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
THE GREEN SCISSORS CAMPAIGN
Courtesy of Friends of the Earth
The Green Scissors Campaign is an unusual
collaboration between environmentalists, taxpayers,
deficit hawks and free-market advocates. The
underlying goal is to save taxpayers billions of dollars,
eliminate wasteful subsidies, and leave our
environment better off.
recommends cutting 47 federal spending and subsidy
programs to save taxpayers nearly $39 billion.
This country needs people with the willingness to
consider innovative, even controversial, proposals to
reduce wasteful spending and shrink government, to
stop or curtail government activities that they believe
are economically unjustified, or that harm public
health or the environment. Not only would the
enactment of proposals save the
taxpayers more than $39 billion, it would help change
the way Washington works, requiring political leaders
to make a break with the reigning pork-barrel politics.
pinpoints 47 ways that the
government could cut down, here are a few that are
pertinent to new energy concerns. The recommend-
ations are discussed in great detail in the publication.
ü Advanced light water reactor subsidies - Terminate
additional funding for this program, saving $40 million
in 1996, and up to $200 million over five years based
on previous funding levels.
ü Tokamak Fusion Reactors - Terminate the
Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and existing
tokamaks, withdraw from the International
Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) program. Total
savings are approximately $5 billion over the lifetime
of TPX and ITER according to information in a 1975
report to the president.
ü National Ignition Facility - Terminate program.
Save more than $4.5 billion over the 30 year lifetime
of the project. The program would use Inertial
Confinement Fusion technology to increase
understanding of nuclear weapons physics and
provide an above-ground simulation capacity to test
nuclear weapon effects.
ü Auburn Dam Project - Deny funding for the
proposed Auburn Dam, at $701 million it is too costly
and the power produced there would also be overly
expensive. Local beneficiaries of the project could
and should pay the total cost of the project. Proper
planning could lower the cost. The environmental
damage would encompass high-use recreational
lands, as well as historic and (Indian) archaeological
sites.
ü Temelin Reactor (Czech Repub.) - Terminate any
U.S. government financial guarantees for the Temelin
reactor, which is an old, unfinished Soviet-designed
nuclear power plant that could not possibly meet
current safety standards as proposed.
ü Navy's Extremely Low Frequency Transmitters -
Shelve the project and deactivate the system to save
over $60 million over five years. The project is only
marginally effective and exhibits some direct and
adverse effects on human health. The General
Accounting Office recommended it be terminated in
1979, and the Senate voted to terminate funding in
FY95. Other politicos keep reversing the decisions.
is available for $14 from Friends
of the Earth, 1025 Vermont Avenue, N.W., Suite 300,
Washington D.C. 20005; Tel. 202-783-7400 ext. 239.
Also available on the InterNet at Web Site
www.foe.org/FOE or send message to foe@foe.org
IDEA ROULETTE:
A "Drop in a Bucket" and "Shot in the Dark"
or,
"A Unified Field Theory of Gravity and Electro-
Magnetism?"
By Ralph Hovnanian
Gazing up at the starlight while pouring water down at
my face from a vessel, I felt another "unified field
theory" combining Gravity with Electro-magnetism
coming...
The vessel tipped vertically reminded me of a hollow
(cylindrical; metal) resonance cavity that can set up a
standing wave of E-M (akin to the notes of a pipe
organ). This is irrelevant, except in turn reminding
me that: Starlight has an "averaged out," and (like
sunlight) a "brightest direction," from "straight above,"
as viewed from Earth. Yet water pours from "straight
above" also; the direction of Gravity. This had to be
my anticipated clue! Finally, a new overlap region
between Gravity and E-M, and it was in "direction."
(Gravity and E-M are also alike in being (frictionless,
Energy) Conservative Fields that "fall off with the
reciprocal of the square of the distance (1/r
2
)").
Could it be that the Stellar/Cosmic/Aether waves from
the whole Universe could push the water down at
me?
Background: Light waves have also been considered
as (Newton's) "corpuscles," having momentum,
hence mass. (Light beams can move delicately
balanced mirrors.) This supports the "aether" theory.
The oft touted Michelson-Morely experiment only
proved the lack of direction (vector) of aether relative
to the Earth's
20 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
surface, but not the magnitude (scalar) existence of
aether. (Ref.: Dr. Dirac, Nobelist of Fermi-Dirac and
Dirac-Delta terms, etc., (in Rho-Sigma, Ether-Tech., p
62-63).
Meanwhile, back to our new theory: The "earth" of a
planet would "lightly shade" or "filter out" (in
proportion to its thickness (or diameter)) the "bottom
half side" of the stellar waves that would otherwise
reach an object on the planet's surface. The net
effect would be to "push down" the test object,
because the stellar waves
from "below" would be weakened on travelling
through the planet, compared to the waves from
"above."
An already known overlap between Gravity and E-M
is that the magnitude of both Force Fields fall off with
farther distance, (r; between centers of mass (c.m.),
etc.) by the reciprocal of the square of the distance,
(1/r
2
).
Our new hypothesis does not contradict perceived
symmetries of Nature, for some boundary conditions
& distances (r
s-p
= distance between c.m.'s of satellite
and planet; and R = Radius of planet.) (c.m. = center
of mass)(M
p
= Mass of planet): If r
s-p
is much larger
than R
p
(i.e. r
s-p
>> R
p
), the solid angle "shadow" (of
stellar waves) subtended by the planet at the satellite
is proportional to 1/(r
s-p
)
2
, the phantom "pull on the
satellite being proportional to both that (solid angle)
and this (thickness times cross-sectional area of
planet, proportional to R
p
3
). (Let ( symbolize
"proportional to.") Gravity
(
M
p
x1/(r
s-p
)
2
(
R
p
3
/(r
s-p
)
2
.
Going farther to outer space, infinitely, 1/r
2
approaches zero; the "aether" pushing equally in all
directions, there is no net force. ...
Another boundary condition to satisfy is right at the
surface of the planet (r
s-p
= R
p
). There, the filtering of
stellar waves by the planet, and gravity (g), are both
proportional to R
p
. (M
p
( R
p
3
, &
g
p
( M
p
/R
p
2
( R
p
3
/R
p
2
= R
p
.)
At the center of a planet, r
s-p
-0, but there is no net
direction to the "aether wind" because the earth filters
equally along all angles. Nor is there any net gravity
because the planet pulls equally from all sides.
But, for some intermediate range of r
s-p
not extreme
relative to R
p
, the calculation is more complex, yet
similar results are expected for stellar waves and
gravity, reaffirming our hypothesis.
For all distances (r
s-p
), in the "corpuscle" theory for E-
M (stellar waves), the force vector is in the same
direction (co-linear) with the distance vector, as it is
for gravity; (i.e. S= -g). (A vector has both magnitude
& direction.)
This force vector is the net result of integrating over
(or adding up an infinite number of infinitesimal
increments of) all wavelengths (gravity... cosmic) & all
directions, at any instant & location.
Can stellar waves have such momentum considering
they travel at the speed of light?
NEW ENERGY NEWS 21
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
LETTERS
[Readers, please note that this shadowing is very
much like the explanation of the aether-caused
gravity as explained by Zielinski in his Symposium
paper. Ed.]
LETTER FROM R. NECTOUX
March 11, 1996
Just receiving March 1996 , I've been
enthusiastic about the quality and number of subjects.
It's an opportunity for questioning or noting particular
points.
Relative to Letter from Ben Iverson (p. 23), I am
honored for comments by Ben Iverson about my
paper ( Feb. 1996 p.3). Not opposed to
transmission of files, I have quoted excellent work of
Hal Putthof and Scott Little on MRA error. I consider
it's a good method for all future tests about FE.
I am neither an enemy of FE experimenters and
theorists, nor of original or strange machines.
Wishing they keep hope and courage, for a long time
being persuaded by many signs of energetic structure
of Space (energy or energized?). I try to avoid errors
of bad methods and bring or propose good methods
for good accuracy of real power collected. I am also
ready to help for a cheaper adaptation to reduced
means. Ideas may be born on a corner table of a
garage, but confirmation must be more scrupulous.
A component of a network keeps its properties, with
any kind of electric source: batteries, main [utility
power] network, solar or FE. Exception if out of
ratings. Therefore, I say again, if we have same
method, same component, same meters, we obtain
same results with many people. Only with convenient
methods! If otherwise occurring, reliable tests
must be operated. A discovery perhaps possible:
telluric or solar may be disturbing in electric network
and also in chemistry.
Ben Iverson is a distinguished theorist. [And a
distinguished experimenter. --Ed] No doubt his work
will be useful for advancement of theories and
practical applications. Although theoretical works
may avoid
many expensive practical networks, theorists often
remain speculative, magnifying mathematics without
specifying meaning and domain of their words. In FE,
numerous approaches possible: please, specify
meaning! Domains may be separated: musician
ignoring waves, sound nature and math.
Mathematician also may not be good musician.
However, they may collaborate.
Ben Iverson speaks about Synergy, but he doesn't
give his own meaning of this word. Is it theorical or
physical or social meaning? I'm not opposed to the
gathering of experiments and hypotheses from good,
willing people. Never and nowhere, have I said any
Synergy was a dreamful concept! Remembering FE's
glorious pioneers brings neither a running machine
nor a reliable process. I prefer recent operative
experimenters (errors included).
As for physical part, I've been for about 15 years
following studies for Synergetic theory
(eIectromagnetic and gravitationaI) by Rene Louis
Vallee [1]. So, I'm quite informed of this concept of
Synergy. This theory removes the incoherence of the
special relativity of Einstein and shows a link with
gravitation. Do you know that? (historical and
reported): Einstein had found no link with gravitation
potential (in Special Relativity) then he started a new
theory: General Relativity (quite different concept).
Special Relativity (constant speed of light) is good for
electromagnetism, materialization, mass-energy
equivalence.
General Relativity (speed of light not specified) is
good for gravitation, and with high level mathematics
(as tensors) many models of universes are
(mathematically) conceivable. Do they really exist?
Wait and see!
Synergetic Theory (speed of light slightly variable)
allows a link with gravitation potential and Space is a
huge reservoir of energy. So, links exist with quantum
mechanics, electromagnetism, gravitation and
nucleus. Curiously, as in all relativities, inertia is not
solved, although quite possible.
So, important conclusions: tiny variations of light
speed (10
-16
) cause gravitation and we may hope to
pick up energy from space. Why? By beta
radioactivity which is a link between nucleus and
electricity. Beta radioactivity is a beam of fast
electrons. The pump will run when processes of
reverse beta radioactivity are found. Why
impossible? Constant light speed leads to dead end.
Besides, Einstein admitted the deviation of
22 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
light near the sun (eclipse of 1919: general relativity)
showed the variation of speed (like refraction index).
SYNERGY:
In synergetic theory, Synergy S is all energy with any
kind present in the system. Of course, Space energy
is concerned. In that case we see why there is a
critical speed for light in space and a speed limit for
moving matter. That's proved in particle accelerators.
Speed over speed limit is possible for very short time
(Cherenkov effect). Another important point is
hypothesis of a limit for electric field. That allows
creation of particles: gradient of electric field create
wave guide and resonant cavities. Then Photon is
considered as auto-guided wave and electron or
positron as electromagnetic waves in a revolution
volume self-held or a looped wave guide.
Synergy S may be applied to matter or space. S =
mc
2
. Space energy might be enormous. His nature:
like noisy band beyond known and studied
frequencies. Waves and particles then would be only
little modulations of this medium of diffuse energy
(quantization not required for space energy).
Synergetic theory not finished because Vallee has
deviated in unproductive polemics and abandoned
researches. Successors haven't been better. Models
for particles may be improved: limit of electric field
must be taken exponential, not abrupt (which doesn't
exist in physics). Case of Proton not studied yet.
Probably, whereas photon and electron are with
electric field limit, proton is more energetic interaction
with space, I suppose a limit of magnetic field. In
Physics, all limits are slightly elastic, the same for
constants! Besides, inertia not solved while it might
be logically: reaction matter-space. [See Haisch,
Rueda & Puthoff, "Inertia as a Zero-Point-Field
Lorentz Force," Phys. Rev. A, Feb. 1994, vol 49, no 2,
pp 678-694. Ed.]
NON-LINEAR DEVICES
In his conclusion, Ben Iverson shows enthusiasm for
non-linear devices for New Energy. Me too. Of
course, for tapping, pumping or picking up of Energy
from space, non-linearity is absolutely required and
for all kinds of energy of space (also atmospheric
environment: a good beginning). Pumping is always
non-linear: valves or centrifugation are required to
provide a pressure gradient. In electricity, there are
diodes and rotating machines, although using
quantized, electricity fluid. Non-linearity may be with
passive unilateral or threshoId components as
diodes or by controIIed switches. Diodes (vacuum,
solid and gas) are quantic devices. Gradient of
centrifugaI
forces: other ways unipolar and
reluctance machines. We have also tunneI and
breakdown or avaIanche devices.
Many kinds of non-linearity. Which is the convenient
one? Really: 2 kinds. Symmetrical gives only odd
harmonics and asymmetrical gives all harmonics.
1st problem: antenna for collecting waves from
space. (wide and high band)
2nd: nature and frequency of waves
3rd: Mixing with non-Iinear mixer (generation of
frequencies sum, difference)
4th: resonator as load. (selects differential
frequencies)
5th: energy conversion for practical use.
Where are the difficulties:
There are rather "picowave" more beyond gamma
rays. Resonators are possible in plasma or ionized
medium (solid or liquid) or "many channel matter"
self-built work for structure of catalyzers, powders or
quantic transistors. Mixing must be high band.
However, resonator take differential frequencies.
Unlikely that diodes or LED or saturated ferrites
might be good UHF mixers. We don't know, at this
time, the real nature of cold fusion reactions. They
are unusual, that's all. Is it fusion, fission, or space
resonance and tapping? Perhaps, these effects may
convert very high frequencies in measurable events.
FARADAY OR NOT FARADAY: The link between
chemistry and electricity.
The case of electrolysis with 1 FARADAY. It is
usually weak DC. What occurs with puIses?
(according to pulse width and height: uni and bilateral
signals). What occurs with LF and RF signals? We
know already ions have an inertia and we can define
and probably measure their speed in an electrolyte. I
verified an influence of frequency: resonances
possible in range of 1 kHz (sine wave). Are there
other measurements for electrolytes impedance
versus frequency? What occurs with electric arc?
Out of liquid we need high voltage.
DC high voItage
is dangerous but LF may be used at 10-20 kHz
ARC AND LIQUID
In liquid, we need high current to hold discharge.
Current limitation required with transfer and series
NEW ENERGY NEWS 23
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
impedance (non-dissipative coil). It may be DC, LF
or RF. Reaction is different depending if liquid is
electrolyte or not. We have decomposition of liquid
and reaction between liquid and electrodes.
The challenge is finding a convenient liquid and
electrodes for: Iess energy absorbed and the most
gas produced in case of electrolyte. Electric arc is a
non-linear impedance with negative impedance part.
That allows oscillations if a resonator is coupled.
However, high voItage may occur across series
tuned impedance because of high current.
Avoid continous tests, the better is to take
microeIectrodes and small volume of products.
Projections possible. Use screens and only small
currents. Be carefuI with use of speciaI coiIs.
Often, they have high Q and many resonances and
are antennas. Some people might have shocks!
No need of scalar waves or gravitation field! You
don't tap space energy but you emit large band noise.
Not sympathetic for broadcast and any EM
transmission!
After these proposals and statements, as a temporary
conclusion, might you agree to this poem-like piece?
Obviously, I'm not the shadow of poet Shelley!...
It's a long way to the Free Energy.
Hope that escape business industry!
No politics, no polemics, in a new custom,
Come knowledge in every kingdom!
Come peace and wisdom for clean nature
On Earth and in Heaven for every creature!
Best Regards, R. Nectoux
[1] R.L. Vallee was engineer (Jean Debiesse his
manager) at C.E.A., Saclay, France, until 1976.
Synergetic Theory was issued in 1971.
[Readers, please note that all of our experimental
understanding of gravity has been accomplished
while residing in earth's gravity well or in the near-by
space within the solar system. There are those who
strongly suggest that the speed of light away from
massive bodies is very much higher than the locally
observed various values of c. Ed.]
LETTER FROM ALBERT POOLE
Your article "Energy Demand and Supply," ( ,
April 1996, pp 1-3) has stimulated some comment on
INFRASTRUCTURE
As you point out there is no progress without rescuing
the biosphere. Some change is in evidence in
banking (green parachutes for young executives) and
in insurance (there just might be an ozone hole, so
hedge with more drought insurance). Major financial
shifts have long been following whatever energy
resource is in favor - before and since hemp sails,
coal-fired locomotives, atomic ships, and back to
petroleum for a last gurgle and gasp.
Only the automotive infrastructure is even close to
being ready for clean, free NOVA POWER. Transi-
tionally, GM could restart the Impact's assembly line
while demand intensifies for a concept car like the
Chitty-Chitty Vesperman. R. Bucky Fuller found that
car innovations were taking about twenty years for
acceptance, but said electronic inventions have taken
only two years, average, because their workings are
not aesthetically visible.
Acceptance of innovation of our homes and in them,
has been much slower. Fifty years is what Dr. Fuller
found as an average. The autonomous house is not
totally new, but a million off-grid conversions to
hydrogen-electric, magnetic, and solid-state
generator sets could be a bottleneck. Stand-alone
cottage energy never was as you characterize (p. 1,
col. 2), "... wind, sunlight ... impractical," but have
been cost effective and practical where utility lines did
not reach. [You are correct. Ed.]
Transition to decentralization will depend on
hardware demand and supply, but as much on the
labor infrastructure -- the small cadre of skilled
installers making the electrical connections. Other
than urban HVAC and heatpump servicing, too few
[persons] are highly trained for rural use of
photovoltaics, diesel jennys, wind and hydro. Their
design work and experience on wiring-up will urgently
be needed. Without 1940's type training efforts,
demand for critical skills will far exceed supply.
You mention Chernobyl in the same paragraph (p. 1)
as biomass, appropriately making a worldwide or
even U.S. energy transition by burning biomass in
quads of BTU's equivalent to fossil fuel use would still
pollute unacceptably and would threaten topsoil, and
food supply and its export. CNG is tested and touted
as a transition fuel but except for chemical industries,
would be capped if we looked closer at oxygen
depletion and the carbon monoxide product from
burning this "clean" fuel.
24 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Ó»»¬·²¹-
Competing with large, aging hydroelectric in the
northwest, nuclear electricity has not proven to be
cost effective even without the costly boondoggles
and political football of radioactive waste. A large
factory in China is busy making $19,000 portable
torches using hydrogen (your source cited p. 26, col.
2, April 1996 ) and burning the deadly curies to
near zero in five minutes.
We can buy or build these as "Brown's Gas" welders.
But, until Patterson fuel cells and Takahashi magnet
motors are mass produced, the only clean
decentralized energy widely available works on
photons. Presently economical forms at many sites
include PVs, salt ponds, and the solar "earth heat"
from ground source heat pumps. What remains as
ongoing is solar houses.
In the U.S. and other countries, except for Sweden
and Japan, the infrastructures needed for widely
distributed applications of free energy technologies
are, at best, fledgling and underdeveloped.
To your references on the global energy outlook
might be added Josef Gruber's pamphlet "Economic
Effects of New Energy Technologies." [See page 4
for Gruber's abstract.]
Albert Poole
TODAY'S HEROES AND GENIUSES
A Letter From Hal Fox
In a letter published in magazine (vol 52,
no 1, 1st quarter 1966), Hal Fox points out that while
the geniuses of yesterday offer something to inspire
and build on, those of today have a great deal to offer
also. "My list of today's geniuses would include
Kenneth Shoulders, Stanley Pons, Martin
Fleischmann, Robert Bass, Robert Bush, Yasunori
Takahashi, Hal Puthoff, Harold Aspden, Stefan
Marinov, P. Tewari, Jean-Paul Vigier, John O'M.
Bockris, James Patterson and many others. These
are they who are pursuing the new areas of science
that are currently unacceptable to the current within
the borders scientific dogma."
Enumerating the current innovations of energy
research, Hal gives readers a new direction to focus
their attention: the discoveries that are still in the
growing stages.
ICCF6
Sixth InternationaI Conference on CoId Fusion
will be held 13-17 October 1996
Hotel Apex Toya, Hokkaido, Japan
Conference Secretariat:
Tel +81-3-3508-8901
Fax +81-3-3508-8902
E-mail mac@iae.or.jp
The conference will consist of both oral and poster
sessions covering experimental work and theory on the
following topics:
ú Excess Energy Phenomena in D
2
/Metal Systems
ú Correlation Between Excess Energy and Nuclear
Products
ú Nuclear Physics Approaches
ú Material Science Studies
úInnovative Approaches (Miscellaneous Phenomena)
The Dead Line for abstracts to be received by the
TechnicaI Program Committee is 17 May 1996.
Abstract must be on conferece abstract form with three
copies (Single page. We can supply the forms if
necessary). Abstracts may not be Faxed or E-mailed.
When submitting abstract, your registration must be
made at the same time. Registration fee of ¥40,000
(about $400) includes a banquet and proceedings. A
technical tour to the NHE lab is scheduled on Oct. 18,
1996, along with other professional and social events.
Hotel: Deadline for guaranteed accommodation is
August 1, 1996. Contact:
Hotel Apex Toya Hokkaido
Aza-Shimizu, Abuta-machi, Abuta-gun
Hokkaido 049-56, Japan.
Tel: +81-142-73-1111 Fax +81-142-73-1157
Registration: Final Deadline August 1, 1996. Send for
application package to Conference Secretariat
c/o NHEl-Center, IAE
Shinbashi TS Building
1-22-5 Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku
Tokyo 105, Japan
(tel. info above)
NEW ENERGY NEWS 25
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
ݱ³³»®½·¿´ ݱ´«³²
Direct International Science Consortium, Inc.
(D.I.S.C.)
presents a seminar:
ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY
Saturday, 1 June 1996
at The Community Centre Concourse
Grahame Park Estate, Hendon, London
The SearI Effect Generator is currently under
development which increases the efficiency of the
utilization of energy. The Inverse Gravity Propulsion
System will be developed in Britain from April of this
year onward. This system enables aero and space
vehicles to be propelled efficiently and more cleanly
than at present.
This seminar is an important part of Britain's future, for
reasons of job creation, export marketing and in the use
of the technology itself. Production of the technology is
expected to begin early in 1997 so that by 2001 the
resulting products will be readily available and in wide
spread use.
Updates available on Web Page:
www.servtech.com/public/jansontee/
Advancedbookings £25, but checks must beclearedby
May 11. Thereafter tickets may be purchased in cash
at the door for £50.
International Association of Science and Technology
of Development (IASTED)
InternationaI Conference on
HIGH TECHNOLOGY IN THE POWER INDUSTRY
4-8 June 1996, Banff, Alberta, Canada
The aim of this conference is to act as a forum for the
exchange of information and experience on all aspects
of high technology and advances in the power field.
Information: Contact IASTED at 403-288-1195 or Fax
403-247-6851, e-mail iasted@istd.cuug.ab.ca
World Renewable Energy Congress IV
Denver, Colorado, USA 15-21 June 1996
RENEWABLE ENERGY
Energy Efficiency
and the Environment
Generally dealing with the established "renewable
resources" with a lesser place for other technical topics.
Preregistration required. For information contact Mr.
Steve Hauser, Division Director NERL, 1617 Cold
Blvd., Golden, CO 80401. Tel: 303-384-7416, Fax:
303-275-4320.
INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON
CONSCIOUSNESS,
NEW MEDICINE AND NEW ENERGY
Yomiuri Hall, Tokyo, Japan
November 21-22, 1996
Dr. Shiuji Inomatais organizingasymposiumtodiscuss
and present research results in such broad topics as
consciousness phenomena, holistic medicine,
integration of Western and Eastern medicine, and new
energy technology. The sponsor is the Japan Green
Cross Society. ParamahamsaTewari has beenchosen
as the keynote speaker for the conference.
Participation fee is US$ 190.
Contact: Mr. TetsuNagano, JapanGreenCrossSociety
2F Kamon Building
2-7-14 Hamatsu-cho
Minato-ku Tokyo 105 JAPAN
Tel: +81(0)3-3437-2218
Fax: +81(0)3-3437-2808 or +81(0)3-3437-2624
The following companies (listed alphabetically) are
commercializing cold fusion or other enhanced energy
devices:
COMPANY: PRODUCT
American CoId Fusion Engineering and SuppIy: Infor-
mation and troubleshooting for the fusion research and
development industry. Sacramento, California. The
president, Warren Cooley, can be reached at 916-736-
0104.
CETI (Clean Energy Technologies, Inc.): Developers of the
Patterson Power Cell
TM
. Dallas, Texas. Voice (214) 982-
8340, FAX (214) 982-8349.
CIustron Sciences Corp.: New energy research
consulting and information. Contact: Ron Brightsen, 703-
476-8731.
ENECO: Portfolio of intellectual property including over
thirty patents issued or pending in cold nuclear fusion and
other enhanced energy devices. Salt Lake City,
26 MAY 1996
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Utah. Contact Fred Jaeger, Voice 801/583-2000, Fax
801/583-6245.
E-Quest Sciences: Exploring The Micro-Fusion
TM
process. Seeking qualified research partners for their
sonoluminesence program. Contact Russ George, FAX
(415) 851-8489.
Fusion Information Center (FIC): Research and
development of new energy systems. The world's most
complete resource depository for cold fusion research
information, as well as other newenergy researchincluding
zero-point energy; space energy research; electronic,
electromagnetic, and mechanical over unity devices and
more. We are the publishers for
, and Voice 801-583-
6232, Fax 801-583-2963.
HoIotec AG, Clean Energy Technology, contact André
Waser, Gen. Mgr., Bireggstrasse 14, CH-6003, Luzern,
Switzerland. Phone 011 41-41 /360 4485, or Fax 011 41-
41 /360 4486.
HydroDynamics, Inc.: Hydrosonic Pump, heat-producing
systems using electrical input with thermal efficiencies of
110 to 125 percent. Rome, Georgia. Contact James
Griggs, Voice 706/234-4111 Fax 706/234-0702.
InternationaI Management Systems Co. (IMSC):
Technical project/program management assistance, and
technology development and commercialization
assistance. Contact Mark Harris or Richard Youngs,
Phone 801-583-6232, Fax 801-583-2963, or Phone/Fax
801-255-3000.
JETEnergyTechnoIogy, Inc.: Design andmanufacture of
%-electrode systems, calorimeters, and associated
equipment and systems. Consulting regarding radiation,
materials, and other scientific and engineering issues.
Weston, MA. Contact Dr. Mitchell Swartz, Voice
617/237/3625. Fax 617/237/3625.
Labofex, ExperimentaI and AppIied PIasma Physics:
R&D of PAGD (Pulsed Abnormal Glow Discharge) plasma
technology. Three issued US patents, including protection
for PAGD reactor, pulse genrator, circuitry, motor and
energy conversion applications. Patents applied for and
issued in other countries. Applications under development
include protable power supplies, electric vehicles and
autonomous housing. Licensing. Ontario, Canada.
Contact Dr. Paulo N. Correa. Tel 905/660/1040
Fax 905/738/8427
Magnetic Power Inc.: The Joint Venture partner with
Sciex (UK) for Takahashi supermagnets and supermotors
in North America. Sebastopol, CA. Contact Mark Goldes,
Voice 707/829-9391, Fax 707/829-1002.
Nova Resources Group, Inc.: Design and manufacture
ETC (Electrolytic Thermal Cell); EG (commercial power
cogeneration module); and IE (integrated electrolytic
system). Denver, CO. Call Chip Ransford, Phone (303)
433-5582.
UV Enhanced UItrasound: Cold Fusion Principle being
used for an ultrasonic water purifier. Hong Kong. FAX
(852) 2338-3057.
Zenergy Corporation: Founded in 1996 to facilitate the
introduction of commercially viable energy alternatives.
(formerly Power Cell Technologies) Chandler, AZ. Contact
Reed Huish: 602-814-7865, Fax 602-814-7665, e-mail:
reedh@indirect.com
Note: The Fusion Information Center has been acting as
an information source to many of these companies. We
expect to augment our international service to provide
contacts, information, and business opportunities to
companies considering an entry into the enhanced energy
market.
INFORMATION SOURCES
Academy for New Energy (ANE) is a subsidiary
organization to the International Association for New
Science, which has specific goals directed toward the field
of alternative and "New" energy research. 1304 S. College
Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80524. Tel. 970-482-3731
, quarterly publication of ANE,
providing an open forum for discussion, and
disseminating newsworthy and inspirational
information on invention and new energy. Edited by
Robert Emmerich.
", monthly newsletter, editedby WayneGreen,
70 Route 202N, Petersborough, NH 03458.
quarterly newsletter published by Dr.
Mitchell Swartz, P.O. Box 81135, Wellesley Hills MA
02181. Home Page: http://world.std.com/~mica/cft.html
, a R&D newsletter, published by Dieter
Soegemeier, Editor, GPO Box 269, Brisbane, QLD.4001,
Australia. Phone/Fax: +61 (0)7 3809 3257.
, quarterly, edited by Charles A.
Yost, 73 Sunlight Drive, Leicester, NC 28748.
monthly newsletter: Salt Lake City, UT
801/583-6232, alsopublishes Cold Fusion Impact andCold
Fusion Source Book. Plans on-line database access.
Journal of the American Nuclear
Society publishes journal articles on cold nuclear fusion.
555 N. Kensington Ave., La Grange Park, IL 60525.
NEW ENERGY NEWS 27
©1996 by Fusion Information Center, Inc. COPYING NOT ALLOWED without written permission. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
new bi-monthly newsletter edited by Dr.
Eugene Mallove (author of Fire from Ice), P.O. Box 2816,
Concord, NH 03302-2816. Voice: 603-228-4516.
Fax: 603/224/5975
E-mail 76570.2270@compuserve.com
Institute for New Energy (INE), organization to promote
and help find funding for new energy research.
Home Page: www.padrak.com/ine/ contains many
important scientific papers and current reports on all areas
of research.
E-mail: ine@padrak.com Salt Lake City, Utah.
Voice 801/583/6232, Fax 801/583/2963.
monthly newsletter for INE,
highlighting the research and development in the
worldwide new energy arena. Edited by Hal Fox.
, quarterly, presenting papers
representing the new areas of energy research,
leading-edge ideas in the development of newenergy
technology, and the theories behind them. Published
by the Fusion Information Center, Inc., for the Institute
for New Energy. Editor: Hal Fox.
,
quarterly, edited by Dr. Andrew Michrowski. 100 Bronson
Ave, # 1001, Ottawa, Ontario K1R 6G8, Canada.
Nowavailable: , a technical and
scientific discussion prepared for the Canadian
Environmental Assessment Agency's panel reviewing
nuclear fuel wastes disposal. Discusses
transmutation as a possible solution for nuclear waste
disposal. $5 U.S. and Canadian, $7.50 other
countries.
, quarterly, edited by Jim Kettner &
Don Kelly, P.O. Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616.
, P.O. Box 16285,
Washington, D.C., 20041. Includes cold fusion
developments.
The above list of commercial and information sources
will be growing. New listings will be added as
information is received. Send information to , P.O.
Box 58639, Salt Lake City, UT, 84158.
JOURNAL OF NEW ENERGY
Published by the Fusion Information Center
P.O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City, Utah 84158-0639
This is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to
new energy research and development. Professional
papers on cold fusion and other enhanced energy
systems are solicited from scientists, engineers,
inventors, and students.
The Journal of New Energy (JNE)is devoted to
publishing professional papers with experimental
results that may not conform to the currently-accepted
scientific models. The topics to be covered in this
journal include cold nuclear fusion, low-energy nuclear
reactions, high-density charge cluster technology
(including some plasma circuits where enhanced
energy is produced), high-efficiency motors or
generators, solid-state circuits that appear to provide
anomalous amounts of output energy, and other new
energy devices. Papers with experimental data are
preferred over theoretical papers. Standard alternative
energy topics such as hydrogen fuel, wind power, solar
power, tidal power, and geothermal power are not
solicited.
ADVERTISEMENT
ANTIGRAVITY ON A DISK
Contains over 1 megabyte of information in 12 chapters, 30
illustrations, one sound bite, and two animations. The
information is presented in a manner that will be accessible to
the novice and is through enough to please the most
advanced.
® Discover how Edward P. Tryon's theory about the genesis
of the universe may be used to produce new energy.
® Learn about the far reaching ideas of Harold Puthoff.
® See and hear Frank J. Stenger's ball lightning machine.
® View a plasma ball in a microwave cavity.
® Discover the error of the "Copenhagen Interpretation."
and much more, for $14.95.
Write Antigravity Disk, c/o P.O. Box 58639, Salt Lake City,
Utah 84158-0639.
Requires Windows and a 386 or higher processor.
The author, Frank Znidarsic, has a B.S. in Electrical
Engineering fromthe U. of Pittsburgh, an Associate in Science
from Saint Francis College, and iis a Registered Professional
Engineer in the state of Pennsylvania.
CONTENTS FOR MAY 1996
ISNE-3 REPORT AND ABSTRACTS . . . . . . . . . . . 1
FUSION BRIEFINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
ITALIAN COURT VERDICT FOR CF . . . . . . . . . . . 9
HIGH GRADE ELECTRICAL ENERGY . . . . . . . . 11
SPACE ENERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
SPACE ENERGY JOURNAL CONTENTS . . . . . . 12
CORREA PRESS RELEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
MISCELLANEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
ACADEMY FOR NEW ENERGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
INCREASED VOLTAGE PHENOMENON . . . . . . 14
COIL TESTS WITH ACTIVATED SOURCES . . . . 14
MICRO-INDUCTIVE ARRAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
MORE ON SIMPLE COIL TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
WARNING ABOUT THE HAARP . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
GREEN SCISSORS CAMPAIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
IDEA ROULETTE: GRAVITY & EM . . . . . . . . . . . 19
LETTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
R. Nectoux, Albert Poole, Hal Fox
MEETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Alternative Technology (J.R.R. Searl) - England
6th International Cold Fusion - Japan
High Technology in Power Industry - Canada
Renewable Energy - Colorado
Consciousness, NewMedicine, NewEnergy -Japan
COMMERCIAL COLUMN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

î
¿² »´»½¬®·½¿´ ½±«°´·²¹ ©·¬¸ ±«¬»® -°¿½» ¾§ ¬¸» °¸¿-»ó´±½µ ±º ¿ ¯«¿²¬«³ -§²½¸®±²·¦¿¬·±² ©·¬¸ ¬¸» -«®®±«²¼·²¹ ¿»¬¸»®ò ̸» µ·²»¬·½ »²»®¹§ ±¾¬¿·²»¼ ©·¬¸ ´±© »´»½¬®·½¿´ ·²°«¬ °±©»® ¿³±«²¬- ¬± ³±®» ¬¸¿² ¿ ¾·´´·±² ¶±«´»- °»® ½«¾·½ ³»¬»® óó ¬¸«- °®±ª·¼·²¹ ¿² ±ª»®ó«²·¬§ °®±-°»½¬ò Þ§ ®»¹»²»®¿¬·²¹ ¬¸» -°·² ½±²¼·¬·±² ½§½´·½¿´´§ô ±²» ½¿² ¿½½»-- ¿»¬¸»® »²»®¹§ ¿¬ ¿ °±©»® ®¿¬» ¼»¬»®³·²»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» °«´-» º®»¯«»²½§ ¿²¼ ¬¸» °¸§-·½¿´ ª±´«³» ±º ¬¸» ùª¿½««³ -°·²ù º±®³ò ײ¼»°»²¼»²¬ »¨°»®·³»²¬-ô ¿²¼ ®»´¿¬·±²-¸·° ¬± ¬¸» -±ó½¿´´»¼ Ò󳿽¸·²» ©·´´ ¾» ¼·-½«--»¼ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ ×² ¬¸·- °¿°»® ß-°¼»² ¹·ª»- «- º«®¬¸»® ·²-·¹¸¬ ·²¬± ¬¸» þß-°¼»² Ûºº»½¬þ ·² ©¸·½¸ ¿ ¬§°» ±º ®±¬¿¬·±²¿´ ·²»®¬·¿ ·¼»³±²-¬®¿¬»¼ò

ÓßÇ ïççê
½±²-¬¿²¬÷ò Ú±® -±³» ¸·-¬±®·½¿´ ®»¿-±² ¬¸·- ¸¿- ¾»»² ¼«¾¾»¼ ¿- þ¹¿«¹·²¹þò λ¹¿«¹·²¹ ·²ª±´ª»- ½¸¿²¹·²¹ ¬¸» ª¿´«» ±º ¬¸·- þ®¿¬» ±º ½¸¿²¹» ±º °±¬»²¬·¿´ ©·¬¸ ®»-°»½¬ ¬± ¬·³»þò Þ»¿®¼»² ¿®¹«»- ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»®» ³¿§ ¾» -±³» ³»¬¸±¼ ¾§ ©¸·½¸ ¬¸» ª¿´«» ±º ¬¸·- ¬»®³ ½¿² ¾» ½¸¿²¹»¼ ø®»¹¿«¹»¼÷ ¿²¼ ¬¸«-ô ©·¬¸±«¬ ª·±´¿¬·²¹ ¬¸» Ó¿¨©»´´ù- »¯«¿¬·±²ô °®±ª·¼» ¿ ³»¬¸±¼ ¬± ±¾¬¿·² »²»®¹§ò

ÐËÔÍÛÜ ÙÔÑÉ Ü×ÍÝØßÎÙÛ ÎÛßÝÌÑÎ ß´»¨¿²¼®¿ ¿²¼ п«´± ݱ®®»¿ô þÛ¨½»-- Û²»®¹§ ݱ²ª»®-·±² ͧ-¬»³ ˬ·´·¦·²¹ Ы´-»¼ Ù´±© Ü·-½¸¿®¹» λ¿½¬±®òþ ßËÌØÑÎÍù ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ê¿½««³ ¿®½ ¼·-½¸¿®¹»- øÊßÜ-÷ ¸¿ª» ¾»»² -¸±©² ¬± ¼»°´±§ ¿²±³¿´±«- ½¿¬¸±¼» ®»¿½¬·±² º±®½»-ò Þ§ ¼®·ª·²¹ ¬¸» ½±´¼ó½¿¬¸±¼» ª¿½««³ ¬«¾» ·²¬± -«-¬¿·²¿¾´» ½§½´·½¿´ ±-½·´´¿¬·±²-ô -°±²¬¿²»±«- ¿«¬±ó»´»½¬®±²·½ »®±-·±² ±½½«®- ©¸·½¸ ¿°°»¿® ¬± ½±²º±®³ ¬± ß-°¼»²ùÔ¿© ±º Û´»½¬®±¼§²¿³·½-ò ˬ·´·¦·²¹ ¬¸» ¿²±³¿´±«½¿¬¸±¼» ®»¿½¬·±²ô »´»½¬®·½¿´ »²»®¹§ ½¿² ¾» »¨¬®¿½¬»¼ º®±³ ¬¸» °´¿-³¿ ®»¿½¬±® ¬¸®±«¹¸ ¿ ½¿°¬«®» ¿²¼ ®»½¬·º§·²¹ ½·®½«·¬ô ¾§ ª·®¬«» ±º ¿ °«´-¿¬±®§ ·²¬»®¿½¬·±² ©·¬¸ ¬¸» °±´¿®·¦»¼ ¦»®±ó°±·²¬ »²»®¹§ º·»´¼ò Ü·®»½¬ «¬·´·¦¿¬·±² ·- ¬¸»² °±--·¾´» ©·¬¸ ßòÝò ³±¬±®- ¿²¼ ¬®¿²-º±®³»®-ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ ß´»¨¿²¼®¿ ݱ®®»¿ °®»-»²¬»¼ ¿ ª¿®·»¬§ ±º ª·¼»± °·½¬«®»- ±º ¹´±© ¼·-½¸¿®¹»- øª¿½««³ ¿®½ ¼·-½¸¿®¹»-÷ò ݱ®®»¿ ©¿- ¸·¹¸´§ ½±³°´·³»²¬¿®§ ±º ß-°¼»²ù- ©±®µ ¬¸¿¬ ´»¼ ¸·³ ¬± ¬¸·- ÊßÜ ©±®µ ¿²¼ ¸·- ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ³»¿²- ¾§ ©¸·½¸ »¨½»-- »²»®¹§ ½¿² ¾» ±¾¬¿·²»¼ò Ø·©±®µ ½»®¬¿·²´§ -¸±«´¼ ¾» ¬®»¿¬»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» -½·»²¬·º·½ ½±³³«²·¬§ ¿- ¿²±¬¸»® ¿ª»²«» ¾§ ©¸·½¸ ©» ½¿² »¨¬»²¼ ±«® «²¼»®-¬¿²¼·²¹ ±º ¬¸» »²»®¹»¬·½ ¿»¬¸»®ò ɸ»¬¸»® ¬¸·- ©±®µ ©·´´ ´»¿¼ ¬± °®¿½¬·½¿´ ½±³³»®½·¿´·¦¿¬·±² ·- ²±¬ ®»¿¼·´§ ¿°°¿®»²¬ò Í»» °¿¹» ïí º±® º«®¬¸»® ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ±² ¬¸·- ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ò

