Chapter 15 Power Supplies (Voltage Regulators

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Power Supply Diagram

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory, 10/e Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky

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Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 3 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Inc. 10/e Robert L. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.Filter Circuits • The output from the rectifier section is a pulsating DC. • The filter circuit reduces the peak-to-peak pulses to a small ripple voltage. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory.

ripple voltage (rms) Vr(rms ) %r = = × 100 dc voltage V dc Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. 10/e Robert L. .Ripple Factor After the filter circuit a small amount of AC is still remaining. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 4 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. The amount of ripple voltage can be rated in terms of ripple factor (r).

.385Vm × 100 = 121% 0. 10/e Robert L.636 Vm Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory.385Vm Ripple factor: %r = = Vr(rms) Vdc × 100 Vr(rms) = 0. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.Rectifier Ripple Factor HalfHalf-Wave DC output: FullFull-Wave DC output: Vdc = 0.308Vm Ripple factor: %r = = Vr(rms) Vdc × 100 0. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.318Vm 5 0. Upper Saddle River.636Vm AC ripple output: Vr(rms) = 0. Inc.318Vm AC ripple output: Vdc = 0.308 Vm × 100 = 48% 0.

10/e Robert L. Inc. Upper Saddle River. .Types of Filter Circuits Capacitor Filter RC Filter Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 6 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

DC output I 4. Inc. 10/e Robert L.4 × 100 = × 100 CVdc RLC 7 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky .4Vdc = C RLC The larger the capacitor the smaller the ripple voltage.17I dc Vdc = Vm − dc = Vm − 4fC C Ripple factor %r = Vr(rms) Vdc × 100 = 2. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory.4I dc 2.Capacitor Filter Ripple voltage Vr(rms) = I dc 4 3fC = 2.4I dc 2.

10/e Robert L. the greater the amount of current. Inc.Diode Ratings with Capacitor Filter The size of the capacitor increases the current drawn through the diodes— the larger the capacitance. Upper Saddle River. Capacitance: CV I= t where C = capacitance V = change in capacitor voltage during charge/discharge t = the charge/discharge time Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Peak Current vs. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 8 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. .

Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 9 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.RC Filter Circuit Adding an RC section further reduces the ripple voltage and decrease the surge current through the diodes. . Inc. 10/e Robert L. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. ′ Vr(rms) ≈ XC Vr(rms) R V′r(rms) = ripple voltage after the RC filter ′ Vr(rms) = ripple voltage before the RC filter R = resistor in the added RC filter XC = reactance of the capacitor in the added RC filter %VR = VNL − VFL × 100% VFL VNL = no-load voltage VFL = full-load voltage Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Upper Saddle River.

10/e Robert L. .Voltage Regulation Circuits There are two common types of circuitry for voltage regulation: • • Discrete Transistors IC’s Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 10 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Inc. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

Inc. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River.DiscreteDiscrete-Transistor Regulators Series voltage regulator CurrentCurrent-limiting circuit Shunt voltage regulator Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 11 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. 10/e Robert L. .

Upper Saddle River. If the output voltage increases (or decreases). Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 12 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. the comparator circuit provides a control signal to cause the series control element to decrease (or increase) the amount of the output voltage. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc.Series Voltage Regulator Circuit The series element controls the amount of the input voltage that gets to the output. . 10/e Robert L.

The output voltage decreases When the output decreases: 1. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.Series Voltage Regulator Circuit • • • • R1 and R2 act as the sampling circuit Zener provides the reference voltage Q2 controls the base current to Q1 Q1 maintains the constant output voltage When the output increases: 1. . The conduction of Q2 increases 3. The voltage at V2 and VBE of Q2 increases 2. The output voltage increases Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Upper Saddle River. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 13 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. The voltage at V2 and VBE of Q2 decreases 2. The conduction of Q2 decreases 3. The conduction of Q1 decreases 4. Inc. The conduction of Q1 increases 4. 10/e Robert L.

Upper Saddle River. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory.Series Voltage Regulator Circuit The op-amp compares the Zener diode voltage with the output voltage (at R1 and R2) and controls the conduction of Q1. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 14 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. 10/e Robert L. . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc.

New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. . Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 15 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Inc. Upper Saddle River.CurrentCurrent-Limiting Circuit When IL increases: • • • The voltage across RSC increases The increasing voltage across RSC drives Q2 on Conduction of Q2 reduces current for Q1 and the load Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. 10/e Robert L.

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. The load voltage is sampled and fed back to a comparator circuit. Upper Saddle River. If the load voltage is too high. . Inc. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 16 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.Shunt Voltage Regulator Circuit The shunt voltage regulator shunts current away from the load. 10/e Robert L. control circuitry shunts more current away from the load.

10/e Robert L. . Upper Saddle River. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 17 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.Shunt Voltage Regulator Circuit When the output voltage increases: • • • • The Zener current increases The conduction of Q2 increases The voltage drop at Rs increases The output voltage decreases When the output voltage decreases: • • • • The Zener current decreases The conduction of Q2 decreases The voltage drop at Rs decreases The output voltage increases Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory.

. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 18 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.Shunt Voltage Regulator Circuit Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. 10/e Robert L. Upper Saddle River. Inc.

IC Voltage Regulators Regulator ICs contain: • • • • Comparator circuit Reference voltage Control circuitry Overload protection Types of three-terminal IC voltage regulators • • • Fixed positive voltage regulator Fixed negative voltage regulator Adjustable voltage regulator Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 19 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. Inc. 10/e Robert L. . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

Upper Saddle River. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc.ThreeThree-Terminal Voltage Regulators The specifications for this IC indicate: • • • The range of input voltages that can be regulated for a specific range of output voltage and load current Load regulation—variation in output voltage with variations in load current Line regulation—variation in output voltage with variations in input voltage 20 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. 10/e Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky .

. 10/e Robert L. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 21 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Inc. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. Upper Saddle River.Fixed Positive Voltage Regulator These ICs provide a fixed positive output voltage.

Upper Saddle River. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. . 10/e Robert L. Inc.Fixed Negative Voltage Regulator These ICs output a fixed negative output voltage. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 22 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved.

Adjustable Voltage Regulator These regulators have adjustable output voltages. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 23 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education. Upper Saddle River. . New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. 10/e Robert L. Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. The output voltage is commonly selected using a potentiometer. Inc.

Upper Saddle River. 10/e Robert L. Inc. New Jersey 07458 • All rights reserved. Boylestad and Louis Nashelsky 24 Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education.Practical Power Supplies DC supply (linear power supplies) Chopper supply (switching power supplies) TV horizontal high voltage supply Battery chargers Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory. .