Application Note 2034 LM3445 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver

Literature Number: SNVA429B

LM3445 - 120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver

LM3445 -120VAC, 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver

National Semiconductor Application Note 2034 Steve Solanyk August 20, 2010

This demonstration board highlights the performance of a LM3445 based Flyback LED driver solution that can be used to power a single LED string consisting of 4 to 8 series connected LEDs from an 90 VRMS to 135 VRMS, 60 Hz input power supply. The key performance characteristics under typical operating conditions are summarized in this application note. This is a two-layer board using the bottom and top layer for component placement. The demonstration board can be modified to adjust the LED forward current, the number of series connected LEDs that are driven and the switching frequency. Refer to the LM3445 datasheet for detailed instructions. A bill of materials is included that describes the parts used on this demonstration board. A schematic and layout have also been included along with measured performance characteristics.

Key Features
• • • • Drop-in compatibility with TRIAC dimmers Line injection circuitry enables PFC values greater than 0.95 Adjustable LED current and switching frequency Flicker free operation

• • • • Retro-fit TRIAC Dimming Solid State Lighting Industrial and Commercial Lighting Residential Lighting

Performance Specifications
Based on an LED Vf = 3.4V Symbol VIN VOUT ILED POUT fsw Parameter Input voltage LED string voltage LED string average current Output power Switching frequency Min 90 VRMS 13 V Typ 120 VRMS 20 V 365 mA 7.3 W 78.5 kHz Max 135 VRMS 27 V -

Demo Board

LED Current vs. Input Voltage (using Dimmer)




© 2010 National Semiconductor Corporation



ensure that the desired number of LEDs are connected at the output before applying power to the evaluation board. Caution must be taken when handling the evaluation board. If an oscilloscope ground lead is connected to the evaluation board ground test point for analysis and AC power is applied. The oscilloscope should be powered via an isolation transformer before an oscilloscope ground lead is connected to the evaluation board. 8W Isolated Flyback LED Driver Demo Board Schematic 30115201 Warning: The LM3445 evaluation board has exposed high voltage components that present a shock hazard.AN-2034 LM3445 120VAC.national. Avoid touching the evaluation board and removing any cables while the evaluation board is operating. Isolating the evaluation board rather than the oscilloscope is highly recommended. For proper operation. www. the fuse (F1) will fail open.com 2 . Warning: The LM3445 evaluation board should not be powered with an open load. Warning: The ground connection on the evaluation board is NOT referenced to earth ground.

3 DIM 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 COFF FLTR2 GND ISNS GATE VCC BLDR 3 www. Could also be used as an analog dimming input.85 kHz ramp to generate a higher frequency PWM signal with a duty cycle proportional to the triac dimmer firing angle. Connect a resistor from main switching MOSFET source.com . Circuit ground connection. It may also be used as an output signal and connected to the DIM pin of other LM3445 or LED drivers to dim multiple LED circuits simultaneously. Input/output dual function dim pin. ISNS to GND to set the maximum LED current.AN-2034 LM3445 Device Pin-Out 30115202 Pin Description 10 Pin MSOP Pin # 1 2 Name ASNS FLTR1 Description PWM output of the triac dim decoder circuit. Second filter input. Power MOSFET driver pin. A capacitor tied to this pin filters the PWM dimming signal to supply a DC voltage to control the LED current. Bleeder pin. LED current sense pin.national. OFF time setting pin. Outputs a 0 to 4V PWM signal with a duty cycle proportional to the triac dimmer on-time. Pull above 4. A user set current and capacitor connected from the output to this pin sets the constant OFF time of the switching controller. Provides the input signal to the angle detect circuitry as well as a current path through a switched 230Ω resistor to ensure proper firing of the triac dimmer.9V (typical) to tri-state DIM. 5. Input voltage pin. This output provides the gate drive for the power switching MOSFET of the buck controller. This pin provides the power for the internal control circuitry and gate driver. This pin can be driven with an external PWM signal to dim the LEDs. The 120Hz PWM signal from ASNS is filtered to a DC signal and compared to a 1 to 3V. First filter input.