ÎÛÙßËÙ×ÒÙ ú ÓËÔÌ×ÊßÔËÛÜ ÐÑÌÛÒÌ×ßÔÍ ÌòÛò Þ»¿®¼»²ô þλ¹¿«¹·²¹ ¿²¼ Ó«´¬·ª¿´«»¼ ᬻ²¬·¿´-æ л®³·--·¾´» Ѫ»®ó˲·¬§ л®º±®³¿²½» ¿²¼ Í°»½·º·½ Û²¹·²» Û¨¿³°´»-òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Í½¿´¿® Ó«´¬·ª¿´«»¼ ᬻ²¬·¿´- øÓÊÐ-÷ ¿®» ²¿¬«®¿´´§ ±½½«®®·²¹ô ²±²½±²-»®ª¿¬·ª» º·»´¼-ô ©¸·½¸ ½¿² ¾» «¬·´·¦»¼ ¬± ¿½½±³°´·-¸ °±¬»²¬·¿´ »²»®¹§ ®»¹¿«¹·²¹ ±º ¿² »²¹·²»ò Û¨½»-- »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ »²»®¹§ ·º«®²·-¸»¼ ¼·®»½¬´§ º®±³ ¬¸» ª¿½««³ ¼«®·²¹ ®»¹¿«¹·²¹ô ¿²¼ ¬¸«- »¨¸·¾·¬- ¿ ½±»ºº·½·»²¬ ±º °»®º±®³¿²½» ¹®»¿¬»® ¬¸¿² ïòðò ɸ·´» ¬¸·- ª·±´¿¬»- ¬¸» º¿³·´·¿® ½´¿--·½¿´ »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·-³ ±º ½±²-»®ª¿¬·ª» º·»´¼-ô ·¬ ¼±»- ²±¬ ª·±´¿¬» µ²±©² »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½- ²±²½±²-»®ª¿¬·ª» º·»´¼-ô ¬¸»®³±¼§²¿³·½- ±® ½±²ª»®-¿¬·±² ±º »²»®¹§ ´¿©-ò Û¨¿³°´»- ·²½´«¼»æ Ö±¸²-±²ù- °¿¬»²¬»¼ ²±² ´·²»¿® ¿´´ó°»®³¿²»²¬ó³¿¹²»¬ ³±¬±®ô ¿²¼ ¬¸» Ì¿µ¿¸¿-¸· ¿²¼ Õ¿©¿· »²¹·²»- óó ¿´´ ±º ©¸·½¸ ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬» °»®³·--·¾´» ±ª»®ó«²·¬§ ½±»ºº·½·»²¬-ô -«½¸ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»-» °®±¬±¬§°»- ¿®» ²±© ®»¿¼§ º±® º«´´ ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ¿²¼ «´¬·³¿¬» ·²¬®±¼«½¬·±² ·²¬± ©±®´¼ ³¿®µ»¬-ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ

ÎÑÜ×ÒùÍ ßÛÎÑÜÇÒßÓ×ÝÍ Þ»¿®¼»²ù- ¼·-½«--·±² ·- ¿´©¿§- ·²¬»®»-¬·²¹ò ̸·´¿¬»-¬ ¿¼¼·¬·±² ¬± Þ»¿®¼»²ù- ¿²¿´§¬·½¿´ ¼·-½«--·±²- ±º ½®»¿¬·²¹ ²»© »²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»-ô «-»- ¬¸» º±´´±©·²¹ ½±²½»°¬ò Ѳ» ±º ¬¸» ¬±°·½- ·² ¼·-½«--·²¹ Ó¿¨©»´´ù»¯«¿¬·±² ¸¿- ¬± ¼± ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ¼»º·²·¬·±² ±º °±¬»²¬·¿´ò Ò±®³¿´´§ô ¬¸» ®¿¬» ±º ½¸¿²¹» ±º °±¬»²¬·¿´ ©·¬¸ ¼·-¬¿²½» ·- ¬®»¿¬»¼ò ̸» ®¿¬» ±º ½¸¿²¹» ±º °±¬»²¬·¿´ ©·¬¸ ¬·³» ·- «-«¿´´§ ¬®»¿¬»¼ ¿- «²·³°±®¬¿²¬ ¿²¼ ¬¸¿¬ °±®¬·±² ±º ¿ -±´«¬·±² ¬± ¬¸» Ó¿¨©»´´ù- »¯«¿¬·±² ·¿®¾·¬®¿®·´§ -»¬ ¬± ¦»®± ø±® ¬± ¿ ß´¿-¬¿·® ݱ«°»®ô þ̸±«¹¸¬- «°±² λ¿¼·²¹ Ó¿®½± α¼·²ù- ß»®±¼§²¿³·½-òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Î±¼·² ¸¿- ½±²½»·ª»¼ ±º ¿ ¬±®±·¼¿´ º±®³ «°±² ©¸·½¸ ¿ ½±·´ ±º ª»®§ -°»½·º·½ ¹»±³»¬®§ ·- ©±«²¼ò ̸» ¼»¬¿·´±º

wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò

¬¸» Ú·¾±²¿½½· Í»®·».¿ ®»-»¿®½¸ °®±¶»½¬ò ̸» ¼·-½±ª»®§ ©¿´¿¬»® ½¿´´»¼ ¬¸» Þ·»º·»´¼óÞ®±©² Ûºº»½¬ò ̸» ¯«»-¬·±² ¬±¼¿§ ·.º±® ³«´¬·°´» »²»®¹§ ¼·³»²-·±².³±¼»´ ¿´´±©.¬± ¿² ·²¬»®½±²²»½¬»¼ »ª±´ª·²¹ «²·ª»®-»ò ̸·.Ý®¿ª»²-ô Õ»§²±¬»æ þ̸» שּׁ»®-±² б©»® Ý»´´òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ì¸» שּׁ»®-±² Ú«»´ Ý»´´ ·.°¿°»® ··²¬»²¼»¼ ¬± ´·²µ α¼·²ù.»¨½»´´»²¬ ¼·-½«--·±² ±º ¬¸» ÌÓ Ð¿¬¬»®-±² б©»® Ý»´´ ô Ü»²²·.Ò·¹¸¬´·²»ô ¿²¼ ·- ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÓÛßÍËÎÛÓÛÒÌ Î±¾»®¬ Û³³»®·½¸ô þѲ Û²»®¹§ Ó»¿-«®»³»²¬òþ wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .¿.¼±·²¹ ¿² »¨½»´´»²¬ ¶±¾ ±º ®¿·-·²¹ ½±®°±®¿¬»ô «¬·´·¬§ ½±³°¿²§ô ¿²¼ ¿½¿¼»³·½ ·²¬»®»-¬ ·² ½±´¼ º«-·±² ¼»ª·½»-ò É» ½±³³»²¼ ¬¸·¹®±«° ±² ¬¸»·® »¨½»´´»²¬ ©±®µ ·² ¿¼ª¿²½·²¹ ¬¸» ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ±º ²»©ó»²»®¹§ -§-¬»³-ò ËÒ×Ú×ÛÜ ÓÑÜÛÔ Þ×ÛÚ×ÛÔÜóÞÎÑÉÒ ÛÚÚÛÝÌ Ð¿«´ ݱ¨ô þ̸» ˲·º·½¿¬·±² ±º Û´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·-³ ¿²¼ Ù®¿ª·¬¿¬·±² «-·²¹ ¿² ײ¬»®½±²²»½¬»¼ ˲·ª»®-» Ó±¼»´ óó ùͱ«´ Ð-§½¸±°¸§-·½-ùòþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß ³±¼»´ ±º ¿² ·²¬»®½±²²»½¬»¼ »²»®¹§ «²·ª»®-» ·¼»ª»´±°»¼ ©¸·½¸ «²·º·».Ý®¿ª»².½±²²»½¬·²¹ ¸«³¿² ¾»·²¹.°±-·¬·ª» °±´» ©¸»² -«-°»²¼»¼ ·² ¿ ¹®¿ª·¬¿ó ¬·±²¿´ º·»´¼ò Ø» ¿--·¹²»¼ Ìò ̱©²-»²¼ Þ®±©² ¬± -¬«¼§ ¬¸» »ºº»½¬ ¿.±º »´»½¬®±ó ³¿¹²»¬·-³ ¿²¼ ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±²ô ¿.¼»-½®·¾»¼ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ¼«¿´ °«®°±-» ±º ¹»²»®¿¬·²¹ °±©»® ¿²¼ °®±ª·¼·²¹ ¿ «²·¯«»´§ ¿¬¬®¿½¬·ª» ¸±³»ò Ô¿®®§ Ü»¿ª»²°±®¬ô þ̱©¿®¼.¬¸» ½±²½»°¬.¾»»² ´»¿¼ ¬± ¬¸» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ¬¸·.©·¬¸ »-¬¿¾´·-¸»¼ ¬¸»±®·».¾»»² ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬»¼ ¿¬ °®·±® ½±²º»®»²½»-ô ©¿.¬¿°°·²¹ ·²¬± ª¿½««³ ±® ¦»®± °±·²¬ »²»®¹·»-ò ½±²-·¼»®»¼ ¾§ ³¿²§ »¨°»®¬.½±´¼ º«-·±² ¼»ª·½» ø¾«¬ ²±¬ -±ó½¿´´»¼ ¾§ Ý´»¿² Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹·»-÷ ·.©»´´ ¿.¬¸»±®§ò ײ -½¿²²·²¹ ¸·¼±½«³»²¬ô × º±«²¼ ²± ®»´¿¬·±²-¸·° ¾§ ©¸·½¸ ¸·.±º ß¹»ôþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß ³±¬·ª¿¬·±²¿´ ¿°°®±¿½¸ º±® ©·¼»-°®»¿¼ ©·²¼ °±©»® ¹»²»®¿¬·±² ·.¿ º¿-½·²¿¬·²¹ ´·²µ ¾»¬©»»² ²«³»®±´±¹·½¿´ -»¯«»²½»-«½¸ ¿.¬¸» ´»¿¼·²¹ ½±²¬»²¼»® º±® ½±³³»®½·¿´·¦¿¬·±² ±º Ò»© Û²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»-ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ í ײ ¿¼¼·¬·±² ¬± ¸·.Ú´·¹¸¬ É·¬¸±«¬ ͬ®»-.¿²¼ ½±²½»°¬-ô ¿²¼ ·²½´«¼».-§-¬»³ ±º °®±°«´-·±² ½¿´´»¼ »´»½¬®±ó¹®¿ª·¬·½-ò ÐßÌÌÛÎÍÑÒ ÐÑÉÛÎ ÝÛÔÔ Ü»²²·.¬¸» ³¿·² -«¾¶»½¬ ±º ¿ ®»°±®¬ ±² ßÞÝù.°®»-»²¬»¼ ¾§ ½±³¾·²·²¹ ³±¼»®² ©·²¼ °±©»® ¹»²»®¿¬·±² ©·¬¸ ¿ -¬®«½¬«®» ®»-»³¾´·²¹ ¿² Ñ´¼ ɱ®´¼ øÜ«¬½¸÷ ©·²¼³·´´ò ײ ½±²¬®¿-¬ ¬± ¬¸» -µ»´»¬¿´ ©·²¼³·´´ ±º ¬¸» ©·²¼³·´´ º¿®³ô ¿² ¿¬¬®¿½¬·ª» ¬§°» ±º -¬®«½¬«®» ·.¬¸» ½®»¼·¾·´·¬§ ±º ÌòÌò Þ®±©² ¿²¼ ¸·.º¿® ¾»¬¬»® ª»®-»¼ ·² °-§½¸±°¸§-·½.¿®» ¿²½·»²¬ ¹»±³»¬®·»-ô ¿.¿ ´·¹¸¬ó©¿¬»®ô ´·¬¸·«³ »´»½¬®±´§¬»ô ²·½µ»´ñ°¿´´¿¼·«³ ½¿¬¿´§-¬ô ©¸·½¸ °®±ª·¼»º±® ¿ ²»© ¬§°» ±º ©¿¬»® ¸§¼®±´§-·-ò ̸» °¿¬»²¬»¼ -§-¬»³ ¸¿.º®¿½¬¿´-ô ¸±´±¹®¿³-ô ³±²±°±´»-ô °¸¿-»¼ ¿®®¿§-ô -§²½¸®±²·¦»¼ »´»½¬®·½·¬§ô ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ³±¼»®² -½·»²¬·º·½ ½±²½»°¬-ò ̸·.©»´´ ¿.ø·ò»ò ͱ«´-÷ ·² ¿ ¼§²¿³·½ º®»» »²»®¹§ -§-¬»³ ·² ©¸·½¸ »²»®¹§ ½¿² ½¸¿²¹» º±®³ô ·²½®»¿-» ±® ¼·³·²·-¸ô ¿²¼ ¾» ½®»¿¬»¼ ±® ¼»-¬®±§»¼ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Ý±¨ ·.¬¸¿² × ¿³ò ÓÑÜÛÎÒ É×ÒÜ ÐÑÉÛÎ Ö±¸² Û¿®´»ô þÉ·²¼³·´´ ر³» ݱ³».¿² ·²¬»®»-¬·²¹ °»®-±² ©¸± ¸¿.±® ͬ®¿·²òòò ±® É»·¹¸¬òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ×² ïçîí Ю±º»--±® п«´ ß´º®»¼ Þ·»º·»´¼ô ¿ °¸§-·½·-¬ ¿¬ ¬¸» Ý¿´·º±®²·¿ ײ-¬·¬«¬» º±® ß¼ª¿²½»¼ ͬ«¼·»-ô ¼·-½±ª»®»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¿ ¸»¿ª·´§ ½¸¿®¹»¼ ½±²¼»²-»® ³±ª»¼ ¬±©¿®¼ ·¬.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ ¬¸» º´±© ±º »²»®¹§ ¿®» ¼»°»²¼»²¬ «°±² ¿² »´¿¾±®¿¬» ²«³»®±´±¹·½¿´ -½¸»³» ®»²¼»®»¼ ±² ¬¸» -«®º¿½» ±º ¬¸» ¬±®±·¼¿´ º±®³ô ¿²¼ ®»-«´¬ ·² ¿ -¬®±²¹ ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±²¿´ »ºº»½¬ ·² ¬¸» ½¿-» ±º ¿ °®±°»®´§ »¨»½«¬»¼ ¿²¼ °±©»®»¼ ©·²¼·²¹ò ײ½´«¼»¼ ·² ¬¸» ¼»-·¹².¬¸»±®§ ½±«´¼ ¾» ¬·»¼ ¬± ¿²§ ±º ¬¸» ª¿-¬ ¿®»¿ ±º -½·»²¬·º·½ »ª·¼»²½» ©·¬¸ ©¸·½¸ × ¿³ º¿³·´·¿®ò × -«¹¹»-¬»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¸» ¬¿´µ ©·¬¸ Þ®·¿² ÑùÔ»¿®§ ©¸± ·.¿²¼ ¬¸» °±¬»²¬·¿´ º±® »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ -§-¬»³.¸»´¼ ¿ ©±®µ-¸±° ·² ©¸·½¸ ¸» ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬»¼ ¿ ©±®µ·²¹ °±©»® ½»´´ò ̸·.¿»®±¼§²¿³·½.

±º Ò»© Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹·»Þ»·²¹ ݱ³³»®½·¿´·¦»¼òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß -«³³¿®§ ±º °®±¹®»-.·²ª»²¬·±² ¸¿.±º ¬¸» îï-¬ ½»²¬«®§ô ¿²¼ ¿´´ ¬¸®»» ¿®» »¨°»½¬»¼ ¬± ¾» ½±³³»®½·¿´·¦»¼ ¼«®·²¹ ïççê ¿²¼ ïççéò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Ú±¨ ¿²²±«²½»¼ ¬¸» -«½½»--º«´ ·²ª»²¬·±²ô °¿¬»²¬ ¿°°´·½¿¬·±²ô ¿²¼ »¿®´§ °±-·¬·ª» ®»-«´¬.Ôò Ù®·¹¹-ô Õ»§²±¬»æ þ̸» ا¼®±-±²·½ Ы³°òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ì¸» ا¼®±-±²·½ Ы³° ·.±º ¾¿´´ ´·¹¸¬²·²¹ ¬± »³»®¹» ¿-¬®·½¬´§ »´»½¬®±-¬¿¬·½ó »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ ³¿²·º»-¬¿¬·±²-ô ´¿¾±®¿¬±®§ °®±ª¿¾´» »ª·¼»²½» ¸¿.¿.±º Í°¿½» Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹·».·³°®±ª·²¹ ¸·¼»ª·½»ò ÒßÍß ¿²¼ ¿¬ ´»¿-¬ ±²» «²·ª»®-·¬§ ¿®» ¬»-¬·²¹ ¬¸» ا¼®±-±²·½ Ы³°ÌÓ ò Ö¿³».¿®» »¨°»½¬»¼ ¬± º±®³ ¬¸» ¾¿-·.¶«-¬ ¬± °®±ª·¼» ¿ ½±³°¿®¿¬·ª» ´·-¬ ±º ½±-¬.¬¸» ³·½®±©¿ª» »²»®¹§ ·.Ù®·¹¹.±º ¬¸» ا¼®±-±²·½ °«³°ô ·²½´«¼·²¹ ¬¸» ´¿¬»-¬ ®»-»¿®½¸ º·²¼·²¹-ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Ö¿³».·² ¬¸» ³¿·²-¬®»¿³ -±½·»¬§ ·² ¬¸» ¿®»¿.¼·-½«--»¼ô ¿´±²¹ ©·¬¸ »¨¿³°´».º±® ¬»² ¬± ¬©»²¬§ ¬·³».½±³°¿®»¼ ©·¬¸ »´»½¬®·½¿´ ·²°«¬ò ÍÐßÝÛ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÛÝÑÒÑÓ×ÝÍ Ö±-»º Ù®«¾»®ô иòÜò þÛ½±²±³·½ Ûºº»½¬.¾§ ¬¸» «-» ±º -¸±½µ ©¿ª»-ô ½¿ª·¬¿¬·±²ô ±® ¬¸» ·³°´±-·±² ±º ¾«¾¾´».¿²¼ ¸·.¬¸¿¬ ½¿ª·¬§óº±®³»¼ °´¿-³±·¼.³«½¸ ¬¸»®³¿´ ±«¬°«¬ ¿.¬¸» °±¬»²¬·¿´ º±® wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .©¿¬»®óº«»´»¼ »²¹·²»ô Ù®·¹¹ù.¼»-½®·¾»¼ ·² ¼»¬¿·´ô ¿.±º ¿ ²»© º·¾»® °±©»® ½»´´ò ̸·.º±«²¼ ¬¸¿¬ §±« ¼± ²±¬ -»´´ ¿ ¼»ª·½» ¾§ ¬»´´·²¹ °»±°´» ¬¸¿¬ ·¬ ·.ì ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ü»º·²·¬·±².«.©»®» ¬¸» µ»§ ¬¸¿¬ °®±ª·¼».³±®» ±º ¿ ¸·¹¸ ½«®®»²¬ °¸»²±³»²±² ¬¸¿² ¿ ¸·¹¸ ª±´¬¿¹» ±²»ô ¬¸» ¿«¬¸±® ½±²¬»²¼.¿²¼ ͱ½·»¬§òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ÞßÔÔ Ô×ÙØÌÒ×ÒÙ ×Ò ÌØÛ ÔßÞ Î±¾»®¬ Õò Ù±´µ¿ô þÔ¿¾±®¿¬±®§óЮ±¼«½»¼ Þ¿´´ Ô·¹¸¬²·²¹òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ü·-½±ª»®·²¹ ¾¿´´ ´·¹¸¬²·²¹ ©¿.±º ³»¿-«®»³»²¬ °·¬º¿´´-ô ¼·ºº·½«´¬·»-ô ¿²¼ »®®±®-ò Ó»¿-«®»³»²¬ ±º »´»½¬®·½¿´ »²»®¹§ ó º®±³ ¼½ ¬± ¹·¹¿¸»®¬¦ ó ©¿.©¿.¼»ª·½» ¿²¼ ¬§°·½¿´ þº·®»¼ó«°þ ¼»ª·½»-ò ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÝÑÓÓÛÎÝ×ßÔ×ÆßÌ×ÑÒ Ø¿´ Ú±¨ô þ̸®»» ̧°».½¿² ¾» ³¿¼» ¾§ °«¬¬·²¹ ¿ îó·²½¸ ¾«®²·²¹ ½¿²¼´» ·² ¿ ¸±³» µ·¬½¸»² ³·½®±©¿ª» ±ª»²ò ̸» °´¿-³±¼».½±³°¿²§ ¿®» ³¿®µ»¬·²¹ ¬¸» ±²´§ ½±³³»®½·¿´ ¿°°´·½¿¬·±² ±º ¿ ²»©ó»²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½» ·² ¬¸» ˲·¬»¼ ͬ¿¬»-ò ߬ »¿½¸ ½±²º»®»²½» ¬¸¿¬ ©» ´·-¬»² ¬± Ö¿³»-ô ¸» -¸±©.±º ¾¿-·½ ³»½¸¿²·½¿´ô ¬¸»®³¿´ô ¿²¼ »´»½¬®·½ »²»®¹·».-«°»®³¿¹²»¬ó-«°»®³±¬±® ø«¬·´·¦·²¹ -«°»®ó-¬®±²¹ °»®³¿²»²¬ ³¿¹²»¬-÷ô ¬¸» Í©·-ÓóÔóݱ²ª»®¬»®ô ͬ¿²´»§ Ó»§»®ù.º´±¿¬ ¿®±«²¼ º±® ¿´±²¹ ¿.±ª»®ó«²·¬§ óó ¬¸»§ ©±²ù¬ ¾»´·»ª» §±«ò Ù®·¹¹.³¿®µ»¬·²¹ °´±§ ·.º±® »²»®¹§ó°®±¼«½·²¹ -§-¬»³.©¿¿¾-±®°¬·ª» ¿²¼ ¬®¿²-³·--·ª» »²»®¹§ ³»¿-«®·²¹ ©¿¬¬³»¬»®-ò ØÇÜÎÑÍÑÒ×Ý ÐËÓÐ ÓßÇ ïççê Ö¿³».©»®» °®»-»²¬»¼ ©¸·½¸ ·²½±®°±®¿¬» ¬¸»-» ¼»ª»´±°»¼ ¼»ª·½».·²½´«¼» ¬¸» שּׁ»®-±² Ú«»´ Ý»´´ô Ì¿µ¿¸¿-¸·ù.³¿¼» ·² ¬¸» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ¬¸®»» ²»© »²»®¹§ ¬»½¸²±´±¹·»-æ ½±´¼ ²«½´»¿® º«-·±²ô ¸·¹¸ó¼»²-·¬§ ½¸¿®¹» ½´«-¬»®-ô ¿²¼ -«°»®ó³¿¹²»¬-ñ -«°»®ó³±¬±®.¾»»² -¸±©² ¬± ¾» -·¹²·º·½¿²¬´§ ¹®»¿¬»® ¬¸¿² ïððûô ¿²¼ ³¿§ ¾» ½±²²»½¬»¼ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» °¸»²±³»²±² ±º -±²±´«³·²»-½»²½»ô ¿²¼ ¬¸» ¼»ª»´±°ó ³»²¬ ±º ¬¸» Õ»»´»§ ³±¬±® ¾§ Ö±¸² Õ»»´»§ ·² ¬¸» ´¿¬» ïèðð-ò ̸» °®»-»²¬¿¬·±² ·²½´«¼»¼ ¼·-½«--·±² ±² ¿¼ª¿²¬¿¹»-ô «-»-ô ¿²¼ »²»®¹§ ¾¿´¿²½».¬¸¿¬ ¸» ·.²±¬ ¾»»² º±«²¼ò Í°¿½» Û²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½».°®»-»²¬ò ß´¬¸±«¹¸ ¿²¬·½·°¿¬·²¹ -±³» ¬§°».±º ¬®¿²-°±®¬¿¬·±²ô »´»½¬®·½·¬§ ¿²¼ ¸»¿¬ °®±¼«½¬·±²ô ¿²¼ ¬¸» «²°®»½»¼»²¬»¼ »½±²±³·½ô º·-½¿´ô -±½·¿´ô °±´·¬·½¿´ ¿²¼ »²ª·®±²³»²¬¿´ »ºº»½¬.±º °®±¼«½·²¹ ¸±¬ ©¿¬»® ±® -¬»¿³ ©·¬¸ ¸·.©·¬¸·² ¬¸» ´·¯«·¼ò ̸» »ºº·½·»²½§ ±º ¬¸» ¼»ª·½» ¸¿.óó °®±ª·¼·²¹ ¬¸»®³¿´ô »´»½¬®·½ô ¿²¼ ³»½¸¿²·½¿´ »²»®¹§ò ̸»-» ¬¸®»» ¬»½¸²±´±¹·».ا¼®±-±²·½ Ы³°ô ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ·²ª»²¬·±²-ò Í»ª»®¿´ -½»²¿®·±.¿²¼ ³»¿-«®»³»²¬.©¸·½¸ ¿®» »¨°»½¬»¼ò Ѻ °¿®¬·½«´¿® ·³°±®¬¿²½» ·.øÍÛÌ÷ ±² ײ¼·ª·¼«¿´.¿ ²±ª»´ ¼»ª·½» º±® ¸»¿¬·²¹ ´·¯«·¼.¬¸» º±´´±©·²¹ ·²ª»²¬±®-æ Þ®«½» Ûª»®·²¹¸¿³ô ߪ¿®¼ Ú¿·®¾¿²µ-ô Ø¿´ Ú±¨ô 묻® Ù´$½µô ¿²¼ ͸¿² Ö·²ò Ú±¨ ¿²²±«²½»¼ ¬¸¿¬ -°»½·¿´´§ °´¿¬»¼ ²·½µ»´óº·¾»® ½¿¬¸±¼».

²± »´»³»²¬ ©·¬¸ ¿² ¿¬±³·½ ©»·¹¸¬ ±º º·ª»ò ̸» »¨·-¬»²½» ±º ¬¸·.±º °´¿-³¿ ®»-»¿®½¸ §·»´¼.«²¿¾´»ô ¿¬ ¬¸» ´¿-¬ ³·²«¬»ô ¬± ³¿µ» ¬¸» ½±²º»®»²½»ò É» ´±±µ º±®©¿®¼ ¬± ³±®» ·²º±®³¿¬·±² º®±³ Ö±¸² ¿¬ ¿ ´¿¬»® ½±²º»®»²½»ò Û¼òà ÌØÛ ÍËÐÛÎ ÌËÞÛ Ó±®¿§ Þò Õ·²¹ô þ̸» Í«°»® Ì«¾»òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ý±³¾·²·²¹ ¬¸» ®»-«´¬.¬¸» ¾¿²¯«»¬ °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²òà ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ×¬ ·.¿²¼ ¿ °´¿¬º±®³ ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±² ±º -°»½·¿´ °´¿-³¿.¬± ¬¿° ·²¬± ¬¸» ¦»®± °±·²¬ »²»®¹§ô ¿²¼ ¿ ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±² ±º ¿ ²±ó³±ª·²¹ó°¿®¬-ô Ý¿-·³»® Ûºº»½¬ «²·¬ -¸±©·²¹ »²»®¹§ ¿½¬·ª¿¬»¼ ·² ¿ -°»½·¿´ -°¿½» ½¸¿®¹» -§-¬»³ò ̸» ´¿¬¬»® «²·¬ô ©¸·½¸ º·¬.ø·²½´«¼·²¹ ¿ ª·¼»± °®»-»²¬¿¬·±²÷ô ¦»®± °±·²¬ »²»®¹§ô ³»¬¸±¼.·² ¿ ¾®·»º½¿-» ±® »ª»² ¿ °±½µ»¬ô ©¿.®»ª»¿´»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ½±²¬»²¬.»´»³»²¬ ·¬¸»±®»¬·½¿´´§ °®»¼·½¬»¼ô ¿²¼ ¸¿.¼·ºº·½«´¬ ¬± ·³¿¹·²» ¿ ³±®» °®±º±«²¼ ®»ª»®-¿´ ±º -½·»²¬·º·½ º±®¬«²».±º °´¿-³¿ ®»-»¿®½¸ ·²½´«¼»æ ß¾²±®³¿´ Ù´±© Ü·-½¸¿®¹» ø»ò¹ò ݱ®®»¿÷ô ر´´±© Ý¿¬¸±¼» Ü·-½¸¿®¹»ô ο¼·±¿½¬·ª» ݱ´¼ Ý¿¬¸±¼»ô ¿²¼ Ò±¾´» Ù¿.±°»®¿¬·²¹ ·² ¬¸» ¿¾²±®³¿´ ¹´±© ¼·-½¸¿®¹» ®»¹·³»ô ¿²¼ ¬¸» ±«¬°«¬ ®»½¬·º·»¼ ±²¬± ½¿°¿½·¬±®.·² ¿ ¬«¾» ¿º¬»® °´¿-³¿ -¸¿°·²¹ ø»´»½¬®±ó ³¿¹²»¬·½-÷ ·²½´«¼»¼ -«¾-¬¿²¬·¿´ ¿³±«²¬.½¿² ¾» ½±²-·¼»®»¼ ¿.º±® ¼»ª»´±°·²¹ ¬¸» þÍ«°»® Ì«¾»ôþ ¿ °´¿-³¿ ¬«¾» ©¸·½¸ ±°¬·³¿´´§ ½±¸»®»¬¸» ¦»®± °±·²¬ »²»®¹§ò Í«½¸ ¿ ¬«¾» ½±«´¼ ¾»½±³» ¬¸» º±«²¼¿¬·±² º±® ®»ó·²ª»²¬·²¹ ¬¸» ëð ÕÉ ®¿¼·¿²¬ »²»®¹§ ³¿½¸·²» ±º Ìò ÝÑÔÜ ÚËÍ×ÑÒ ßÍ ÔÛßÜÛÎ Û«¹»²» Úò Ó¿´´±ª»ô þݱ´¼ Ú«-·±²æ Ê¿²¹«¿®¼ ±º ¬¸» Ò»© Û²»®¹§ ß¹»òþ Å̸·.¿²¼ ¹±¿´-ò ë Ø»²®§ Ó±®¿§ò ̸» º±«® ¿®»¿.´¿®¹» ¿.º·®-¬ ®¿¼·¿²¬ »²»®¹§ ·²ª»²¬·±² ½¿² ¾» ½±²-¬®«½¬»¼ ©·¬¸ ¬©± -«°»® ¬«¾».¾»»² ½®»¿¬»¼ ¾§ «-·²¹ ¿ ª¿½««³ ¬«¾» ©·¬¸ ±²´§ ²·¬®±¹»²óïì »¨°±-»¼ ¬± »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ º±®½» º·»´¼.-°»½¬®±-½±°§ ¿²¿´§-·.¾»»² »³»®¹·²¹ ·² ¬¸» wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .±º ²»© »´»½¬®±-¬¿¬·½ »¨°»®·³»²¬.¹»±³»¬®·»-ò ײ ¿¼¼·¬·±²ô ¸» -¸±©»¼ °¸±¬±.-°»½¬®±³»¬»® ´·¬»®¿¬«®» ·²¼·½¿¬».±º º±«® ¿®»¿.Ó·¨¬«®» ø»ò¹ò п°°÷ò ß º®»» ®«²²·²¹ô ¬©±ó-¬¿¹» ¼»ª·½» -·³·´¿® ¬± ÌòØò Ó±®¿§ù.¿--»®¬·±² ¬¸¿¬ ³«½¸ ±º ¬¸» »´»½¬®·½¿´ °¸»²±³»²¿ °®±¼«½»¼ ¾§ ¸·.DZ-¬ô þÌ»-´¿ ݱ·´-ô Û´»½¬®±-¬¿¬·½.-¿³» ¬§°» ±º ¹»±³»¬®§ ·.·² ©¸·½¸ »´»½¬®±-¬¿¬·½-ô ³¿¹²»¬·½.¬¸» °®·²½·°´».¬¿µ»² ¾§ ¬¸» Ø«¾¾´» ¬»´»-½±°» ©¸»®» ¬¸·.¿ -°»½·¿´ º±®³ ±º °´¿-³¿ò ÌÛÍÔß ÜÛÍ×ÙÒÍ ÚÑÎ ÐÎÑÐËÔÍ×ÑÒ Î·½¸¿®¼ Ø«´´ô ¿²¼ ݸ¿®´».º±«²¼ ·² ¿-¬®±²±³·½¿´ -¬®«½¬«®».¿²¼ ¼§²¿³·½ Ûóº·»´¼.¿.¸¿.¬¸¿² ©¸¿¬ ¸¿.³·¹¸¬ ¾» ½±³¾·²»¼ º±® ¿»®±-°¿½» º´·¹¸¬ò ÐÔßÍÓß ÍØßÐ×ÒÙ ú ÛÒÛÎÙÇ Î±²¿´¼ Öò Õ±ª¿½ô þд¿-³¿ ͸¿°·²¹ô Ò»© Ó¿-.©¸·½¸ ¹®¿¼«¿´´§ ½¸¿®¹» ¬± ¾»½±³» ¬¸» ³«¬«¿´ ·²°«¬ ½«®®»²¬ -±«®½» º±® ¬¸» ¬«¾»-ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Ó±®¿§ °®»-»²¬»¼ ¿² »¨½»´´»²¬ ®»ª·»© ±º ®»-»¿®½¸ ´»¿¼·²¹ «° ¬± ¬¸» °±--·¾´» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ¬¸» þ-«°»® ¬«¾»òþ ׬ -¸±«´¼ ¾» ³»²¬·±²»¼ ¬¸¿¬ Õ»² ͸±«´¼»®-ù ©±®µ ©·¬¸ ¸·¹¸ó¼»²-·¬§ ½¸¿®¹» ½´«-¬»®.±º »¨°»®·³»²¬.¿²¼ ¸·¹¸ ª±´¬¿¹»ò ÅÕ±ª¿½ -¸±©»¼ ª·¼»±.¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»®» ·.¿²¼ Û´»½¬®·½ Ю±°«´-·±²òþ ßËÌØÑÎÍù ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß ¼·-½«--·±² ±º ¬¸» ´¿¬»-¬ ®»-«´¬.©¿.¼·-°´¿§»¼ô ¬»-¬»¼ ¿²¼ ³»¿-«®»¼ò ÅØ«¬½¸·-±² ©¿.¹¿´¿¨·»-ò Û¼òà ÒÛÉ ÛÔÛÝÌÎÑÓßÙÒÛÌ×Ý ÌÛÝØÒÑÔÑÙÇ Ö±¸² Ø«¬½¸·-±²ô þÛ´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ Í°¿½» ݸ¿®¹» Ì»½¸²±´±¹§òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ü·-½«--·±² ±² ¬¸» Ø«¬½¸·-±² Ûºº»½¬.½±·´.ø¼§²¿³·½ Ûóº·»´¼-÷ô ·²½´«¼·²¹ ¿ ¬»-¬ ±º Ò·½±´¿ Ì»-´¿ù.©»®» °®»-»²¬»¼ ¿´±²¹ ©·¬¸ ©¸¿¬ ¿°°»¿®¬± ¾» °®±³·-·²¹ °¿¬¸.±² ¬¸» ½¸¿®¿½¬»® ±º ¼§²¿³·½ »´»½¬®±-¬¿¬·½ º·»´¼.±º ¸»´·«³óì ¿²¼ ´·¬¸·«³óëò Ô·¬¸·«³óë ·.¿²¼ Û²»®¹§ ͱ«®½»òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ó¿-.½±²-·¼»®»¼ ¬¸» þ³·--·²¹ ´·²µþ »´»³»²¬ ·² ¬¸¿¬ ³¿-.¸¿ª·²¹ ª¿®·±«.©»®» »´»½¬®±-¬¿¬·½ ·² ²¿¬«®» ¿²¼ ²±¬ »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ò Ü»¬¿·´.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ -«-¬¿·²¿¾´» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ô ¿²¼ ¬¸» ²»»¼ º±® ·³°±®¬¿²¬ ®»¯«·®»¼ ¿½¬·±².

±º ¬¸» ¿«¼·»²½» ¿²¼ ·²ª·¬»¼ ¬¸»³ ¬± -¸¿®» ¬¸»·® ª·»© ±º ©¸¿¬ ¬¸» -±±²ó¬±ó¾» Ò»© Û²»®¹§ º«¬«®» ©±«´¼ ¾» ´·µ»ò Ѳ» ½±³³»²¬ ®»´¿¬»¼ Õ»² ͸±«´¼»®.ø-±³»¬·³»º«²¼»¼ ¾§ ½±®°±®¿¬·±²-÷ò É·¬¸±«¬ ¿²§ ¹±ª»®²³»²¬ -»½®»½§ ¿½¬ ¬± ½«®¬¿·´ -«½¸ ¿½¬·ª·¬§ô ¿²¼ ©·¬¸ º«²¼·²¹ ¾»·²¹ °®±ª·¼»¼ô ·¬ ·.¿°°»¿® ¬± »²¬»® ²«½´»· ¿²¼ ½¿«-» »¨±¬¸»®³·½ ²«½´»¿® ®»¿½¬·±²-ò Í«°°´·»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» º´¿³» º®±³ Þ®±©²ù.±º »¨°´±-·±²ó¾¿-»¼ ¾«®²·²¹ ±º º«»´.-«®°®·-»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¿ ®»´¿¬·ª»´§ ´±©ó¬»³°»®¿¬«®» º´¿³» ø±º ¬¸» -¬±·½¸·±³»¬®·½ ®¿¬·± ±º ¸§¼®±¹»² ¿²¼ ±¨§¹»² º®±³ ©¿¬»®÷ ½±«´¼ ½«¬ -±³» ³»¬¿´.·² ©¸·½¸ °®±¬±².¼± ²±¬ô ·² ¹»²»®¿´ô °®±¼«½» ¼¿³¿¹·²¹ ²«½´»¿® ¾§°®±¼«½¬-ò ß ÉÑÓßÒ ×Ò ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÎÛÍÛßÎÝØ Ö»¿²» Ó¿²²·²¹ô þÒ»© Û²»®¹§æ Ѳ» ɱ³¿²ùѼ§--»§òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß ¶±«®²¿´·-¬·½ ª·»© ¬± ²»© »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸ô ·²½´«¼·²¹ ¼»¬¿·´.»²»®¹§ ¸±³»-ò ̸» °®±°±-»¼ ³±¼¿´·¬§ º±® ¬¸» -¿º» -«°°´§ ±º »²»®¹§ «-».¿²¼ -³¿-¸·²¹ ±º ¿¬±³-÷ò ß ½´»¿²ó»²»®¹§ ¾¿-·.¿ -±´¿® »²»®¹§ -§-¬»³ ¹»²»®¿¬·²¹ ÜÝ °±©»® º±® ¿ -¬±·½¸·±³»¬®·½ îæï °®±°±®¬·±² ¸§¼®±¹»²ñ±¨§¹»² ¹¿øÞ®±©²ù.Ù¿-ô ¬¸» ¸§¼®±¹»² ·±².±º ·²¼·ª·¼«¿´.²±¬ ¼·ºº·½«´¬ ¬± ±¾¬¿·² -±³» ¿½¿¼»³·½ ¿½½»°¬¿²½» ±º ¬¸» »¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ º¿½¬.»²¹»²¼»®»¼ ¬¸» ¸«³±®±«.ª»·²ô ¬¸» ¿½¬·ª·¬·».¿²¼ -¬±®».¬¸¿¬ ¿®» ¿¼ª»®¬·-»¼ º±® ÌÓ ¬¸» שּׁ»®-±² б©»® Ý»´´ ò Í»ª»®¿´ «²·ª»®-·¬§ °®±º»--±®.®»´¿¬»¼ ¿²±³¿´±«.¿ ²±¬»¼ ©®·¬»® ©·¬¸ ¿ ²»© ¾±±µ ¬± ¾» ®»´»¿-»¼ ¾§ ¿ ³¿¶±® °«¾´·-¸»® ¬¸·.ê ½±´¼ º«-·±² º·»´¼ò Ѳ» ±º ¬¸» ³±-¬ ®»ª·´»¼ô ¼·-°«¬»¼ ¿²±³¿´·».¿ª¿·´¿¾´» ¿¬ °®»-»²¬ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Ñ²» »®®±® ·² ½¿´½«´¿¬·±² ±º »²»®¹§ ®»¯«·®»¼ ¬± »´»½¬®±´§¦» ©¿¬»® ¿²¼ ¬¸» »²»®¹§ ¿ª¿·´¿¾´» º®±³ ¬¸» »´»½¬®±´§¦»¼ Þ®±©²ù.¬¸¿¬ ®»´§ ±® ª±®¬»¨ó½¿ª·¬¿¬·±² °®·²½·°´».·°´¿½»¼ ±² ¬¸» ½®»¿¬·ª» »²»®¹·».©·´´ ¾»´·»ª» ©¸¿¬ ¬¸»§ ¿®» °¿·¼ ¬± ¾»´·»ª»ò ײ ¿ -»®·±«.±º ¬¸» שּׁ»®-±² б©»® Ý»´´ÌÓ ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ ÓßÇ ïççê Ö»¿² Ó¿²²·²¹ ·.¬¸»®³¿´ °±©»® ®»-«´¬.¬¸¿¬ ²«½´»¿® ®»¿½¬·±² ¾§°®±¼«½¬.¿½¬·ª·¬§ ¸¿.¾»¬¬»® ¬¸¿² ¿² ±¨§ó ¿½»¬§´»²» ¬±®½¸ò Ó§ »¨°´¿²¿¬·±² ©¿.¿²¼ °®±ª·¼».¹¿¹»²»®¿¬».°¿·²º«´´§ô ¾«¬ ·²»¨±®¿¾´§ ¸»¿¼·²¹ ¬±©¿®¼ ¿½½»°¬¿²½» ¾§ ¬¸» -½·»²¬·º·½ ½±³³«²·¬§ò Ò±¬ ±²´§ ¬¸¿¬ô ¾«¬ ¾»½¿«-» ½±´¼ º«-·±² ·.Ù¿.º±® ²¿¬·±²¿´ »½±²±³·»·.-¬«¼·».²±© ½´»¿®´§ »ª·¼»²¬ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ¿¼ª»²¬ ±º ½±´¼ º«-·±² ¸¿.¿²¼ ½±®°±®¿¬·±².¿²¼ ±²».¿´¬»®²¿¬·ª» »²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»-ò Í»ª»®¿´ «¬·´·¬·».¿ ®»´¿¬·ª»´§ ³¿¬«®» ¿²¼ -¿º» ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ¿²¼ ·.¼·-½«--»¼ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .¿®» ³¿µ·²¹ -»®·±«.±º «²«-«¿´ ¼»-·¹² ¬¸¿¬ ¿®» ½´¿·³»¼ ¬± ¾» ±ª»®ó«²·¬§ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ ×¬ ·.λ¼·²¹ô °®»-·¼»²¬ ±º ÝÛÌ×ô ¿²¼ ¬± Ü®ò Ü»²²·.±«® ¹®»¿¬ ¬¸¿²µ.¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±².½±³·²¹ §»¿®ò ͸» ¬«®²»¼ °¿®¬ ±º ¸»® ¬·³» ±ª»® ¬± ³»³¾»®.®¿°·¼´§ »²¬»®·²¹ ¬¸» ³¿·²-¬®»¿³ ±º ³»¼·¿ ¿²¼ ·²¼«-¬®·¿´ ¿¬¬»²¬·±²ô ·¬ ©·´´ ¸¿ª» ¬¸» ½±´´¿¬»®¿´ »ºº»½¬ ±º º±½«-·²¹ ¿¬¬»²¬·±² ±² ±¬¸»® °»®¸¿°.±¾-»®ª¿¬·±² ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ³¿¶±® °®±¾´»³ ·² ¬¸» º«¬«®» ©±«´¼ ²±¬ ¾» ¿ -½¿®½·¬§ ±º »²»®¹§ ¾«¬ ¬¸» ²»»¼ º±® ²»© ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ¬± ¹»¬ ®·¼ ±º ¬¸»®³¿´ °±´´«¬·±²ò ßò Ó·½¸®±©-µ· ú Öò Ê¿² θ»»ô þÞ®±©²ù.øª·½» Å-·½Ã ¬¸» ¼»-¬®«½¬·ª» ¬»²¼»²½·».¾§ ²«½´»¿® ®»¿½¬·±²-ò ̸»-» °®±¬±²ó ½¿°¬«®» ²«½´»¿® ®»¿½¬·±².»¨½»-.Ù¿-ò ײ ¿² »¿®´·»® ¼·-½«--·±² ©·¬¸ Ç«´ Þ®±©²ô × ©¿.±º ¬¸» ÝÛÌ× ±®¹¿²·¦¿¬·±² ¿®» ´¿§·²¹ ¬¸» ¹®±«²¼©±®µ º±® ¬¸» ¿½½»°¬¿²½» ±º ±¬¸»® ²»© »²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»-ò É» ©·-¸ ¬± »¨°®»-.óó Ò»© Û²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½».¿®» ¬»-¬·²¹ ¿²¼ ª»®·º§·²¹ ¬¸» »¨½»-.»´»½¬®·½¿´ °±©»®ô º»»¼.º±® ¸·.¿ ¼»³¿²¼ º±® ¬¸» ¼»-·¹² ¿²¼ ®»¿´·¦¿¬·±² ±º ¸»¿´¬¸§ô ¿«¬±²±³±«.¬± Ö¿³».¿®» ¾»·²¹ º±«²¼ ·² ½±´¼ º«-·±² ¼»ª·½»-ò ̸·.¼»®·ª»¼ º®±³ ½±´¼ º«-·±² »¨°»®·³»²¬.·² ß«¬±²±³±«.Ý®¿ª»².Ù¿-÷ ¹»²»®¿¬·²¹ »´»½¬®±´§¬·½ ½»´´-ò ̸·.¸»¿¬·²¹ ¿²¼ ½±±´·²¹ -§-¬»³.ø°®±¬±²-÷ ©±«´¼ -·³·´¿®´§ ½±³¾·²» ©·¬¸ -±³» ³»¬¿´ ²«½´»· °®±¼«½·²¹ ¬¸» ±¾-»®ª»¼ ¸·¹¸ ¬»³°»®¿¬«®».·² ¬¸» ¸·-¬±®§ ±º -½·»²ÝÛ ·.Û²»®¹§ ر³»-òþ Åßò Ó·½¸®±©-µ· ©¿.©±®µ·²¹ ·² ¬¸» º·»´¼ò Û³°¸¿-·.Ù¿.¬¸» °®»-»²¬»®òà ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ì¸»®» ·.°¿ª»¼ ¬¸» ©¿§ º±® ¬¸» ³±®» ®»¿¼§ ¿½½»°¬¿²½» ±º ±¬¸»® ¿²±³¿´±«.´»¿¼ ¬± ¿² ±ª»®ó»-¬·³¿¬·±² ±º »²»®¹§ ¿ª¿·´¿¾´» º®±³ ¬¸» «-» ±º Þ®±©²ù.±º ·³°´±-·±²ó ¾¿-»¼ ¬»½¸²±´±¹·».¬¸¿¬ ¿®» »²¬·®»´§ »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ô »ò¹ò °»®³¿²»²¬ ³¿¹²»¬ ³±¬±®.±¾-»®ª¿¬·±² ¿¬ ¬¸» ½±²º»®»²½» ¬¸¿¬ -½·»²¬·-¬.»²»®¹§ ³¿½¸·²».½´»¿² ©¿¬»®ò ̸·½±³¾·²¿¬·±² ·²ª±´ª».

ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ú ÝÑÒÍÝ×ÑËÍÒÛÍÍ Þ®·¿² ÑùÔ»¿®§ô þ̸» λ´¿¬·±²-¸·° Þ»¬©»»² Ú®»» Û²»®¹§ô ̸» Æ»®±óб·²¬ Ú·»´¼ ¿²¼ ݱ²-½·±«-²»--òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß² »¨°´±®¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ¸§°±¬¸»-·.¿²¼ °«¾´·½¿¬·±².¬¸¿¬ ¼±²ù¬ ¿°°´§ ¬± ³¿¬¬»® ·² ¬¸» -°¿½» ²±®³¿´ ¬·³»ò ײ ¬¸·.¿½±²-½·±«-²»--ò Ï«»-¬·±².±º ¬¸» ï笸 ½»²¬«®§ ó ¿.¬±°±´±¹§ ·«²¼»®ó-½±®»¼ ·² ¬¸» ½±²¬®¿ó®±¬¿¬·²¹ ²±²ó´·²»¿® ª±®¬»¨ º·´¿³»²¬.¿ ³±-¬ ·²¬»®»-¬·²¹ ¿½½±«²¬ ±º ¬¸» °®±¾´»³.³¿§ ¾» ¹±ª»®²»¼ ¾§ ¸§°»® ´¿©.©±®µ ·² ¬¸» ²»¿® º«¬«®»ò ̸» Î±ó ³¿¹ ³±¬±® ©¿.·¬¸» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ¿ Ò»«¬®¿´ Ý»²¬»® ø-±ó½¿´´»¼ ¦»®± °±·²¬ »²»®¹§ ¦±²»÷ ¿²¼ ¬¸» ¼·ºº»®»²¬·¿¬·²¹ ±º ¬¸¿¬ -¬¿¬» ·²¬± ³±¬·ª» º±®½»ò ̸» °®±½»-.¼·-½±ª»®»¼ ·² °´¿-³¿ º±½«.¬± ·²·¬·¿¬» -·¹²·º·½¿²¬ º´±©.±¾-¬®«½¬·±²ò ÞÛÔÌÎßÓ× ÊÛÝÌÑÎ Ú×ÛÔÜ Ü±²¿´¼ λ»¼ô þ̸» Þ»´¬®¿³· Ê»½¬±® Ú·»´¼ ó ̸» Õ»§ ¬± ˲´±½µ·²¹ ¬¸» Í»½®»¬.»²»®¹§ó³¿-.±º ¸§¼®±¼§²¿³·½.±º »²»®¹§ º®±³ ¬¸» ª±·¼ô -«½¸ ¬¸¿¬ ±ª»®ó«²·¬§ »²»®¹§ ¿²¼ ³·²¼ó±ª»®ó³¿¬¬»® »ª»²¬.¿ °±--·¾´» ¿®½¸»¬§°» º±® ¬¸» °®·³±®¼·¿´ »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ ª¿½««³ º·»´¼.¬¸» °±--·¾·´·¬§ ±º ½®»¿¬»¼ ¬·³» ¹»²»®¿¬±®-ô ©¸·½¸ ·² ¬«®² ½®»¿¬» ¿ -¬¿¬» ©¸»®» ³¿¬»®·¿´ ±¾¶»½¬.±®·¹·²¿´ Ó«-·½¿´ ܧ²¿-°¸»®»ò Ѳ» ±º ¬¸» ¾¿-·½ ©±®µ·²¹ °®·²½·°´».±º ¿ ½±³°´»¨·º·»¼ ½¸¿®¹» ·² ©¸·½¸ ¬¸» ·³¿¹·²¿®§ ½±³°±²»²¬ ³¿²·º»-¬.»¯«·ª¿´»²½»ô ¿²¼ ³¿§ ¾» »¨°®»--»¼ ·² ¬»®³.¿ ª·¾®¿¬·±²¿´ ±²»ô ¿²¼ ®»½±¹²·¦».¬± ¼± «-»º«´ ©±®µò ̸» «²·¬ ¼±».º®»»´§ ±ºº»®»¼ò ̸» αóÓ¿¹ ³¿¹²»¬ ³±¬±®ñ¹»²»®¿¬±® ·.¯«»-¬ ¬± ®»°´·½¿¬» ¬¸» ©±®µ ±º ᮧ Ö±¸²-±²ò ײ ¬¸·.©»´´ ¿.©±®µ ³¿¹²»¬·-³ ·.¬«®²·²¹ ·² ¿ ®±¬±® ·² ±®¼»® ¬± ¹»²»®¿¬» ¿ ³¿¹²»¬·½ñ»´»½¬®± »²»®¹§ ¬¸¿¬ ·¬¸»² ½·®½«·¬»¼ ¬± ±¬¸»® ³»½¸¿²·-³.-«¹¹»-¬.¿ °®·²½·°´» ±º ¿¬¬®¿½¬ó¿¬¬®¿½¬ ¿²¼ ¿¬¬®¿½¬ó®»´»¿-»ô ·²-¬»¿¼ ±º ³¿·²-¬®»¿³ ¿¬¬®¿½¬ó®»°»´ °®·²½·°´»-ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Ñ®´±©-µ· ¹¿ª» ¿ ·²¬»®»-¬·²¹ ¿½½±«²¬ ±º ¸·.±º °¸§-·½.¾»½±³·²¹ ¿®¬·º·½·¿´ ¬·³» º´«¨»-ò ̸·.¿²¼ -«¹¹»-¬»¼ ¸§¾®·¼ »¨°»®·³»²¬.¬®»¿¬»¼ ¿.±º -°¿½»ò ̸» -·¹²·º·½¿²½» ±º ¬¸·.¿²¼ »´»½¬®±¼§²¿³·½.¿² »¯«·ª¿´»²½» ¿²¿´±¹±«¬± Û·²-¬»·²ù.¬¸» ®»¯«·®»³»²¬.¬§°» ±º ½±²º»®»²½» ¿²¼ ¬¸·.¿®» °¿ª·²¹ ¬¸» ©¿§ ¬±©¿®¼ ¿ ²»©ó»²»®¹§ º«¬«®» ©·¬¸ ´»-.±º ²»©ó»²»®¹§ ¬»½¸²±´±¹·»-ò É» ¾»´·»ª» ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸·.¿² »²»®¹§ -±«®½» ¬¸¿¬ ½¿² ¾» ¼·®»½¬»¼ ¿²¼ ½±²¬®±´´»¼ò É» »¨°»½¬ ¬± ¸»¿® ³±®» ¿¾±«¬ Ñ®´±©-µ·ù.¬¸» ²»½»--·¬§ º±® «²·ª»®-¿´ ¸¿®³±²·»·² ¼»-·¹² ¿²¼ ±°»®¿¬·±² ±º »²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»-ò ëð ØÐ ÚÎÛÛ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ËÒ×Ì Ù»®¿´¼ Öò Ñ®´±©-µ·ô þÜ·-½´±-«®» ¬± ݱ²-¬®«½¬ ¿ ëð ØÐ Ú®»» Û²»®¹§ ˲·¬òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß ¼·-½´±-«®» ±º ¸±© ¬± ½±²-¬®«½¬ ¿ ëð ØÐ º®»» »²»®¹§ «²·¬ ·.®»¿´³ô ¬¸±«¹¸¬ ¿²¼ ³±¬·±² ³¿§ ¾»½±³» ±²»ò ÕÛÛÔÇ ÓËÍ×ÝßÔ ÜÇÒßÍÐØÛÎÛ Ü¿´» б²¼ô þ̸» Õ»»´§ Ó«-·½¿´ ܧ²¿-°¸»®»òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ¿ þ-½¿´¿®þ ¼»ª»´±°»® ø°¸¿-»ó½±²¶«ó ¹¿¬» °±´¿®·¦»®÷ ¿²¼ ¼·ºº»®»²¬·¿¬±® ø®»º®¿½¬·ª» ³±¼«´¿¬±®÷ô ³±¼»´»¼ ¿º¬»® Õ»»´§ù.¿ ³¿¹²»¬·½ ¼»ª·½» ·²½±®°±®¿¬·²¹ ¬¸» «-» ±º °»®³¿²»²¬ ³¿¹²»¬.°®»ª·±«-´§ «-»¼ ¬± ±°»®¿¬» ¿² ¿«¬±³±¾·´» º±® -»ª»®¿´ §»¿®-ò ̸» °¿°»® ¹·ª».½¿² ±½½«®ò Ì×ÓÛ ú ÓßÙÒÛÌ×Ý Ú×ÛÔÜÍ é Û¼©·² Ôò п²¹³¿²ô þÌ·³» ¿²¼ Ó¿¹²»¬·½ Ú·»´¼-ô ß Ô¿§ л®-°»½¬·ª»òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ñ³²·¼·®»½¬·±²¿´ ø·-±¬®±°·½÷ º´±© ±º ³¿¹²»¬·½ º·»´¼³¿§ ½±²-¬·¬«¬» ¬¸» º´±© ±º ¬·³»ô ·² »ºº»½¬ô ¼§²¿³·½ ³±ª»³»²¬ ±º ½¿²½»´»¼ ³¿¹²»¬·½ º·»´¼.³¿½®±-½±°·½ °´¿-³¿ ´»ª»´-ò ß ²»© ½´¿--·½¿´ ³±¼»´ º±® ¬¸» -»´ºó¿½¬·±² ±º ¬¸» »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ º·»´¼ô ¼»ª±·¼ ±º -¬¿²¼¿®¼ ¼·ª»®¹»²½»- wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .±º ¬¸» Ê¿½««³ Û²»®¹§áþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß² »¨°´±®¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» Þ»´¬®¿³ ª±®¬»¨ ¬±°±´±¹§ ¼»®·ª»¼ º®±³ ¬¸» ¿²²¿´.ø¿²¼ ±¬¸»®÷ ²»©-´»¬¬»®.¼§²¿³·½¿´´§ ·²¬»®¿½¬ ©·¬¸ ¿ ¦»®± °±·²¬ º·»´¼ò ̸·.-«¹¹»-¬.®»-»¿®½¸ò ׬ ·¿®¹«»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ½¸·®¿´ Þ»´¬®¿³ ³±®°¸±´±¹§ ³¿§ ¾» «²·ª»®-¿´ ·² ³·½®±-½±°·½ ¯«¿²¬«³ °¸»²±³»²¿ ¿.º®±³ ¦»®± °±·²¬ »²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»¿²¼ ¸«³¿² °®±¼«½»¼ °-§½¸±µ·²»¬·½ »ª»²¬ø½±²-½·±«-²»--÷ ³¿§ ·²ª±´ª» ¬¸» -¿³» ¾¿-·½ °¸§-·½·² ©¸·½¸ ½¸¿®¹».¬¸¿¬ ©»®» º¿½»¼ ¾§ »¿®´§ ¼»ª»´±°»®.²±¬ ®»¯«·®» ¿² ·²°«¬ ±º »´»½¬®·½·¬§ô ¾«¬ ®¿¬¸»® ¿ ¾«·´¼ó«° ±º ³¿¹²»¬·½ »²»®¹§ ¬± ½¿«-» ¿² »²»®¹§ ¬¸®«-¬ò ̸» αóÓ¿¹ «²·¬ «¬·´·¦».·.¬¸¿¬ ¿²±³¿´±«-ô ¯«¿²¬·º·¿¾´» ®»-«´¬.©»®» ¼·-½«--»¼ ©¸·½¸ ¿¼¼®»-.

±º ¬¸» ½¸¿®¹» ó ¿ º¿½¬ ¿´®»¿¼§ »-¬¿¾´·-¸»¼ ·² ¬¸» °®±¬±²ó°®±¬±² ¾±²¼·²¹ ·² ¬¸» ²«½´»¿® -¬®«½¬«®»ô -«°»®½±²¼«½¬·ª·¬§ô ¿²¼ ½¸»³·½¿´ ¾±²¼·²¹ò ÎØÓ ·.·¼»²¬·º·»¼ ¿.°®»-»²¬»¼ ¿.³¿¼» º±® ¿² ·²¼»°»²¼»²¬ ¬»-¬ ±º ¬¸» ÓÎß ¬± ¾» ³¿¼» ¶«-¬ °®·±® ¬± ¬¸» ½±²º»®»²½»ò ß.¬¸» ¾¿-·.¬¸»-» ²»© º±®³.«-»¼ ¿.߬¬¿½¸³»²¬ ßò ß ½±°§ ±º ¬¸» »¯«·°³»²¬ ´·-¬ ·.½±²¼«½¬»¼ ¿½½±®¼·²¹ ¬± ½«-¬±³»® ¼·®»½¬·±²ò Ò± ©®·¬¬»² °´¿²ñ¹«·¼»´·²» ©¿°®±ª·¼»¼ò ß ½¸®±²±´±¹·½¿´ ®»½±®¼ ±º ¬¸» »ª»²¬ ©¿³¿·²¬¿·²»¼ ¿²¼ ·.²±¬ -»²-·¬·ª» »²±«¹¸ ¬± ³»¿-«®» ¬¸» ·²°«¬ °±©»® ¬± ¬¸» ÓÎßò Ñ«¬°«¬ °±©»® ©¿.º±® ®»½§½´·²¹ ²«½´»¿® ©¿-¬»ò ̸» ¾¿-·.¿²¼ °±¬»²¬·¿´.©¿.³»¿-«®»¼ò ر©»ª»®ô ²± -·¹²»¼ ±ºº·½·¿´ ª¿´«» ½±«´¼ ¾» ¹·ª»² ¬± ¬¸» ±ª»®¿´´ °±©»® ¹¿·² ±º ¬¸» ¼»ª·½» ¼«» ¬± ¬¸» ´¿½µ ±º ·²°«¬ °±©»® ³»¿-«®»³»²¬-ò ̸»®»º±®»ô ¬¸» ¬»-¬ ¼·¼ ²±¬ ®»-«´¬ ·² ¿ -·¹²»¼ ½»®¬·º·½¿¬·±²ÿ ̸·.½±²¼«½¬»¼ ¾§ α¾»®¬ Ì¿§´±® ¿²¼ ¬¸» ³»¿-«®»³»²¬ ª»®·º·½¿¬·±² ©¿.³¿¼» ·°®±ª·¼»¼ Å·² ¬¸» °¿°»®Ãò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ ß -°»½·¿´ ¿®®¿²¹»³»²¬ ©¿.-»¬«° º±® ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ³»¿-«®»³»²¬ ª»®·º·½¿¬·±² ±² îë Í»°¬»³¾»® ïççëò ̸» ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ³»¿-«®»³»²¬.¿ ¯«¿²¬·¬¿¬·ª» ®»°®»-»²¬¿¬·±² ±º ·²¬»®¿½¬·±².¼«» ¬± ³«¬«¿´ ©¿ª» ±ª»®´¿°°·²¹-ô ©¸·½¸ ¿®» ø·² ¬¸» ©¿ª»º«²½¬·±²÷ô ¿²¼ ò ̸»§ ¿®» ¬¸»®»º±®» ±«¬-·¼» ¬¸» ¼±³¿·² ±º ®»´¿¬·ª·-¬·½ Ï«¿²¬«³ Ó»½¸¿²·½-ò ׳°±®¬¿²¬´§ô ²±²´·²»¿®ô ²±²´±½¿´ ¿²¼ ²±²°±¬»²¬·¿´ ·²¬»®¿½¬·±².¿ ½±³°¿®·-±² ©·¬¸ ±¬¸»® ®»-»¿®½¸»®.º¿·´«®» ¬± ¹»¬ ½»®¬·º·»¼ ¬»-¬ ®»-«´¬.½¿² ¾» ·²·¬·¿¬»¼ »ª»² ¿¹¿·²-¬ ®»°«´-·ª» ݱ«´±³¾ ¾¿®®·»®-ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .³¿§ ©¿®° ´±½¿´ -°¿½»ñ¬·³»ô ¿´´±©·²¹ ¿² ·²º´«¨ ±º ÆÐÛô ©·¬¸ ¬¸» »²»®¹§ñ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ¿½¬·²¹ ·² ¿ ³¿²²»® «²´·µ» ¯«¿²¬«³ ¿²¼ ÛÓ º·»´¼-ò з»®®» Í·²½´¿·®ô þÙ®¿ª·¬¿¬·±²¿´ Ó¿¹²»¬·½ Ü®·ª» øß²¬·óÙ®¿ª·¬§÷òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß °®»-»²¬¿¬·±² ±² Ù®¿ª·¬§ Ó¿¹²»¬·½ Ü»ª·½»-ô ©·¬¸ ¿ ¼»-½®·°¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ¸¿®¼©¿®» ¿²¼ ¬¸»±®§ ¾»¸·²¼ ¬¸» ·²ª»²¬·±²ò ß´-± ·²½´«¼»¼ ©¿.±º ¬¸·.¿´¬»®»¼ °¸§-·½¿´ °®±°»®¬·»-ò ݱ³°¿®»¼ ®»-«´¬.߬¬¿½¸³»²¬ Þò ß -¸±®¬ ¼·-½«--·±² ±º ¬¸» ³»¿-«®»³»²¬.ª»®§ º®«-¬®¿¬·²¹ô ²±¬ ±²´§ ¬± ØßÜÎÑÒ×Ý ÛÒÛÎÙÇ Î«¹¹»®± Ó¿®·¿ Í¿²¬·´´·ô þØ¿®¼®±²·½ Û²»®¹§ô ¿ Ò»©ô Ý´»¿²ô Í«¾²«½´»¿® ͱ«®½»òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ñ«¬´·²» ±º ¬¸» ²»©ô -«¾²«½´»¿®ô ½´»¿² Ø¿¼®±²·½ »²»®¹§ô ¿²¼ ·²¼·½¿¬·±².±º »²»®¹§ ¹»²»®¿´´§ ½±²¬¿·² ¬¸» °®·²½·°´».è ¿¬¬»²¼¿²¬ ©·¬¸ ÏÛÜ ¿²¿´§-·.»¨°»½¬»¼ ¬± °®±ª·¼» ¯«¿²¬·¬¿¬·ª» ¬®»¿¬³»²¬.ײº±®³¿¬·±² ͬ±®¿¹» ·² É¿¬»®æ ß Ð±--·¾´» Ó¿²·º»-¬¿¬·±² ±º ÆÐÛòþ ßËÌØÑÎÍù ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ É¿¬»® »¨°±-»¼ ¬± »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ º·»´¼-ô ¿²¼ ³»¿-«®»¼ ¾§ ¿ ª¿®·»¬§ ±º ±°¬·½¿´ ¿²¼ »´»½¬®·½¿´ ³»¬¸±¼-ô -¸±©.±º ¬¸» ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ò ÓÎß ÓÛßÍËÎÛÓÛÒÌ ÊÛÎ×Ú×ÝßÌ×ÑÒ Î±¾»®¬ Ì¿§´±® ú Û¼ Ûª»®»¬¬ô þÓ»¿-«®»³»²¬ Ê»®·º·½¿¬·±² ±º ÓÎßòþ ßËÌØÑÎÍù ×ÒÌÎÑÜËÝÌ×ÑÒ Ñ²» øï÷ ÓÎß ÍñÒ çëóí ©¿.¿´-± ·²½´«¼»¼ ¿.±º ¬¸» ®»´¿¬·ª·-¬·½ ¸¿¼®±²·½ ³»½¸¿²·½.±º ¬¸» »ºº»½¬.·.®»°±®¬»¼ ¬± ³» ¾§ Ü®ò α¾»®¬ Þ¿-©¸± ©·¬²»--»¼ ¬¸» ¬»-¬-ô ¬¸» »¯«·°³»²¬ «-»¼ ©¿.½¿² °®±¼«½» ¿¬¬®¿½¬·±² ¿³±²¹ °¿®¬·½´»-ô ·ò»ò ²«½´»· ±® ¿¬±³.øÎØÓ÷ ·.±º ½±´¼ º«-·±² ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ²»© »²»®¹§ ¬»½¸²±´±¹·»-ô ·²½´«¼·²¹ ÎØÓ °®±ª·¼·²¹ ¿ ®·¹±®±«»¨°´¿²¿¬·±² ±º ¸±© ½±´¼ º«-·±² °®±½»--».ÌÎ íéïëò ̸» ¬»-¬ ´±¹ ©¿.-«®ª»§»¼ô ·²½±®°±®¿¬·²¹ ¬¸» Þ»´¬®¿³ ª±®¬»¨ ³±®°¸±´±¹§ò ÙÎßÊ×ÌßÌ×ÑÒßÔ ÜÎ×ÊÛ ÓßÇ ïççê ÉßÌÛÎ ßÒÜ ÆÐÛ Ù´»² λ·²ô ¿²¼ É·´´·¿³ Ì·´´»®ô þͱ³» Ûª·¼»²½» º±® ß²±³¿´±«.±º ¿ -»´ºó½¿²½»´·²¹ ½±·´ ±² ©¿¬»® «-·²¹ ËÊ -°»½¬®±-½±°§ ©»®» °®»-»²¬»¼ ó ¿ º·®-¬ ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±² ±º ¿ ³¿½®±-½±°·½¿´´§ ³»¿-«®¿¾´» »ª»²¬ ½¿«-»¼ ¾§ ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ©¸·½¸ ·²±²ó»´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ ¿²¼ ²±²ó¯«¿²¬«³ò ׬ ·-°»½«´¿¬»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ½±·´ ¹»±³»¬®·».©·¬¸ -·³·´¿® ¬¸»±®·».®»°±®¬ ¿²¼ ¿ ½±°§ ±º ¬¸·´±¹ ·.©»®» °»®º±®³»¼ ¿¬ ¬¸» Ì»´»¼§²» Χ¿² ß»®±²¿«¬·½¿´ øÌÎß÷ Û²¹·²»»®·²¹ Û²ª·®±²³»²¬¿´ Ô¿¾±®¿¬±®§ ´±½¿¬»¼ ·² Í¿² Ü·»¹±ô Ý¿´·º±®²·¿ò ̸» ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±² ©¿.¿²¼ ¬»½¸²±´±¹·»-ô ¿²¼ ¿ ¾®·»º -«³³¿®§ ±º ¬¸» ¬®»³»²¼±«°±--·¾·´·¬·».°»®º±®³»¼ ¾§ Û¼ Ûª»®»¬¬ ±º Ì»´»¼§²» Χ¿² ß»®±²¿«¬·½¿´ò ̸» ÓÎß ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ³»¿-«®»³»²¬ ª»®·º·½¿¬·±² ©¿.

±® ¾¿¬¬»®·».°®±¬»½¬»¼ ¾§ -·¹²»¼ ²±²ó¼·-½´±-«®» ¿¹®»»³»²¬-ò Æ·»´·²-µ· ¸¿°¿¬»²¬.¬¸» »²»®¹§ ·² ½¿°¿½·¬±®.¾¿-»¼ «°±² ¬¸» ®»-»¿®½¸ ±º Ò·½±´¿ Ì»-´¿ ¿²¼ Ìò Ø»²®§ Ó±®¿§ò ̸» Û²»®¹§ ß½½«³«´¿¬±® ·.¬§°».±² ¸·.©±®µ ·² ¬¸» º«¬«®»ò ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ßÝÝËÓËÔßÌÑÎÍ Ù»±®¹» É·-»³¿²²ô þͱ´·¼ ͬ¿¬» Û²»®¹§ ß½½«³«´¿¬±®-òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß ¼·-½«--·±² ±º -»ª»®¿´ ¬§°».¿² »¨½»´´»²¬ ®»ª·»© ±º ¬¸» ¸·-¬±®§ ±º ¬¸·.¿¾-±®¾»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» Û²»®¹§ ß½½«³«´¿¬±® ½±²-·-¬ ±º -»ª»®¿´ ½¿¬»¹±®·»-ô ·²½´«¼·²¹ ¾«¬ ²±¬ ´·³·¬»¼ ¬±ô »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ ©¿ª»¿²¼ ·±²·¦»¼ °¿®¬·½´»-ò Ú«-·±² Þ®·»º·²¹×ÌßÔÇ ó ÝÑÔÜ ÚËÍ×ÑÒ ú ÖËÜÙÛùÍ ÊÛÎÜ×ÝÌ Ý±«®¬»-§ ±º Ö»¼ α¬¸©»´´ îê Ó¿®½¸ ïççê Üò Ó±®®·-±² øÝÛÎÒ÷ô þݱ«®¬ Ö«¼¹»³»²¬ ±² Ï«»-¬·±² ±º ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² Þ»·²¹ ùͽ·»²¬·º·½ Ú®¿«¼ùôþ º®±³ ײ¬»®²»¬ Ò»©-¹®±«° -½·ñ°¸§-·½-ñº«-·±²ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .±º Ò¿¬«®»òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ð®»-»²¬¿¬·±² ±² ¬¸» ¾»¸¿ª·±® ±º ¬¸» ¿»¬¸»®ô °®±ª·¼·²¹ ¿ ²»© ½±²½»°¬ ±º ¬¸» »--»²½» ±º ¿»¬¸»®ô ¿²¼ »¨°´¿·²·²¹ ¬¸» º¿·´«®» ±º ¬¸» Ó·½¸»´-±²óÓ±®´»§ ¿»¬¸»® »¨°»®·³»²¬ò ß ¬¸»±®§ ·.¬¸» º±®½».±º ¬¸» שּׁ»®-±² б©»® Ý»´´ô ¿²¼ ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ±² øÇ«´´÷ Þ®±©²ù.°¿°»® ·.·² ¬¸» -»¿®½¸ º±® ¿´¬»®²¿¬·ª» »²»®¹§ -§-¬»³-ò Ø» ¸¿.º¿¬¸»®ô ¿² »²¹·²»»® ©¸± ¸¿¼ ¾»»² »³°´±§»¼ ¾§ ¿² ß³»®·½¿² ±·´ ½±³°¿²§ ¾»º±®» ¬¸» ·²½¿®½»®¿¬·±²ô ¿-µ»¼ º±® ¿ °¸§-·½.°®±°±-»¼ ©¸·½¸ »¨°´¿·².¾±±µ ¬± ¾» -»²¬ ¬± ¸·³ò ׬ ©¿.©±®µ ¿²¼ ·.±º Ú®»» Û²»®¹§ λ½»·ª»®-ô ¿´´ ±º ©¸·½¸ «-» -±³» -±®¬ ±º ¿²¬»²²¿ ¿²¼ ¿®» ¹®±«²¼»¼ ¬± »¿®¬¸ò ß ¼»¬¿·´»¼ ¼»-½®·°¬·±² ©·´´ ¾» ·²½´«¼»¼ ±º ¿² Û²»®¹§ ß½½«³«´¿¬±®ô ©¸·½¸ ©¿.±²» ±º ¬¸» °·±²»»®.±º ¬¸» ¸±³±°±´¿® ¹»²»®¿¬±® øÒóÓ¿½¸·²»÷ô ®»½»²¬´§ ¼»½´¿--·º·»¼ ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ¿¾±«¬ ÌòÌò Þ®±©²ù.»´»½¬®±¹®¿ª·¬·½ °®±°«´-·±² -§-¬»³ô ¿ -§²±°-·.©±®µ ·² ¬¸» ËòÍò ײ ¿ °»®-±²¿´ ¼·-½«--·±²ô ¸» ¬±´¼ ¿¾±«¬ ¾»·²¹ ·² ¿ ½±²½»²¬®¿¬·±² ½¿³° º±® Ù»®³¿²¼«®·²¹ ɱ®´¼ É¿® ×× ©·¬¸ ¸·.ª¿®·±«.¬¸» Ú±®½».±º »²»®¹§ º±® ¬¸» º«¬«®»ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Ì¸·.°«¾´·-¸»¼ -»ª»®¿´ ¾±±µ.±º ¿³¾·»²¬ »²»®¹·»¿²¼ -¬±®».¿¬ ¬¸» ½±²º»®»²½»ò ÒÛÉ ËÒ×Ú×ÛÜ ÌØÛÑÎÇ ç ÚÎÛÛ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÐÎÑÐËÔÍ×ÑÒ Ì±³ Ê¿´±²»ô Õ»§²±¬»æ þÚ®»» Û²»®¹§ ¿²¼ Ю±°«´-·±²òþ ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ß °®»-»²¬¿¬·±² ±² ²±²ó½±²ª»²¬·±²¿´ »²»®¹§ ¿²¼ °®±°«´-·±² ·²ª»²¬·±².Ù¿-ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Ì±³ Ê¿´±²» ·.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ Î±¾»®¬ Ì¿§´±® ¾«¬ ¿´-± ¬± ¬¸» ®»-¬ ±º «.¿ °¿--·ª» ¼»ª·½»ô «-·²¹ ÒÑ ·²°«¬ °±©»® ¬± ±°»®¿¬»ò ̸» «²·¬ô ·²-¬»¿¼ô ®»¿¼·´§ ¿¾-±®¾.¬¸·.©·¼»´§ ®»½±¹²·¦»¼ º±® ¸·.¬®»µ ¬± ¾»½±³» ¿ -½·»²¬·-¬ò × ¿³ -«®» ¬¸¿¬ ©» ©·´´ ¸»¿® ³±®» ¿¾±«¬ Æ·»´·²-µ·ù.¿² þѪ»®ó«²·¬§þ ·²ª»²¬·±²ò ̸» ¿³¾·»²¬ »²»®¹·».¿²¼ «²·º·».©±®µò Ø·.¯«¿²¬«³ ¬¸»±®§ ¿²¼ ¬¸» ½±-³±¹±²§ ±º ¬¸» «²·ª»®-»ô ¿²¼ °®±ª·¼»·²-·¹¸¬ ·²¬± ²»© -±«®½».³±®» ¬± ¬»´´ô °®±ª·¼»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ·.°®»-»²¬¿¬·±² ©¿.±º °®±¼«½·²¹ ½´»¿² »²»®¹§ò ß´ Æ·»´·²-µ·ô þß Ò»© ̸»±®§ ¬¸¿¬ ˲·º·».¸·¹¸´§ ®»½±³³»²¼»¼ò ̸» ¬¸»±®§ ±º ¬¸» ¿»¬¸»® ·.±º ²¿¬«®»ô »¨°´¿·².¿²¼ ·.³¿²§ó§»¿® ¯«»-¬ º±® ¾»¬¬»® ©¿§.º¿³·´§ò Ú®±³ ¿¹» ë ¬± ïï ¸» ´·ª»¼ «²¼»® -°¿®¬¿² ½±²¼·¬·±²-ò Ø·.±²´§ ¾®·»º´§ -«³³¿®·¦»¼ ¿²¼ -¸±«´¼ ¾» ½¿®»º«´´§ ®»¿¼ò ß½½±®¼·²¹ ¬± ¬¸» ¿«¬¸±®ô ¸» ¸¿.ª·-·¬·²¹ ¬¸» ËòÍò ¬± ¼»¬»®³·²» ¬¸» ¿¼ª·-¿¾·´·¬§ ±º ¿°°´§·²¹ º±® °¿¬»²¬.¯«¿´·º§·²¹ ·¬ ¿.©¸·½¸ ¸¿ª» ¾»»² ®»ª·»©»¼ô ¬»-¬»¼ ¿²¼ ®»°´·½¿¬»¼ ¬± »-¬¿¾´·-¸ °®±±ºó±º °®·²½·°´»ô ¾«¬ ©¸·½¸ ¼»º§ ½±²ª»²¬·±²¿´ ¿²¿´§-·-ò Ø·¹¸´·¹¸¬·²½´«¼» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬.º±® ´¿¬»® «-» ó ¬¸«.°¸§-·½¾±±µô ®»½»·ª»¼ ·² ¿ ½±²½»²¬®¿¬·±² ½¿³°ô ¬¸¿¬ ´¿«²½¸»¼ Æ·»´·²-µ· ±² ¸·.°»²¼·²¹ ±² ¸·.

