Layer Characteristic External Ear 1.Auricle 2.External auditory meatus 3.Tympanic membrane NB: Their characteristics as in anatomy of ear Middle Ear Lining Epithelium: -Lined by flattened cubical or simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin lamina propria which is strongly adherent to subjacent periosteum -Extends to cover the bony ossicles of middle ear Contents: (3,2,1) 1. 3 bony ossicles -Malleus inserted in tympanic membrane -Incus articulating with malleus and stapes -Stapes inserted in membrane covering the oval window 2. 2 muscles -Tenser tympani -Stapedius 3. 1 nerve -Chorda tympani nerve but has no related function to ear Inner Ear Osseous Labyrinth -Consists of a series of connected irregular spaces within petrous portion of temporal bone -Filled with perilymph similar to EC fluid -Formed of the following structures: 1. Cochlea anteriorly 2. Vestibule nuclei centrally (most expanded part and origin of cochlea and semicircular canals) 3. 3 bony semicircular canals posteriorly Membranous Labyrinth -Formed of continues series of sacs and channels fitted inside bony labyrinth -Filled with endolymph similar to IC fluid -Do not fuse with the bone but suspended by fine fibrous strands thus surrounded by perilymph outside -Formed of the following structures: 1. Cochlea duct fitting in bony cochlea 2. Utricle and saccule fitting in bony vestibule 3. 3 membranous semicircular ducts fitting in 3 bony semicircular canals

Created by Qosru Iskandariah

Scala tympani (below) 3. single kenocilium. Floor by basilar membrane extending from bony spiral lamina to spiral ligament formed of collagen and some elastic fibres with presence of organ of Corti 2.AUDITORY & VESTIBULAR APPARATUS Apparatus Characteristics Auditory Cochlea -Spiral bony canal turning 2 (3/4) around bony axis called mediolus -The lumen of the bony cochlear canal is divided into 3 spiral chambers of scalas: 1. Scala vestibuli (above) 2. Outer boundary by stria vascularis which vascularised cubical epithelium covering spiral ligament Organ of Corti -Sensory organ of hearing -Extending along entire length of cochlea from the apex to the base in spiral-shaped -Consists of complex epithelial cells resting on basilar membrane -Formed of: 1. Hair cells 1)Type 1 ±flask-shaped -The free surface has long stereocilia and one long cilium (kinocilium) -Nucleus is located basally surrounded by abundant mitochondria and supra nuclear Golgi apparatus -Nerves penetrate between supporting cells and form cup-shaped nerve endings entirely surrounding the rounded bases of the cells 2)Type 2 ±columnar-shaped -similar apical stereocilia. Roof by vestibular membrane (Reissner¶s membrane) formed of 2 layers of squamous epithelium 3. Scala media (in between) -Helicotrema is a small opening at the apex of cochlea connecting scala vestibule and scala tympani Cochlear duct -The scala media contains the organ of Corti (sensory hearing organ) -Contains endolymph surrounded by perilymph -Boundaries: 1. Supporting cells 1)Outer and inner pillar cells (rod cells of Corti) surrounding and supporting the inner tunnel of Corti 2)Outer and inner phalangeal cells found on either side of pillar cells supporting the rounded bases of outer and inner hair cells respectively Vestibular The Vestibule.Otolithic membrane -covering of thick gelatinous glycoprotein layer with surface deposits of crystalline bodies composed mainly of calcium carbonate (otoliths/otoconia) Created by Qosru Iskandariah .Supporting cells -Columnar cells disposed between hair cells -have few microvilli on their free surface 3. Utricle and Succule Vestibule -middle part of bony labyrinth and its lateral wall shows oval and round windows -contains 2 membranous sacs (utricle and succule) Utricle and Saccule -2 membranous sacs joined by a Y-shaped endolymphatic duct -Their wall is formed of CT sheath lined by squamous epithelium except the sensory area (maculae) -Filled with endolymph surrounded by perilymph Macula Utricle and Macula Saccule -Neuroepithelial thickenings in the membranes of utricle and saccule -Responsible for maintaining equilibrium -Formed of: 1. cytoplasmic organelles as Type 1 cells -differ in the form of nerve innervations -the afferent nerves form several small terminal buttons around basal part of the cell 2.

in which the structure is similar to maculae: 1. stereocilia arise from their free ends arranged in V-shaped pattern 3. Outer and inner hair cells 1)Outer hair cells: 3 rows of outer hair cells lateral to tunnel of Corti. Tectorial membrane -gelatinous membrane containing keratin-like fibrils embedded in amorphous ground substance -attached medially to modiolus while its lateral edge projects to cover the organ of Corti -stereocilia of hair cells are embedded in tectorial membrane -reticular lamina is the tight junction formed by the apical ends of phalangeal cells which are tightly bound to each other and to the hair cells. conical-shaped and not covered by otoliths Created by Qosru Iskandariah .Supporting cells 3. stereocilia arise from their free ends arranged in W-shaped pattern 2)Inner hair cells: 1 row of inner hair cells medial to the tunnel. Hair cells (Type 1 and Type 2. innervated by the fibres of vestibular division of vestibulo-cochlear nerve) 2. posterior) arranged at planes that are perpendicular to each other -Ampulla is a dilatation at the base in each canal -The membranous ducts have the same general form as bony canals assuming the same course and having the same dilatations (ampullae) -Cristae ampullaris is a neuro-epithelial thickening at membranous canal at the level of ampulla. columnar-shaped.2.Cupula is a gelatinous glycoprotein layer where the stereocilia of hair cells are embedded. The stereocilia of hair cells pierce the reticular lamina to reach the under surface of tectorial membrane -Kenocilia and stereocilia of hair cells are embedded into this membrane Semicircular Canals and Ducts -3 bony semicircular canals (lateral. anterior. flask-shaped with basal nuclei.