430 ohm. 0. 10.7 OHM 1/10W 5% 0603 SMD RES 10 OHM 1/8W 5% 0805 SMD RES 1. TP10 J5. 0.50 OHM 1/4W 1% 1206 SMD RES 3. J4.5A MINIDIP DIODE RECT GP 1A 1000V MINI-SMA DIODE SCHOTTKY 100V 1A SMA DIODE ZENER 30V 1.1V 200MW SOD-523F DIODE ZENER 12V 200MW DIODE SWITCH 200V 200MW FUSE BRICK 1A 125V FAST 6125FA 16 GA WIRE HOLE. 16V.1µF. 309k ohm. +/-10%. 1206 RES.2 OHM 1/8W 1% 0805 SMD CURRENT LIMITOR INRUSH 60OHM 20% Transformer Manufacturer EPCOS Inc Murata Electronics North America Nichicon TDK Corporation EPCOS Kemet MuRata TDK MuRata MuRata MuRata TDK Corporation AVX Littlefuse Diodes Inc.22UF 16V X7R 0603 CAP CER 2200PF 50V 10% X7R 0603 CAP CER 330PF 50V 5% C0G 0603 CAP CER 2200PF 250VAC X1Y1 RAD CAP CERM .10UF 250V X7R 10% 1206 CAP CER . C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 F1 J1. R5 R6. 1%.5W SMA DIODE ZENER 5. L2 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 R1.0K OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD RES 30. CERM.com 4 . 5%.25W. R7 R4. J2.08mm PCB INDUCTOR 4700UH . 1%. R3 R2.33UF 250V X7R 1812 CAP . J3.047UF 630V METAL POLYPRO CAP 10000PF X7R 250VAC X2 2220 CAP 330UF 35V ELECT PW CAP CER .10UF 305VAC EMI SUPPRESSION CAP.125W. 5.national. X7R. 01 www.48K OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD RES 75. 0. R11 R9 R10 R12 R13 R14 R15 R16 R20 R22 RT1 T1 Description Printed Circuit Board CAP . 2POS. 18 GA WIRE HOLE Conn Term Block. 0805 RES 49.13A RADIAL MOSFET N-CH 600V 90MA SOT-89 MOSFET N-CH 600V 1.47UF 10% 25V X5R 0805 DIODE TVS 150V 600W UNI 5% SMB RECT BRIDGE GP 600V 0.AN-2034 Bill of Materials Designator AA1 C1 C2 C3.25W. 0.8A TO-251 MOSFET N-CH 100V 170MA SC70-3 TRANS GP SS PNP 40V SOT323 RES 200K OHM 1/4W 5% 1206 SMD RES. TP8.1K OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD RES 40. 1206 RES. Comchip Technology ST Microelectronics ON Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Semiconductor Diode Inc Cooper/Bussmann 3M Phoenix Contact TDK Corporation Infineon Technologies Infineon Technology Diodes Inc On Semiconductor Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Vishay-Dale Cantherm Wurth Electronics Part Number 551600457-001A B32559C6473K000 GA355DR7GB103KY02L UPW1V331MPD6 C4532X7R2E334K B32921C3104M C0805C104K4RACTU GRM32ER61C476ME15L C3216X7R2E104K GRM188R71C224KA01D GRM188R71H222KA01D GRM1885C1H331JA01D CD12-E2GA222MYNS 08053D474KAT2A SMAJ120A RH06-T CGRM4007-G STPS1H100A 1SMA5936BT3G MM5Z5V1 MM5Z12V BAV20WS-7-F 6125FA 923345-02-C 1715721 TSL0808RA-472JR13-PF BSS225 L6327 SPU02N60S5 BSS123W-7-F MMBT3906WT1G CRCW1206200KJNEA CRCW1206309KFKEA CRCW1206430RJNEA CRCW080510K5FKEA CRCW060349K9FKEA CRCW0603100KFKEA CRCW06034R70JNEA CRCW080510R0JNEA CRCW12061R50FNEA CRCW06033K48FKEA CRCW060375K0FKEA CRCW060330K1FKEA CRCW080540R2FKEA MF72-060D5 750311553 Rev.9K OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD RES 100K OHM 1/10W 1% 0603 SMD DNP RES 4. 0805 CAP CER 47UF 16V X5R 1210 CAP CER . J6 L1. R24 R8. TP9.5k ohm.