·² ¬®¿²-´¿¬·±² ø°´»¿-» ·²º±®³ ³» -± × ³¿§ ½±®®»½¬ ¬¸»³÷ ¾«¬ ¬¸» -»²-» ±º ¬¸» ¶«¼¹»³»²¬ ·.º®±³ Þ®»--¿²· øÌ«®·²÷ô Ю»°¿®¿¬¿ øÓ·´¿²÷ô ¿²¼ Ü»´ Ù«·¼·½» øÓ·´¿²÷ ©»®» ©®·¬¬»² ¬± ¬¸» ²»©-°¿°»® ¿²¼ °«¾´·-¸»¼ò ̸» º·ª» ¬¸»² -«»¼ ¬¸» ²»©-°¿°»®ô ·¬.¬± ½¸»½µ ¬¸» ®»-«´¬-ò Ü»-°·¬» ½±³°´·½¿¬»¼ ©±®µô ¬¸» ®»-«´¬.Ó±®®·-±²ô ±º ÝÛÎÒô Ù»²»ª¿ô ¬± ¾» ¬¸»·® -½·»²¬·º·½ ¿¼ª·-»®ò Í»» íêíøïççí÷ïðéò Þ±¬¸ -·¼».¿ º¿·´«®» ¬± ±¾-»®ª» ¬¸» °®±¼«½¬.ïð Ó¿®¬·² Ú´»·-½¸³¿²²ô ͬ¿²´»§ б²-ô Ì«´´·± Þ®»--¿²·ô Ù«·´·¿²± Ю»°¿®¿¬¿ô ¿²¼ Û³·´·± Ü»´ Ù·«¼·½» Ê»®-«Û¼·¬±®·¿´» -ò°ò¿òô Û«¹»²·± ͽ¿´º¿®· ¿²¼ Ù·±ª¿²²· Ó¿®·¿ п½»ò ײ ѽ¬±¾»® ïççïô ¬¸» °«¾´·-¸»¼ ¿² ¿®¬·½´» ¾§ ¬¸»·® -½·»²½» »¼·¬±®ô Ù·±ª¿²²· Ó¿®·¿ п½»ô ©¸·½¸ ®»ª·»©»¼ ¬¸» ¾±±µ Ú¿´-» Ю±°¸»¬.¿¬ ¿² ·³°±--·¾´» »²»®¹§ô ¬¸»§ ½¸¿²¹»¼ ¬¸» -½¿´»ò íò ̸»§ ½´¿·³»¼ ¬± ¸¿ª» ±¾-»®ª»¼ ¿²¼ ³»¿-«®»¼ º«-·±² º±® ¿ ´±²¹ ¬·³» ¾«¬ ©»®» ²±¬ -«¾¶»½¬ ¬± ¹¿³³¿ ®¿¼·¿¬·±² ó ¬¸»®»º±®» ·¬ ©¿.¿²¼ ½±²½´«¼»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»§ ©»®» -»°¿®¿¬»¼ º®±³ ®»¿´·¬§ò ̸» ½±«®¬ ²±¬»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ³±-¬ -½·»²¬·-¬.±º ½±´¼ º«-·±² ¿²¼ ¬¸»®» ©¿.¬®¿²-´¿¬»¼ º®±³ ׬¿´·¿²ô ·¬ ·°±--·¾´» ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»®» ¿®» -±³» -³¿´´ »®®±®.±º º«-·±² ¿.©¿.¿²¼ Ú´»·-½¸³¿²² ¸¿ª» ´±-¬ ¬¸» èó¾·´´·±² ´·®» øËÍü êòí ³·´´·±²÷ ´·¾»´ ½¿-» ¿¹¿·²-¬ ׬¿´·¿² ²»©-°¿°»® ¿²¼ ¿ ¶±«®²¿´·-¬ Ù·±ª¿²²· п½»ô ©¸± ¸¿¼ ©®·¬¬»² ¿ ®»ª·»© ±º ¿ ¾±±µ ¿¾±«¬ -½·»²¬·º·½ º®¿«¼ô Ú¿´-» Ю±°¸»¬-ô ·² ©¸·½¸ ¸» ¸¿¼ «-»¼ ©¸¿¬ ½¿´´»¼ þ½±´±®º«´ ©±®¼·²¹þ ´·µ»²·²¹ б².©¸·½¸ ¾»¹¿² ·² ïçèêò Ú´»·-½¸³¿²² ¿²¼ б²¸¿¼ ¿¹®»»¼ ©·¬¸ Ö±²».½±®®»½¬ ¾»½¿«-» ±² ¬¸» ïí¬¸ Ó¿®½¸ ïçèç ¬¸»§ -«¾³·¬¬»¼ ¬¸»·® °¿°»® º±® °«¾´·½¿¬·±²ô ¿²¼ ·¬ ©¿¿½½»°¬»¼ ±² ¬¸» îî²¼ Ó¿®½¸ ¾»º±®» ¬¸»·® °®»-½±²º»®»²½» ±º ¬¸» îí®¼ Ó¿®½¸ò ر©»ª»® ¬¸»®» ©»®» -±³» ²»¹¿¬·ª» ¿-°»½¬-å ïò ̸»§ º¿·´»¼ ¬± ³»²¬·±² ¬¸» ©±®µ ±º Ю±ºò ͬ»°¸»² Ö±²».±º îè ³·´´·±² ´·®» ø´»-.·² ¬¸» »¨»®½·-» ±º ¸·°®±º»--·±²ô -·²½» ¬¸»®» ¸¿¼ ¾»»² ¹®»¿¬ ¼·-½«--·±² ¿²¼ ½±²¬»-¬¿¬·±²ò ̸» ¿¾±ª» ·.¬¸¿¬ п½»ù.½´»¿®ò ܱ«¹´¿.Îò Ñò Ó±®®·-±² ß¼¼®»--æ ¼®±³àª¨½»®²ò½»®²ò½¸ öööööööööööööööööööööööö ß´·-±² ß¾¾±¬¬ ø-¬¿ºº ©®·¬»®÷ô þͽ·»²¬·-¬.¹·ª·²¹ ±ºº ï𠬱 ïë ¬·³».¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ¶«¼¹» ®«´».©»®» ³»²¬·±²»¼ò Ô»¬¬»®.¾»»² ¿-µ»¼ ¬± ¼»½·¼» ±² ¿ -½·»²¬·º·½ ·--«»ò ÜÛÝ×Í×ÑÒ ó ̸» ¼»½·-·±² ±º ¬¸» ½±«®¬ ¸¿.º®¿«¼«´»²¬ -½·»²¬·-¬-ò ®»°±®¬.¸¿¼ ²±© ¿¾¿²¼±²»¼ ½±´¼ º«-·±²ò ̸«-ô ¬¸» ½±«®¬ ¶«¼¹»¼ ¬¸¿¬ Ù·±ª¿²²· Ó¿®·¿ п½» ©¿¶«-¬·º·»¼ ·² ³¿µ·²¹ ¸·.¿´-± -¿·¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ¾±·´»® ©¿.¸¿¼ ¾»»² ³¿¼» -·²½» ïççïô ̸»®» ©¿.²± ¹±±¼ ¬¸»±®§ ¬± »¨°´¿·² ¬¸» ½´¿·³.¶«-¬ ¾»»² ®»½»·ª»¼ò ׬ ®»¶»½¬»¼ ¬¸» °´¿·²¬ ±º Ú´»·-½¸³¿²²ô б²-ô Þ®»--¿²·ô Ю»°¿®¿¬¿ô ¿²¼ Ü»´ Ù«·¼·½»ò ׬ ½±²¼»³²»¼ ¬¸» º·ª» ¬± °¿§ ¬¸» ´»¹¿´ »¨°»²-».-«¾³·¬¬»¼ º«®¬¸»® ©®·¬¬»² »ª·¼»²½»ò ̸·³¿§ ¾» ¬¸» º·®-¬ ¬·³»ô ±® ±²» ±º ¬¸» º·®-¬ ¬·³»-ô ¬¸¿¬ ¿ ´¿© ½±«®¬ ¸¿.½±®®»½¬ò ̸»§ ½±²½´«¼»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ·¬ ©¿.±º ¬¸» -·¦» ±º ¿ ¬¸»®³±.©±«´¼ ¾» »¨°»½¬»¼ ø¬®·¬±²-ô ²»«¬®±²-ô °®±¬±²-ô íØ»ô ìØ» ¿²¼ ¹¿³³¿ ®¿§-÷ò ̸» ½±«®¬ ²±¬»¼ ¬¸» ½±³°±®¬³»²¬ ±º Ú´»·-½¸³¿²² ¿²¼ б².¬± -«¾³·¬ ¬¸»·® °¿°»®.©»®» ²»¹¿¬·ª»ò ̸·.±º ¿ ²±®³¿´ º¿³·´§ ¿²¼ ½±«´¼ ³¿µ» ¬»¿ò б².±º Ú´»·-½¸³¿²² ¿²¼ б².¿ ¾®·»º -«³³¿®§ ±º ¬¸» ïì °¿¹» ¶«¼¹»³»²¬ò Í·²½» ¬¸·.þ-½·»²¬·º·½ º®¿«¼þ ¿²¼ ¬¸» ²¿³».½±³³»²¬.Ô±-» ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² Ô·¾»´ Ý¿-»ôþ ô ª±´ íèðô ì ß°®·´ ïççêô ° íêçò ®»°±®¬.©±®¼.¬¸» ïðë °·»½».º±® °«¾´·½¿¬·±² ¬±¹»¬¸»® ±² ¬¸» î쬸 Ó¿®½¸ò îò ɸ»² ·¬ ©¿.·- ÓßÇ ïççê ¼»-½®·¾»¼ ·² ¬¸» ¾±±µ ¾§ Ö±¸² Ø«·¦»²¹¿ô ¬¸» ݱóݸ¿·®³¿²ô »²¬·¬´»¼ ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² ó ̸» ͽ·»²¬·º·½ Ú·¿-½± ±º ¬¸» Ý»²¬«®§ò ëò Ѳ ¬¸» 謸 Ö«´§ ïçèçô ·² ¬¸» ø¼¿·´§ ²»©-°¿°»® °«¾´·-¸»¼ ·² ˬ¿¸÷ ¿°°»¿®»¼ ¿² ¿®¬·½´» ø©·¬¸ °¸±¬±¹®¿°¸÷ ©¸»®» б².²±¬ º«-·±²ò ìò ײ ß°®·´ ïçèçô ¬¸» ËÍ ¹±ª»®²³»²¬ -»¬ «° ¿ ½±³³·¬¬»» ±º îî -½·»²¬·-¬.¿-µ»¼ Ю±ºò Ü¿²·»´» Ù±¦¦· øα³»÷ ¬± ¾» ¬¸»·® ¿¼ª·-»®ò ¿-µ»¼ ܱ«¹´¿.¬¸» »²»®¹§ °«¬ ·²ò ̸» ½±«®¬ ²±¬»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ´·¬¬´» °®±¹®»-.¿²¼ Ú´»·-½¸³¿²² ¬± þº±®²·½¿¬·²¹ °®·»-¬-þ ¿.»¼·¬±® ¿²¼ ¬¸» ¶±«®²¿´·-¬ º±® è ¾·´´·±² ´·®» ø¿¾±«¬ üë ³·´´·±² ¿¬ ¬¸¿¬ ¬·³»÷ò ̸» ½±«®¬ ¿°°±·²¬»¼ Ю±ºò Ù·±ª¿²²· Ô·½¸»®· ±º Ý¿¹´·¿®· ¬± ¿--»-.¼»½´¿®»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¸» ¸¿¼ ³¿¼» ¿² ¿°°¿®¿¬«.¿²¼ »--»²¬·¿´´§ -«¹¹»-¬»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ½±´¼ º«-·±² ©¿.©¿.©¸± °®±ª·¼»¼ ¼·ºº»®»²¬ ¿²¼ ·²½±²-·-¬»²¬ ¼¿¬¿ ¿¬ ¼·ºº»®»²¬ ¬·³»-ô ²±¬»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»§ ±³·¬¬»¼ ¬± ½·¬» ¬¸» ©±®µ ±º Ю±ºò Ö±²»-ô ²±¬»¼ ¬¸» ³¿²²»® ·² ©¸·½¸ ¬¸»§ ¼»¿´¬ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» °®»--ô ¿²¼ ²±¬»¼ ¸±© ¬¸»§ ½±²-·¼»®»¼ º«¬«®» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬.°±·²¬»¼ ±«¬ ¬± Ú´»·-½¸³¿²² ¿²¼ б²¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»·® ¹¿³³¿ ®¿§ °»¿µ ©¿.þ®»°®»-»²¬»¼ ¿² »¨°®»--·±² ±º ¬¸» ®·¹¸¬ ¬± ®»°±®¬ ¿²¼ ½®·¬·½·¦» ±² °¿®¬ ±º ¬¸» ¶±«®²¿´·-¬ wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .¬¸¿¬ б².±º -½·»²¬·º·½ »ª·¼»²½» °®»-»²¬»¼ò ̸» º·ª» °´¿·²¬·ºº.©¸·½¸ ©±«´¼ -¿¬·-º§ ¬¸» ²»»¼.¬¸¿² üîðôððð÷ ±º ¬¸» ¼»º»²¼¿²¬-ò ÓÑÌ×ÊßÌ×ÑÒ ó Ú·®-¬´§ ¬¸» ½±«®¬ ½±²-·¼»®»¼ ©¸»¬¸»® ¬¸» ³¿²²»® ·² ©¸·½¸ Ú´»·-½¸³¿²² ¿²¼ б²°®»-»²¬»¼ ¬¸»·® ®»-«´¬.

©·´´ º·²¿´´§ µ²±½µ -±³» -»²-» ·²¬± ¬¸» ¸»¿¼.±º »´»½¬®·½·¬§ô ¼»®·ª»¼ º®±³ ¬¸» ¸»¿¬ ¹»²»®¿¬»¼ «-·²¹ ´·¹¸¬ ©¿¬»® ¹»²»®¿¬±®-ô Ö»¬ Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ ¿½¸·»ª»¼ ¿²¼ ´¿«²½¸»¼ ·¬.-«»¼ ¬¸» ²»©-°¿°»® º±® ®»º»®®·²¹ ¬± ½±´¼ º«-·±² ¿.Ñò Ó±®®·-±² ±º ÝÛÎÒ òòò ͱô ©¸§ ¿³ × °´»¿-»¼á Þ»½¿«-» × ¸±°» ¬¸·.-½·»²¬·-¬.¬¸»³-»´ª».¾»»² ¹´»»º«´´§ ®»°±®¬»¼ ±² -½·ò°¸§-·½-òº«-·±² ¾§ ¬¸» -½·»²¬·º·½ ¿¼ª·-±® ¬± ¬¸» ¼»º»²½»ô ±²» Ü®ò ܱ«¹´¿.-«½¸ ¿®» ²±¬ ¼»®±¹¿¬±®§òþ ̸» -½·»²¬·-¬.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ ¿²¼ ¿.ó ±º ÝÚ ·°»®¸¿°.× ¿´-± -¿·¼÷ -½·»²¬·-¬.Ì·²-´»§ ×ùª» ¶«-¬ ¸»¿®¼ ¬¸» ®»-«´¬ ±º ¿ ½±«®¬ ½¿-» ·² ׬¿´§ô ¬¸» ±²» ©¸»®» Ú´»·-½¸³¿²² ¿²¼ б².©¿.Ì·²-´»§ ¿¾±«¬ ¬¸» ׬¿´·¿² ½±«®¬ ¶«¼¹³»²¬ ¿¹¿·²-¬ б².¿®» ²±¬òòò ïï ß²¼ ´»¬ «.¸»¿®¼ô ¬¸» ¶«¼¹» ½±²½´«¼»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ½±´¼ º«-·±² ®»³¿·²»¼ ¿² «²°®±ª»² ¸§°±¬¸»-·-ò öööööööööööööööööööööööö Ø»®» ¿®» -±³» ½±³³»²¬.¬± ©±®µ ±² ·³°®±ª·²¹ ¬¸»³ò ̸»®» ©·´´ ¿´-± ¾» °´»²¬§ ±º º«²¼·²¹ ¬± º·²¼ ±«¬ ¬¸» ¾¿-·½ °¸»²±³»²±²ò ײ ¬¸» º¿½» ±º -«½¸ º«²¼·²¹ô ¬¸»®» ©·´´ ¾» °´»²¬§ ±º ¾»´·»ª·²¹ -½·»²¬·-¬-ò ̱ º·²¼ ¬¸» ³»½¸¿²·-³ ó ±® ³»½¸¿²·-³.¿®» ¬± ¾» º±«¹¸¬ ©·¬¸·² -½·»²½»ô ¬¸»² д¿²½µù.¬©»²¬§ §»¿®-á Þ§ °«¬¬·²¹ ¬¸» ³¿½¸·²».¾§ ¿½¬«¿´´§ ·´´«³·²¿¬·²¹ wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .Å©¸·½¸ ¬¸»§ «-«¿´´§ ¼±²ù¬ ¸¿ª»Ãò ݱ³³»®½·¿´ -»½®»½§ ·.¬± ±ª»®½±³» ¬¸» °¿-¬þ д¿²½µ -»¬ ¬¸·ª¿´«» ¿¬ î𠧻¿®-ò òòò ͱô ¸±© ¼± ©» ®»¼«½» д¿²½µù.½»®¬¿·²´§ ¬¸» ´»¿-¬ «®¹»²¬ò Ó¿§¾» ¬¸·.²»© °¸¿-» ±º ¼»ª»´±°·²¹ ¸·¹¸ó¹®¿¼» »´»½¬®·½¿´ °±©»® ±«¬°«¬ -§-¬»³.·² ±² ¬¸» ¿½¬ ó ·² ¿ ¾·¹ ©¿§ò Ò±¬ °·»½»³»¿´ô ¿²¼ ³±-¬ ¼»º·²·¬»´§ ²±¬ ¾§ ¼±·²¹ þ®»¿´´§ ¹±±¼ -½·»²½»þ ¬± º·²¼ ±«¬ »¨¿½¬´§ ©¸§ ¬¸»§ ©±®µòòò Ó»¿²©¸·´»ô ±«¬ ¬¸»®» ©» ¸¿ª» ¿´´ ¬¸»-» ´·¬¬´» ¹®±«°-òòò ß´´ ±º ¬¸»³ -»»³ ¬± ¬¸·²µ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»§ ¸¿ª» ¬¸» ±²» ¾»-¬ -§-¬»³ô ¿²¼ ¿®» ¬»®®·º·»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ·º ¬¸»§ ¬»´´ ¿²§¾±¼§ ¿¾±«¬ ·¬ ó ¬¸»² -±³»¾±¼§ ©·´´ º·²¼ ¿² ·³°®±ª»³»²¬ ±® ½·®½«³ª»²¬ ¬¸»·® °¿¬»²¬.-½·»²¬·º·½ º®¿«¼ò ̸»§ ´±-¬ ¬¸» ½¿-»ò ̸·.±º ÝÚ °»±°´»ò × -¿·¼ ·² Þ±-¬±² ¬¸¿¬ ©» ¸¿ª»²ù¬ ¹±¬ ¬·³» º±® -½·»²½» ·² ÝÚò ̸¿¬ ©¿.·¬æ òòò ß²¼ ·º þ¬¸» ¹±¼.³¿¼» ¾§ ¬¸» ³¿¹¿¦·²» ¬¸¿¬ ¿´¬¸±«¹¸ -½·»²¬·º·½ »ª·¼»²½» º®±³ »¨°»®¬.ïððûò ó Ö»¼ α¬¸©»´´ Ú®±³æ ݸ®·.½±²¬»²¼ ·² ª¿·² ¿¹¿·²-¬ -¬«°·¼·¬§ôþ × ¼±²ù¬ ¹·ª» ³«½¸ º±® ¬¸» ½¸¿²½».±º ¿² ׬¿´·¿² ¶«¼¹»ò ݸ®·.®»°®»-»²¬·²¹ ¾±¬¸ -·¼».©·´´ ¾»´·»ª» ¿²§¬¸·²¹ ©¸·½¸ ¬¸»§ ¿®» º«²¼»¼ ¬± ¾»´·»ª»ò ß´-±ô ½±²¬®¿®·©·-»ò Þ«¬ ¬¸»®»ù±²´§ ±²» ©¿§ ¬¸»§ù´´ ¾» º«²¼»¼ò ׺ ¬¸» ÝÚ ©¿®.¿²¼ ±¬¸»®.±º °»±°´» ©·¬¸ ³±²»§ô -¸±©·²¹ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»§ ©±®µô ¿²¼ ¾®·²¹·²¹ -±³» ³¿¬»®·¿´.Ì·²-´»§ Ø×ÙØ ÙÎßÜÛ ÛÔÛÝÌÎ×ÝßÔ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ Ý±«®¬»-§ ±º Ó·¬½¸»´´ Í©¿®¬¦ ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÍËÓÓßÎÇ ß¬ ïîæðë ¿ò³òô ±² ïóîèóçêô ©·¬¸ ¸«²¼®»¼ ³·´´·©¿¬¬ ´»ª»´.ó ¬¸»² ¬¸»®» ©·´´ ¾» ²± -¸±®¬¿¹» ±º -½·»²¬·-¬.·²¬± ¬¸» ¸¿²¼.®±´» ·.´»¹·¬·³¿¬»ô ¾«¬ °¿®¿²±·¿ô ¹®»»¼ ¿²¼ -»½®»¬·ª»²»-.Ѭ¸»® ݱ²-¬¿²¬ ©·´´ ¿°°´§æ þ̸» ¬·³» ·¬ ¬¿µ»º±® º®»-¸ ³·²¼.¬¸» ³±-¬ ·³°±®¬¿²¬ ¿-°»½¬ ±º ¬¸» -«¾¶»½¬ô ¾«¬ ·¬ ·.©»®» ±®¼»®»¼ ¬± °¿§ ½±«®¬ ½±-¬-ò ß °±·²¬ ©¿.²±¬ ¾»½¿«-» ×ù³ ¿¹¿·²-¬ -½·»²½» ó ×ù³ ¿´´ º±® ·¬ ó ¾«¬ ¾»½¿«-» ø¿.¾» ½´»¿® ¿¾±«¬ ¬¸» °®»-»²¬ ®±´» ±º -½·»²½» ·² ÝÚò ׬.°®·³¿®·´§ ¬± ¸»´° ·² ¬¸» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ¸·¹¸ó°»®º±®³¿²½» ³¿½¸·²»-ô ¿²¼ ¬± »²-«®» ¬¸» -¿º»¬§ ±º °®±¼«½¬-ò Ѳ½» ¬¸»®» ¿®» ½±³³»®½·¿´ °®±¼«½¬.¾§ ݸ®·.¸¿.¿²¼ Ú´»·-½¸³¿²²ò × ¿¹®»» ©·¬¸ ݸ®·.ó »ª»² °±±®ó¯«¿´·¬§ô ´±© °»®º±®³¿²½» °®±¼«½¬.½±«®¬ ¶«¼¹»³»²¬ ©·´´ ©±²¼»®º«´´§ ½±²½»²¬®¿¬» ¿ º»© ³·²¼-ò × ¼±«¾¬ ·¬ô ¬¸±«¹¸ò ßͽ¸·´´»® °«¬.

°¿®¿¹®¿°¸ -¬¿¬».¿ ®»°®·²¬ ±º ±²» ±º Ö¿³».°®±ª·¼»¼ ¬± ·²¼·½¿¬» -«½½»--º«´ ¿½¸·»ª»³»²¬-ò ر©»ª»®ô °¿¹» ïè ·²½´«¼».-¬·´´ ¸¿¼ ø¿²¼ -¬·´´ ¸¿ª»÷ ¿ ½±²½»°¬ ±º ½±²-½·±«-²»-.שּׁ»®-±²ù.¬¸» -»²¬»²½»æ þÚ®»» »²»®¹§ ¿²¼ °»®°»¬«¿´ ³±¬·±² ·.°®±°»®´§ ³»¿-«®»¼ò ̸·.§»¬ô º±® ±ª»®ó«²·¬§ ±°»®¿¬·±²ò þØ·¹¸óÛºº·½·»²½§ Ù»²»®¿¬±®þ óó º®±³ ¬¸» ©±®µ.·-·³·´¿® ¬± ¬¸» ¿°°®±¿½¸ «-»¼ ·² ¬¸» Í©·-.¿²¼ ¬¸» »¼·¬±®ù.¸»¿ª§ó¹±·²¹ º±® ¬¸» ²±²ó³¿¬¸»³¿¬·½·¿² ¾«¬ ¿² ·²¬»®»-¬·²¹ ½±²½»°¬ ±º ¬¸» ²¿¬«®» ±º ª±®¬·½¿´ ½«®®»²¬-ò þÓ»¬¸±¼ ±º Û´»½¬®±´§-·.ïî ¿ -³¿´´ ´·¹¸¬ -±«®½»ò Ù¿®§ Ê»®²»® ¿²¼ Ó·¬½¸»´´ Í©¿®¬¦ ½±²¼«½¬»¼ ¬¸» »¨°»®·³»²¬ ©¸»®»·² ¿ ¬·²§ ÔÛÜ ´·¹¸¬ -±«®½»ô ½±³°±-»¼ ±º ¹¿´´·«³ ¿®-»²·¼» °¸±-°¸·¼»ô ©¿.°¿¬»²¬±² ¬¸» שּׁ»®-±² б©»® Ý»´´ÌÓò Í°¿½» Û²»®¹§ ÍÐßÝÛ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÖÑËÎÒßÔ ó ÓßÎÝØ ïççê ô ª±´ Ê××ô ·--«» ïò ̸» º±´´±©·²¹ ¿®» ¬¸» ½±²¬»²¬.½±³³»²¬ ¼±».¿®» ²±¬ -»²-·¬·ª» ¬± ª±´¬¿¹» ¿²¼ ½«®®»²¬ ·º ¬¸» °±©»® º¿½¬±® ·.¿²¼ -«¹¹»-¬·±².Ð ã øÛÓ ×Óñ(î÷ ½±.»¨°»®·³»²¬.«.Ю·²½·°·¿÷ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» Û¿-¬»®² ½«´¬«®».³¿¼» ¿ ª»®-·±² ±º ¬¸» Û¼©·² Ù®¿§ ³±¬±®ò Ò± ½´¿·³-ô ¿.º«®¬¸»® »¨°»®·³»²¬.¿°°®±¨·³¿¬»´§ ðòë ©¿¬¬.±® µ· ¿²¼ °®¿²¿ò ײ±³¿¬¿ ·²½´«¼».¸·º¿³±«.ø¾¿-»¼ ±² ·²°«¬ »´»½¬®·½¿´ ½«®®»²¬ ¿²¼ ª±´¬¿¹»÷ò ̸» ¹»²»®¿¬±® ®»´·»¼ ±² ¬¸» ¬¸»®³¿´ »²»®¹§ ¼»®·ª»¼ º®±³ ¿ ³»¬¿´ »´»½¬®±¼»ô ©¸·½¸ ¸¿¼ °®»ª·±«-´§ ¾»»² ½¿´·¾®¿¬»¼ ¬± ¼»´·ª»® »¨½»-.²±¬ ©±®µò ̸» ³»--¿¹» ·-æ ¾» ½¿®»º«´ ·² ¸±© °±©»® ·.¬¸¿¬ -¸±© ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» Ö»²-»² ¬®¿²-º±®³»® ½¿² °®±¼«½» ïîëû ³±®» °±©»® ±«¬ ¬¸¿² ·²°«¬ °±©»®ò þØ·¹¸ ʱ´¬¿¹» Û´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ Ó±¬±®þ ¾§ ܱ² Õ»´´§ò ܱ² ¼»-½®·¾».²±¬ ®»°®±¼«½·¾´»ò óÛ¼òà ̸» ·²°«¬ »´»½¬®·½¿´ °±©»® ¬± ¬¸» ´·¹¸¬ ©¿¬»® °±©»® ¹»²»®¿¬±® ©¿.¢ðòëè ©¿¬¬.·.º¿® º®±³ ²±®³¿´ò ̸» °±©»® º±® ¿² ¿ò½ò ½·®½«·¬ ·.º«¬«®» °±--·¾´» »²»®¹§ -±«®½»ò ÓßÇ ïççê þ̸» Û¼©·² Ù®¿§ Ý¿°¿½·¬·ª»óÜ·-½¸¿®¹» ØòÊò Ó±¬±®þ ¾§ ܱ² Õ»´´§ò Õ»´´§ ¼»-½®·¾».-·³·´¿® ¬± ®»°±®¬.°®±ª·¼» ¿ ²»© ´»ª»´ ±º °®±¹®»-.1ô ©¸»®» ¬¸» -«¾-½®·°¬ Ó ·²¼·½¿¬»³¿¨·³«³ ±® °»¿µ ª±´¬¿¹» ¿²¼ ½«®®»²¬ô ¿²¼ 1 ·.²±¬ þ¾®»¿µó»ª»²ôþ ·¬ ¼±».±º É¿¬»® ¬± Ú±®³ Ó»¬¿´ ا¼®·¼»þ ̸·.©±®µ ¾§ þ¿ ©»-¬ Ú´±®·¼¿ ½±¿-¬ »²¹·²»»®·²¹ ¹®±«°þ ¬¸¿¬ ¸¿.³»¿-«®»¼ò þ̸» Þ»´¬®¿³· Ê»½¬±® Ú·»´¼þ ¾§ ܱ² λ»¼ ̸·.²±¬ ³»¿² ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» Ò»©³¿² ³±¬±® ¼±».¿®» ¼·®»½¬»¼ ¬± ¬¸» »¨°»®·³»²¬»®ò Ò± ¼¿¬¿ ·.©¿¼»´·ª»®»¼ »²¬·®»´§ º®±³ ¬¸» ¹»²»®¿¬±®ò Åß °·½¬«®» ©¿-»²¬ô ¾«¬ ©¿.çòè ©¿¬¬.¼»º·²»¼ ¿.³¿¼» ¬± ¹´±© ¿.¿ °»®°»¬«¿´ ³±¬·±² ³¿½¸·²»òà þ̸» Û²»®¹§ Ó¿½¸·²» ±º Ö±-»°¸ Ò»©³¿²þ ¾§ Ûª¿² ͱ«´» Ö®ò ̸·.·² »¿½¸ ±º ¬¸» ¬©± ·²·¬·¿´ ®«²-ò ß´¬¸±«¹¸ ¬¸·¼»³±²-¬®¿¬·±² ©¿.¬¸» ª±´¬¿¹»ò ̸» º±®³«´¿ ·¼»®·ª»¼ º±® -·²«-±·¼¿´ ©¿ª» º±®³-ò ̸» Ò»©³¿² ³±¬±® ·.¬¸» º±´´±©·²¹æ þѲ ̸«®-¼¿§ô ß«¹«-¬ ïðô ïççëô Ö±-»°¸ Ò»©³¿²² ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬»¼ ¸·²»©»-¬ °®±¼«½¬·±² ³±¼»´ ±º ¸·.·.¸»¿¬ ±«¬°«¬ ·² ¬¸» ®¿²¹» ±º íððûò ̸» ¸·¹¸ó¹®¿¼» »´»½¬®·½¿´ ±«¬°«¬ ©¿.«-»¼ò É» ©±«´¼ -«¹¹»-¬ ¬¸¿¬ -±³» ©¿¬¬ó¸±«® ³»¬»®.½±³³»²¬-æ þÒ»© ͽ·»²½» º±® ¬¸» îï-¬ Ý»²¬«®§þ ¾§ ͸·«¶· ײ±³¿¬¿ò Ü®ò ײ±³¿¬¿ ®»³·²¼.±º Ö±¸² Û½µ´·² ̸»-» ¬»² °¿¹».¾§ ¬¸» Ý®»¿¬·ª» ͽ·»²½» ¿²¼ λ-»¿®½¸ Ù®±«° øß´¾¿²§ô ײ¼·¿²¿÷ ¬¸¿¬ ¿®» -·³·´¿® ¬± ¬¸» É·³-¸«®-¬ ¹»²»®¿¬±®-ò ̸·.¬®·¿²¹´» ±º º±®³«´¿.·.¸·¹¸´§ ·²¼«½¬·ª» ¿²¼ ©±«´¼ -¬®±²¹´§ ¿ºº»½¬ ¬¸» °±©»® º¿½¬±® ¿²¼ °±--·¾´§ ¬¸» ¿½¬·±² ±º ¬¸» -¬¿²¼¿®¼ ©¿¬¬ó¸±«® ³»¬»®ò ݱ³³»®½·¿´ º¿½¬±®·»¿®» ±º¬»² ½¸¿®¹»¼ ¿² ¿¼¼·¬·±²¿´ °®»³·«³ ±² ¬¸»·® »´»½¬®·½ ¾·´´ ¼»°»²¼·²¹ ±² ¬¸» °®»ª¿·´·²¹ ±® ¿ª»®¿¹» °±©»® º¿½¬±®ò Ó¿²§ -«°°±-»¼´§ ±ª»®ó«²·¬§ ¼»ª·½»¸¿ª» ¾»»² º±«²¼ ¬± º¿·´ ©¸»² °±©»® ·.¬¸» «-» ±º ¿ ¸±«-» ©¿¬¬ ³»¬»®ô ¬¸¿¬ ¼·¼ ²±¬ ¬«®² ©¸»² ¬¸» Ò»©³¿² ³±¬±® ±°»®¿¬»¼ ¾«¬ ¼·¼ ¬«®² ©¸»² ¿ ½±²ª»²¬·±²¿´ ³±¬±® ©¿.±º ¼·¿¹®¿³.³±¬±®ñ¹»²»®¿¬±® º®±³ èæðð ¿³ ¬± èæðð °³ óó ¿²¼ Å·¬ ©¿-à ¿¬¬¿½¸»¼ ¬± ¿ Ù®¿·²¹»® λ½·°®±½¿¬·²¹ Ы³°òþ ̸·.-»»² °®»ª·±«-´§ô »¨½»°¬ ¬¸¿¬ ±² ¬¸» ´¿-¬ °¿¹» ·.®»´¿¬·²¹ Ó¿--ô Û²»®¹§ô ¿²¼ ݱ²-½·±«-²»--ò þ̸» Ö»²-»² Ê¿®·¿¾´» ß·®óÙ¿° Ì®¿²-º±®³»®þ ¾§ ܱ² Õ»´´§ò ܱ² Õ»´´§ ¼»-½®·¾».»²»®¹§ °®±¼«½·²¹ -§-¬»³ò Ö»¬ Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ ·.ø¢íîí ³·´´·¿³°»®»-÷ò ̸» Ö»¬ Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ ´·¹¸¬ ©¿¬»® »´»½¬®·½ °±©»® ¹»²»®¿¬±® ¼®±ª» ¬¸» ³·²«¬» ´·¹¸¬ -±«®½» º±® ¿ º»© ³·²«¬».¸·¹¸´§ ½±³³»²¼»¼ º±® ¬¸»·® ½±²¬·²«»¼ °®±¹®»--·ª» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ¬¸·.¬¸» ¿²¹´» ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ½«®®»²¬ ´¿¹.ÓóÔ Ý±²ª»®¬»®ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .·² ¬¸·.»ª»®§©¸»®»òòò¬¿° ·²¬± ·¬ ¿²¼ ´»¬ ·¬ ¼± §±«® ©±®µ º±® §±«òþ ÅÒ±¬»æ »ª»®§ ¿¬±³ ©·¬¸ ¿ ¬¸»±®»¬·½¿´ ½·®½´·²¹ »´»½¬®±² ·.¬¸¿¬ ©¸·´» ¬¸» É»-¬»®² -½·»²½» ¼·¼ ²±¬ ·²½´«¼» ¿²§ ¬§°» ±º þ-°·®·¬«-þ ø¬¸» ²¿³» ¬¸¿¬ Ò»©¬±² «-»¼ ·² ¸·.

¸±°» ¬¸¿¬ ¾§ ³¿µ·²¹ ª»¸·½´».¬± -»¬ «° -»´ºó »¨½·¬·²¹ ±-½·´´¿¬·±²-ô ·² ¬¸» º±®³ ±º °«´-»¼ ¿¾²±®³¿´ ¹´±© ¼·-½¸¿®¹».¿®» °®»-»²¬´§ »²¹¿¹»¼ ·² ²»¹±¬·¿¬·²¹ ´·½»²-·²¹ ¿¹®»»³»²¬.º±® ¼·®»½¬ »´»½¬®±³»½¸¿²·½¿´ ¬®¿²-º±®³¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» »²»®¹§ ¿½½«³«´¿¬»¼ ©·¬¸·² ¬¸» ®»¿½¬±®ò ̸» ®»¿½¬±® ³¿§ ¾» ½±²½»·ª»¼ ±º ¿.¾»»² ¿ ½¿®»º«´´§ ¹«¿®¼»¼ -»½®»¬ «²¬·´ º«´´ ¼·-½´±-«®» ©¿.¿²¼ ¹»²»®¿¬».º±® ¬¸» »¨¬®¿½¬·±² °®±½»-.Û¼·-±²ô ¬¸» Û¿®´§ Ç»¿®-þ þ̸» Ø«¬½¸·-±² Ûºº»½¬þ þɸ¿¬»ª»® Ø¿°°»²»¼ ¬± Þ·´´ Ú±¹»´þ þÔ±-¬ Ì»½¸²±´±¹·»-æ כּ²¬ Ò±ò ìïíôíëíþ Ì»-´¿ùþÓ»¬¸±¼ ±º Ѿ¬¿·²·²¹ Ü·®»½¬ º±®³ ß´¬»®²¿¬·²¹ Ý«®®»²¬-þ Ú±® ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ¿¾±«¬ -«¾-½®·°¬·±².²± ²«½´»¿® ®¿¼·¿¬·±² ²±® ®¿¼·±·-±¬±°»-ò ̸» »²»®¹§ -§-¬»³ ·.²»¬ »²»®¹§ ·²°«¬ò ˲´·µ» ¬¸» ½±´¼ º«-·±² °®±½»--ô ©¸·½¸ ½´¿·³.Ü»´·ª»®.¬®·¹¹»®»¼ ¾§ ¿«¬±ó»´»½¬®±²·½ »³·--·±²-ô ·² ±®¼»® ¬± °®±¼«½» °±©»®ò ̸» ½·®½«·¬ ·¼®·ª»² º®±³ ¿ ¼·®»½¬ ½«®®»²¬ -±«®½» ±º ·³°»¼¿²½» -«ºº·½·»²¬ ¬± °®»ª»²¬ »-¬¿¾´·-¸³»²¬ ±º ¿ -«-¬¿·²»¼ ª¿½««³ ¿®½ ¼·-½¸¿®¹»ò ײ ½±³¾·²¿¬·±² ©·¬¸ ¿ -°»½·¿´ ½·®½«·¬ô »´»½¬®·½¿´ °±©»® ·² »¨½»-.¬¸¿¬ ·¬ »³°´±§.·² ±®¼»® ¬± ³¿µ» ¬¸» »´»½¬®·½ ª»¸·½´» ¿ º»¿-·¾´» ®»¿´·¬§ ©¸·´» -±´ª·²¹ ¬¸» °®±¾´»³.-»» ¬¸» ݱ³³»®½·¿´ ݱ´«³²ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .±º ¿² ÒóÓ¿½¸·²»þ ¾§ Ô»§´¿²¼ ݱ²-«´¬¿²¬þ̸±³¿.Ô¿© ±º Û´»½¬®±ó ¼§²¿³·½-ò ̸» ¿--±½·¿¬»¼ Ó±¬±® Ü®·ª» °®±ª·¼».±º »²»®¹§ô ¬¸·¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ©·´´ ±ºº»® ¬¸» °±--·¾·´·¬§ ±º ¾§°¿--·²¹ ³¿--·ª» ·²º®¿-¬®«½¬«®» »¨°¿²-·±².¸±«-·²¹ ¿®» ½«®®»²¬´§ «²¼»® ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ò ̸» ·²ª»²¬±®.©·¬¸ ¿ ª·»© ¬± ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ¬¸» ¿°°´·½¿¬·±²-ò ݱ²¬¿½¬æ Ü®ò п«´± ݱ®®»¿ô λ-»¿®½¸ Ü·®»½¬±® Ì»´æ çðëóêêðóïðìð Ú¿¨æ çðëóéíèóèìîé Ó·-½»´´¿²»±«ÉÛÔÝÑÓÛ ÌÑ ÌØÛ ßÒÛ ßÝßÜÛÓÇ ÚÑÎ ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ô ª±´ ïô ²± ïòô ½±²¬¿·²-æ þ̸» Ö¿³».¿² »²»®¹§ ®»¿½¬±® ©¸±-» º«²½¬·±² ·¾¿-»¼ «°±² ¸»®»¬±º±®» «²µ²±©² -°±²¬¿²»±«»³·--·±² °®±°»®¬·».·² ª¿½««³ ¿²¼ ·²ª±´ª».±º ½»®¬¿·² ³»¬¿´.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ ÐÎÛÍÍ ÎÛÔÛßÍÛ óó ßÐÎ×Ô îîô ïççê ÝßÒßÜ×ßÒ ÞÎÛßÕÌØÎÑËÙØ ×Ò ÐÑÉÛÎ ÙÛÒÛÎßÌ×ÑÒ Ò±²ó°±´´«¬·²¹ Û´»½¬®·½¿´ б©»® º®±³ Ы´-»¼ ݱ´¼ д¿-³¿.º±® Ó¿²«º¿½¬«®·²¹ Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬ô ¿²¼ ·Ú«´´§ Ю±¬»½¬»¼ ¾§ λ½»²¬´§ Ù®¿²¬»¼ ËòÍò כּ²¬-ò Ü®ò п«´± ݱ®®»¿ô Óòͽòô иòÜòô ﮬ²»® ¿²¼ Ü·®»½¬±® ±º λ-»¿®½¸ ¿¬ Ô¿¾±º»¨óÛ¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ ¿²¼ ß°°´·»¼ д¿-³¿ и§-·½.Ó±®» б©»® ̸¿² ·¬ ݱ²-«³»-ô Ю»°¿®».±º ݱ²½±®¼ô Ѳ¬¿®·±ô ¿²¼ ﮬ²»® ß´»¨¿²¼®¿ ݱ®®»¿ô øر²÷ Þßô ¿®» ¬±¼¿§ ¿²²±«²½·²¹ ¿ -·¹²·º·½¿²¬ ¾®»¿µ¬¸®±«¹¸ ·² ¬¸» º·»´¼ ±º ½´»¿² °±©»® ¹»²»®¿¬·±²ò ̸» ¬»½¸²·½¿´ ¾¿-·.¬± ±«¬°«¬ ´±© ¹®¿¼» ¸»¿¬ô ¬¸» ݱ®®»¿ ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ¼·®»½¬´§ ¹»²»®¿¬».·.±º ¬¸» ·²°«¬ °±©»® ²»»¼»¼ º±® ±°»®¿¬·±² ½¿² ¾» »¨¬®¿½¬»¼ò ̸» ͧ-¬»³ô ¬¸»®»º±®»ô ³¿§ ¿´-± ¾» ®»º»®®»¼ ¬± ¿.¿ °±®¬¿¾´» ª¿½««³ ¾¿¬¬»®§ ³¿¼» ¿½¬·ª» ±²´§ ©¸»² ²»»¼»¼ò ̸» ݱ®®»¿ ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ »³°´±§.½±´¼ó½¿¬¸±¼» ª¿½««³ ¼·-½¸¿®¹» °´¿-³¿ ®»¿½¬±®.»²¬·®»´§ °±´´«¬·±²óº®»»ô -»´ºó½±²¬¿·²»¼ô ¿²¼ ½±³°±-»¼ ±º ®»¿¼·´§ ®»½§½´¿¾´» ³¿¬»®·¿´-ò ͬ±®¿¹» ±º ¬¸» °±©»® °®±¼«½»¼ ³¿§ ¾» ½¿®®·»¼ ±«¬ ¾§ ¬®¿¼·¬·±²¿´ ³»¿²-ô ¾» ¬¸»-» ³»½¸¿²·½¿´ ±® »´»½¬®·½¿´ò Û²»®¹§ ½±²ª»®-·±² -§-¬»³ ¿°°´·½¿¬·±².²± ®¿¼·±¿½¬·ª» ½±³°±«²¼.ݧ½´·½¿´ Ы´-»¼ ß¾²±®³¿´ Ù´±© Ü·-½¸¿®¹»-òþ ̸» ݱ®®»¿ ¹®·¼ó·²¼»°»²¼»²¬ Û²»®¹§ ݱ²ª»®-·±² ͧ-¬»³ «¬·´·¦».º±® »´»½¬®·½ ª»¸·½´»-ô -¬¿²¼ó¿´±²» °±©»® -«°°´·».·²½´«¼»æ °«´-»¼ ´¿-»®-ô ·²ª»®¬»®-ô ¬®¿²-º±®³»® ¿²¼ ³±¬±® ½·®½«·¬-ò ̸» ·²ª»²¬±®.ا¼®±-±²·½ Ы³°þ ¾§ Ö±» Ó¿·¦» þÌ»-¬ λ-«´¬.-»´ºó-«ºº·½·»²¬ ·² ¬»®³.¸¿.Ù®·¹¹.¿² ±ª»®ó«²·¬§ -§-¬»³æ ©¸»®» ²»¬ »²»®¹§ ±«¬°«¬ ¹®»¿¬´§ »¨½»»¼.¿²¼ ¿«¬±²±³±«.º®±³ ·¬¿°°»¿´ò Ѭ¸»® °±¬»²¬·¿´ ¿°°´·½¿¬·±².¿² ¿²±³¿´±«.-»½«®»¼ ¬¸®±«¹¸ ¬¸» ¹®¿²¬·²¹ ±º ¬¸®»» ËÍ °¿¬»²¬-æ ËÍ Ð¿¬»²¬ Ò«³¾»®-æ ëôìïêôíçïô ·--«»¼ Ó¿§ ïêô ïççëô »²¬·¬´»¼ þÛ´»½¬®±³»½¸¿²·½¿´ Ì®¿²-ó ¼«½¬·±² ±º д¿-³¿ Ы´-»-åþ ëôììçôçèçô ·--«»¼ Í»°¬»³¾»® ïîô ïççëô »²¬·¬´»¼ þÛ²»®¹§ ݱ²ª»®-·±² ͧ-¬»³åþ ¿²¼ ëôëðîôíëìô ·--«»¼ ±² Ó¿®½¸ îêô ïççêô »²¬·¬´»¼ þÜ·®»½¬ Ý«®®»²¬ Û²»®¹·¦»¼ Ы´-» Ù»²»®¿¬±® ˬ·´·¦·²¹ ß«¬±¹»²±«.½¿¬¸±¼» ®»¿½¬·±² º±®½» ½±²º±®³·²¹ ¬± Ü®ò Øò ß-°¼»²ù.»´»½¬®·½·¬§ ¿¬ °±©»® ª±´¬¿¹» ´»ª»´-ô ©·¬¸±«¬ ¿²§ «¬·´·¦¿¬·±² ±º ½±´¼ ±® ¬¸»®³±²«½´»¿® º«-·±² ïí °®·²½·°´»-ò ß²±¬¸»® ·³°±®¬¿²¬ º»¿¬«®» ±º ¬¸» ¿°°¿®¿¬«.±º ®¿²¹» ©¸·½¸ ½«®®»²¬´§ ¼»¬®¿½¬.

λ·¬»® ß°®·´ îèô ïççê ׬ ©¿.¾§ ¬¸» ¿«¬¸±®.·² ±º ¾»·²¹ ½¿°¿¾´» ±º ¼®¿©·²¹ ±«¬ «²»¨°»½¬»¼ ¿³±«²¬.©»®» ®»°´¿½»¼ ¾§ -·³°´» ²±²ó·²¼«½¬·ª» ·²-«´¿¬»¼ ½±·´.»ºº»½¬ ·.¿ ÌÊ -½®»»² ±® ¿ °´¿-³¿ ¹´±¾»ô ±²» ½±«´¼ «-» ¿´«³·²«³ º±·´ ¬± ¼®¿© ±ºº °±©»® ¬± ´·¹¸¬ ¿ ²»±² ´¿³° øÒÛóî÷ ±® °®±¼«½» ¿®½·²¹ñº·®»¾¿´´ »ºº»½¬-ò Ô¿¬»® ±²ô ¬¸» ¿½¬·ª¿¬»¼ -§-¬»³.°¿°»®ô ¬¸» ¾»¸¿ª·±® ±º ¿² ÔÝÎ ½·®½«·¬ ©·¬¸ ¿ ³±ª¿¾´» º»®®±³¿¹²»¬·½ ½±®» ©¿.±² ¬¸» ®¿¬» ±º ½¸¿²¹» ±º ¬¸» ·²¼«½¬¿²½»ò ̸» -·³«´¿¬·±² ¾¿-»¼ ±² ¬¸» ¬¸»±®»¬·½¿´ »¯«¿¬·±² ½±²º·®³»¼ ¬¸» »¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ ®»-«´¬-ò îò ɸ»² ¿°°´§·²¹ ±°°±-·²¹ ³¿¹²»¬·½ º·»´¼.¬± ¬¸» º¿½·²¹ ½±·´-ô ¿² ·²½®»¿-» ·² ¬¸» ®»½¸¿®¹» ª±´¬¿¹» ½¿² ¾» ±¾-»®ª»¼ ·² ¿² »´»½¬®·½¿´´§ ½´±-»¼ ÔÝÎ ½·®½«·¬ò ̸» ¿°°¿®»²¬ ®»-·-¬¿²½» ±º ¬¸» ½±·´ ¼»½®»¿-»¼ ½±®®»-°±²¼·²¹´§ò íò ׬ ½¿² ¾» °±-¬«´¿¬»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ½±³°´»¨ ³±ª»³»²¬ ±º ³¿¹²»¬·½ º´«¨ ¹»²»®¿¬».ïì ×ÒÝÎÛßÍÛÜ ÊÑÔÌßÙÛ ÐØÛÒÑÓÛÒÑÒ Ñ-¿³« ×¼» øÝ´»¿² Û²»®¹§ Ô¿¾òô Ò¿¬ò Ù®±«° ݱ®°òô ͸·²¿¹¿©¿ô Ö¿°¿²÷ô þײ½®»¿-»¼ ʱ´¬¿¹» и»²±³»²±² ·² ¿ λ-±²¿²½» Ý·®½«·¬ ±º ˲½±²ª»²¬·±²¿´ Ó¿¹²»¬·½ ݱ²º·¹«®¿¬·±²ôþ ô ª±´ ééô ²± ïïô ï Ö«²» ïççëô °° êðïëóêðîðô é ®»º-ô ïð º·¹-ô ï ¬¿¾´»ò ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Ì¸» ¾»¸¿ª·±® ±º ¿² ÔÝÎ øײ¼«½¬¿²½»ó½¿°¿½·¬¿²½»ó ®»-·-¬¿²½»÷ ½·®½«·¬ ©·¬¸ ¿ ³±ª¿¾´» º»®®±³¿¹²»¬·½ ½±®» ·.-¬¿¬·±²¿®§ò ̸» ¼»½®»¿-» ·² ¬¸» ®»½¸¿®¹» ª±´¬¿¹» ¼»°»²¼.®¿·-»¼ ¿- ÝÑËÒÌÛÎ×ÒÙ Þ×ÑÔÑÙ×ÝßÔ ÛÚÚÛÝÌÍ ÑÚ ÝÑ×ÔÍ Þ§ Í¿³«»´ Ðò Ú¿·´» ̸» »¨¬®»³»´§ ¸·¹¸ º®»¯«»²½§ ¼·-½¸¿®¹» ·² ¬¸» ª·½·²·¬§ ±º ¬¸» ²±²ó·²¼«½¬·ª» ½±·´.¾»·²¹ ¬»-¬»¼ò Ú¿·´» ¸¿.¿ ¸»¿¼¿½¸» ±® ³¿§ ½¿«-» -±³» ¬± ´»¿ª» ¬¸» ®±±³ ·² ©¸·½¸ ¿² ¿½¬·ª» ½±·´ ·.¼·-½«--»¼ò ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ÝÑÒÝÔËÍ×ÑÒÍ ×² ¬¸·.º®±³ ¿®½·²¹ ¼·-½¸¿®¹».°®±¼«½»¼ -±³» °¿--·ª» ½±·´.±® ¬¿¾´» -¿´¬ ·² ¬¸» ¾¿¬¸©¿¬»®ò ÛÜ×ÌÑÎùÍ ÝÑÓÓÛÒÌÍ Í±³» °»®-±².±º »ºº»½¬- wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .½¿² ®»°´¿½» ¬¸» -°»½·¿´ ±°»² ½·®½«·¬ ·²-«´¿¬»¼ ½±·´.²±¬ ½´»¿®ò ÓßÇ ïççê ·²ª±´ª» ¬¸» °®»--·²¹ ±º ¬¸» ¾¿®» ©·®» »²¼ ±º ¿² «²°±©»®»¼ ±® °¿--·ª» ·²¼«½¬·ª» ½±·´ ¿¹¿·²-¬ ¬¸» -½¿´° ¿²¼ ¬¿µ·²¹ ¿ ¾¿¬¸ ©·¬¸ ¼·--±´ª»¼ Û°-±² -¿´¬.ïðð ½±·´ ©·¬¸ ¿´«³·²«³ º±·´ ±² ·¬ ±® ¬¸» îù ¨ íù Ú´¿¬ ر±°»® ïé øÑ°»² Ý·®½«·¬÷ ½±·´ ±² ¾±¬¸ -·¼».¾»»² ³»²¬·±²»¼ ³¿²§ ¬·³».±¬¸»®.¼·-½«--»¼ò ̸» ·²½®»¿-» ·² ·²¼«½¬¿²½» ±º ¬¸» ½±·´ô ©¸·½¸ ·.º±«²¼ ¬¸¿¬ «-·²¹ ª¿®·±«.¿ ½±³°±²»²¬ô ¬¸» îó±®ó ³±®»ó¼·±¼» ¿--»³¾´§ô ©¸·½¸ ¸¿.½¿«-»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» ¿¬¬®¿½¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ½±®» ¼«®·²¹ ¼·-½¸¿®¹»ô §·»´¼»¼ ¬¸» º±´´±©·²¹ ®»-«´¬-ò ïò ̸» ®»½¸¿®¹» ª±´¬¿¹» ·.¼·-½«--»¼ò ̸» ½±®» ·.¿®» ³«½¸ ³±®» -»²-·¬·ª» ¬¸¿² ±¬¸»®¬± ¬¸» º·»´¼ ±º »²»®¹§ °®±ª·¼»¼ ¾§ -±³» ±º ¬¸»-» ²±²ó ·²¼«½¬·ª» ½±·´-ò Ú±® »¨¿³°´»ô ¬¸·.¿½¬·ª¿¬»¼ -±«®½»-«½¸ ¿.¬¸¿¬ ³¿§ ¸»´° ®»³±ª» ¬¸»-» ¬§°».²»¨¬ ¬± ¿ ³»¬¿´ °´¿¬» ±® º±·´ò ̸» °´¿¬» ±® º±·´ ©¿.¿¬¬®¿½¬»¼ ¾§ ¿ ³¿¹²»¬·½ º·»´¼ ¹»²»®¿¬»¼ ¾§ ¿² »´»½¬®·½ ½«®®»²¬ ®»-«´¬·²¹ º®±³ ¬¸» ¼·-½¸¿®¹» ±º ¿ ½¿°¿½·¬±® ·² ¬¸» ½´±-»¼ ÔÝÎ ½·®½«·¬ò ß² «²«-«¿´ ·²½®»¿-» ·² ®»½¸¿®¹» ª±´¬¿¹»ô ©¸·½¸ ©¿¼»°»²¼»²¬ ±² ¬¸» ³¿¹²»¬·½ ½±²º·¹«®¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ½±·´ô ©¿.ª±´¬¿¹» ·²½®»¿-» ¼±».·²ª±´ª·²¹ ´·²» ¸±±µ«°©¸»®» ¬¸» ±°»² ½·®½«·¬ ½±·´ ©¿.±º ¹¿´ª¿²·¦»¼ -¬»»´ -¸»»¬ ½±«´¼ ¾» ®»°´¿½»¼ ¾§ ¿ ½¿°¿½·¬·ª» -§-¬»³ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» -¸»»¬ñ½±·´ ®¿¬·²¹ ·²ª±´ª·²¹ ¬¸» «-» ±º º±«® ½¿°¿½·¬±®.±º ²»© »²»®¹§ ¬¸¿¬ ±¬¸»®©·-» ®»³¿·².¿²¼ ½¿®¼·¿½ -§³°¬±³-ò ݱ«²¬»® ³»¿-«®».¸·¼¼»² ©¸»² «-·²¹ ±²´§ ±²» ¼·±¼»ò ̸«-ô ¬¸» ¯«»-¬·±² ·.©·¬¸ ¬¸»·® ²»¿®¾§ ³»¬¿´ -¸»»¬-ò ͬ·´´ô ¬¸» »²¬·®» -§-¬»³ ½±²¬¿·².®»½»²¬´§ ³¿§ ¸¿ª» ¬®·¹¹»®»¼ ª·-«¿´ ¼·-®«°¬·±².»¼·¬±® ½¿² -½¿®½»´§ º»»´ ¬¸» º·»´¼ »ºº»½¬ ¬¸¿¬ ¹·ª».¿ °±-·¬·ª» ÛÓÚô ¾«¬ ¬¸» ½¿«-» ±º ¬¸» ª±´¬¿¹» ·²½®»¿-» ·.½±²²»½¬»¼ ·² ¿ «²·°±´¿® ³¿²²»® ¬± ¬¸» ¬§°» ±º ¼·±¼»-ñ½¿°¿½·¬±® -§-¬»³ ³»²¬·±²»¼ ø®»°±®¬»¼ ·² ô Ú»¾ ïççêô °° ïíóïêå ¿²¼ Ó¿®½¸ ïççêô °° íóè÷ò Í»» Ú·¹ò ïò Ûª»² ¬¸±«¹¸ ·¬ ©¿°±--·¾´» ¬± ¹»¬ ¿ ÒÛó î ´¿³° ¬± ±°»®¿¬» ½±²¬·²«±«-´§ ¿²¼ ¬± ±¾¬¿·² ¾´«»ó©¸·¬» º·®»¾¿´´.¬¸¿² ©¸»² ·¬ ·.±¾-»®ª»¼ò ̸·.¬¸¿¬ ¿½¬«¿´´§ °®±¼«½» -°¿®µ ¼·-½¸¿®¹»-ò ÍËÓÓßÎÇ ÑÚ ÍÌËÜ×ÛÍ ËÍ×ÒÙ ßÝÌ×ÊßÌÛÜ ÍÑËÎÝÛÍ Þ§ Í¿³«»´ Ðò Ú¿·´» ¿²¼ Ò·½¸±´¿.ï ³³ ¬± ë ³³ ¿½®±--ô ·¬ ©¿º±«²¼ ·² ¿² »¨¬»²-·ª» -¬«¼§ ¾§ Òòλ·¬»® ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» º±´¼»¼ íù ¨ çù ݸ¿±.²±¬ ½±²º±®³ ¬± ¬¸» ³¿¬¸»³¿¬·½¿´ -·³«´¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» -§-¬»³ò ̸» °±--·¾·´·¬§ ¬¸¿¬ ¿ °±-·¬·ª» »´»½¬®±³±¬·ª» º±®½» ©¿·²ª±´ª»¼ ·² ¬¸·.¹»²»®¿´´§ -³¿´´»® ©¸»² ¬¸» ½±®» ³±ª».±°»®¿¬·²¹ ¿¬ îëð °·½±Ú¿®¿¼-ò ̸«-ô ¿ º¿·®´§ ½±²ª»²¬·±²¿´ -§-¬»³ ±º ì ½¿°¿½·¬±®.

¾¿®»´§ ²±¬·½»¿¾´»ô ¿¹¿·²-¬ ¬¸» ®»¹«´¿® ´·¹¸¬ ±«¬°«¬ô ¬¸» ±ª»®¿´´ ¾®·¹¸¬²»-.¬¸» »¨°´±-·±² ©·¬¸ ¿ ½±´¼ º«-·±² ®»¿½¬·±²ò ÅÍ»» ͸±«´¼»®-ù ËÍ Ð¿¬»²¬ ëôðïèôïèðô º±® «-» ±º ³»®½«®§ó©»¬¬»¼ »´»½¬®±¼»-òà ߴ-±ô ¾§ ¬¸» ½¸±·½» ±º ±¬¸»® ½±³¾·²¿¬·±²-ô ±²» ³¿§ ±¾¬¿·² ¿ ½±²ª»®-·±² ±º ³¿--ó»²»®¹§ ¿²¼ ¬¸» ¿»¬¸»® ·² ¿² »²¼±¬¸»®³·½ »ºº»½¬ ¬¸¿¬ ¯«»²½¸».¸¿ª» »ª»² º±«²¼ ¬¸¿¬ ¶«-¬ «-·²¹ ¬¸» ½±²ª»²¬·±²¿´ ½¿°¿½·¬±® ¸±±µ«°.¼±».ø¿¾±«¬ ïîð ·² ²«³¾»®÷ -¸±«´¼ ¾» ¬®·»¼ ¬± -»» ·º ¿ ´¿®¹» ²«³¾»® ©·¬¸ ¿ îëð °·½±Ú¿®¿¼ ¬±¬¿´ ª¿´«» ©±«´¼ ·²½®»¿-» ¬¸» »²»®¹§ ±«¬°«¬ò Ó×ÝÎÑó×ÒÜËÝÌ×ÊÛ ßÎÎßÇÍ Òòßò λ·¬»® øѸ·±÷ô þÓ·½®±óײ¼«½¬·ª» ß®®¿§Ý±²-¬®«½¬»¼ ©·¬¸ Ø·¹¸ λ-·-¬·ª·¬§ Ó»¬¿´´±·¼-æ ̸»·® б--·¾´» λ´¿¬·±² ¬± Ìò Þ»¿¼»²ù.¬± ìî ʱ´¬.º®±³ ½±²ª»²¬·±²¿´ »²»®¹§ ±® ²»© »²»®¹§ò ͱ³» ®»-»¿®½¸»®.¬¸¿¬ ½¿² ³»¿-«®» ½¿²¼´» °±©»® -¸±«´¼ ´±±µ ·²¬± ¬¸·-ò ß´-±ô ¿² ·²ª»²¬±®§ ±º »²»®¹§ ¹±·²¹ ¼·®»½¬´§ ¬± ¸»¿¬ ±«¬°«¬ ·²»»¼»¼ò ̸«.¾®·¹¸¬ ¿.¿² ¿°°¿®»²¬ ¹¿·² ·² »²»®¹§ò Ú«®¬¸»® ®»-»¿®½¸ ¾§ ±¬¸»®.¬¸¿¬ ¿°°»¿® ¬± º·¬ ·²¬± ¬¸» ²»© »²»®¹§ ½¿¬»¹±®§ò ͱ³» »¨°»®·³»²¬.-¬·´´ °±--·¾´» ¬± ¹»¬ »ºº»½¬.¬¸»®» ·.·.-¸±©² ¾»´±© ·² ¬¸» ¼·¿¹®¿³ò ̸» ÒÛóî ´¿³° º´·½µ»®·²¹ »ª»®§ ïñì -»½±²¼ ©¿.¬± ¾» ½±²¬·²«±«-á ̸» °®±¾´»³ ©·¬¸ ¬¸·.¹·ª»² ³±®» °±©»® -± ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ©¿ª»®·²¹ ±® º´·½µ»®·²¹ ·.·²¬®±¼«½»¼ ·²¬± ¬¸» ¿®½·²¹ ·² ª¿®·±«.¶»¬¬·-±²»¼ ±«¬©¿®¼ò ̸·.¬¸» ©¿ª»®·²¹ ±® º´·½µ»®·²¹ ´¿³° ±«¬°«¬ ·²¼·½¿¬».±°»®¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ÒÛóî ´¿³° ø©¸·½¸ ®»¯«·®» îëð ³·´´·©¿¬¬-÷ò л®¸¿°.¿ ®»°´¿½»³»²¬ º±® ¬¸» ½±·´ñ³»¬¿´ -¸»»¬ ½±³°±²»²¬ ·² ¬¸» -§-¬»³ô ³¿²§ ½¿°¿½·¬±®.»ºº»½¬ ·²ª±´ª».»´·³·²¿¬»¼ ¬¸» º·®»¾¿´´ »ºº»½¬ò ïë ß²±¬¸»® ¿²±³¿´±«.¿²¼ ¿®±«²¼ ëòè ¬± ïì ³·½®±¿³°-ò ׺ ©» «-» ¬¸» ¸·¹¸»® ïðð ʱ´¬ ª¿´«» ¿²¼ ¬¸» ïì ³·½®±¿³° ª¿´«»ô ¬¸» ©¿¬¬.¬¸» ¼·-½¸¿®¹» ±½½«® ·² ¬¸» ´¿³° ©·¬¸ ¬¸» »§» -»»·²¹ ©¸¿¬ ¿°°»¿®.¿.¬¸» º·®»¾¿´´ò ß Ô·Ý´ -±´«¬·±² °¿·²¬»¼ ±² ¬¸» ¬·°.Ú®»» Û²»®¹§ ݱ²½»°¬òþ wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .©·¬¸ °´¿-³¿.¿¾±«¬ ¿.¬¸» ½±²¬·²«±«±«¬°«¬ò Ú±® º«¬«®» ®»-»¿®½¸ô ¿ -«¹¹»-¬·±² ©±«´¼ ·²ª±´ª» ¬®§·²¹ ¿¼¼·¬·±²¿´ ¸»¿ª§ ³»¬¿´ ½±³°±«²¼.¬± -»» ·º ±²» ½±«´¼ °®±¼«½» «-»º«´ º·®»¾¿´´ »¨°´±-·±².¿¾±«¬ ïòì ³·´´·©¿¬¬-ô ©¸·½¸ ·.¬¸» °®»-»²½» ±º ´·¹¸¬ ¿²¼ ¸»¿ª§ »´»³»²¬.®»-«´¬.°®±¼«½·²¹ ¬¸» ´·¹¸¬ò Ü»-°·¬» ¬¸» ±°»² ¯«»-¬·±²ô ·¬ ©¿.©±«´¼ ¾» ¿½½±³ó °¿²·»¼ ¾§ ¿ -¸¿®° ½®¿½µ·²¹ ²±·-»ò ׺ ¬¸» ¬·°.©¸»² ¬¸» ÒÛóî ´¿³° ·.±°»®¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ÒÛóî ´¿³° ·.·²ª±´ª·²¹ °´¿-³¿.·² ¬¸» ¿®½ñº·®»¾¿´´ ¿«¹³»²¬.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ ¬± ©¸»¬¸»® ¬¸» ¿°°¿®»²¬ ½±²¬·²«±«.©»®» ½±¿¬»¼ °®·±® ¬± º·®·²¹ ©·¬¸ ¿ ¬·²½¬«®» ±º ×±¼·²» -±´«¬·±² ±® ©·¬¸ ³»¬¿´´·½ ³»®½«®§ô ¬¸» -«¾-»¯«»²¬ »¨°´±-·±² ©±«´¼ °®±¼«½» ¿ ´¿®¹»® ¾¿²¹ ¿²¼ ¬¸» -·¦» ±º ¬¸» º·®»¾¿´´ ©±«´¼ ¾» ¿¾±«¬ ëðû ´¿®¹»®ò л®¸¿°.¾»·²¹ ¼®¿©² º®±³ ¬¸» ´·²» ·.±²´§ ¿ ¬·²§ º®¿½¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ¬·³»ò ܱ».·²¼·½¿¬»¼ ¿²±³¿´±«.©¿§.²±¬ -»»² ¬± ¾» ³«½¸ ¹®»¿¬»®ò ͱ³»±²» ©·¬¸ ·²-¬®«³»²¬.¿¾±«¬ ±²» ¸«²¼®»¼ »·¹¸¬§ ¬·³»¬±± -³¿´´ º±® ¿ ´±© ½±²¬·²«±«.¬± ©¸»¬¸»® ³¿·²´§ ²»© »²»®¹§ ±® ½±²ª»²¬·±²¿´ »²»®¹§ ·.©·¬¸ ¬¸» °±©»® ±º º¿·®´§ ´¿®¹» º·®»½®¿½µ»®-ò ̸» ®»´¿¬·ª»´§ -³¿´´ ¿³±«²¬ ±º ½«®®»²¬ ·² ¬¸» »¨¬»²-·±² ½±®¼ º®±³ ¬¸» ©»¿µ´§ ¿½¬·ª¿¬»¼ ´«³·²»-½»²¬ ´¿³° ½±«´¼ ¾» ¿² ·²¼·½¿¬·±² ¬¸¿¬ ¿ -¬¿²¼ó¿´±²» ¼»ª·½» -¸±«´¼ ¾» ¿¬¬»³°¬»¼ ¬± ³»»¬ ¬¸» ±²» ©¿¬¬ ½¸¿´´»²¹»ò л®¸¿°.¬± ¿¾±«¬ ïñî ³³ ±º »¿½¸ ±¬¸»®ò ̸»² ¬¸»®» ©±«´¼ ¾» ¿² ¿®½·²¹ °®±¼«½·²¹ ¿ ¾´«»ó©¸·¬» º·®»¾¿´´ ©·¬¸ §»´´±© -°¿®µ.-±³»¬·³»°®±¼«½».©»®» °®±¼«½»¼ ¾§ ²»¿®´§ ½´±-·²¹ ¬¸» ½·®½«·¬ ±º ¬¸» ¼·±¼»ñ½¿°¿½·¬±® ¿--»³¾´§ ¾§ ¾®·²¹·²¹ ©·®» ¬·°.©·¬¸ °±--·¾´» ²»© »²»®¹§ ±«¬°«¬ò ß®½.¿ ¹±±¼ ¯«»-¬·±² ¿.¬¸» °±©»®·²¹ ±º ¬¸» ½±·´ñ°´¿¬» -§-¬»³ ¬± °±©»® ¬¸» ÒÛóî ´¿³° «-·²¹ô ·²-¬»¿¼ ±º ¿ ´·²» ª±´¬¿¹»ô ¿² »¨¬»²-·±² ½±®¼ þ»´»½¬®·½¿´þ ½±²¬®·¾«¬·±² º®±³ ¿ ´«³·²»-½»²¬ ´¿³° ©»¿µ´§ ¿½¬·ª¿¬»¼ ¾§ ¿ °´¿-³¿ ¹´±¾» ²»¨¬ ¬± ¬¸» ´¿³° ¾«¬ º¿® ¿©¿§ º®±³ ¬¸» ½±·´ñ°´¿¬» -§-¬»³ô ¿.³¿§ ¿²-©»® ¬¸» ¯«»-¬·±²ô ¾«¬ ¿¬ ´»¿-¬ ©» ¸¿ª» -±³» ¼¿¬¿ ¬¸¿¬ -¸±«´¼ ¸»´° ·² ¹»¬¬·²¹ -¬¿®¬»¼ò ̸» ÒÛóî ´¿³°ô ·º ±°»®¿¬»¼ ½±²¬·²«±«-´§ô -¸±«´¼ ¼®¿© ¿¾±«¬ îëð ³·´´·©¿¬¬-ò ̸» ³»¿-«®»³»²¬ Òòλ·¬»® ³¿¼» ·²¼·½¿¬»¼ ¬¸» ´¿³° ©¿¼®¿©·²¹ º®±³ ¬¸» ´·²» -±³»¬¸·²¹ ´·µ» ïðð ʱ´¬.

¾» ª»®§ °±±® ½«®®»²¬ ½¿®®·»®.¬± »ª¿´«¿¬» ²±²ó·²¼«½¬·ª» -¬®«½¬«®».°¿®¿¼±¨ô «²¬·´ ®»½»²¬´§ò É» ¸¿ª» -»»² »ª·¼»²½» ¬¸¿¬ -±³» ³·½®±ó·²¼«½¬·ª» ¿®®¿§.¿²¼ °®±¼«½» ʱ½ ¿²¼ ½«®®»²¬.-«½¸ ¿- ÓßÇ ïççê Ý«Ñô Ý«î Ñô ͲÑî ò Ô·¬¬´» ³±®» ¬¸±«¹¸¬ ©¿.°´¿¬» ½±¿¬»¼ ©·¬¸ ¿ ½±³³»®½·¿´´§ ¿ª¿·´¿¾´» ½±²¼«½¬·ª» ͲÑî æ Ú º·´³ò ݱ²¬¿½¬.°´¿¬» ½±¿¬»¼ ¾» Û󾻿³ ©·¬¸ ïððð ¿²¹-¬®±³.¹»±³»¬®§ ³·¹¸¬ º«´º·´´ ¬¸» -©·¬½¸»¼ °±¬»²¬·¿´ °±®¬·±² ±º ¬¸» Þ»¿®¼»² ½±²½»°¬ÿ Ѳ îï ß°®·´ ïççêô × ¼»®·ª»¼ ¬¸» ½·®½«·¬ -¸±©² ·² Ú·¹ò ï ¬± ¬»-¬ ¬¸·.©¿ª»º±®³ ·¿°°´·»¼ ¿½®±-.±°»²ô ²± ª±´¬¿¹» ±® ½«®®»²¬ ©¿.«-»¼ò É·¬¸ ¬¸» ½±´´»½¬±® »´»³»²¬ ¬¿¾.-°¸»®»-ô ½¿ª·¬·»-ô ¿²¼ °·°»-ò ß ½±³¾·²¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸»-» ¬©± ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬.-«½¸ ¿.»¯«¿´ ¬± ¬¸±-» ±¾¬¿·²»¼ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ±®·¹·²¿´ ¾·°±´¿® ½±²²»½¬·±².¬± ¿ ¶«³°»®»¼ °¿·® ±º ¼·±¼».·¼»¿ô ¿²¼ ¬± ¿´´±© »ª¿´«¿¬·±² ±º °±¬»²¬·¿´ ½¿²¼·¼¿¬».¾§ ¸·¹¸ º®»¯«»²½§ -©·¬½¸·²¹ ±º ¿ þ½±´´»½¬±®þ ³¿¼» º®±³ ¿ ³¿¬»®·¿´ ¸¿ª·²¹ ¿ ´±²¹ »´»½¬®±² ®»´¿¨¿¬·±² °»®·±¼ò ߬ ¬¸» ¬·³» ©¸»² × ®»¿¼ ¬¸·.¼±½«³»²¬ô × ©¿.¿²¼ -¬®«½¬«®».±º Ì»ò Þò ïð ½³ ¨ ïð ½³ ¹´¿-.·² ¬¸» ¿®®¿§ô ©¸·½¸ ¿®» ¸¿´º ©¿ª» ®»½¬·º·»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» º¿-¬ -·´·½±² ¼·±¼»-ò ̸·.°´¿¬» ©¿.®»¿¼ ¿¬ ðòçè ³»¹ó±¸³-ò Ü«®·²¹ ¬¸·.ØÝ´ ¿²¼ Ò·Ý´ îò Ñ«® º·®-¬ ¿¬¬»³°¬ ·²ª±´ª»¼ º·´´·²¹ ¿ ïòë ³»¬»® ´±²¹ ®«¾¾»® ¬«¾» ©·¬¸ ¿¾±«¬ ëð¹ ±º ççòççû °«®·¬§ ¹®¿²«´¿® Ì»ò ͬ¿·²´»-.³±®» ®»½»²¬´§ °®±³°¬»¼ -±³» ¿³±«²¬ ±º -°»½«´¿¬·±² ¬¸¿¬ -±³» ¿®®¿§ ³¿¬»®·¿´.¸¿ª·²¹ ¿ °»®·±¼ ¿½½»--·¾´» ¬± »ª»² ¸·¹¸ Ó¸¦ -©·¬½¸·²¹ ©±«´¼ ¸¿ª» ¿² »¨¬®»³»´§ ¸·¹¸ ¾«´µ ®»-·-¬·ª·¬§ô ¿²¼ ¬¸«.±º ¬¸» °´¿¬»ò ͸»»¬ ®»-·-¬¿²½» ±º ¬¸» º·´³ ·.-«½¸ ¿.°®¿½¬·½¿´ °®±¾´»³ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ½±²½»°¬ô ·ò»ò º·²¼·²¹ ¬¸» ®·¹¸¬ ³¿¬»®·¿´ò ß½½±®¼·²¹ ¬± -»ª»®¿´ -±´·¼ -¬¿¬» °¸§-·½·-¬.©»®» °®»°¿®»¼ ¿¸»¿¼ ±º ¬·³»æ ßò ïð ½³ ¨ ïð ½³ ¹´¿-.¹·ª»² ¬± ¬¸·.¬»´´«®·«³ô -»´»²·«³ô ¿²¼ ½±²¼«½¬·ª» º´±«®·²» ¼±°»¼ Í²Ñ îò ̸·.ïê ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ Í·²½» Ú»¾®«¿®§ ïççêô ©» ¸¿ª» »¨¬®¿°±´¿¬»¼ «°±² -»ª»®¿´ ¿-°»½¬.»²»®¹§ ·.½±³°¿®»¼ ¯«·¬» ®»¿-±²¿¾´§ ¬± ʱ½ù.¿ ¸·¹¸ º®»¯«»²½§ °·½µó«°ò ïÒçïì ¼·±¼».°®±¼«½»¼ ¾§ -·³°´» ÌÎßÝÕ ¿®®¿§³¿¼» ©·¬¸ ¿¯«»±«.º±® »²»®¹§ ©»´´ ·²¬± ¬¸» ÊØÚ ¿²¼ °±--·¾´§ ¾»§±²¼ò ̸·.±¾¬¿·²»¼ ©·¬¸ ØÝ´ ¿²¼ Ô·Ý´ »´»½¬®±´§¬»-ô ÜÝ ®»-·-¬¿²½» ±º ¬¸» Ì» ¿®®¿§ ©¿.©¿.»¿-·´§ ½¿´½«´¿¬»¼ º±® ¿ ¹·ª»² ³¿¬»®·¿´ò ر©»ª»®ô ³¿¬»®·¿´.½±«´¼ ¾» ½±²²»½¬»¼ ¿«²·°±´¿® ¿²¬»²²¿.º±® ¬¸» ´±¿¼ °±®¬·±² ±º ¬¸» -©·¬½¸·²¹ ½§½´»ò ̸·-ô ¿¬ ¬¸» ¬·³»ô -»»³»¼ ¬± ´·³·¬ ¬¸» º·²¿´ ½¸±·½» ¬± ¸·¹¸ ®»-·-¬·ª·¬§ ³»¬¿´´±·¼-ô ±® ³»¬¿´ ±¨·¼».¿½«¬»´§ ¿©¿®» ±º ¿ -»®·±«.¬¸» þ½±´´»½¬±®þ «²¼»® ¬»-¬ò ͱ³» °±®¬·±² ±º ¬¸·.²±¬»¼ ¿¬ ¬¸» Õ»·¬¸´»§ ³»¬»®ò Ö«³°»®·²¹ ¬¸» ¬¿¾.°»®·±¼ ±º ¬·³»ô ³§ ¿--±½·¿¬»ô Ü®ò Ú¿·´»ô ±¾-»®ª»¼ ¬¸¿¬ -±³» ¿®®¿§.¸¿.¿´´±©»¼ «.½±²¼«½¬»¼ ±² îè ß°®·´ò Í»ª»®¿´ ½±´´»½¬±® »´»³»²¬.©±®µô Ü®ò Þ»¿®¼»² °®»¼·½¬»¼ ¬¸¿¬ ª·®¬«¿´´§ þº®»»þ »²»®¹§ ½±«´¼ ¾» »¨¬®¿½¬»¼ º®±³ ª±´¬¿¹» -±«®½».°´¿¬» ©·¬¸ ïððð ¿²¹-¬®±³ Ì» ½±¿¬·²¹ ´·¬¸±¹®¿°¸»¼ ·²¬± ¿ -°·®¿´ °¿¬¬»®²ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .º±´¼»¼ ±ª»® ¬± º±®³ ¿ ðòéë ³ ÌÎßÝÕò ɸ»² °´¿½»¼ ¿¬ ï ³»¬»® ¿´¬·¬«¼»ô ¿²¼ ½±²²»½¬»¼ ¬± ¿ °¿·® ±º ïÒçïì ¼·±¼».¿ ½±´´»½¬±® »´»³»²¬ ¿ ïð ½³ ¨ ïð ½³ ¹´¿-.«° °±¬»²¬·¿´.·² ³§ ½·®½´» ±º ½±²¬¿½¬-ô ¬¸» »´»½¬®±² ®»´¿¨¿¬·±² °»®·±¼ ·.±º ¬¸» Ó·½®±óײ¼«½¬·ª» ß®®¿§ ¿.°»® -¯«¿®»ò ß çêþ ¾§ çêþ ÚÔßÙ ¿®®¿§ -»¬ ±² ¹¿®¿¹» ®¿º¬»®.»²»®¹§ -¸±«´¼ ´·» ¿¾±ª» ¬¸» »´»½¬®±² ®»´¿¨¿¬·±² °»®·±¼ ±º ¬¸» ³¿¬»®·¿´ ±º ¬¸» ¬»-¬ »´»³»²¬ò ß ´±¿¼ ·.©·¬¸ ¿ °·»½» ±º ½±°°»® ©·®» ¹¿ª» ¿² ±«¬°«¬ ʱ½ ±º ìòèíî Ê ¿²¼ ¿ -¸±®¬ ½·®½«·¬ ½«®®»²¬ ±º ðòêç kßò Ò»¨¬ô ¬¸» ½±¿¬»¼ ¹´¿-.¿² »²»®¹§ ½±²ª»®-·±² ¼»ª·½»ò Ѳ» ±º ¬¸»-» »¨½«®-·±²·²ª±´ª»¼ ¾«·´¼·²¹ -³¿´´ ¿®®¿§.º®±³ ²±²ó-¬¿²¼¿®¼ ½±²¼«½¬·ª» ³¿¬»®·¿´-ô -«½¸ ¿.°®±¼«½·²¹ ¹±±¼ ʱ½ ¿²¼ ½«®®»²¬ «²¼»® ¬»-¬ ¿®» ¼±·²¹ -± ¾§ ¿ ³»½¸¿²·-³ ¼»-½®·¾»¼ ¾§ ÌòÛò Þ»¿®¼»² ¿ º»© §»¿®¿¹± ·² ¿ °®·ª¿¬»´§ ¼·-¬®·¾«¬»¼ ³±²±¹®¿°¸ò ײ ¸·.²±³·²¿´´§ î𠱸³.¼»-·¹²ô «-·²¹ ¿.©»®» °®±ª·¼»¼ ¿²¼ ¬¸» ¬«¾» ©¿.«-»¼ ¿.¿ °·½µó«° º±® ¸·¹¸ º®»¯«»²½§ -°»½¬®¿ò ̸» ·²½·¼»²¬ Ûóº·»´¼ »²»®¹§ ¾«·´¼.©·¬¸ ¿ º·´¬»®·²¹ ½¿°¿½·¬±® ±º òíí kÚô ©» ®»¿¼ ¿ ʱ½ ±º ±ª»® ïëð ³Ê ©·¬¸ ¿ Ú´«µ» éç ³»¬»®ò ̸·.²»©-´»¬¬»®ò ̸·¿´¬»®²¿¬·ª» ½±²º·¹«®¿¬·±² ¸¿.¿ °±¬»²¬·¿´ ±²´§ô ¿²¼ ©±«´¼ ½¿«-» ½«®®»²¬ ¬± º´±© ¬¸®±«¹¸ ¬¸» ´±¿¼ñ ½±´´»½¬±® ½·®½«·¬ ©·¬¸±«¬ ½¿«-·²¹ ¿ °±¬»²¬·¿´ ¼®±° ·² ¬¸» ¿®®¿§ô ¿¬ ¬¸±-» º®»¯«»²½·»-ò Ѳ îï ß°®·´ô × ¬»-¬»¼ ¬¸·.®»°±®¬»¼ ·² ±«® ®»½»²¬ °¿°»® °«¾´·-¸»¼ ·² ¬¸·.¿®» °±¬»²¬·¿´ °·½µó«°.©»®» ³¿¼» ±² ±°°±-·¬» -·¼».¿½¬·±² ¸¿¼ ¾»»² °®±³°¬»¼ ³¿·²´§ ¾§ ¬¸» ·²¬»®»-¬·²¹´§ ¸·¹¸ ±°»² ½·®½«·¬ ª±´¬¿¹».º±® ¬¸» þ½±´´»½¬±®þ °±®¬·±² ±º ¬¸» Þ»¿®¼»² ½±²½»°¬ò ß ´¿®¹» ³·½®±ó·²¼«½¬·ª» ¿®®¿§ ·.»´»½¬®±´§¬».©»®» »³°´±§»¼ ¿¬ ¬¸» ½±´´»½¬±®ò ̱ ³»¿-«®» ±«¬°«¬ ª¿´«»-ô ¿ Õ·»¬¸´»§ ïéë ³«´¬·ó³»¬»® ©¿.½±²²»½¬»¼ ·² °´¿½» ±º ¬¸» ¶«³°»®ò É» ²±© ®»¿¼ ìòèëí Ê ¿²¼ ðòéï kßò ß -³¿´´ ¾«¬ «²¼»²·¿¾´» ¹¿·²ÿ Ñ«® ²»¨¬ ¬»-¬ ©¿.«-»¼ ¿.»´»½¬®±¼».¬¸»² ¿¬¬¿½¸»¼ ¬± ¬¸» þ½±´´»½¬±®þ ª·¿ ¼·±¼»°±´¿®·¦»¼ ±°°±-·¬»´§ º®±³ ¬¸» ·²°«¬ ¼·±¼»-ò É» ©±«´¼ô ¬¸»®»º±®»ô -°»½«´¿¬» ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» °±®¬·±² ±º ¬¸» -°»½¬®¿ ´§·²¹ ¿¾±ª» ¬¸» »´»½¬®±² ®»´¿¨¿¬·±² °»®·±¼ ±º ¬¸» ½±´´»½¬±® ©±«´¼ ¾» -»»² ¿.½±´´»½¬»¼ ¿²¼ ¸¿´º ©¿ª» ®»½¬·º·»¼ ¾§ ±«® -¬¿²¼¿®¼ ¼·±¼» °¿·®ô ¬§°·½¿´´§ »·¬¸»® º¿-¬ -·´·½±²ô ±® ͽ¸±¬¬µ»§ Í·ò ׬ ®»½»²¬´§ ±½½«®®»¼ ¬± ³» ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸·.