AN-2034 Designator TP2-TP5 TP7 U1 Description Terminal. PowerWise Manufacturer Keystone Electronics National Semiconductor Part Number 1502-2 LM3445MM 5 www.com . TH.national. Turret. Double TEST POINT ICT Triac Dimmable Offline LED Driver.

Demo Board Assembly 30115269 Top View 30115270 Bottom View www. AC Neutral Connects directly to AC neutral of a 120VAC system.AN-2034 Demo Board Wiring Overview 30115243 Wiring Connection Diagram Test Point TP3 TP2 TP4 TP5 Name LED + LED LINE NEUTRAL I/O Output Output Input Input Description LED Constant Current Supply Supplies voltage and constant-current to anode of LED string.national. Do NOT connect to GND. LED Return Connection (not GND) Connects to cathode of LED string.com 6 . AC Line Voltage Connects directly to AC line or output of TRIAC dimmer of a 120VAC system.

Line Voltage Modified Circuits 100 98 Mod B Mod A 96 94 6 LEDs POWER FACTOR 4 LEDs 96 94 Original 8 LEDs 92 90 92 90 Mod C 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS) 30115291 LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS) 30115292 7 www.national.7 4 LEDs LED Current vs.4 0.0 0.0 0. Line Voltage Original Circuit 1.7 0.com .2 Mod B 0. Line Voltage Original Circuit 82 8 LEDs (Note 1) Efficiency vs.8 Mod C ILED (A) ILED (A) 6 LEDs 0.4 0. Line Voltage Original Circuit 100 98 POWER FACTOR Power Factor vs.AN-2034 Typical Performance Characteristics Efficiency vs.8 0. Line Voltage Modified Circuits 1. Line Voltage Modified Circuits 82 Mod A Original 80 EFFICIENCY (%) 80 EFFICIENCY (%) 78 76 74 72 6 LEDs 78 Mod B 4 LEDs 76 74 72 Mod C 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS) 30115287 LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS) 30115288 LED Current vs.2 8 LEDs Mod A Original 0.0 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 0.0 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS) 30115289 LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS) 30115290 Power Factor vs.

com 8 . Line Voltage Original Circuit 15 15 Output Power vs.national. Line Voltage Modified Circuits Mod C 12 POUT (W) 8 LEDs 12 POUT (W) Mod B 9 6 LEDs 9 6 4 LEDs 6 Mod A 3 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 3 Original 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS) 30115293 LINE VOLTAGE (VRMS) 30115294 Power MOSFET Drain Voltage Waveform (VIN = 120VRMS.20Ω. ILED = 350mA) Current Sense Waveform (VIN = 120VRMS. Modification C: R14 = 0. 6 LEDs. Modification B: R14 = 1.75Ω www. ILED = 350mA) 30115296 30115297 FLTR2 Waveform (VIN = 120VRMS.50Ω. Modification A: R14 = 1. 6 LEDs. 6 LEDs. ILED = 350mA) 30115298 Note 1: Original Circuit: R14 = 1.AN-2034 Output Power vs.00Ω.

national.com .AN-2034 PCB Layout 30115209 Top Layer 30115210 Bottom Layer 9 www.

Part #: 750311553 Rev. 01 30115299 30115214 www.com 10 .AN-2034 Transformer Design Mfg: Wurth Electronics.national.