±º ·²¬®·²-·½ ì𠱸³ó½³ò Ù»ò Ûò Í¿³» ¿.¬¸» ½¿°¿½·¬¿²½» ©¸·½¸ »¨·-¬¾»¬©»»² ¬¸» °®·³¿®§ ¿²¼ -»½±²¼¿®§ ©·²¼·²¹-á ̸·¿°°»¿®.±¾¬¿·²»¼ ¾§ ¬»-¬·²¹ ¬¸» ¿¾±ª» »´»³»²¬-ò ݱ´´»½¬·²¹ °®±¼ò Û´»³»²¬ Ý« ©·®» ¶«³°»® Ñ°»² ½·®½«·¬ ß Þ Ý Ü Û Ú ÜÝ ®»-·-¬ò Ö-½ °®±¼ò ʱ½ ïé ÍÌ×ÔÔ ÓÑÎÛ ÑÒ ÌØÛ Í×ÓÐÔÛ ÝÑ×Ô ÌÛÍÌ Þ§ Ù®»¹ ر¼±©¿²»½ Þ¿-·½ ݱ·´ Ì»-¬æ ß.»--»²¬·¿´ ¬± »´·³·²¿¬» ´«®µ·²¹ ¿®¬·º¿½¬-ò ׺ º«®¬¸»® ©±®µ ·²¼·½¿¬».³«½¸ ¹®»¿¬»® ¬¸¿² ÛÑËÌô ¬¸» ²»¬©±®µ ·¿´-± ¿ ¼·ºº»®»²¬·¿¬±® ¿.º±® º«¬«®» ½±´´»½¬±® »´»³»²¬ ¼»-·¹²ò ß.·.°»® ²±®³¿´ ¬¸»±®§ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .³·¹¸¬ ¾» ®»´¿¬»¼ ¬± ¬¸» «-» ±º °±©»® ¬®¿²-º±®³»®ó¬§°» ØÊ °±©»® -«°°´·».±º ½±´´»½¬±® »´»³»²¬.¸¿.¬¸» ®»-«´¬.¬¸¿¬ ³§ ½±·´ ¬»-¬ °»®º±®³¿²½».Üô »¨½»°¬ ´·¬¸±¹®¿°¸»¼ ·²¬± ¿ -°·®¿´ °¿¬¬»®²ò Úò ͳ¿´´ °±´§½®§-¬¿´´·²» ´«³° ±º ·²¬®·²-·½ Ù»ò ̸» º±´´±©·²¹ ¬¿¾´» ·´´«-¬®¿¬».·.¾»»² -¬¿¬»¼ ·² ¬¸» °¿-¬ô »¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ ¼«°´·½¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸»-» »ºº»½¬.¿®» »¨½»°¬·±²¿´´§ -³¿´´ô ¬¸»§ ³¿§ ²±²»¬¸»´»-.¬± ¾» ¬¸» ù-±«®½»ù ±º ³§ ù´»¿µ¿¹»ù °«´-»-ÿ ó ìòéîî Ê ·²º·²·¬» òðîï Ê ö îèòíî Õ ±¸³ ìòéìë Ê ìòèé Ó ±¸³ íòëìì Ê ïíòìë ±¸³ìòéíî Ê çðòð Ó ±¸³òëíì Ê â ïððòð Ó ±¸³ òðîí Ê ïòèî Õ ±¸³ ìòéíí Ê ö б--·¾´§ Ü·±¼» Ò±·-» òêì kß ð kß òêë kß òìê kß òêì kß òðë kß ð kß òêì kß Ú®±³ ¬¸»-» ®»-«´¬-ô ©» -»» ¬¸¿¬ ·² ¬¸» ½¿-».¿®» °®±¼«½»¼ ©¸·½¸ »¨½»»¼.®·²¹ ©·´´ ¼»½¿§ ¿.¼®·ª»² ¾§ » ô ¬¸» ·²°«¬ °«´-»©·´´ ù®·²¹ù ¬¸» ½±·´ ¾«¬ ¬¸·.¿ ´¿®¹» ª±´¬¿¹» ù-°·µ»ù ±º ª»®§ ´±© ½«®®»²¬ ©¸·½¸ ½±«°´».º·´¬»® ©·¬¸ ¿ ¬·³» ½±²-¬¿²¬ Ì Ý ã ÔñÎ w ïñøç ¨ ïðê ÷ w ïòï ¨ ïðó é -»½±²¼-ò Í·²½» » ·.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ Ýò ̸» ͲÑî æ Ú ½±¿¬»¼ °´¿¬» «-»¼ °®»ª·±«-´§ò Üò ïð ½³ ¨ ïð ½³ ¹´¿-.¿½®±-.©¸·½¸ Ü®ò Ú¿·´» ¿²¼ × ¸¿ª» ¼»ª±¬»¼ ³«½¸ ¬·³» ¬± ³¿§ ¸¿ª» ¿² »¨½»´´»²¬ ²»© ¿°°´·½¿¬·±²ò ߬ êð ئô ¬¸·.-³¿´´ ¿²¼ Î ·´¿®¹»÷ò ݱ²½´«-·±²-æ ïò ɸ»² ¬¸» ½±·´ô Ôô ·.¬¸» º»¿-·¾·´·¬§ ±º ¬¸» Þ»¿®¼»² ½±²½»°¬ ¼»ª·½»ô ©¸·½¸ × ¸¿ª» ´·¹¸¬¸»¿®¬»¼´§ ½¿´´»¼ ¬¸» Ï«¿²¬«³ Ì»¿-» Ûºº»½¬ô ¬¸»² ¬¸» ³·½®±ó·²¼«½¬·ª» ¿®®¿§.³±-¬ ²±¬·½»¿¾´» ©·¬¸ ¬¸» Ì» ½±¿¬»¼ °´¿¬»ô ©¸·½¸ ¿´-± ¼»³±²-¬®¿¬»¼ ¿ ª»®§ -´·¹¸¬ ½«®®»²¬ ¹¿·²ò ɸ·´» ¬¸»-» ª¿´«».½·®½«·¬ ©·´´ ¾» ¾¿-·½¿´´§ ¿ ¸·¹¸ó°¿-.°´¿¬» ½±¿¬»¼ ¾§ Û󾻿³ ©·¬¸ ïððð ¿²¹-¬®±³.¾» ¸»´°º«´ ·² °±·²¬·²¹ ±«¬ °®±³·-·²¹ ¼·®»½¬·±².°»® ³§ ݱ-³±´±¹§ Ò±¬» ±º íñíðñçê ø ô ß°®·´ ïççëô °° ïêóïé÷ô ·¬ ¿°°»¿®.ßô Ýô ¿²¼ Úô ʱ½ °±¬»²¬·¿´.©»´´ ø©¸»² Ô ·.¬¸¿¬ ²±¬»¼ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ½±´´»½¬±® -¸±®¬»¼ ¾§ Ý«ò ̸·.·² ¾±¬¸ ³§ -½±°»-á É·¬¸ ¬¸» «-» ±º «²ó¾§°¿--»¼ °®·³¿®·»-ô ¬¸»®» ·.

-¸±©² ¸»®»æ ÓßÇ ïççê -°±®¿¼·½¿´´§ ¸»®» ¼«» ¬± -±³» ½·®½«³-¬¿²½».-«³³·²¹ ±º ¬¸» ±«¬°«¬ °«´-».¿®» ¿½¸·»ª»¼ò Ú±® ¬¸·-«-¬¿·²»¼ ½±²¼·¬·±²ô ¬¸» ½·®½«·¬ ³«-¬ ¾» ù»¨¬®¿½¬·²¹ù -±³» ¿¼¼·¬·±²¿´ »²»®¹§ô »·¬¸»® º®±³ ¬¸» ¿»¬¸»® ±® ¿ -½¿´¿® º·»´¼ ½±²¼·¬·±² ·² ¬¸» »¿®¬¸ó·±²±-°¸»®» ½±³°´»¨á ̸«-ô -«½¸ ³»½¸¿²·-³.¬± ¼»¬»®³·²» ¶«-¬ ¸±© ®»¿´ ¬¸»-» -°»½«´¿¬·±²³¿§ ¾»å ¾«¬ × ©·´´ ½±²¬·²«» ¬± ù´±±µù ·²¬± -«½¸ ù®»-»¿®½¸ù ¿.©·´´ ²±¬ ±²´§ ù®·²¹ù ¬¸» ½±·´ô ¾«¬ ¬¸» ½±·´ ©·´´ ¿´-± ù®·²¹ù ¬¸» ˲·ª»®-» ø±® ¿¬ ´»¿-¬ ¬¸» »¿®¬¸ó·±²±-°¸»®» ½±³°´»¨÷ ¿²¼ ¬¸«.¿´-± ¿ ´±©ó°¿-.¿®» ¿´-± ¼·ºº»®»²¬·¿¬»¼ ¿.× ½¿²ò Ù±±¼ »¨°»®·³»²¬·²¹ ¬± ¿´´ò ÛÎÎßÌßæ ø¾§ -¬¿ºº÷ ײ ´¿-¬ ³±²¬¸ù.©¿.°®±ª·¼»¼ ¾§ ³§ -½±°» -§-¬»³ ¿.¿²¼ ®»°±®¬-ò ̸»§ ¿®» ¾»·²¹ ¼±²» ª»®§ ¯«·½µ´§ ¿²¼ ײ ¬¸»·® ¾±±µ ß²¹»´.¼·-½«--»¼ ¿¾±ª»ò ̸» ·²°«¬ °«´-».©»®» ³¿¼» ·² ¬¸» ·´´«-¬®¿¬·±².±º ¬¸»-» ¬»-¬.·²ª±´ª»¼ò ر©»ª»®ô »¨°¿²-·±² ±º ¬¸» °«´-»-¸±© ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»®» ¿°°»¿®.º±® ¬¸» -·³°´» ½±·´ ¬»-¬ò É» ®»°®·²¬ ¬¸» ·´´«-¬®¿¬·±².ª»®·º·»¼ ¸»®» ·² ¬»-¬.«-»¼ ·² ¬¸» ½±·´ò É·¬¸ ¬¸» «-» ±º ¿ º»®®·¬» ·²-»®¬ ø¿ ²±®³¿´ ¬«²·²¹ -½®»© º»®®·¬»÷ô ¬¸» ±«¬°«¬ ·³«½¸ »²¸¿²½»¼ ¿²¼ ¬¸» ®»-°±²-» ·.º·´¬»® ¿²¼ ·²¬»¹®¿¬±® -± ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»®» ·.´»¬¬»® ø° ïê÷ô ¬©± »®®±®.©¿.-°»½«´¿¬»¼ ³¿²§ ¬·³».Ó»²-½¸»²ô ¼¿Ë²·ª»®-«³ ¦« ª»®²·½¸¬»²þ ø̸» ß¾·´·¬§ ±º Ó¿² ¬± Ü»-¬®±§ ¬¸» ˲·ª»®-»÷ô Ó¿®½¸ ïççê ø·² Ù»®³¿²÷ò ßËÌØÑÎùÍ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌ ¿²¼ ¿®» ±½½«®®·²¹ ¿¬ ¬¸» êð ئ ®¿¬»ô ¾«¬ ²± ù®·²¹·²¹ù ··²ª±´ª»¼ò ̸·.-·³°´» ½·®½«·¬ ³·¹¸¬ ¿´-± -¸±© -±³» °±©»® ¹¿·²-ÿ ß´-± ³«½¸ ®±±³ º±® º«®¬¸»® ®»-»¿®½¸ ¸»®»ÿ Ú·²¿´ ݱ³³»²¬-æ × ¿°±´±¹·¦» º±® ¬¸» ½®«¼»²»-.±º ¿°°´·»¼ ¿¼ª¿²½».³«½¸ ¿.·² Ì»-´¿ Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ ·² ¬¸» ËÍ ³·´·¬¿®§ °®±¶»½¬ ½¿´´»¼ þØßßÎÐþ ¸¿ª» ¾»»² ®»-»¿®½¸»¼ ¿²¼ ¼·-½«--»¼ ¾§ Ü®ò Ò·½µ Þ»¹·½¸ ¿²¼ Ö»¿²» Ó¿²²·²¹ øÛ¿®¬¸°«´-» Ю»--ô ÐòÑò Þ±¨ îðïíçíô ß²½¸±®¿¹»ô ß´¿-µ¿ ççëîðô ËÍßå ×ÍÞÒ ðóçêìèèïîóðóç÷ò ̸» ®»¿´ ¼·-¿-¬»® ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ·²-¬¿´´¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ØßßÎÐ °®±¹®¿³ ©·´´ ¬®·¹¹»® ±ººô ±²½» ¿½¬·ª¿¬»¼ô ·.ø¿.¯«·¬» -·²«-±·¼¿´ ©¸»² ®»-±²¿²¬ ½±²¼·¬·±².¿¬±° ¬¸» °«´-» °»¿µ-÷ -± ¬¸¿¬ »ª»² ¬¸·.¬± ¾» ¿² ·²¬»®¿½¬·±² ©·¬¸ -±³» ±¬¸»® »²»®¹·».½·®½«·¬ ¿²¼ ³§ ª»®-·±² ±º ·¬÷ ³·¹¸¬ ¿´-± ¾» ¿½¬·ª¿¬»¼ ¾§ ù-°¿½»ù ±® ù´»¿µ¿¹»ù º·»´¼.¿²¼ »ª»² ¬¸» ËÍ ³·´·¬¿®§ò ײ ±®¼»® ¬± º«´´§ «²¼»®-¬¿²¼ ¬¸» ¬±¬¿´ ¹´±¾¿´ ·³°¿½¬ ¬¸» ØßßÎÐ ·²-¬¿´´¿¬·±² ©·´´ ½®»¿¬»ô ±²» ¸¿.º¿® ¾»§±²¼ ¬¸» ·³¿¹·²¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ©®·¬»®.-»»² ¸»®»æ ÉßÎÒ×ÒÙ ßÞÑËÌ ÌØÛ ØßßÎÐ ß¼±´º Æ·»´·²-µ·ô þÜ·» Ú<¸·¹µ»·¬ ¼».¸»®»ò ر©»ª»®ô × -¬®±²¹´§ º»»´ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»®» ³¿§ ¾» ³±®» ¸»®» ¬¸¿² ¿°°»¿®.±º -±³» -±®¬ò ײ ³§ ½¿-»ô ¬¸·.¬± «²¼»®-¬¿²¼ ©¸¿¬ ¹®¿ª·¬§ ¿²¼ ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±²¿´ º·»´¼ ¿®»ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .ܱ²ù¬ д¿§ ̸·.-± º¿®å ¾«¬ × ³«-¬ ®»´§ ³±®» ±² §±«® »ºº±®¬.·¬ ©·´´ ¾«·´¼ó«° ·²¬± ¿ -»´ºó-«-¬¿·²·²¹ ù®·²¹ù ¿.-¸±©² ·² ¬¸» ´¿-¬ ´»¬¬»® ø«-·²¹ Ü®ò Ú¿·´»ù.³·¹¸¬ ¾» ·²ª±´ª»¼ ·² ¬¸» ÓÎßô ÊÌßô ¿²¼ ¬¸» Í©·-.¸»®»ô ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ½±®®»½¬·±².©¸»² ²± º»®®·¬» ©¿.ÓóÔóÝ ¼»ª·½»á α±³ º±® ³«½¸ ³±®» ®»-»¿®½¸ ¸»®»ÿ ͱ³» º«®¬¸»® ¬¸±«¹¸¬-æ ̸» -·³°´» ½¿°¿½·¬±®ó¼·±¼» ½·®½«·¬®§ ¿.®¿²¼±³ ØÚ °«´-».½·®½«·¬ ·.ïè îò ر©»ª»®ô ·² ¬»®³.½·®½´»¼ò ̸·.¾»º±®»ÿ ß ¬§°·½¿´ ®»-°±²-» ·.ØßßÎÐô ¬¸» ½±²-»¯«»²½».¬§°» ±º ±«¬°«¬ ·.±º ®¸§-³±²·½ ¬¸»±®§ô ¬¸» ·²°«¬ °«´-».

Ý¿³°¿·¹² ·.Û¨¬®»³»´§ Ô±© Ú®»¯«»²½§ Ì®¿²-³·¬¬»®.¸·-¬±®·½ ¿²¼ øײ¼·¿²÷ ¿®½¸¿»±´±¹·½¿´ -·¬»-ò ü Ì»³»´·² λ¿½¬±® øݦ»½¸ λ°«¾ò÷ ó Ì»®³·²¿¬» ¿²§ ËòÍò ¹±ª»®²³»²¬ º·²¿²½·¿´ ¹«¿®¿²¬»».¬¸» þ¿»¬¸»®þ ¬¸»±®§ò ̸» ±º¬ ¬±«¬»¼ Ó·½¸»´-±²óÓ±®»´§ »¨°»®·³»²¬ ±²´§ °®±ª»¼ ¬¸» ´¿½µ ±º ¼·®»½¬·±² øª»½¬±®÷ ±º ¿»¬¸»® ®»´¿¬·ª» ¬± ¬¸» Û¿®¬¸ù- wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .¬¸¿¬ ¬¸»§ ¾»´·»ª» ¿®» »½±²±³·½¿´´§ «²¶«-¬·º·»¼ô ±® ¬¸¿¬ ¸¿®³ °«¾´·½ ¸»¿´¬¸ ±® ¬¸» »²ª·®±²³»²¬ò Ò±¬ ±²´§ ©±«´¼ ¬¸» »²¿½¬³»²¬ ±º °®±°±-¿´.±º ¬¸» Û¿®¬¸ ̸» Ù®»»² ͽ·--±®.º®±³ þ-¬®¿·¹¸¬ ¿¾±ª»þ ¿´-±å ¬¸» ¼·®»½¬·±² ±º Ù®¿ª·¬§ò ̸·.¸¿ª» ¿´-± ¾»»² ½±²-·¼»®»¼ ¿.ìé ©¿§.¿² þ¿ª»®¿¹»¼ ±«¬ôþ ¿²¼ ø´·µ» -«²´·¹¸¬÷ ¿ þ¾®·¹¸¬»-¬ ¼·®»½¬·±²ôþ º®±³ þ-¬®¿·¹¸¬ ¿¾±ª»ôþ ¿.¿®» ¼·-½«--»¼ ·² ¹®»¿¬ ¼»¬¿·´ ·² ¬¸» °«¾´·½¿¬·±²ò ü ß¼ª¿²½»¼ ´·¹¸¬ ©¿¬»® ®»¿½¬±® -«¾-·¼·».·² þ¼·®»½¬·±²òþ øÙ®¿ª·¬§ ¿²¼ ÛóÓ ¿®» ¿´-± ¿´·µ» ·² ¾»·²¹ øº®·½¬·±²´»--ô Û²»®¹§÷ ݱ²-»®ª¿¬·ª» Ú·»´¼.²»¿®´§ üíç ¾·´´·±²ò ̸·.±º ¬¸» °®±¶»½¬ ½±«´¼ ¿²¼ -¸±«´¼ °¿§ ¬¸» ¬±¬¿´ ½±-¬ ±º ¬¸» °®±¶»½¬ò Ю±°»® °´¿²²·²¹ ½±«´¼ ´±©»® ¬¸» ½±-¬ò ̸» »²ª·®±²³»²¬¿´ ¼¿³¿¹» ©±«´¼ »²½±³°¿-.©»´´ ¿.¸¿¼ ¬± ¾» ³§ ¿²¬·½·°¿¬»¼ ½´«»ÿ Ú·²¿´´§ô ¿ ²»© ±ª»®´¿° ®»¹·±² ¾»¬©»»² Ù®¿ª·¬§ ¿²¼ ÛóÓô ¿²¼ ·¬ ©¿.¬± ®»¼«½» ©¿-¬»º«´ -°»²¼·²¹ ¿²¼ -¸®·²µ ¹±ª»®²³»²¬ô ¬± -¬±° ±® ½«®¬¿·´ ¹±ª»®²³»²¬ ¿½¬·ª·¬·».½¿² ³±ª» ¼»´·½¿¬»´§ ¾¿´¿²½»¼ ³·®®±®-ò÷ ̸·.¸·¹¸ó«-» ®»½®»¿¬·±²¿´ ´¿²¼-ô ¿.¿² ±´¼ô «²º·²·-¸»¼ ͱª·»¬ó¼»-·¹²»¼ ²«½´»¿® °±©»® °´¿²¬ ¬¸¿¬ ½±«´¼ ²±¬ °±--·¾´§ ³»»¬ ½«®®»²¬ -¿º»¬§ -¬¿²¼¿®¼.¿² «²«-«¿´ ½±´´¿¾±®¿¬·±² ¾»¬©»»² »²ª·®±²³»²¬¿´·-¬-ô ¬¿¨°¿§»®-ô ¼»º·½·¬ ¸¿©µ.¬± ½±²-·¼»® ·²²±ª¿¬·ª»ô »ª»² ½±²¬®±ª»®-·¿´ô °®±°±-¿´.º®±³ ¬¸» ©¸±´» ˲·ª»®-» ½±«´¼ °«-¸ ¬¸» ©¿¬»® ¼±©² ¿¬ ³»á Þ¿½µ¹®±«²¼æ Ô·¹¸¬ ©¿ª».±º ¼±´´¿®-ô »´·³·²¿¬» ©¿-¬»º«´ -«¾-·¼·»-ô ¿²¼ ´»¿ª» ±«® »²ª·®±²³»²¬ ¾»¬¬»® ±ººò ®»½±³³»²¼.·®®»´»ª¿²¬ô »¨½»°¬ ·² ¬«®² ®»³·²¼·²¹ ³» ¬¸¿¬æ ͬ¿®´·¹¸¬ ¸¿.¿.ª·»©»¼ º®±³ Û¿®¬¸ò Ç»¬ ©¿¬»® °±«®.¾·´´·±².±º ¿ °·°» ±®¹¿²÷ò ̸·.³±®» ¬¸¿² üíç ¾·´´·±²ô ·¬ ©±«´¼ ¸»´° ½¸¿²¹» ¬¸» ©¿§ É¿-¸·²¹¬±² ©±®µ-ô ®»¯«·®·²¹ °±´·¬·½¿´ ´»¿¼»®¬± ³¿µ» ¿ ¾®»¿µ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ®»·¹²·²¹ °±®µó¾¿®®»´ °±´·¬·½-ò °·²°±·²¬.°»±°´» ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ©·´´·²¹²»-.¬±± ½±-¬´§ ¿²¼ ¬¸» °±©»® °®±¼«½»¼ ¬¸»®» ©±«´¼ ¿´-± ¾» ±ª»®´§ »¨°»²-·ª»ò Ô±½¿´ ¾»²»º·½·¿®·».ó Ì»®³·²¿¬» ¿¼¼·¬·±²¿´ º«²¼·²¹ º±® ¬¸·.µ»»° ®»ª»®-·²¹ ¬¸» ¼»½·-·±²-ò ·.ó ͸»´ª» ¬¸» °®±¶»½¬ ¿²¼ ¼»¿½¬·ª¿¬» ¬¸» -§-¬»³ ¬± -¿ª» ±ª»® üêð ³·´´·±² ±ª»® º·ª» §»¿®-ò ̸» °®±¶»½¬ ·.º±® ¬¸» Ì»³»´·² ïç ®»¿½¬±®ô ©¸·½¸ ·.¬¸¿¬ þº¿´´ ±ºº ©·¬¸ ¬¸» î ®»½·°®±½¿´ ±º ¬¸» -¯«¿®» ±º ¬¸» ¼·-¬¿²½» øïñ® ÷þ÷ò ݱ«´¼ ·¬ ¾» ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ͬ»´´¿®ñݱ-³·½ñß»¬¸»® ©¿ª».øÒ»©¬±²ù-÷ þ½±®°«-½´»-ôþ ¸¿ª·²¹ ³±³»²¬«³ô ¸»²½» ³¿--ò øÔ·¹¸¬ ¾»¿³.-¿ª» ¬¸» ¬¿¨°¿§»®.¿²¼ °®±ª·¼» ¿² ¿¾±ª»ó¹®±«²¼ -·³«´¿¬·±² ½¿°¿½·¬§ ¬± ¬»-¬ ²«½´»¿® ©»¿°±² »ºº»½¬-ò ü ß«¾«®² Ü¿³ Ю±¶»½¬ ó Ü»²§ º«²¼·²¹ º±® ¬¸» °®±°±-»¼ ß«¾«®² Ü¿³ô ¿¬ üéðï ³·´´·±² ·¬ ·.·.½«¬¬·²¹ ìé º»¼»®¿´ -°»²¼·²¹ ¿²¼ -«¾-·¼§ °®±¹®¿³.¿²¼ º®»»ó³¿®µ»¬ ¿¼ª±½¿¬»-ò ̸» «²¼»®´§·²¹ ¹±¿´ ·.±²´§ ³¿®¹·²¿´´§ »ºº»½¬·ª» ¿²¼ »¨¸·¾·¬.¬± -¿ª» ¬¿¨°¿§»®.°®±¹®¿³ô -¿ª·²¹ üìð ³·´´·±² ·² ïççêô ¿²¼ «° ¬± üîðð ³·´´·±² ±ª»® º·ª» §»¿®.º«²¼·²¹ ´»ª»´-ò ü ̱µ¿³¿µ Ú«-·±² λ¿½¬±®.¿ª¿·´¿¾´» º±® üïì º®±³ Ú®·»²¼±º ¬¸» Û¿®¬¸ô ïðîë Ê»®³±²¬ ߪ»²«»ô ÒòÉòô Í«·¬» íððô É¿-¸·²¹¬±² ÜòÝò îðððëå Ì»´ò îðîóéèíóéìð𠻨¬ò îíçò ß´-± ¿ª¿·´¿¾´» ±² ¬¸» ײ¬»®Ò»¬ ¿¬ É»¾ Í·¬» ©©©òº±»ò±®¹ñÚÑÛ ±® -»²¼ ³»--¿¹» ¬± º±»àº±»ò±®¹ ×ÜÛß ÎÑËÔÛÌÌÛæ ß þÜ®±° ·² ¿ Þ«½µ»¬þ ¿²¼ þ͸±¬ ·² ¬¸» Ü¿®µþ ±®ô þß Ë²·º·»¼ Ú·»´¼ ̸»±®§ ±º Ù®¿ª·¬§ ¿²¼ Û´»½¬®±ó Ó¿¹²»¬·-³áþ Þ§ ο´°¸ رª²¿²·¿² Ù¿¦·²¹ «° ¿¬ ¬¸» -¬¿®´·¹¸¬ ©¸·´» °±«®·²¹ ©¿¬»® ¼±©² ¿¬ ³§ º¿½» º®±³ ¿ ª»--»´ô × º»´¬ ¿²±¬¸»® þ«²·º·»¼ º·»´¼ ¬¸»±®§þ ½±³¾·²·²¹ Ù®¿ª·¬§ ©·¬¸ Û´»½¬®±ó³¿¹²»¬·-³ ½±³·²¹òòò ̸» ª»--»´ ¬·°°»¼ ª»®¬·½¿´´§ ®»³·²¼»¼ ³» ±º ¿ ¸±´´±© ø½§´·²¼®·½¿´å ³»¬¿´÷ ®»-±²¿²½» ½¿ª·¬§ ¬¸¿¬ ½¿² -»¬ «° ¿ -¬¿²¼·²¹ ©¿ª» ±º ÛóÓ ø¿µ·² ¬± ¬¸» ²±¬».-«°°±®¬.-±³» ¼·®»½¬ ¿²¼ ¿¼ª»®-» »ºº»½¬.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ ÌØÛ ÙÎÛÛÒ ÍÝ×ÍÍÑÎÍ ÝßÓÐß×ÙÒ Ý±«®¬»-§ ±º Ú®·»²¼.ó Ì»®³·²¿¬» ¬¸» ̱µ¿³¿µ и§-·½.±² ¸«³¿² ¸»¿´¬¸ò ̸» Ù»²»®¿´ ß½½±«²¬·²¹ Ѻº·½» ®»½±³³»²¼»¼ ·¬ ¾» ¬»®³·²¿¬»¼ ·² ïçéçô ¿²¼ ¬¸» Í»²¿¬» ª±¬»¼ ¬± ¬»®³·²¿¬» º«²¼·²¹ ·² ÚÇçëò Ѭ¸»® °±´·¬·½±.¬± -¿ª» ¬¿¨°¿§»®.¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ¹±ª»®²³»²¬ ½±«´¼ ½«¬ ¼±©²ô ¸»®» ¿®» ¿ º»© ¬¸¿¬ ¿®» °»®¬·²»²¬ ¬± ²»© »²»®¹§ ½±²½»®²-ò ̸» ®»½±³³»²¼ó ¿¬·±².¾¿-»¼ ±² °®»ª·±«.°¸§-·½.¿®» ¿°°®±¨·³¿¬»´§ üë ¾·´´·±² ±ª»® ¬¸» ´·º»¬·³» ±º ÌÐÈ ¿²¼ ×ÌÛÎ ¿½½±®¼·²¹ ¬± ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ·² ¿ ïçéë ®»°±®¬ ¬± ¬¸» °®»-·¼»²¬ò ü Ò¿¬·±²¿´ ×¹²·¬·±² Ú¿½·´·¬§ ó Ì»®³·²¿¬» °®±¹®¿³ò Í¿ª» ³±®» ¬¸¿² üìòë ¾·´´·±² ±ª»® ¬¸» í𠧻¿® ´·º»¬·³» ±º ¬¸» °®±¶»½¬ò ̸» °®±¹®¿³ ©±«´¼ «-» ײ»®¬·¿´ ݱ²º·²»³»²¬ Ú«-·±² ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ¬± ·²½®»¿-» «²¼»®-¬¿²¼·²¹ ±º ²«½´»¿® ©»¿°±².°®±°±-»¼ò ü Ò¿ª§ù.Û¨°»®·³»²¬ øÌÐÈ÷ ¿²¼ »¨·-¬·²¹ ¬±µ¿³¿µ-ô ©·¬¸¼®¿© º®±³ ¬¸» ײ¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ ̸»®³±²«½´»¿® λ¿½¬±® ø×ÌÛÎ÷ °®±¹®¿³ò ̱¬¿´ -¿ª·²¹.½±«²¬®§ ²»»¼.

ø®-ó° ã ¼·-¬¿²½» ¾»¬©»»² ½ò³òù.îð -«®º¿½»ô ¾«¬ ²±¬ ¬¸» ³¿¹²·¬«¼» ø-½¿´¿®÷ »¨·-¬»²½» ±º ¿»¬¸»®ò øλºòæ Ü®ò Ü·®¿½ô Ò±¾»´·-¬ ±º Ú»®³·óÜ·®¿½ ¿²¼ Ü·®¿½óÜ»´¬¿ ¬»®³-ô »¬½òô ø·² θ±óÍ·¹³¿ô Û¬¸»®óÌ»½¸òô ° êîóêí÷ò ÓßÇ ïççê º®±³ þ¾»´±©þ ©±«´¼ ¾» ©»¿µ»²»¼ ±² ¬®¿ª»´´·²¹ ¬¸®±«¹¸ ¬¸» °´¿²»¬ô ½±³°¿®»¼ ¬± ¬¸» ©¿ª».ø±® ¼·¿³»¬»®÷÷ ¬¸» þ¾±¬¬±³ ¸¿´º -·¼»þ ±º ¬¸» -¬»´´¿® ©¿ª».¬¸»®» ¿²§ ²»¬ ¹®¿ª·¬§ ¾»½¿«-» ¬¸» °´¿²»¬ °«´´.¬¸¿¬ ©±«´¼ ±¬¸»®©·-» ®»¿½¸ ¿² ±¾¶»½¬ ±² ¬¸» °´¿²»¬ù.¾±¬¸ ³¿¹²·¬«¼» ú ¼·®»½¬·±²ò÷ Ó»¿²©¸·´»ô ¾¿½µ ¬± ±«® ²»© ¬¸»±®§æ ̸» þ»¿®¬¸þ ±º ¿ °´¿²»¬ ©±«´¼ þ´·¹¸¬´§ -¸¿¼»þ ±® þº·´¬»® ±«¬þ ø·² °®±°±®¬·±² ¬± ·¬.±º÷ ¿´´ ©¿ª»´»²¹¬¸.¾§ ¬¸» °´¿²»¬ô ¿²¼ ¹®¿ª·¬§ ø¹÷ô ¿®» ¾±¬¸ í °®±°±®¬·±²¿´ ¬± ΰ ò øÓ° ( ΰ ô ú î í î ¹° ( Ó°ñΰ ( ΰ ñΰ ã Î °ò÷ ߬ ¬¸» ½»²¬»® ±º ¿ °´¿²»¬ô ®-ó°óðô ¾«¬ ¬¸»®» ·.º¿´´ ±ºº ©·¬¸ º¿®¬¸»® ¼·-¬¿²½»ô ø®å ¾»¬©»»² ½»²¬»®.±º -¿¬»´´·¬» ¿²¼ °´¿²»¬å ¿²¼ Î ã ο¼·«.³«½¸ ´¿®¹»® ¬¸¿² ΰ ø·ò»ò ®-ó° ââ ΰ÷ô ¬¸» -±´·¼ ¿²¹´» þ-¸¿¼±©þ ø±º -¬»´´¿® ©¿ª»-÷ -«¾¬»²¼»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» °´¿²»¬ ¿¬ ¬¸» -¿¬»´´·¬» ·.±º °´¿²»¬÷æ ׺ ®-ó° ·.-«®º¿½»ò ̸» ²»¬ »ºº»½¬ ©±«´¼ ¾» ¬± þ°«-¸ ¼±©²þ ¬¸» ¬»-¬ ±¾¶»½¬ô ¾»½¿«-» ¬¸» -¬»´´¿® ©¿ª»- ̸·.ø¹®¿ª·¬§òòò ½±-³·½÷ ú ¿´´ ¼·®»½¬·±²-ô ¿¬ ¿²§ ·²-¬¿²¬ ú ´±½¿¬·±²ò Ý¿² -¬»´´¿® ©¿ª».¼±».²± ²»¬ º±®½»ò òòò ß²±¬¸»® ¾±«²¼¿®§ ½±²¼·¬·±² ¬± -¿¬·-º§ ·.¬¸» ²»¬ ®»-«´¬ ±º ·²¬»¹®¿¬·²¹ ±ª»® ø±® ¿¼¼·²¹ «° ¿² ·²º·²·¬» ²«³¾»® ±º ·²º·²·¬»-·³¿´ ·²½®»³»²¬.°®±°±®¬·±²¿´ ¬± ïñø®-ó°÷îô ¬¸» °¸¿²¬±³ þ°«´´ ±² ¬¸» -¿¬»´´·¬» ¾»·²¹ °®±°±®¬·±²¿´ ¬± ¾±¬¸ ¬¸¿¬ ø-±´·¼ ¿²¹´»÷ ¿²¼ ¬¸·.ø½ò³ò÷ô »¬½ò÷ ¾§ ¬¸» ®»½·°®±½¿´ ±º ¬¸» -¯«¿®» ±º ¬¸» ¼·-¬¿²½»ô øïñ®î ÷ò Ñ«® ²»© ¸§°±¬¸»-·.¸¿ª» -«½¸ ³±³»²¬«³ ½±²-·¼»®·²¹ ¬¸»§ ¬®¿ª»´ ¿¬ ¬¸» -°»»¼ ±º ´·¹¸¬á wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .¦»®±å ¬¸» þ¿»¬¸»®þ °«-¸·²¹ »¯«¿´´§ ·² ¿´´ ¼·®»½¬·±²-ô ¬¸»®» ·.¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» ³¿¹²·¬«¼» ±º ¾±¬¸ Ú±®½» Ú·»´¼.¿®» »¨°»½¬»¼ º±® -¬»´´¿® ©¿ª».·¬ ·º±® ¹®¿ª·¬§å ø·ò»ò Íã ó¹÷ò øß ª»½¬±® ¸¿.¬¸·½µ²»-.±º Ò¿¬«®»ô º±® -±³» ¾±«²¼¿®§ ½±²¼·¬·±²ú ¼·-¬¿²½».»¯«¿´´§ º®±³ ¿´´ -·¼»-ò Þ«¬ô º±® -±³» ·²¬»®³»¼·¿¬» ®¿²¹» ±º ®-ó° ²±¬ »¨¬®»³» ®»´¿¬·ª» ¬± ΰô ¬¸» ½¿´½«´¿¬·±² ·.ø®-ó°÷ô ·² ¬¸» þ½±®°«-½´»þ ¬¸»±®§ º±® Ûó Ó ø-¬»´´¿® ©¿ª»-÷ô ¬¸» º±®½» ª»½¬±® ·.±º °´¿²»¬ò÷ ø½ò³ò ã ½»²¬»® ±º ³¿--÷øÓ° ã Ó¿-.·² ¬¸» -¿³» ¼·®»½¬·±² ø½±ó´·²»¿®÷ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» ¼·-¬¿²½» ª»½¬±®ô ¿.º®±³ þ¿¾±ª»òþ ß² ¿´®»¿¼§ µ²±©² ±ª»®´¿° ¾»¬©»»² Ù®¿ª·¬§ ¿²¼ ÛóÓ ·.º±®½» ª»½¬±® ·.ø¬¸·½µ²»-.½®±--ó-»½¬·±²¿´ ¿®»¿ ±º í °´¿²»¬ô °®±°±®¬·±²¿´ ¬± ΰ ÷ò øÔ»¬ ( -§³¾±´·¦» î í î þ°®±°±®¬·±²¿´ ¬±òþ÷ Ù®¿ª·¬§ ( Ó° ¨ïñø® -ó°÷ ( ΰ ñø®-ó° ÷ ò Ù±·²¹ º¿®¬¸»® ¬± ±«¬»® -°¿½»ô ·²º·²·¬»´§ô ïñ®î ¿°°®±¿½¸».²± ²»¬ ¼·®»½¬·±² ¬± ¬¸» þ¿»¬¸»® ©·²¼þ ¾»½¿«-» ¬¸» »¿®¬¸ º·´¬»®»¯«¿´´§ ¿´±²¹ ¿´´ ¿²¹´»-ò Ò±® ·.¬·³».¿²¼ ¹®¿ª·¬§ô ®»¿ºº·®³·²¹ ±«® ¸§°±¬¸»-·-ò Ú±® ¿´´ ¼·-¬¿²½».±º ³¿-.³±®» ½±³°´»¨ô §»¬ -·³·´¿® ®»-«´¬.²±¬ ½±²¬®¿¼·½¬ °»®½»·ª»¼ -§³³»¬®·».®·¹¸¬ ¿¬ ¬¸» -«®º¿½» ±º ¬¸» °´¿²»¬ ø®-ó°ã ΰ ÷ò ̸»®»ô ¬¸» º·´¬»®·²¹ ±º -¬»´´¿® ©¿ª».

¿ ´·²µ ©·¬¸ ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±² °±¬»²¬·¿´ ¿²¼ Í°¿½» ·.±º ®»ª»®-» ¾»¬¿ ®¿¼·±¿½¬·ª·¬§ ¿®» º±«²¼ò ɸ§ ·³°±--·¾´»á ݱ²-¬¿²¬ ´·¹¸¬ -°»»¼ ´»¿¼.¬± ¼»¿¼ »²¼ò Þ»-·¼»-ô Û·²-¬»·² ¿¼³·¬¬»¼ ¬¸» ¼»ª·¿¬·±² ±º ÔÛÌÌÛÎÍ ÔÛÌÌÛÎ ÚÎÑÓ Îò ÒÛÝÌÑËÈ Ó¿®½¸ ïïô ïççê Ö«-¬ ®»½»·ª·²¹ Ó¿®½¸ ïççê ô ×ùª» ¾»»² »²¬¸«-·¿-¬·½ ¿¾±«¬ ¬¸» ¯«¿´·¬§ ¿²¼ ²«³¾»® ±º -«¾¶»½¬-ò ׬ù.³¿§ ¾» ¾±®² ±² ¿ ½±®²»® ¬¿¾´» ±º ¿ ¹¿®¿¹»ô ¾«¬ ½±²º·®³¿¬·±² ³«-¬ ¾» ³±®» -½®«°«´±«-ò ß ½±³°±²»²¬ ±º ¿ ²»¬©±®µ µ»»°.¿ ¼®»¿³º«´ ½±²½»°¬ÿ λ³»³¾»®·²¹ ÚÛù¹´±®·±«.º®±³ ¹±±¼ô ©·´´·²¹ °»±°´»ò Ò»ª»® ¿²¼ ²±©¸»®»ô ¸¿ª» × -¿·¼ ¿²§ ͧ²»®¹§ ©¿.º±® °¸§-·½¿´ °¿®¬ô ×ùª» ¾»»² º±® ¿¾±«¬ ïë §»¿®º±´´±©·²¹ -¬«¼·».·¬ ¬¸»±®·½¿´ ±® °¸§-·½¿´ ±® -±½·¿´ ³»¿²·²¹á ×ù³ ²±¬ ±°°±-»¼ ¬± ¬¸» ¹¿¬¸»®·²¹ ±º »¨°»®·³»²¬.¿ ¼·-¬·²¹«·-¸»¼ ¬¸»±®·-¬ò Åß²¼ ¿ ¼·-¬·²¹«·-¸»¼ »¨°»®·³»²¬»®ò óóۼà ұ ¼±«¾¬ ¸·.°·±²»»®.¿²¼ ¸§°±¬¸»-».ø»®®±®.±©² ³»¿²·²¹ ±º ¬¸·.¹±±¼ º±® »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·-³ô ³¿¬»®·¿´·¦¿¬·±²ô ³¿--ó»²»®¹§ »¯«·ª¿´»²½»ò Ù»²»®¿´ λ´¿¬·ª·¬§ ø-°»»¼ ±º ´·¹¸¬ ²±¬ -°»½·º·»¼÷ ·¹±±¼ º±® ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±²ô ¿²¼ ©·¬¸ ¸·¹¸ ´»ª»´ ³¿¬¸»³¿¬·½ø¿.º±® ͧ²»®¹»¬·½ ¬¸»±®§ ø»´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ ¿²¼ ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±²¿´÷ ¾§ λ²» Ô±«·Ê¿´´»» ÅïÃò ͱô ×ù³ ¯«·¬» ·²º±®³»¼ ±º ¬¸·.ª»®§ ³«½¸ ´·µ» ¬¸» »¨°´¿²¿¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ¿»¬¸»®ó½¿«-»¼ ¹®¿ª·¬§ ¿.©±®¼ò ×.±º¬»² ®»³¿·² -°»½«´¿¬·ª»ô ³¿¹²·º§·²¹ ³¿¬¸»³¿¬·½.¿²¼ ¬¸»±®·-¬-ô ²±® ±º ±®·¹·²¿´ ±® -¬®¿²¹» ³¿½¸·²»-ò É·-¸·²¹ ¬¸»§ µ»»° ¸±°» ¿²¼ ½±«®¿¹»ô º±® ¿ ´±²¹ ¬·³» ¾»·²¹ °»®-«¿¼»¼ ¾§ ³¿²§ -·¹².¿²¼ »´»½¬®·½·¬§ò Þ»¬¿ ®¿¼·±¿½¬·ª·¬§ ·.¾§ Þ»² ת»®-±² ¿¾±«¬ ³§ °¿°»® ø Ú»¾ò ïççê °òí÷ò Ò±¬ ±°°±-»¼ ¬± ¬®¿²-³·--·±² ±º º·´»-ô × ¸¿ª» ¯«±¬»¼ »¨½»´´»²¬ ©±®µ ±º Ø¿´ Ы¬¬¸±º ¿²¼ ͽ±¬¬ Ô·¬¬´» ±² ÓÎß »®®±®ò × ½±²-·¼»® ·¬ù.¬¸»±®§ ®»³±ª».¿²¼ °®¿½¬·½¿´ ¿°°´·½¿¬·±²-ò ß´¬¸±«¹¸ ¬¸»±®»¬·½¿´ ©±®µ³¿§ ¿ª±·¼ wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .¬»²-±®-÷ ³¿²§ ³±¼»´.¿ ´·²µ ¾»¬©»»² ²«½´»«.²»·¬¸»® ¿ ®«²²·²¹ ³¿½¸·²» ²±® ¿ ®»´·¿¾´» °®±½»--ò × °®»º»® ®»½»²¬ ±°»®¿¬·ª» »¨°»®·³»²¬»®.-¸¿¼±©·²¹ ·.³¿§ ¾» -»°¿®¿¬»¼æ ³«-·½·¿² ·¹²±®·²¹ ©¿ª»-ô -±«²¼ ²¿¬«®» ¿²¼ ³¿¬¸ò Ó¿¬¸»³¿¬·½·¿² ¿´-± ³¿§ ²±¬ ¾» ¹±±¼ ³«-·½·¿²ò ر©»ª»®ô ¬¸»§ ³¿§ ½±´´¿¾±®¿¬»ò Þ»² ת»®-±² -°»¿µ.½±²½»°¬ ±º ͧ²»®¹§ò ̸·.°±--·¾´»æ ¬»´´«®·½ ±® -±´¿® ³¿§ ¾» ¼·-¬«®¾·²¹ ·² »´»½¬®·½ ²»¬©±®µ ¿²¼ ¿´-± ·² ½¸»³·-¬®§ò Þ»² ת»®-±² ·.¿®» ø³¿¬¸»³¿¬·½¿´´§÷ ½±²½»·ª¿¾´»ò ܱ ¬¸»§ ®»¿´´§ »¨·-¬á É¿·¬ ¿²¼ -»»ÿ ͧ²»®¹»¬·½ ̸»±®§ ø-°»»¼ ±º ´·¹¸¬ -´·¹¸¬´§ ª¿®·¿¾´»÷ ¿´´±©.¿°°®±¿½¸».¿ ¸«¹» ®»-»®ª±·® ±º »²»®¹§ò ͱô ´·²µ.¿ ¹±±¼ ³»¬¸±¼ º±® ¿´´ º«¬«®» ¬»-¬.±º «²·ª»®-».»¨·-¬ ©·¬¸ ¯«¿²¬«³ ³»½¸¿²·½-ô »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·-³ô ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ²«½´»«-ò Ý«®·±«-´§ô ¿.ͧ³°±-·«³ °¿°»®ò Û¼òà îï ³¿²§ »¨°»²-·ª» °®¿½¬·½¿´ ²»¬©±®µ-ô ¬¸»±®·-¬.¾®·²¹.·¬.²±¬ -±´ª»¼ô ¿´¬¸±«¹¸ ¯«·¬» °±--·¾´»ò ͱô ·³°±®¬¿²¬ ½±²½´«-·±²-æ ¬·²§ ª¿®·¿¬·±².°±--·¾´»æ °´»¿-»ô -°»½·º§ ³»¿²·²¹ÿ ܱ³¿·².°®±°»®¬·»-ô ©·¬¸ ¿²§ µ·²¼ ±º »´»½¬®·½ -±«®½»æ ¾¿¬¬»®·»-ô ³¿·² Å«¬·´·¬§ °±©»®Ã ²»¬©±®µô -±´¿® ±® ÚÛò Û¨½»°¬·±² ·º ±«¬ ±º ®¿¬·²¹-ò ̸»®»º±®»ô × -¿§ ¿¹¿·²ô ·º ©» ¸¿ª» -¿³» ³»¬¸±¼ô -¿³» ½±³°±²»²¬ô -¿³» ³»¬»®-ô ©» ±¾¬¿·² -¿³» ®»-«´¬.¿¾±«¬ ͧ²»®¹§ô ¾«¬ ¸» ¼±»-²ù¬ ¹·ª» ¸·.¬¸» ·²½±¸»®»²½» ±º ¬¸» -°»½·¿´ ®»´¿¬·ª·¬§ ±º Û·²-¬»·² ¿²¼ -¸±©.»¨°´¿·²»¼ ¾§ Æ·»´·²-µ· ·² ¸·.±º »²»®¹»¬·½ -¬®«½¬«®» ±º Í°¿½» ø»²»®¹§ ±® »²»®¹·¦»¼á÷ò × ¬®§ ¬± ¿ª±·¼ »®®±®±º ¾¿¼ ³»¬¸±¼.¿¾±«¬ ÚÛò × ¿³ ²»·¬¸»® ¿² »²»³§ ±º ÚÛ »¨°»®·³»²¬»®.©·¬¸ ³¿²§ °»±°´»ò Ѳ´§ ©·¬¸ ½±²ª»²·»²¬ ³»¬¸±¼-ÿ ׺ ±¬¸»®©·-» ±½½«®®·²¹ô ®»´·¿¾´» ¬»-¬³«-¬ ¾» ±°»®¿¬»¼ò ß ¼·-½±ª»®§ °»®¸¿°.·²½´«¼»¼÷ò ß.©±®µ ©·´´ ¾» «-»º«´ º±® ¿¼ª¿²½»³»²¬ ±º ¬¸»±®·».¿ ´·²µ ©·¬¸ ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±²ò ܱ §±« µ²±© ¬¸¿¬á ø¸·-¬±®·½¿´ ¿²¼ ®»°±®¬»¼÷æ Û·²-¬»·² ¸¿¼ º±«²¼ ²± ´·²µ ©·¬¸ ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±² °±¬»²¬·¿´ ø·² Í°»½·¿´ λ´¿¬·ª·¬§÷ ¬¸»² ¸» -¬¿®¬»¼ ¿ ²»© ¬¸»±®§æ Ù»²»®¿´ λ´¿¬·ª·¬§ ø¯«·¬» ¼·ºº»®»²¬ ½±²½»°¬÷ò Í°»½·¿´ λ´¿¬·ª·¬§ ø½±²-¬¿²¬ -°»»¼ ±º ´·¹¸¬÷ ·.©·¬¸±«¬ -°»½·º§·²¹ ³»¿²·²¹ ¿²¼ ¼±³¿·² ±º ¬¸»·® ©±®¼-ò ײ ÚÛô ²«³»®±«.·² ¿´´ ®»´¿¬·ª·¬·»-ô ·²»®¬·¿ ·.¿ ¾»¿³ ±º º¿-¬ »´»½¬®±²-ò ̸» °«³° ©·´´ ®«² ©¸»² °®±½»--».¿² ±°°±®¬«²·¬§ º±® ¯«»-¬·±²·²¹ ±® ²±¬·²¹ °¿®¬·½«´¿® °±·²¬-ò λ´¿¬·ª» ¬± Ô»¬¬»® º®±³ Þ»² ת»®-±² ø°ò îí÷ô × ¿³ ¸±²±®»¼ º±® ½±³³»²¬.±º ´·¹¸¬ óïê -°»»¼ øïð ÷ ½¿«-» ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ©» ³¿§ ¸±°» ¬± °·½µ «° »²»®¹§ º®±³ -°¿½»ò ɸ§á Þ§ ¾»¬¿ ®¿¼·±¿½¬·ª·¬§ ©¸·½¸ ·.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ Åλ¿¼»®-ô °´»¿-» ²±¬» ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸·.¿²¼ ¾®·²¹ ±® °®±°±-» ¹±±¼ ³»¬¸±¼º±® ¹±±¼ ¿½½«®¿½§ ±º ®»¿´ °±©»® ½±´´»½¬»¼ò × ¿³ ¿´-± ®»¿¼§ ¬± ¸»´° º±® ¿ ½¸»¿°»® ¿¼¿°¬¿¬·±² ¬± ®»¼«½»¼ ³»¿²-ò ×¼»¿.

©·¬¸ °«´-»-á ø¿½½±®¼·²¹ ¬± °«´-» ©·¼¬¸ ¿²¼ ¸»·¹¸¬æ «²· ¿²¼ ¾·´¿¬»®¿´ -·¹²¿´-÷ò ɸ¿¬ ±½½«®.³¿§ ½±²ª»®¬ ª»®§ ¸·¹¸ º®»¯«»²½·».·¬ º«-·±²ô º·--·±²ô ±® -°¿½» ®»-±²¿²½» ¿²¼ ¬¿°°·²¹á л®¸¿°-ô ¬¸»-» »ºº»½¬.·² ³»¿-«®¿¾´» »ª»²¬-ò ÚßÎßÜßÇ ÑÎ ÒÑÌ ÚßÎßÜßÇæ ̸» ´·²µ ¾»¬©»»² ½¸»³·-¬®§ ¿²¼ »´»½¬®·½·¬§ò ̸» ½¿-» ±º »´»½¬®±´§-·.»²¬¸«-·¿-³ º±® ²±²ó´·²»¿® ¼»ª·½».½±²½»®²»¼ò ײ ¬¸¿¬ ½¿-» ©» -»» ©¸§ ¬¸»®» ·.±º »²»®¹§ ±º -°¿½» ø¿´-± ¿¬³±-°¸»®·½ »²ª·®±²³»²¬æ ¿ ¹±±¼ ¾»¹·²²·²¹÷ò Ы³°·²¹ ·.²¿¬«®»æ ´·µ» ²±·-§ ¾¿²¼ ¾»§±²¼ µ²±©² ¿²¼ -¬«¼·»¼ º®»¯«»²½·»-ò É¿ª».îî ´·¹¸¬ ²»¿® ¬¸» -«² ø»½´·°-» ±º ïçïçæ ¹»²»®¿´ ®»´¿¬·ª·¬§÷ -¸±©»¼ ¬¸» ª¿®·¿¬·±² ±º -°»»¼ ø´·µ» ®»º®¿½¬·±² ·²¼»¨÷ò ÍÇÒÛÎÙÇæ ײ -§²»®¹»¬·½ ¬¸»±®§ô ͧ²»®¹§ Í ·.¿²¼ ¿-§³³»¬®·½¿´ ¹·ª».¿®» °±--·¾´» ·² °´¿-³¿ ±® ·±²·¦»¼ ³»¼·«³ ø-±´·¼ ±® ´·¯«·¼÷ ±® þ³¿²§ ½¸¿²²»´ ³¿¬¬»®þ -»´ºó¾«·´¬ ©±®µ º±® -¬®«½¬«®» ±º ½¿¬¿´§¦»®-ô °±©¼»®.»´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ ©¿ª».¬¸» ½±²ª»²·»²¬ ±²»á λ¿´´§æ î µ·²¼-ò ͧ³³»¬®·½¿´ ¹·ª».¿²¼ ¿¾¿²¼±²»¼ ®»-»¿®½¸»-ò Í«½½»--±®.³¿§ ¾» ·³°®±ª»¼æ ´·³·¬ ±º »´»½¬®·½ º·»´¼ ³«-¬ ¾» ¬¿µ»² »¨°±²»²¬·¿´ô ²±¬ ¿¾®«°¬ ø©¸·½¸ ¼±»-²ù¬ »¨·-¬ ·² °¸§-·½-÷ò Ý¿-» ±º Ю±¬±² ²±¬ -¬«¼·»¼ §»¬ò Ю±¾¿¾´§ô ©¸»®»¿.³»¼·«³ ±º ¼·ºº«-» »²»®¹§ ø¯«¿²¬·¦¿¬·±² ²±¬ ®»¯«·®»¼ º±® -°¿½» »²»®¹§÷ò ͧ²»®¹»¬·½ ¬¸»±®§ ²±¬ º·²·-¸»¼ ¾»½¿«-» Ê¿´´»» ¸¿¼»ª·¿¬»¼ ·² «²°®±¼«½¬·ª» °±´»³·½.¸¿ª»²ù¬ ¾»»² ¾»¬¬»®ò Ó±¼»´º±® °¿®¬·½´».±º ¬¸·.±²´§ ±¼¼ ¸¿®³±²·½.«²·°±´¿® ¿²¼ ®»´«½¬¿²½» ³¿½¸·²»-ò É» ¸¿ª» ¿´-± ¬«²²»´ ¿²¼ ¾®»¿µ¼±©² ±® ¿ª¿´¿²½¸» ¼»ª·½»-ò Ó¿²§ µ·²¼.¼¿²¹»®±«.°±--·¾´» º±® ª»®§ -¸±®¬ ¬·³» øݸ»®»²µ±ª »ºº»½¬÷ò ß²±¬¸»® ·³°±®¬¿²¬ °±·²¬ ·¸§°±¬¸»-·.¿«¬±ó¹«·¼»¼ ©¿ª» ¿²¼ »´»½¬®±² ±® °±-·¬®±² ¿.°¸±¬±² ¿²¼ »´»½¬®±² ¿®» ©·¬¸ »´»½¬®·½ º·»´¼ ´·³·¬ô °®±¬±² ·.¿ ½®·¬·½¿´ -°»»¼ º±® ´·¹¸¬ ·² -°¿½» ¿²¼ ¿ -°»»¼ ´·³·¬ º±® ³±ª·²¹ ³¿¬¬»®ò ̸¿¬ù.¿ Æ»®±óб·²¬óÚ·»´¼ Ô±®»²¬¦ Ú±®½»ôþ и§-ò λªò ßô Ú»¾ò ïççìô ª±´ ìçô ²± îô °° êéèóêçìò Û¼òà ÒÑÒóÔ×ÒÛßÎ ÜÛÊ×ÝÛÍ ×² ¸·.©·¬¸ »´»½¬®·½ ¿®½á Ñ«¬ ±º ´·¯«·¼ ©» ²»»¼ ¸·¹¸ ª±´¬¿¹»ò ÜÝ ¸·¹¸ ª±´¬¿¹» ·.¿®» -´·¹¸¬´§ »´¿-¬·½ô ¬¸» -¿³» º±® ½±²-¬¿²¬-ÿ Þ»-·¼»-ô ·²»®¬·¿ ²±¬ -±´ª»¼ ©¸·´» ·¬ ³·¹¸¬ ¾» ´±¹·½¿´´§æ ®»¿½¬·±² ³¿¬¬»®ó-°¿½»ò ÅÍ»» Ø¿·-½¸ô Ϋ»¼¿ ú Ы¬¸±ººô þײ»®¬·¿ ¿.øª¿½««³ô -±´·¼ ¿²¼ ¹¿-÷ ¿®» ¯«¿²¬·½ ¼»ª·½»-ò Ù®¿¼·»²¬ ±º ½»²¬®·º«¹¿´ º±®½»-æ ±¬¸»® ©¿§.´±¿¼ò ø-»´»½¬.±® ½»²¬®·º«¹¿¬·±² ¿®» ®»¯«·®»¼ ¬± °®±ª·¼» ¿ °®»--«®» ¹®¿¼·»²¬ò ײ »´»½¬®·½·¬§ô ¬¸»®» ¿®» ¼·±¼».±® ÔÛÜ ±® -¿¬«®¿¬»¼ º»®®·¬»³·¹¸¬ ¾» ¹±±¼ ËØÚ ³·¨»®-ò É» ¼±²ù¬ µ²±©ô ¿¬ ¬¸·¬·³»ô ¬¸» ®»¿´ ²¿¬«®» ±º ½±´¼ º«-·±² ®»¿½¬·±²-ò ̸»§ ¿®» «²«-«¿´ô ¬¸¿¬ù.±º ¿ ´·³·¬ º±® »´»½¬®·½ º·»´¼ò ̸¿¬ ¿´´±©½®»¿¬·±² ±º °¿®¬·½´»-æ ¹®¿¼·»²¬ ±º »´»½¬®·½ º·»´¼ ½®»¿¬» ©¿ª» ¹«·¼» ¿²¼ ®»-±²¿²¬ ½¿ª·¬·»-ò ̸»² 豬±² ·½±²-·¼»®»¼ ¿.¿¾-±´«¬»´§ ®»¯«·®»¼ ¿²¼ º±® ¿´´ µ·²¼.º®»¯«»²½§á ɸ¿¬ ±½½«®.¸¿ª» ¿² ·²»®¬·¿ ¿²¼ ©» ½¿² ¼»º·²» ¿²¼ °®±¾¿¾´§ ³»¿-«®» ¬¸»·® -°»»¼ ·² ¿² »´»½¬®±´§¬»ò × ª»®·º·»¼ ¿² ·²º´«»²½» ±º º®»¯«»²½§æ ®»-±²¿²½»°±--·¾´» ·² ®¿²¹» ±º ï µØ¦ ø-·²» ©¿ª»÷ò ß®» ¬¸»®» ±¬¸»® ³»¿-«®»³»²¬.-«³ô ¼·ºº»®»²½»÷ ì¬¸æ ®»-±²¿¬±® ¿.³±®» »²»®¹»¬·½ ·²¬»®¿½¬·±² ©·¬¸ -°¿½»ô × -«°°±-» ¿ ´·³·¬ ±º ³¿¹²»¬·½ º·»´¼ò ײ и§-·½-ô ¿´´ ´·³·¬.±® ¯«¿²¬·½ ¬®¿²-·-¬±®-ò Ó·¨·²¹ ³«-¬ ¾» ¸·¹¸ ¾¿²¼ò ر©»ª»®ô ®»-±²¿¬±® ¬¿µ» ¼·ºº»®»²¬·¿´ º®»¯«»²½·»-ò ˲´·µ»´§ ¬¸¿¬ ¼·±¼».°®±ª»¼ ·² °¿®¬·½´» ¿½½»´»®¿¬±®-ò Í°»»¼ ±ª»® -°»»¼ ´·³·¬ ·.±® ¾§ ½±²¬®±´´»¼ -©·¬½¸»-ò Ü·±¼».±º ²±²ó´·²»¿®·¬§ò ɸ·½¸ ·.¿´´ »²»®¹§ ©·¬¸ ¿²§ µ·²¼ °®»-»²¬ ·² ¬¸» -§-¬»³ò Ѻ ½±«®-»ô Í°¿½» »²»®¹§ ·.º®±³ -°¿½»ò ø©·¼» ¿²¼ ¸·¹¸ ¾¿²¼÷ î²¼æ ²¿¬«®» ¿²¼ º®»¯«»²½§ ±º ©¿ª»í®¼æ Ó·¨·²¹ ©·¬¸ ²±²ó´·²»¿® ³·¨»® ø¹»²»®¿¬·±² ±º º®»¯«»²½·».¿´©¿§²±²ó´·²»¿®æ ª¿´ª».¬¸»² ©±«´¼ ¾» ±²´§ ´·¬¬´» ³±¼«´¿¬·±².¿´´ ¸¿®³±²·½-ò ï-¬ °®±¾´»³æ ¿²¬»²²¿ º±® ½±´´»½¬·²¹ ©¿ª».·³°»¼¿²½» ª»®-«.©·¬¸ ï ÚßÎßÜßÇò ׬ ·«-«¿´´§ ©»¿µ ÜÝò ɸ¿¬ ±½½«®.º±® »´»½¬®±´§¬».½±²½´«-·±²ô Þ»² ת»®-±² -¸±©.¿²¼ °¿®¬·½´».º±® Ò»© Û²»®¹§ò Ó» ¬±±ò Ѻ ½±«®-»ô º±® ¬¿°°·²¹ô °«³°·²¹ ±® °·½µ·²¹ «° ±º Û²»®¹§ º®±³ -°¿½»ô ²±²ó´·²»¿®·¬§ ·.·² ¿ ®»ª±´«¬·±² ª±´«³» -»´ºó¸»´¼ ±® ¿ ´±±°»¼ ©¿ª» ¹«·¼»ò ͧ²»®¹§ Í ³¿§ ¾» ¿°°´·»¼ ¬± ³¿¬¬»® ±® -°¿½»ò Í ã î ³½ ò Í°¿½» »²»®¹§ ³·¹¸¬ ¾» »²±®³±«-ò Ø·.¼·ºº»®»²¬·¿´ º®»¯«»²½·»-÷ ë¬¸æ »²»®¹§ ½±²ª»®-·±² º±® °®¿½¬·½¿´ «-»ò ɸ»®» ¿®» ¬¸» ¼·ºº·½«´¬·»-æ ̸»®» ¿®» ®¿¬¸»® þ°·½±©¿ª»þ ³±®» ¾»§±²¼ ¹¿³³¿ ®¿§-ò λ-±²¿¬±®.¿´´ò ×.¿²¼ ®±¬¿¬·²¹ ³¿½¸·²»-ô ¿´¬¸±«¹¸ «-·²¹ ¯«¿²¬·¦»¼ô »´»½¬®·½·¬§ º´«·¼ò Ò±²ó´·²»¿®·¬§ ³¿§ ¾» ©·¬¸ ÓßÇ ïççê °¿--·ª» «²·´¿¬»®¿´ ±® ¬¸®»-¸±´¼ ½±³°±²»²¬.©·¬¸ ÔÚ ¿²¼ ÎÚ -·¹²¿´-á É» µ²±© ¿´®»¿¼§ ·±².¾«¬ ÔÚ ³¿§ ¾» «-»¼ ¿¬ ïðóîð µØ¦ ßÎÝ ßÒÜ Ô×ÏË×Ü ×² ´·¯«·¼ô ©» ²»»¼ ¸·¹¸ ½«®®»²¬ ¬± ¸±´¼ ¼·-½¸¿®¹»ò Ý«®®»²¬ ´·³·¬¿¬·±² ®»¯«·®»¼ ©·¬¸ ¬®¿²-º»® ¿²¼ -»®·»- wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .¿¼·±¼».

¿--»³¾´§ ´·²» ©¸·´» ¼»³¿²¼ ·²¬»²-·º·».¬± ¬¿µ» ³·½®±»´»½¬®±¼».ª»®§ ³«½¸ ¸·¹¸»® ¬¸¿² ¬¸» ´±½¿´´§ ±¾-»®ª»¼ ª¿®·±«.·² »ª·¼»²½» ·² ¾¿²µ·²¹ ø¹®»»² °¿®¿½¸«¬».º±® ¿½½»°¬¿²½»ô ¾«¬ -¿·¼ »´»½¬®±²·½ ·²ª»²¬·±².©»®» ¬¿µ·²¹ ¿¾±«¬ ¬©»²¬§ §»¿®.»¨°±®¬ò ÝÒÙ ·.²±¬ ¬±¬¿´´§ ²»©ô ¾«¬ ¿ ³·´´·±² ±ººó¹®·¼ ½±²ª»®-·±².³«½¸ ±² ¬¸» ´¿¾±® ·²º®¿-¬®«½¬«®» óó ¬¸» -³¿´´ ½¿¼®» ±º -µ·´´»¼ ·²-¬¿´´»®.-¬·³«´¿¬»¼ -±³» ½±³³»²¬ ±² ×ÒÚÎßÍÌÎËÝÌËÎÛ wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .·.¬»-¬-ô ¬¸» ¾»¬¬»® ·.·º ¿ ®»-±²¿¬±® ·.¸¿ª» ¬¿µ»² ±²´§ ¬©± §»¿®-ô ¿ª»®¿¹»ô ¾»½¿«-» ¬¸»·® ©±®µ·²¹.·² º¿ª±® ó ¾»º±®» ¿²¼ -·²½» ¸»³° -¿·´-ô ½±¿´óº·®»¼ ´±½±³±¬·ª»-ô ¿¬±³·½ -¸·°-ô ¿²¼ ¾¿½µ ¬± °»¬®±´»«³ º±® ¿ ´¿-¬ ¹«®¹´» ¿²¼ ¹¿-°ò Ѳ´§ ¬¸» ¿«¬±³±¬·ª» ·²º®¿-¬®«½¬«®» ·.º·²¼·²¹ ¿ ½±²ª»²·»²¬ ´·¯«·¼ ¿²¼ »´»½¬®±¼».±º ÞÌËù.§±« °±·²¬ ±«¬ ¬¸»®» ·.¼·¼ ²±¬ ®»¿½¸ò ÅDZ« ¿®» ½±®®»½¬ò Û¼òà ̮¿²-·¬·±² ¬± ¼»½»²¬®¿´·¦¿¬·±² ©·´´ ¼»°»²¼ ±² ¸¿®¼©¿®» ¼»³¿²¼ ¿²¼ -«°°´§ô ¾«¬ ¿.·.¿ ¬»³°±®¿®§ ½±²½´«-·±²ô ³·¹¸¬ §±« ¿¹®»» ¬± ¬¸·.¾»»² ³«½¸ -´±©»®ò Ú·º¬§ §»¿®.¸¿ª» ´±²¹ ¾»»² º±´´±©·²¹ ©¸¿¬»ª»® »²»®¹§ ®»-±«®½» ·.¿.½±«´¼ ¾» ¿ ¾±¬¬´»²»½µò ͬ¿²¼ó¿´±²» ½±¬¬¿¹» »²»®¹§ ²»ª»® ©¿.¿²¼ ±²´§ -³¿´´ ½«®®»²¬-ò Þ» ½¿®»º«´ ©·¬¸ «-» ±º -°»½·¿´ ½±·´-ò Ѻ¬»²ô ¬¸»§ ¸¿ª» ¸·¹¸ Ï ¿²¼ ³¿²§ ®»-±²¿²½».º±®æ ´»-.©·¬¸±«¬ ®»-½«·²¹ ¬¸» ¾·±-°¸»®»ò ͱ³» ½¸¿²¹» ·.²± °®±¹®»-.¿²¼ ·² ¬¸»³ô ¸¿.¾·±³¿--ô ¿°°®±°®·¿¬»´§ ³¿µ·²¹ ¿ ©±®´¼©·¼» ±® »ª»² ËòÍò »²»®¹§ ¬®¿²-·¬·±² ¾§ ¾«®²·²¹ ¾·±³¿-.¿²¼ ¿®» ¿²¬»²²¿-ò ͱ³» °»±°´» ³·¹¸¬ ¸¿ª» -¸±½µ-ÿ Ò± ²»»¼ ±º -½¿´¿® ©¿ª».³¿µ·²¹ ¬¸» »´»½¬®·½¿´ ½±²²»½¬·±²-ò Ѭ¸»® ¬¸¿² «®¾¿² ØÊßÝ ¿²¼ ¸»¿¬°«³° -»®ª·½·²¹ô ¬±± º»© Å°»®-±²-à ¿®» ¸·¹¸´§ ¬®¿·²»¼ º±® ®«®¿´ «-» ±º °¸±¬±ª±´¬¿·½-ô ¼·»-»´ ¶»²²§-ô ©·²¼ ¿²¼ ¸§¼®±ò ̸»·® ¼»-·¹² ©±®µ ¿²¼ »¨°»®·»²½» ±² ©·®·²¹ó«° ©·´´ «®¹»²¬´§ ¾» ²»»¼»¼ò É·¬¸±«¬ ïçìðù.·--«»¼ ·² ïçéïò Åλ¿¼»®-ô °´»¿-» ²±¬» ¬¸¿¬ ¿´´ ±º ±«® »¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ «²¼»®-¬¿²¼·²¹ ±º ¹®¿ª·¬§ ¸¿.¿²¼ -³¿´´ ª±´«³» ±º °®±¼«½¬-ò Ю±¶»½¬·±².»²¹·²»»® øÖ»¿² Ü»¾·»--» ¸·³¿²¿¹»®÷ ¿¬ ÝòÛòßòô Í¿½´¿§ô Ú®¿²½»ô «²¬·´ ïçéêò ͧ²»®¹»¬·½ ̸»±®§ ©¿.¬± ¸§¼®±¹»²ó»´»½¬®·½ô ³¿¹²»¬·½ô ¿²¼ -±´·¼ó-¬¿¬» ¹»²»®¿¬±® -»¬.¿ ´±²¹ ©¿§ ¬± ¬¸» Ú®»» Û²»®¹§ò ر°» ¬¸¿¬ »-½¿°» ¾«-·²»-.¬§°» ¬®¿·²·²¹ »ºº±®¬-ô ¼»³¿²¼ º±® ½®·¬·½¿´ -µ·´´.§±« ½¸¿®¿½¬»®·¦» ø°ò ïô ½±´ò î÷ô þòòò ©·²¼ô -«²´·¹¸¬ òòò ·³°®¿½¬·½¿´ôþ ¾«¬ ¸¿ª» ¾»»² ½±-¬ »ºº»½¬·ª» ¿²¼ °®¿½¬·½¿´ ©¸»®» «¬·´·¬§ ´·²».»²»®¹§ ¿¾-±®¾»¼ ¿²¼ ¬¸» ³±-¬ ¹¿.¼·ºº»®»²¬ ¼»°»²¼·²¹ ·º ´·¯«·¼ ·»´»½¬®±´§¬» ±® ²±¬ò É» ¸¿ª» ¼»½±³°±-·¬·±² ±º ´·¯«·¼ ¿²¼ ®»¿½¬·±² ¾»¬©»»² ´·¯«·¼ ¿²¼ »´»½¬®±¼»-ò ̸» ½¸¿´´»²¹» ·.©¸¿¬ Ü®ò Ú«´´»® º±«²¼ ¿.-»®·»¬«²»¼ ·³°»¼¿²½» ¾»½¿«-» ±º ¸·¹¸ ½«®®»²¬ò ߪ±·¼ ½±²¬·²±«.©·´´ º¿® »¨½»»¼ -«°°´§ò DZ« ³»²¬·±² ݸ»®²±¾§´ ·² ¬¸» -¿³» °¿®¿¹®¿°¸ ø°ò ï÷ ¿.±º ½ò Û¼òà îí ß.±® ¹®¿ª·¬¿¬·±² º·»´¼ÿ DZ« ¼±²ù¬ ¬¿° -°¿½» »²»®¹§ ¾«¬ §±« »³·¬ ´¿®¹» ¾¿²¼ ²±·-»ò Ò±¬ -§³°¿¬¸»¬·½ º±® ¾®±¿¼½¿-¬ ¿²¼ ¿²§ ÛÓ ¬®¿²-³·--·±²ÿ ߺ¬»® ¬¸»-» °®±°±-¿´.°±--·¾´»ò Ë-» -½®»»².¿ ²±²ó´·²»¿® ·³°»¼¿²½» ©·¬¸ ²»¹¿¬·ª» ·³°»¼¿²½» °¿®¬ò ̸¿¬ ¿´´±©.»¯«·ª¿´»²¬ ¬± º±--·´ º«»´ «-» ©±«´¼ -¬·´´ °±´´«¬» «²¿½½»°¬¿¾´§ ¿²¼ ©±«´¼ ¬¸®»¿¬»² ¬±°-±·´ô ¿²¼ º±±¼ -«°°´§ ¿²¼ ·¬.»ª»² ½´±-» ¬± ¾»·²¹ ®»¿¼§ º±® ½´»¿²ô º®»» ÒÑÊß ÐÑÉÛÎò Ì®¿²-·ó ¬·±²¿´´§ô ÙÓ ½±«´¼ ®»-¬¿®¬ ¬¸» ׳°¿½¬ù.¿² ¿ª»®¿¹»ò ̸» ¿«¬±²±³±«.¾»»² ¿½½±³°´·-¸»¼ ©¸·´» ®»-·¼·²¹ ·² »¿®¬¸ù.¬»-¬»¼ ¿²¼ ¬±«¬»¼ ¿.¿²¼ -¬¿¬»³»²¬-ô ¿.º±® §±«²¹ »¨»½«¬·ª»-÷ ¿²¼ ·² ·²-«®¿²½» ø¬¸»®» ¶«-¬ ³·¹¸¬ ¾» ¿² ±¦±²» ¸±´»ô -± ¸»¼¹» ©·¬¸ ³±®» ¼®±«¹¸¬ ·²-«®¿²½»÷ò Ó¿¶±® º·²¿²½·¿´ -¸·º¬.·² ¯«¿¼.þ½´»¿²þ º«»´ò ÔÛÌÌÛÎ ÚÎÑÓ ßÔÞÛÎÌ ÐÑÑÔÛ Ç±«® ¿®¬·½´» þÛ²»®¹§ Ü»³¿²¼ ¿²¼ Í«°°´§ôþ ø ô ß°®·´ ïççêô °° ïóí÷ ¸¿.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ ·³°»¼¿²½» ø²±²ó¼·--·°¿¬·ª» ½±·´÷ò ׬ ³¿§ ¾» ÜÝô ÔÚ ±® ÎÚò λ¿½¬·±² ·.½±«°´»¼ò ر©»ª»®ô ¸·¹¸ ª±´¬¿¹» ³¿§ ±½½«® ¿½®±-.¹®¿ª·¬§ ©»´´ ±® ·² ¬¸» ²»¿®ó¾§ -°¿½» ©·¬¸·² ¬¸» -±´¿® -§-¬»³ò ̸»®» ¿®» ¬¸±-» ©¸± -¬®±²¹´§ -«¹¹»-¬ ¬¸¿¬ ¬¸» -°»»¼ ±º ´·¹¸¬ ¿©¿§ º®±³ ³¿--·ª» ¾±¼·».¿®» ²±¬ ¿»-¬¸»¬·½¿´´§ ª·-·¾´»ò ß½½»°¬¿²½» ±º ·²²±ª¿¬·±² ±º ±«® ¸±³».¿ ¬®¿²-·¬·±² º«»´ ¾«¬ »¨½»°¬ º±® ½¸»³·½¿´ ·²¼«-¬®·»-ô ©±«´¼ ¾» ½¿°°»¼ ·º ©» ´±±µ»¼ ½´±-»® ¿¬ ±¨§¹»² ¼»°´»¬·±² ¿²¼ ¬¸» ½¿®¾±² ³±²±¨·¼» °®±¼«½¬ º®±³ ¾«®²·²¹ ¬¸·.ª¿´«».¸±«-» ·.±-½·´´¿¬·±².·²¼«-¬®§ÿ Ò± °±´·¬·½-ô ²± °±´»³·½-ô ·² ¿ ²»© ½«-¬±³ô ݱ³» µ²±©´»¼¹» ·² »ª»®§ µ·²¹¼±³ÿ ݱ³» °»¿½» ¿²¼ ©·-¼±³ º±® ½´»¿² ²¿¬«®» Ѳ Û¿®¬¸ ¿²¼ ·² Ø»¿ª»² º±® »ª»®§ ½®»¿¬«®»ÿ Þ»-¬ λ¹¿®¼-ô Îò Ò»½¬±«¨ Åïà ÎòÔò Ê¿´´»» ©¿.º±® ¿ ½±²½»°¬ ½¿® ´·µ» ¬¸» ݸ·¬¬§óݸ·¬¬§ Ê»-°»®³¿²ò Îò Þ«½µ§ Ú«´´»® º±«²¼ ¬¸¿¬ ½¿® ·²²±ª¿¬·±².°®±¼«½»¼ ·² ½¿-» ±º »´»½¬®±´§¬»ò Û´»½¬®·½ ¿®½ ·.°±»³ó´·µ» °·»½»á Ѿª·±«-´§ô ×ù³ ²±¬ ¬¸» -¸¿¼±© ±º °±»¬ ͸»´´»§ÿòòò ׬ù.