04 IIN (mARMS) 64 67 70 73 76 78 81 83 85 86 PIN(W) 5. NON-DIMMING PERFORMANCE In steady state. With TRIAC dimmers.1 95. Using a simple rotary TRIAC dimmer. no Triac Dimmer) # of LEDs 4 6 8 Original Circuit (Note 2) ILED (mA) 513 365 276 POUT (W) 7.16 Modification C (Note 2) ILED (mA) 805 566 431 POUT (W) 11.0 95.8 5.12 Note 2: Original Circuit: R14 = 1. the ripple magnitude is directly proportional to the input power and therefore reduces at lower LED current.62 7. The resistor value is determined based on the LED string configuration and the desired output power.2 W of input power.00Ω.03 10.5 78.24 7.1 70.03 6.32 7.22 5. The ripple current can be reduced by increasing the value of energy storage capacitor or by increasing the LED string voltage.0 110.78 7. By varying the firing angle of the TRIAC dimmer and measuring the corresponding input and output parameters.0 94. The LED driver switching frequency is measured to be close to the specified 78. Modification B: R14 = 1.5 kHz.1 V and the average LED current is measured as 365 mA.national.2 80.84 10.99 135.83 19.AN-2034 Experimental Results The LED driver is designed to accurately emulate an incandescent light bulb and therefore behave as an emulated resistor.1 IO (mA) 351 323 295 269 258 248 222 199 176 159 POUT (W) 7.5 78.8 94.23 12.4 3. The 120 Hz current ripple flowing through the LED string was measured to be 182 mApk-pk at full load. The circuit operates with a constant duty cycle of 0.75Ω DIMMING PERFORMANCE The LED driver is capable of matching or exceeding the dimming performance of an incandescent lamp.0 4.02 VOUT (V) 19.5 90.0 11 www.9 95.29 ILED (mA) 222 244 267 291 315 340 365 389 412 433 POUT (W) 4.95 20.98 95.22 20.0 95.6 19.00 120.9 19.2 100.69 19.8 79.0 6.44 6.00 104.02 129.06 20.05 125. Modification C: R14 = 0. Modification A: R14 = 1.28 and consumes near 9.3 19.97 110.16 Modification B (Note 2) ILED (mA) 683 481 367 POUT (W) 10.32 7.8 4.11 7.com . Like an incandescent lamp.2 19.6 19.8 LED CURRENT.9 94. smooth and near logarithmic dimming performance is achieved.1 105.73 5. MEASURED EFFICIENCY AND LINE REGULATION (6 LEDS.33 8.83 9.1 79.8 3.4 19. NO TRIAC DIMMER) VIN (VRMS) 89.7 19. OUTPUT POWER VERSUS NUMBER OF LEDS FOR VARIOUS CIRCUIT MODIFICATIONS ( VIN = 120 VAC .1 95.8 19.6 79.21 9.03 115.7 94.22 10.20Ω.2 75.90 8.1 79. the driver is compatible with both forward and reverse phase dimmers. MEASURED EFFICIENCY AND LINE REGULATION DATA (WITH TRIAC DIMMER) VIN (VRMS) 115.73 6. the LED string voltage is measured to be 20.8 VO (V) 19. the dimming performance of the demonstration board driving 6 LEDs is summarized in the table below.44 11.83 8. The magnitude of the ripple is a function of the value of energy storage capacitors connected across the output port and the TRIAC firing angle.55 9.25 6. The circuit then operates in open-loop.4 5.5 79.40 19.50Ω.7 94.3 5.79 Efficiency (%) Power Factor 78.14 20.34 Modification A (Note 2) ILED (mA) 627 435 334 POUT (W) 8.8 79.91 12.55 19.03 100.24 19.4 95.27 4. with a fixed duty cycle based on a constant on-time and constant off-time that is set by selecting appropriate circuit components.3 79.3 3. The driver steady state performance for an LED string consisting of 6 series LEDs without using a triac dimmer is summarized in the following table.7 85.5 19.09 9.

~ 0.7 18.5 18.0 15.6 45.0 17.3 26.national. EN/IEC61000-3-2 Class C Limits www.3 1.0 0.3 0. Input Voltage (using Dimmer) POWER FACTOR PERFORMANCE of the fundamental current (as shown in the following figure) and therefore meets the requirements of the IEC 61000-3-2 The LED driver is able to achieve close to unity power factor Class-3 standard.4 17.6 IO (mA) 138 120 101 86 72 54 42 33 25 15 9 POUT (W) 2.7 39.2 50.6 1.2 30.8 17.4 0.5 60.4 34.9 1.AN-2034 VIN (VRMS) 65.8 18.F.2 VO (V) 18. (P.6 2.6 17.3 18.3 1.com 12 .6 18.6 0.1 30115274 LED Current vs.5 55.7 0. This design also exhibits low current harmonics as a percentage 30115295 Current Harmonic Performance vs.0 20.0 16.95) which meets Energy Star requirements.