þÞ®±©²ù.ß°°®±¿½¸»ú Ó¿¬»®·¿´ ͽ·»²½» ͬ«¼·»ú ײ²±ª¿¬·ª» ß°°®±¿½¸».³¿§ ²±¬ ¾» Ú¿¨»¼ ±® Û󳿷´»¼ò ɸ»² -«¾³·¬¬·²¹ ¿¾-¬®¿½¬ô §±«® ®»¹·-¬®¿¬·±² ³«-¬ ¾» ³¿¼» ¿¬ ¬¸» -¿³» ¬·³»ò λ¹·-¬®¿¬·±² º»» ±º {ìðôððð ø¿¾±«¬ üìðð÷ ·²½´«¼».Ù¿-þ ©»´¼»®-ò Þ«¬ô «²¬·´ שּׁ»®-±² º«»´ ½»´´.-½¸»¼«´»¼ ±² ѽ¬ò ïèô ïççêô ¿´±²¹ ©·¬¸ ±¬¸»® °®±º»--·±²¿´ ¿²¼ -±½·¿´ »ª»²¬-ò ر¬»´æ Ü»¿¼´·²» º±® ¹«¿®¿²¬»»¼ ¿½½±³³±¼¿¬·±² ·ß«¹«-¬ ïô ïççêò ݱ²¬¿½¬æ ر¬»´ ß°»¨ ̱§¿ رµµ¿·¼± ߦ¿ó͸·³·¦«ô ß¾«¬¿ó³¿½¸·ô ß¾«¬¿ó¹«² رµµ¿·¼± ðìçóëêô Ö¿°¿²ò Ì»´æ õèïóïìîóéíóïïïï Ú¿¨ õèïóïìîóéíóïïëé λ¹·-¬®¿¬·±²æ Ú·²¿´ Ü»¿¼´·²» ß«¹«-¬ ïô ïççêò Í»²¼ º±® ¿°°´·½¿¬·±² °¿½µ¿¹» ¬± ݱ²º»®»²½» Í»½®»¬¿®·¿¬ ½ñ± ÒØÛ´óÝ»²¬»®ô ×ßÛ Í¸·²¾¿-¸· ÌÍ Þ«·´¼·²¹ ïóîîóë Ò·-¸·ó͸·²¾¿-¸·ô Ó·²¿¬±óµ« ̱µ§± ïðëô Ö¿°¿² ø¬»´ò ·²º± ¿¾±ª»÷ ÌÑÜßÇùÍ ØÛÎÑÛÍ ßÒÜ ÙÛÒ×ËÍÛÍ ß Ô»¬¬»® Ú®±³ Ø¿´ Ú±¨ ײ ¿ ´»¬¬»® °«¾´·-¸»¼ ·² ³¿¹¿¦·²» øª±´ ëîô ²± ïô ï-¬ ¯«¿®¬»® ïçêê÷ô Ø¿´ Ú±¨ °±·²¬.¹»²·«-».¬¸¿¬ ¿®» -¬·´´ ·² ¬¸» ¹®±©·²¹ -¬¿¹»-ò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .¿¬ ³¿²§ -·¬»·²½´«¼» ÐÊ-ô -¿´¬ °±²¼-ô ¿²¼ ¬¸» -±´¿® þ»¿®¬¸ ¸»¿¬þ º®±³ ¹®±«²¼ -±«®½» ¸»¿¬ °«³°-ò ɸ¿¬ ®»³¿·².²»»¼»¼ º±® ©·¼»´§ ¼·-¬®·¾«¬»¼ ¿°°´·½¿¬·±².²±¬ °®±ª»² ¬± ¾» ½±-¬ »ºº»½¬·ª» »ª»² ©·¬¸±«¬ ¬¸» ½±-¬´§ ¾±±²¼±¹¹´»¿²¼ °±´·¬·½¿´ º±±¬¾¿´´ ±º ®¿¼·±¿½¬·ª» ©¿-¬»ò ß ´¿®¹» º¿½¬±®§ ·² ݸ·²¿ ·.«-·²¹ ¸§¼®±¹»² ø§±«® -±«®½» ½·¬»¼ °ò îêô ½±´ò îô ß°®·´ ïççê ÷ ¿²¼ ¾«®²·²¹ ¬¸» ¼»¿¼´§ ½«®·».±º º®»» »²»®¹§ ¬»½¸²±´±¹·»¿®»ô ¿¬ ¾»-¬ô º´»¼¹´·²¹ ¿²¼ «²¼»®¼»ª»´±°»¼ò ̱ §±«® ®»º»®»²½».и»²±³»²¿÷ ̸» Ü»¿¼ Ô·²» º±® ¿¾-¬®¿½¬.øÍ·²¹´» °¿¹»ò É» ½¿² -«°°´§ ¬¸» º±®³.ïé Ó¿§ ïççêò ß¾-¬®¿½¬ ³«-¬ ¾» ±² ½±²º»®»½» ¿¾-¬®¿½¬ º±®³ ©·¬¸ ¬¸®»» ½±°·».¿²¼ Ì¿µ¿¸¿-¸· ³¿¹²»¬ ³±¬±®.¿®» ³¿-.Û²»®¹§ ¿²¼ Ò«½´»¿® Ю±¼«½¬ú Ò«½´»¿® и§-·½.-±´¿® ¸±«-»-ò ײ ¬¸» ËòÍò ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ½±«²¬®·»-ô »¨½»°¬ º±® Í©»¼»² ¿²¼ Ö¿°¿²ô ¬¸» ·²º®¿-¬®«½¬«®».שּׁ»®-±² ¿²¼ ³¿²§ ±¬¸»®-ò ̸»-» ¿®» ¬¸»§ ©¸± ¿®» °«®-«·²¹ ¬¸» ²»© ¿®»¿.øÓ·-½»´´¿²»±«.îì ݱ³°»¬·²¹ ©·¬¸ ´¿®¹»ô ¿¹·²¹ ¸§¼®±»´»½¬®·½ ·² ¬¸» ²±®¬¸©»-¬ô ²«½´»¿® »´»½¬®·½·¬§ ¸¿.½±ª»®·²¹ »¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ ©±®µ ¿²¼ ¬¸»±®§ ±² ¬¸» º±´´±©·²¹ ¬±°·½-æ ú Û¨½»-.±² ¬¸» ¹´±¾¿´ »²»®¹§ ±«¬´±±µ ³·¹¸¬ ¾» ¿¼¼»¼ Ö±-»º Ù®«¾»®ù.·º ²»½»--¿®§÷ò ß¾-¬®¿½¬.±º -½·»²½» ¬¸¿¬ ¿®» ½«®®»²¬´§ «²¿½½»°¬¿¾´» ¬± ¬¸» ½«®®»²¬ ©·¬¸·² ¬¸» ¾±®¼»®.±«¬ ¬¸¿¬ ©¸·´» ¬¸» ¹»²·«-».Û²»®¹§ и»²±³»²¿ ·² ÜîñÓ»¬¿´ ͧ-¬»³ú ݱ®®»´¿¬·±² Þ»¬©»»² Û¨½»-.¿±²¹±·²¹ ·.©±«´¼ ·²½´«¼» Õ»²²»¬¸ ͸±«´¼»®-ô ͬ¿²´»§ б²-ô Ó¿®¬·² Ú´»·-½¸³¿²²ô α¾»®¬ Þ¿--ô α¾»®¬ Þ«-¸ô Ç¿-«²±®· Ì¿µ¿¸¿-¸·ô Ø¿´ Ы¬¸±ººô Ø¿®±´¼ ß-°¼»²ô ͬ»º¿² Ó¿®·²±ªô Ðò Ì»©¿®·ô Ö»¿²óп«´ Ê·¹·»®ô Ö±¸² ÑùÓò Þ±½µ®·-ô Ö¿³».±º §»-¬»®¼¿§ ±ºº»® -±³»¬¸·²¹ ¬± ·²-°·®» ¿²¼ ¾«·´¼ ±²ô ¬¸±-» ±º ¬±¼¿§ ¸¿ª» ¿ ¹®»¿¬ ¼»¿´ ¬± ±ºº»® ¿´-±ò þÓ§ ´·-¬ ±º ¬±¼¿§ù.±º Ò»© Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹·»-òþ ÅÍ»» °¿¹» ì º±® Ù®«¾»®ù.¬± ²»¿® ¦»®± ·² º·ª» ³·²«¬»-ò É» ½¿² ¾«§ ±® ¾«·´¼ ¬¸»-» ¿.±² °¸±¬±²-ò Ю»-»²¬´§ »½±²±³·½¿´ º±®³.¿ ²»© ¼·®»½¬·±² ¬± º±½«¬¸»·® ¿¬¬»²¬·±²æ ¬¸» ¼·-½±ª»®·».°¿³°¸´»¬ þÛ½±²±³·½ Ûºº»½¬.±º »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸ô Ø¿´ ¹·ª».-½·»²¬·º·½ ¼±¹³¿òþ Û²«³»®¿¬·²¹ ¬¸» ½«®®»²¬ ·²²±ª¿¬·±².¾«-§ ³¿µ·²¹ üïçôððð °±®¬¿¾´» ¬±®½¸».®»¿¼»®.¿ ¾¿²¯«»¬ ¿²¼ °®±½»»¼·²¹-ò ß ¬»½¸²·½¿´ ¬±«® ¬± ¬¸» ÒØÛ ´¿¾ ·.¬± ¾» ®»½»·ª»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» Ì»½¸²·½¿´ Ю±¹®¿³ ݱ³³·¬¬»» ·.¿¾-¬®¿½¬òà ߴ¾»®¬ б±´» ÓßÇ ïççê Ó»»¬·²¹×ÝÝÚê Í·¨¬¸ ײ¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ ݱ²º»®»²½» ±² ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² ©·´´ ¾» ¸»´¼ ïíóïé ѽ¬±¾»® ïççê ر¬»´ ß°»¨ ̱§¿ô رµµ¿·¼±ô Ö¿°¿² ݱ²º»®»²½» Í»½®»¬¿®·¿¬æ Ì»´ õèïóíóíëðèóèçðï Ú¿¨ õèïóíóíëðèóèçðî Û󳿷´ ³¿½à·¿»ò±®ò¶° ̸» ½±²º»®»²½» ©·´´ ½±²-·-¬ ±º ¾±¬¸ ±®¿´ ¿²¼ °±-¬»® -»--·±².°®±¼«½»¼ô ¬¸» ±²´§ ½´»¿² ¼»½»²¬®¿´·¦»¼ »²»®¹§ ©·¼»´§ ¿ª¿·´¿¾´» ©±®µ.

·--«»¼ ±® °»²¼·²¹ ·² ½±´¼ ²«½´»¿® º«-·±² ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® »²¸¿²½»¼ »²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»-ò Í¿´¬ Ô¿µ» Ý·¬§ô wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .·² ¬¸» °±©»® º·»´¼ò ײº±®³¿¬·±²æ ݱ²¬¿½¬ ×ßÍÌÛÜ ¿¬ ìðíóîèèóïïçë ±® Ú¿¨ ìðíóîìéóêèëïô »ó³¿·´ ·¿-¬»¼à·-¬¼ò½««¹ò¿¾ò½¿ ɱ®´¼ λ²»©¿¾´» Û²»®¹§ ݱ²¹®»-.³¿§ ¾» °«®½¸¿-»¼ ·² ½¿-¸ ¿¬ ¬¸» ¼±±® º±® }ëðò ײ¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ ß--±½·¿¬·±² ±º ͽ·»²½» ¿²¼ Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ ±º Ü»ª»´±°³»²¬ ø×ßÍÌÛÜ÷ ײ¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ ݱ²º»®»²½» ±² Ø×ÙØ ÌÛÝØÒÑÔÑÙÇ ×Ò ÌØÛ ÐÑÉÛÎ ×ÒÜËÍÌÎÇ ìóè Ö«²» ïççêô Þ¿²ººô ß´¾»®¬¿ô Ý¿²¿¼¿ ̸» ¿·³ ±º ¬¸·.ݱ®°òæ Ò»© »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸ ½±²-«´¬·²¹ ¿²¼ ·²º±®³¿¬·±²ò ݱ²¬¿½¬æ α² Þ®·¹¸¬-»²ô éðíó ìéêóèéíïò ÛÒÛÝÑæ ᮬº±´·± ±º ·²¬»´´»½¬«¿´ °®±°»®¬§ ·²½´«¼·²¹ ±ª»® ¬¸·®¬§ °¿¬»²¬.¿² ·³°±®¬¿²¬ °¿®¬ ±º Þ®·¬¿·²ù.±º ¬¸» שּׁ»®-±² б©»® Ý»´´ÌÓò Ü¿´´¿-ô Ì»¨¿-ò ʱ·½» øîïì÷ çèîó èíìðô ÚßÈ øîïì÷ çèîóèíìçò Ý´«-¬®±² ͽ·»²½».½±²º»®»²½» ·.¿½±²-½·±«-²»-.©·´´ ¾» ®»¿¼·´§ ¿ª¿·´¿¾´» ¿²¼ ·² ©·¼» -°®»¿¼ «-»ò Ë°¼¿¬».¿ -»³·²¿®æ ßÔÌÛÎÒßÌ×ÊÛ ÌÛÝØÒÑÔÑÙÇ Í¿¬«®¼¿§ô ï Ö«²» ïççê ¿¬ ̸» ݱ³³«²·¬§ Ý»²¬®» ݱ²½±«®-» Ù®¿¸¿³» п®µ Û-¬¿¬»ô Ø»²¼±²ô Ô±²¼±² ̸» Í»¿®´ Ûºº»½¬ Ù»²»®¿¬±® ·.ø´·-¬»¼ ¿´°¸¿¾»¬·½¿´´§÷ ¿®» ½±³³»®½·¿´·¦·²¹ ½±´¼ º«-·±² ±® ±¬¸»® »²¸¿²½»¼ »²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»-æ ÝÑÓÐßÒÇæ ÐÎÑÜËÝÌ ß³»®·½¿² ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² Û²¹·²»»®·²¹ ¿²¼ Í«°°´§æ ײº±®ó ³¿¬·±² ¿²¼ ¬®±«¾´»-¸±±¬·²¹ º±® ¬¸» º«-·±² ®»-»¿®½¸ ¿²¼ ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ·²¼«-¬®§ò Í¿½®¿³»²¬±ô Ý¿´·º±®²·¿ò ̸» °®»-·¼»²¬ô É¿®®»² ݱ±´»§ô ½¿² ¾» ®»¿½¸»¼ ¿¬ çïêóéíêó ðïðìò ÝÛÌ× øÝ´»¿² Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹·»-ô ײ½ò÷æ Ü»ª»´±°»®.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ Ü·®»½¬ ײ¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ ͽ·»²½» ݱ²-±®¬·«³ô ײ½ò øÜò×òÍòÝò÷ °®»-»²¬.¿ º±®«³ º±® ¬¸» »¨½¸¿²¹» ±º ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ¿²¼ »¨°»®·»²½» ±² ¿´´ ¿-°»½¬±º ¸·¹¸ ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ¿²¼ ¿¼ª¿²½».¬¸» Ö¿°¿² Ù®»»² Ý®±-.¬± ¿½¬ ¿.¿ª¿·´¿¾´» ±² É»¾ п¹»æ ©©©ò-»®ª¬»½¸ò½±³ñ°«¾´·½ñ¶¿²-±²¬»»ñ ß¼ª¿²½»¼ ¾±±µ·²¹.×Ê Ü»²ª»®ô ݱ´±®¿¼±ô ËÍß ïëóîï Ö«²» ïççê ÎÛÒÛÉßÞÔÛ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ Û²»®¹§ Ûºº·½·»²½§ ¿²¼ ¬¸» Û²ª·®±²³»²¬ Ù»²»®¿´´§ ¼»¿´·²¹ ©·¬¸ ¬¸» »-¬¿¾´·-¸»¼ þ®»²»©¿¾´» ®»-±«®½»-þ ©·¬¸ ¿ ´»--»® °´¿½» º±® ±¬¸»® ¬»½¸²·½¿´ ¬±°·½-ò Ю»®»¹·-¬®¿¬·±² ®»¯«·®»¼ò Ú±® ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ½±²¬¿½¬ Ó®ò ͬ»ª» Ø¿«-»®ô Ü·ª·-·±² Ü·®»½¬±® ÒÛÎÔô ïêïé ݱ´¼ îë Þ´ª¼òô Ù±´¼»²ô ÝÑ èðìðïò Ì»´æ íðíóíèìóéìïêô Ú¿¨æ íðíóîéëóìíîðò ×ÒÌÛÎÒßÌ×ÑÒßÔ ÍÇÓÐÑÍ×ËÓ ÑÒ ÝÑÒÍÝ×ÑËÍÒÛÍÍô ÒÛÉ ÓÛÜ×Ý×ÒÛ ßÒÜ ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ Ç±³·«®· Ø¿´´ô ̱µ§±ô Ö¿°¿² Ò±ª»³¾»® îïóîîô ïççê Ü®ò ͸·«¶· ײ±³¿¬¿ ·.°¸»²±³»²¿ô ¸±´·-¬·½ ³»¼·½·²»ô ·²¬»¹®¿¬·±² ±º É»-¬»®² ¿²¼ Û¿-¬»®² ³»¼·½·²»ô ¿²¼ ²»© »²»®¹§ ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ò ̸» -°±²-±® ·.±º ¶±¾ ½®»¿¬·±²ô »¨°±®¬ ³¿®µ»¬·²¹ ¿²¼ ·² ¬¸» «-» ±º ¬¸» ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ·¬-»´ºò Ю±¼«½¬·±² ±º ¬¸» ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ·»¨°»½¬»¼ ¬± ¾»¹·² »¿®´§ ·² ïççé -± ¬¸¿¬ ¾§ îððï ¬¸» ®»-«´¬·²¹ °®±¼«½¬.-§-¬»³ »²¿¾´».³«-¬ ¾» ½´»¿®»¼ ¾§ Ó¿§ ïïò ̸»®»¿º¬»® ¬·½µ»¬.}îëô ¾«¬ ½¸»½µ.·² -«½¸ ¾®±¿¼ ¬±°·½.ͱ½·»¬§ îÚ Õ¿³±² Þ«·´¼·²¹ îóéóïì Ø¿³¿¬-«ó½¸± Ó·²¿¬±óµ« ̱µ§± ïðë ÖßÐßÒ Ì»´æ õèïøð÷íóíìíéóîîïè Ú¿¨æ õèïøð÷íóíìíéóîèðè ±® õèïøð÷íóíìíéóîêîì ݱ³³»®½·¿´ ݱ´«³² ̸» º±´´±©·²¹ ½±³°¿²·».¬¸» »ºº·½·»²½§ ±º ¬¸» «¬·´·¦¿¬·±² ±º »²»®¹§ò ̸» ײª»®-» Ù®¿ª·¬§ Ю±°«´-·±² ͧ-¬»³ ©·´´ ¾» ¼»ª»´±°»¼ ·² Þ®·¬¿·² º®±³ ß°®·´ ±º ¬¸·§»¿® ±²©¿®¼ò ̸·.¬¸» µ»§²±¬» -°»¿µ»® º±® ¬¸» ½±²º»®»²½»ò ﮬ·½·°¿¬·±² º»» ·.º«¬«®»ô º±® ®»¿-±².-»³·²¿® ·.¬± ¾» °®±°»´´»¼ »ºº·½·»²¬´§ ¿²¼ ³±®» ½´»¿²´§ ¬¸¿² ¿¬ °®»-»²¬ò ̸·.¾»»² ½¸±-»² ¿.ËÍü ïçðò ݱ²¬¿½¬æ Ó®ò Ì»¬-« Ò¿¹¿²±ô Ö¿°¿² Ù®»»² Ý®±-.¿»®± ¿²¼ -°¿½» ª»¸·½´».½«®®»²¬´§ «²¼»® ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ©¸·½¸ ·²½®»¿-».ͱ½·»¬§ò п®¿³¿¸¿³-¿ Ì»©¿®· ¸¿.±®¹¿²·¦·²¹ ¿ -§³°±-·«³ ¬± ¼·-½«-¿²¼ °®»-»²¬ ®»-»¿®½¸ ®»-«´¬.

±¬¸»® ²»© »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸ ·²½´«¼·²¹ ¦»®±ó°±·²¬ »²»®¹§å -°¿½» »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸å »´»½¬®±²·½ô »´»½¬®±³¿¹²»¬·½ô ¿²¼ ³»½¸¿²·½¿´ ±ª»® «²·¬§ ¼»ª·½».±² ½±´¼ ²«½´»¿® º«-·±²ò ëëë Òò Õ»²-·²¹¬±² ߪ»òô Ô¿ Ù®¿²¹» п®µô ×Ô êðëîëò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .±º ïï𠬱 ïîë °»®½»²¬ò α³»ô Ù»±®¹·¿ò ݱ²¬¿½¬ Ö¿³»Ù®·¹¹-ô ʱ·½» éðêñîíìóìïïï Ú¿¨ éðêñîíìóðéðîò ײ¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ Ó¿²¿¹»³»²¬ ͧ-¬»³.Óß ðîïèïò ر³» п¹»æ ¸¬¬°æññ©±®´¼ò-¬¼ò½±³ñ¢³·½¿ñ½º¬ò¸¬³´ ô ¿ ÎúÜ ²»©-´»¬¬»®ô °«¾´·-¸»¼ ¾§ Ü·»¬»® ͱ»¹»³»·»®ô Û¼·¬±®ô ÙÐÑ Þ±¨ îêçô Þ®·-¾¿²»ô ÏÔÜòìððïô ß«-¬®¿´·¿ò и±²»ñÚ¿¨æ õêï øð÷é íèðç íîëéò ô ¯«¿®¬»®´§ô »¼·¬»¼ ¾§ ݸ¿®´».ݱò ø×ÓÍÝ÷æ Ì»½¸²·½¿´ °®±¶»½¬ñ°®±¹®¿³ ³¿²¿¹»³»²¬ ¿--·-¬¿²½»ô ¿²¼ ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ¿²¼ ½±³³»®½·¿´·¦¿¬·±² ¿--·-¬¿²½»ò ݱ²¬¿½¬ Ó¿®µ Ø¿®®·.Ù»±®¹»ô ÚßÈ øìïë÷ èëïóèìèçò Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»® øÚ×Ý÷æ λ-»¿®½¸ ¿²¼ ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ²»© »²»®¹§ -§-¬»³-ò ̸» ©±®´¼ù.º±® ô ¿²¼ ʱ·½» èðïóëèíó êîíîô Ú¿¨ èðïóëèíóîçêíò ر´±¬»½ ßÙô Ý´»¿² Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ô ½±²¬¿½¬ ß²¼®7 É¿-»®ô Ù»²ò Ó¹®òô Þ·®»¹¹-¬®¿--» ïìô ÝØóêððíô Ô«¦»®²ô Í©·¬¦»®´¿²¼ò и±²» ðïï ìïóìï ñíêð ììèëô ±® Ú¿¨ ðïï ìïó ìï ñíêð ììèêò ا¼®± ܧ²¿³·½-ô ײ½òæ ا¼®±-±²·½ Ы³°ô ¸»¿¬ó°®±¼«½·²¹ -§-¬»³.¿²¼ -«°»®³±¬±®·² Ò±®¬¸ ß³»®·½¿ò Í»¾¿-¬±°±´ô Ýßò ݱ²¬¿½¬ Ó¿®µ Ù±´¼»-ô ʱ·½» éðéñèîçóçíçïô Ú¿¨ éðéñèîçóïððîò ÓßÇ ïççê Ò±ª¿ λ-±«®½».³±-¬ ½±³°´»¬» ®»-±«®½» ¼»°±-·¬±®§ º±® ½±´¼ º«-·±² ®»-»¿®½¸ ·²º±®³¿¬·±²ô ¿.¼·®»½¬»¼ ¬±©¿®¼ ¬¸» º·»´¼ ±º ¿´¬»®²¿¬·ª» ¿²¼ þÒ»©þ »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸ò ïíðì Íò ݱ´´»¹» ߪ»òô Ú±®¬ ݱ´´·²-ô ÝÑ èðëîìò Ì»´ò çéðóìèîóíéíï ô ¯«¿®¬»®´§ °«¾´·½¿¬·±² ±º ßÒÛô °®±ª·¼·²¹ ¿² ±°»² º±®«³ º±® ¼·-½«--·±²ô ¿²¼ ¼·--»³·²¿¬·²¹ ²»©-©±®¬¸§ ¿²¼ ·²-°·®¿¬·±²¿´ ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ±² ·²ª»²¬·±² ¿²¼ ²»© »²»®¹§ò Û¼·¬»¼ ¾§ α¾»®¬ Û³³»®·½¸ò þô ³±²¬¸´§ ²»©-´»¬¬»®ô »¼·¬»¼ ¾§ É¿§²» Ù®»»²ô éð ᫬» îðîÒô 묻®-¾±®±«¹¸ô ÒØ ðíìëèò ¯«¿®¬»®´§ ²»©-´»¬¬»® °«¾´·-¸»¼ ¾§ Ü®ò Ó·¬½¸»´´ Í©¿®¬¦ô ÐòÑò Þ±¨ èïïíëô É»´´»-´»§ Ø·´´.¿ -«¾-·¼·¿®§ ±®¹¿²·¦¿¬·±² ¬± ¬¸» ײ¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ ß--±½·¿¬·±² º±® Ò»© ͽ·»²½»ô ©¸·½¸ ¸¿.Ù®±«°ô ײ½òæ Ü»-·¹² ¿²¼ ³¿²«º¿½¬«®» ÛÌÝ øÛ´»½¬®±´§¬·½ ̸»®³¿´ Ý»´´÷å ÛÙ ø½±³³»®½·¿´ °±©»® ½±¹»²»®¿¬·±² ³±¼«´»÷å ¿²¼ ×Û ø·²¬»¹®¿¬»¼ »´»½¬®±´§¬·½ -§-¬»³÷ò Ü»²ª»®ô ÝÑò Ý¿´´ ݸ·° ο²-º±®¼ô и±²» øíðí÷ ìííóëëèîò ËÊ Û²¸¿²½»¼ Ë´¬®¿-±«²¼æ ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² Ю·²½·°´» ¾»·²¹ «-»¼ º±® ¿² «´¬®¿-±²·½ ©¿¬»® °«®·º·»®ò ر²¹ Õ±²¹ò ÚßÈ øèëî÷ îííèóíðëéò Æ»²»®¹§ ݱ®°±®¿¬·±²æ Ú±«²¼»¼ ·² ïççê ¬± º¿½·´·¬¿¬» ¬¸» ·²¬®±¼«½¬·±² ±º ½±³³»®½·¿´´§ ª·¿¾´» »²»®¹§ ¿´¬»®²¿¬·ª»-ò øº±®³»®´§ б©»® Ý»´´ Ì»½¸²±´±¹·»-÷ ݸ¿²¼´»®ô ßÆò ݱ²¬¿½¬ λ»¼ Ø«·-¸æ êðîóèïìóéèêëô Ú¿¨ êðîóèïìóéêêëô »ó³¿·´æ ®»»¼¸à·²¼·®»½¬ò½±³ Ò±¬»æ ̸» Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»® ¸¿.¿²¼ ³±®»ò É» ¿®» ¬¸» °«¾´·-¸»®.±²ó´·²» ¼¿¬¿¾¿-» ¿½½»--ò Ö±«®²¿´ ±º ¬¸» ß³»®·½¿² Ò«½´»¿® ͱ½·»¬§ °«¾´·-¸».¾»»² ¿½¬·²¹ ¿¿² ·²º±®³¿¬·±² -±«®½» ¬± ³¿²§ ±º ¬¸»-» ½±³°¿²·»-ò É» »¨°»½¬ ¬± ¿«¹³»²¬ ±«® ·²¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ -»®ª·½» ¬± °®±ª·¼» ½±²¬¿½¬-ô ·²º±®³¿¬·±²ô ¿²¼ ¾«-·²»-.îê ˬ¿¸ò ݱ²¬¿½¬ Ú®»¼ Ö¿»¹»®ô ʱ·½» èðïñëèíóîðððô Ú¿¨ èðïñëèíóêîìëò ÛóÏ«»-¬ ͽ·»²½»-æ Û¨°´±®·²¹ ̸» Ó·½®±óÚ«-·±²ÌÓ °®±½»--ò Í»»µ·²¹ ¯«¿´·º·»¼ ®»-»¿®½¸ °¿®¬²»®.«-·²¹ »´»½¬®·½¿´ ·²°«¬ ©·¬¸ ¬¸»®³¿´ »ºº·½·»²½·».¿°°´·»¼ º±® ¿²¼ ·--«»¼ ·² ±¬¸»® ½±«²¬®·»-ò ß°°´·½¿¬·±².¸±«-·²¹ò Ô·½»²-·²¹ò Ѳ¬¿®·±ô Ý¿²¿¼¿ò ݱ²¬¿½¬ Ü®ò п«´± Òò ݱ®®»¿ò Ì»´ çðëñêêðñïðìð Ú¿¨ çðëñéíèñèìîé Ó¿¹²»¬·½ б©»® ײ½òæ ̸» Ö±·²¬ Ê»²¬«®» °¿®¬²»® ©·¬¸ ͽ·»¨ øËÕ÷ º±® Ì¿µ¿¸¿-¸· -«°»®³¿¹²»¬.½±²-·¼»®·²¹ ¿² »²¬®§ ·²¬± ¬¸» »²¸¿²½»¼ »²»®¹§ ³¿®µ»¬ò ×ÒÚÑÎÓßÌ×ÑÒ ÍÑËÎÝÛÍ ß½¿¼»³§ º±® Ò»© Û²»®¹§ øßÒÛ÷ ·.±® η½¸¿®¼ DZ«²¹-ô и±²» èðïóëèíóêîíîô Ú¿¨ èðïóëèíóîçêíô ±® и±²»ñÚ¿¨ èðïóîëëóíðððò ÖÛÌ Û²»®¹§ Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ô ײ½òæ Ü»-·¹² ¿²¼ ³¿²«º¿½¬«®» ±º %ó»´»½¬®±¼» -§-¬»³-ô ½¿´±®·³»¬»®-ô ¿²¼ ¿--±½·¿¬»¼ »¯«·°³»²¬ ¿²¼ -§-¬»³-ò ݱ²-«´¬·²¹ ®»¹¿®¼·²¹ ®¿¼·¿¬·±²ô ³¿¬»®·¿´-ô ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® -½·»²¬·º·½ ¿²¼ »²¹·²»»®·²¹ ·--«»-ò É»-¬±²ô Óßò ݱ²¬¿½¬ Ü®ò Ó·¬½¸»´´ Í©¿®¬¦ô ʱ·½» êïéñîíéñíêîëò Ú¿¨ êïéñîíéñíêîëò Ô¿¾±º»¨ô Û¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ ¿²¼ ß°°´·»¼ д¿-³¿ и§-·½-æ ÎúÜ ±º ÐßÙÜ øЫ´-»¼ ß¾²±®³¿´ Ù´±© Ü·-½¸¿®¹»÷ °´¿-³¿ ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ò ̸®»» ·--«»¼ ËÍ °¿¬»²¬-ô ·²½´«¼·²¹ °®±¬»½¬·±² º±® ÐßÙÜ ®»¿½¬±®ô °«´-» ¹»²®¿¬±®ô ½·®½«·¬®§ô ³±¬±® ¿²¼ »²»®¹§ ½±²ª»®-·±² ¿°°´·½¿¬·±²-ò כּ²¬.¿²¼ ¿«¬±²±³±«.¬± ½±³°¿²·».º±® ¬¸»·® -±²±´«³·²»-»²½» °®±¹®¿³ò ݱ²¬¿½¬ Ϋ-.¶±«®²¿´ ¿®¬·½´».©»´´ ¿.ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² ׳°¿½¬ ¿²¼ ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² ͱ«®½» Þ±±µò д¿².±°°±®¬«²·¬·».«²¼»® ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ·²½´«¼» °®±¬¿¾´» °±©»® -«°°´·»-ô »´»½¬®·½ ª»¸·½´».-°»½·º·½ ¹±¿´.ßò DZ-¬ô éí Í«²´·¹¸¬ Ü®·ª»ô Ô»·½»-¬»®ô ÒÝ îèéìèò ³±²¬¸´§ ²»©-´»¬¬»®æ Í¿´¬ Ô¿µ» Ý·¬§ô ËÌ èðïñëèíóêîíîô ¿´-± °«¾´·-¸».

±ª»® ï ³»¹¿¾§¬» ±º ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ·² ïî ½¸¿°¬»®-ô íð ·´´«-¬®¿¬·±²-ô ±²» -±«²¼ ¾·¬»ô ¿²¼ ¬©± ¿²·³¿¬·±²-ò ̸» ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ·.°®±¼«½»¼÷ô ¸·¹¸ó»ºº·½·»²½§ ³±¬±®.¬¸¿¬ ¿°°»¿® ¬± °®±ª·¼» ¿²±³¿´±«.°®»-»²¬»¼ ·² ¿ ³¿²²»® ¬¸¿¬ ©·´´ ¾» ¿½½»--·¾´» ¬± ¬¸» ²±ª·½» ¿²¼ ·.¬¸»±®§ ¿¾±«¬ ¬¸» ¹»²»-·±º ¬¸» «²·ª»®-» ³¿§ ¾» «-»¼ ¬± °®±¼«½» ²»© »²»®¹§ò ® Ô»¿®² ¿¾±«¬ ¬¸» º¿® ®»¿½¸·²¹ ·¼»¿.¿ ÞòÍò ·² Û´»½¬®·½¿´ Û²¹·²»»®·²¹ º®±³ ¬¸» Ëò ±º 第-¾«®¹¸ô ¿² ß--±½·¿¬» ·² ͽ·»²½» º®±³ Í¿·²¬ Ú®¿²½·.¾¿´´ ´·¹¸¬²·²¹ ³¿½¸·²»ò ® Ê·»© ¿ °´¿-³¿ ¾¿´´ ·² ¿ ³·½®±©¿ª» ½¿ª·¬§ò ® Ü·-½±ª»® ¬¸» »®®±® ±º ¬¸» þݱ°»²¸¿¹»² ײ¬»®°®»¬¿¬·±²òþ ¿²¼ ³«½¸ ³±®»ô º±® üïìòçëò É®·¬» ß²¬·¹®¿ª·¬§ Ü·-µô ½ñ± ÐòÑò Þ±¨ ëèêíçô Í¿´¬ Ô¿µ» Ý·¬§ô ˬ¿¸ èìïëèóðêíçò λ¯«·®».¿ °±--·¾´» -±´«¬·±² º±® ²«½´»¿® ©¿-¬» ¼·-°±-¿´ò üë ËòÍò ¿²¼ Ý¿²¿¼·¿²ô üéòë𠱬¸»® ½±«²¬®·»-ò ô ¯«¿®¬»®´§ô »¼·¬»¼ ¾§ Ö·³ Õ»¬¬²»® ú ܱ² Õ»´´§ô ÐòÑò Þ±¨ ïïìîîô Ý´»¿®©¿¬»®ô ÚÔ íìêïêò ô ÐòÑò Þ±¨ ïêîèëô ײ½´«¼».¿²¼ ½«®®»²¬ ®»°±®¬.¬¸¿¬ ³¿§ ²±¬ ½±²º±®³ ¬± ¬¸» ½«®®»²¬´§ó¿½½»°¬»¼ -½·»²¬·º·½ ³±¼»´-ò ̸» ¬±°·½.ݱ´´»¹»ô ¿²¼ ··.©¸»®» »²¸¿²½»¼ »²»®¹§ ·.¿³±«²¬.-«½¸ ¿.³¿²§ ·³°±®¬¿²¬ -½·»²¬·º·½ °¿°»®.©·¬¸ »¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ ¼¿¬¿ ¿®» °®»º»®®»¼ ±ª»® ¬¸»±®»¬·½¿´ °¿°»®-ò ͬ¿²¼¿®¼ ¿´¬»®²¿¬·ª» »²»®¹§ ¬±°·½.¿ λ¹·-¬»®»¼ Ю±º»--·±²¿´ Û²¹·²»»® ·² ¬¸» -¬¿¬» ±º л²²-§´ª¿²·¿ò É¿-¸·²¹¬±²ô ÜòÝòô ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬-ò îððìïò ̸» ¿¾±ª» ´·-¬ ±º ½±³³»®½·¿´ ¿²¼ ·²º±®³¿¬·±² -±«®½»©·´´ ¾» ¹®±©·²¹ò Ò»© ´·-¬·²¹.±² ¿´´ ¿®»¿±º ®»-»¿®½¸ò Û󳿷´æ ·²»à°¿¼®¿µò½±³ Í¿´¬ Ô¿µ» Ý·¬§ô ˬ¿¸ò ʱ·½» èðïñëèíñêîíîô Ú¿¨ èðïñëèíñîçêíò ³±²¬¸´§ ²»©-´»¬¬»® º±® ×ÒÛô ¸·¹¸´·¹¸¬·²¹ ¬¸» ®»-»¿®½¸ ¿²¼ ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ·² ¬¸» ©±®´¼©·¼» ²»© »²»®¹§ ¿®»²¿ò Û¼·¬»¼ ¾§ Ø¿´ Ú±¨ò ô ¯«¿®¬»®´§ô °®»-»²¬·²¹ °¿°»®®»°®»-»²¬·²¹ ¬¸» ²»© ¿®»¿.±º Ø¿®±´¼ Ы¬¸±ººò ® Í»» ¿²¼ ¸»¿® Ú®¿²µ Öò ͬ»²¹»®ù.¼»ª±¬»¼ ¬± °«¾´·-¸·²¹ °®±º»--·±²¿´ °¿°»®.©·¬¸ »¨°»®·³»²¬¿´ ®»-«´¬.¬± ¾» ½±ª»®»¼ ·² ¬¸·¶±«®²¿´ ·²½´«¼» ½±´¼ ²«½´»¿® º«-·±²ô ´±©ó»²»®¹§ ²«½´»¿® ®»¿½¬·±²-ô ¸·¹¸ó¼»²-·¬§ ½¸¿®¹» ½´«-¬»® ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ ø·²½´«¼·²¹ -±³» °´¿-³¿ ½·®½«·¬.±º ±«¬°«¬ »²»®¹§ô ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® ²»© »²»®¹§ ¼»ª·½»-ò п°»®.©·´´ ¾» ¿¼¼»¼ ¿·²º±®³¿¬·±² ·.¿²¼ ¿ íèê ±® ¸·¹¸»® °®±½»--±®ò ̸» ¿«¬¸±®ô Ú®¿²µ Ʋ·¼¿®-·½ô ¸¿.°¿²»´ ®»ª·»©·²¹ ²«½´»¿® º«»´ ©¿-¬».¼·-°±-¿´ò Ü·-½«--»¬®¿²-³«¬¿¬·±² ¿.¿ ¯«¿®¬»®´§ô °»»®ó®»ª·»©»¼ ¶±«®²¿´ ¼»¼·½¿¬»¼ ¬± ²»© »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸ ¿²¼ ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ò Ю±º»--·±²¿´ °¿°»®.¾»¸·²¼ ¬¸»³ò Ы¾´·-¸»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½òô º±® ¬¸» ײ-¬·¬«¬» º±® Ò»© Û²»®¹§ò Û¼·¬±®æ Ø¿´ Ú±¨ò ô ¯«¿®¬»®´§ô »¼·¬»¼ ¾§ Ü®ò ß²¼®»© Ó·½¸®±©-µ·ò ïðð Þ®±²-±² ߪ»ô ý ïððïô Ѭ¬¿©¿ô Ѳ¬¿®·± ÕïÎ êÙèô Ý¿²¿¼¿ò Ò±© ¿ª¿·´¿¾´»æ ô ¿ ¬»½¸²·½¿´ ¿²¼ -½·»²¬·º·½ ¼·-½«--·±² °®»°¿®»¼ º±® ¬¸» Ý¿²¿¼·¿² Û²ª·®±²³»²¬¿´ ß--»--³»²¬ ß¹»²½§ù.±º »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸ô ´»¿¼·²¹ó»¼¹» ·¼»¿.¿®» -±´·½·¬»¼ º®±³ -½·»²¬·-¬-ô »²¹·²»»®-ô ·²ª»²¬±®-ô ¿²¼ -¬«¼»²¬-ò ̸» Ö±«®²¿´ ±º Ò»© Û²»®¹§ øÖÒÛ÷·.¸§¼®±¹»² º«»´ô ©·²¼ °±©»®ô -±´¿® °±©»®ô ¬·¼¿´ °±©»®ô ¿²¼ ¹»±¬¸»®³¿´ °±©»® ¿®» ²±¬ -±´·½·¬»¼ò ßÜÊÛÎÌ×ÍÛÓÛÒÌ ßÒÌ×ÙÎßÊ×ÌÇ ÑÒ ß Ü×ÍÕ Ý±²¬¿·².½±´¼ º«-·±² îé ÖÑËÎÒßÔ ÑÚ ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ Ð«¾´·-¸»¼ ¾§ ¬¸» Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»® ÐòÑò Þ±¨ ëèêíçô Í¿´¬ Ô¿µ» Ý·¬§ô ˬ¿¸ èìïëèóðêíç ̸·.ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÒÛÉÍ ²»© ¾·ó³±²¬¸´§ ²»©-´»¬¬»® »¼·¬»¼ ¾§ Ü®ò Û«¹»²» Ó¿´´±ª» ø¿«¬¸±® ±º Ú·®» º®±³ ×½»÷ô ÐòÑò Þ±¨ îèïêô ݱ²½±®¼ô ÒØ ðííðîóîèïêò ʱ·½»æ êðíóîîèóìëïêò Ú¿¨æ êðíñîîìñëçéë Û󳿷´ éêëéðòîîéðཱ³°«-»®ª»ò½±³ ײ-¬·¬«¬» º±® Ò»© Û²»®¹§ ø×ÒÛ÷ô ±®¹¿²·¦¿¬·±² ¬± °®±³±¬» ¿²¼ ¸»´° º·²¼ º«²¼·²¹ º±® ²»© »²»®¹§ ®»-»¿®½¸ò ر³» п¹»æ ©©©ò°¿¼®¿µò½±³ñ·²»ñ ½±²¬¿·².É·²¼±©.®»½»·ª»¼ò Í»²¼ ·²º±®³¿¬·±² ¬± ô ÐòÑò Þ±¨ ëèêíçô Í¿´¬ Ô¿µ» Ý·¬§ô ËÌô èìïëèò wïççê ¾§ Ú«-·±² ײº±®³¿¬·±² Ý»²¬»®ô ײ½ò ÝÑÐÇ×ÒÙ ÒÑÌ ßÔÔÑÉÛÜ ©·¬¸±«¬ ©®·¬¬»² °»®³·--·±²ò ßÔÔ Î×ÙØÌÍ ÎÛÍÛÎÊÛÜò .±® ¹»²»®¿¬±®-ô -±´·¼ó-¬¿¬» ½·®½«·¬.·.·² ¬¸» ¼»ª»´±°³»²¬ ±º ²»© »²»®¹§ ¬»½¸²±´±¹§ô ¿²¼ ¬¸» ¬¸»±®·».±² ½±´¼ º«-·±² ¿²¼ ±¬¸»® »²¸¿²½»¼ »²»®¹§ -§-¬»³.¬¸®±«¹¸ »²±«¹¸ ¬± °´»¿-» ¬¸» ³±-¬ ¿¼ª¿²½»¼ò ® Ü·-½±ª»® ¸±© Û¼©¿®¼ Ðò Ì®§±²ù.

ÝÑÒÌÛÒÌÍ ÚÑÎ ÓßÇ ïççê ×ÍÒÛóí ÎÛÐÑÎÌ ßÒÜ ßÞÍÌÎßÝÌÍ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ï ÚËÍ×ÑÒ ÞÎ×ÛÚ×ÒÙÍ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ç ×ÌßÔ×ßÒ ÝÑËÎÌ ÊÛÎÜ×ÝÌ ÚÑÎ ÝÚ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ç Ø×ÙØ ÙÎßÜÛ ÛÔÛÝÌÎ×ÝßÔ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïï ÍÐßÝÛ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïî ÍÐßÝÛ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ÖÑËÎÒßÔ ÝÑÒÌÛÒÌÍ ò ò ò ò ò ò ïî ÝÑÎÎÛß ÐÎÛÍÍ ÎÛÔÛßÍÛ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïí Ó×ÍÝÛÔÔßÒÛÑËÍ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïí ßÝßÜÛÓÇ ÚÑÎ ÒÛÉ ÛÒÛÎÙÇ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïí ×ÒÝÎÛßÍÛÜ ÊÑÔÌßÙÛ ÐØÛÒÑÓÛÒÑÒ ò ò ò ò ò ò ïì ÝÑ×Ô ÌÛÍÌÍ É×ÌØ ßÝÌ×ÊßÌÛÜ ÍÑËÎÝÛÍ ò ò ò ò ïì Ó×ÝÎÑó×ÒÜËÝÌ×ÊÛ ßÎÎßÇÍ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïë ÓÑÎÛ ÑÒ Í×ÓÐÔÛ ÝÑ×Ô ÌÛÍÌ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïé ÉßÎÒ×ÒÙ ßÞÑËÌ ÌØÛ ØßßÎÐ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïè ÙÎÛÛÒ ÍÝ×ÍÍÑÎÍ ÝßÓÐß×ÙÒ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïç ×ÜÛß ÎÑËÔÛÌÌÛæ ÙÎßÊ×ÌÇ ú ÛÓ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ïç ÔÛÌÌÛÎÍ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò îï Îò Ò»½¬±«¨ô ß´¾»®¬ б±´»ô Ø¿´ Ú±¨ ÓÛÛÌ×ÒÙÍ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò îï ß´¬»®²¿¬·ª» Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ øÖòÎòÎò Í»¿®´÷ ó Û²¹´¿²¼ ꬸ ײ¬»®²¿¬·±²¿´ ݱ´¼ Ú«-·±² ó Ö¿°¿² Ø·¹¸ Ì»½¸²±´±¹§ ·² б©»® ײ¼«-¬®§ ó Ý¿²¿¼¿ λ²»©¿¾´» Û²»®¹§ ó ݱ´±®¿¼± ݱ²-½·±«-²»--ô Ò»© Ó»¼·½·²»ô Ò»© Û²»®¹§ óÖ¿°¿² ÝÑÓÓÛÎÝ×ßÔ ÝÑÔËÓÒ ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò ò îë .