AN-2034 Circuit Operation With Rotary Forward Phase Triac Dimmer The dimming operation of the circuit was verified using a forward phase rotary triac dimmer. Waveforms captured at different dimmer settings are shown below: Circuit Operation With Reverse Phase Triac Dimmer The circuit operation was also verified using a reverse phase dimmer and waveforms captured at different dimmer settings are shown below: 30115235 Forward phase circuit at full brightness 30115238 Reverse phase circuit at full brightness 30115236 30115239 Forward phase circuit at 90° firing angle Reverse phase circuit at 90° firing angle 30115237 30115240 Forward phase circuit at 150° firing angle Reverse phase circuit at 150° firing angle 13 www.national.com .

30115278 FIGURE 3.AN-2034 Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) The EMI input filter of this evaluation board is configured as shown in the following circuit diagram. Class B Limits If an additional 33nF of input capacitance (i. Input EMI Filter and Rectifier Circuit In order to get a quick estimate of the EMI filter performance.com 14 . Peak Conductive EMI scan per CISPR-22. 30115267 FIGURE 1. C6) is utilized in the input filter.national.e. Peak Conductive EMI scan with additional 33nF of input capacitance www. 30115277 FIGURE 2. section 15. the EMI conductive performance is further improved as shown in the following figure. only the PEAK conductive EMI scan was measured and the data was compared to the Class B conducted EMI limits published in FCC – 47.

national. Wahl) while running under the following conditions: VIN = 120 VRMS ILED = 365 mA # of LEDs = 6 POUT = 7. Top Side Thermal Scan 30115276 FIGURE 5.AN-2034 Thermal Analysis The board temperature was measured using an IR camera (HIS-3000.3 W The results are shown in the following figures. 30115275 FIGURE 4.com . Bottom Side Thermal Scan 15 www.

FLTR2 Waveform with No Dimmer For this evaluation board.national. At 1.48kΩ Therefore the voltages observed on the FLTR2 pin will be as follows for listed input voltages: For VIN = 90VRMS.com 16 .07V Using this technique.25V. Voltage at VFLTR2 peak should be kept below 1. C11 is small enough not to distort the AC signal but adds a little filtering. the FLTR2 pin has the voltage wave shape shown in Figure 7 on it with no triac dimmer in-line. the on-time can be made to be constant. Therefore a constant on-time (since inductor L is constant) can be obtained. pin. By using the line voltage injection technique.25V current limit is tripped.00V) of line voltage is injected at FLTR2 of the LM3445. Line Voltage Injection Circuit The LM3445 works as a constant off-time controller normally.95V For VIN = 135VRMS. but by injecting the 1.AN-2034 Circuit Analysis and Explanations INJECTING LINE VOLTAGE INTO FILTER-2 (achieving PFC > 0. 30115218 FIGURE 7. Δi needs to increase as the input voltage line increases. it can be observed in Figure 8 how (by adding the rectified voltage) the on-time is adjusted.95) If a small portion (750mV to 1. the circuit is essentially turned into a constant power flyback as shown in Figure 6. VFLTR2 = 1.0V rectified AC voltage into the FLTR2 30115216 FIGURE 8. 30115217 FIGURE 6. Typical Operation of FLTR2 Pin www. VFLTR2 = 0. the following resistor values are used: R2 = R7 = 309kΩ R15 = 3.71V For VIN = 120VRMS. With a DCM Flyback. Although the on-time is probably never truly constant.95 can be achieved without additional passive active power factor control (PFC) circuitry. a power factor greater than 0. VFLTR2 = 0.

com .national.AN-2034 Notes 17 www.

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